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Tue Apr 24 21:14:12 EDT 2007 CSA Database: ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts Query: marine shrimp

Record 1 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Males also have their time of the month! Cyclic disposal of old spermatophores, timed by the molt cycle, in a marine shrimp AU: Author Parnes, Shmuel; Raviv, Shaul; Shechter, Asaf; Sagi, Amir SO: Source Journal of Experimental Biology [J. Exp. Biol.]. Vol. 209, no. 24, pp. 4974-4983. Dec 2006. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Males; Marine crustaceans; Reproductive cycle; Spawning; Sperm; Spermatophores; Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract That sexually mature females go through hormonally regulated reproductive cycles is a well-established phenomenon in sexually reproducing organisms. Males, on the other hand, are commonly regarded as being continuously ready to mate. `Programmed sperm degradation' on a periodic basis or an innate sperm `expiry date' have never been shown. This manuscript describes a newly discovered molt-dependent mechanism by which old sperm is periodically removed from the reproductive system of male Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp. Firstly, it is shown that the spermatophores of males held in captivity become progressively melanized, a process that eventually renders them impotent. Then, by using melanin specks as a color marker, it is demonstrated that this phenomenon can be delayed and even reversed as long as the males remain sexually active. Lastly and most importantly, it is shown that male shrimp go through reproductive cycles that are strictly associated with their molt cycles, which, in turn, are hormonally regulated. Intact intermolt spermatophores disappeared about 12 h premolt, and a new pair of spermatophores appeared in the ampoules the day after the males had molted. This phenomenon was observed in an almost constant portion of males, both those in an all-male population and those in mixed male/female populations, even during the times that the females of those populations were not vitellogenically active. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of males of any animal species exhibiting endogenous reproductive cycles, as do females, and of the finding that spermatozoa have a predetermined expiry date, a feature that may possibly contribute to male fitness. Record 2 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Morphological and biochemical changes in the muscle of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei during the molt cycle AU: Author de Oliveira Cesar, JR; Zhao, B; Malecha, S; Ako, H; Yang, J SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture]. Vol. 261, no. 2, pp. 688-694. 24 Nov 2006.

DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Actin; Animal appendages; Biochemical composition; DNA; Marine aquaculture; Marine crustaceans; Muscles; Nucleic acids; Shrimp culture; Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei; Penaeidae AB: Abstract Morphological changes and biochemical composition of abdominal muscles over the molt cycle were investigated in juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. Eight molt stages were characterized and clear uropod images are presented. Molt frequency was highly correlated with the age of the shrimp. Juvenile shrimps appeared to molt faster at one month of age (4.6+/-0.5 days/cycle), slow to 11.8+/-1.7 days/cycle at three months of age, and reach a long molt cycle at six months (17.2+/-2.7 days/cycle). Myofiber cross-sectional images revealed specific morphological changes in abdominal muscle associated with each molt stage. Expanded fiber size was observed during intermolt stages. Water content and total soluble proteins were balanced throughout the molt cycle. Total DNA concentration increased in intermolt and premolt, while total RNA concentration remained stable except in late-premolt stages. SDS-PAGE analysis showed high levels of actin and myosin in postmolt, reaching a plateau in intermolt and declining in premolt. These results suggest the occurrence of muscle fiber rearrangement in both the premolt and postmolt stages. Abdominal muscle buildup occurs mostly during the intermolt stage. Record 3 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title AFLP-based genetic linkage map of marine shrimp Penaeus (Fenneropenaeus) chinensis AU: Author Li, Z; Li, J; Wang, Q; He, Y; Liu, P SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture]. Vol. 261, no. 2, pp. 463-472. 24 Nov 2006. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Amplified fragment length polymorphism; Body size; Gene mapping; Genomes; Growth; Marine aquaculture; Marine crustaceans; New varieties; Quantitative trait loci; Shrimp culture; Article Taxonomic Terms: Fenneropenaeus chinensis; Penaeidae; Penaeus; Article Geographic Terms: INW, Huanghai Sea AB: Abstract This paper presents the genetic linkage map of the Chinese shrimp Penaeus (Fenneropenaeus) chinensis constructed with 472 AFLP markers. A hundred F sub(1) progeny from an intercross between a female from the new variety ''Yellow Sea No. 1'' and wild caught male used for the mapping study. Two separate maps were constructed for each parent. The female linkage map consisted of 197 marker loci forming 35 linkage groups and spanned a total length of 2191.1 cM, with an average marker space of 13.5 cM. The male map consisted of 194 marker loci mapped to 36 linkage groups and spanned a total length of 1737.3 cM, with an average marker spacing of 11.0 cM. The level of segregation distortion observed in this study was 12.2%. The estimated genome length of P. chinensis was 3150.3 cM for the female and 2549.3 cM for the male, respectively. The observed genome coverage was 69.6% for the female and 68.1% for the male map. The linkage maps constructed in this study provide basic information for further linkage studies on Chinese shrimp, and more importantly, the construction of the maps are part of the work of the genetic breeding programs which will be used for

growth discovered in the QTL analysis of P. chinensis. Record 4 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Experimental transmission and tissue tropism of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in two species of lobsters, Panulirus homarus and Panulirus ornatus AU: Author Syed Musthaq, S; Sudhakaran, R; Balasubramanian, G; Sahul Hameed, AS SO: Source Journal of Invertebrate Pathology [J. Invertebr. Pathol.]. Vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 75-80. Oct 2006. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Appendages; DNA; Eyestalks; Gills; Head; Hemolymph; Marine crustaceans; Mortality; Mortality causes; Muscles; Nucleotide sequence; Pathology; Polymerase chain reaction; Stomach; Stomach content; Symptoms; Tails; Tropism; Western blotting; Article Taxonomic Terms: Homarus americanus; Panulirus homarus; Panulirus ornatus; White spot syndrome virus AB: Abstract The susceptibility of two species of lobsters, Panulirus homarus and Panulirus ornatus to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was tested by oral route and intramuscular injection. The results revealed that these lobsters were as highly susceptible as marine shrimp when the WSSV was administered intramuscularly. The WSSV caused 100% mortality in both Panulirus homarus and Panulirus ornatus, at 168 and 120h, respectively, after intramuscular injection and failed to cause mortality when given orally. The presence of WSSV in moribund lobsters was confirmed by single-step and nested PCR, Western blot, histology, and bioassay test. It was found in eyestalk, gill, head muscle, tail muscle, hemolymph, appendages, and stomach. In lobsters with oral route infection, all tested organs except stomach and head muscle was negative for WSSV by nested PCR at 120h post-inoculation. The stomach and head muscle was positive by nested PCR at 120h p.i., but negative at 168h p.i. Western blot analysis was negative in all the tested organs of both species of lobster at 120h post-inoculation by oral route. Record 5 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Testing Three Models On The Adaptive Significance Of Protandric Simultaneous Hermaphroditism In A Marine Shrimp AU: Author Baeza, JA SO: Source Evolution [Evolution]. Vol. 60, no. 9, pp. 1840-1850. Sep 2006. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Bioenergetics; Body size; Breeding success; Evolution; Growth rate; Hermaphroditism; Marine crustaceans; Mortality factors; Ontogeny; Protandry; Reproduction; Reproductive behavior; Reproductive behaviour; Sex reversal; Spawning; Article Taxonomic Terms: Lysmata; Lysmata wurdemanni AB: Abstract Protandric simultaneous hermaphroditism, as reported for shrimps in

the genus Lysmata, is a sexual system in which individuals invariably reproduce as males first and later in life as simultaneous hermaphrodites. I tested three models (i.e., sex-dependent energetic costs, sex-dependent mortality rates and sex-dependent time commitments) in an attempt to explain the adaptive value of protandric simultaneous hermaphroditism in the shrimp L. wurdemanni. Specific assumptions and predictions of each model were evaluated using manipulative experiments. In the laboratory, males grew faster than simultaneous hermaphrodites of the same size and age, an indication that the female function incurs higher energetic costs of reproduction than the male function. Also, large SHPs were more successful in monopolizing food than small males. The sex-dependent growth rate and size-dependent resource holding power agree with predictions of the sex-dependent energetic cost model. The time that simultaneous hermaphrodites required for replenishing their sperm reservoirs after mating as males was much shorter (2 days) than the time required to brood one clutch of embryos (11 days). Also, small simultaneous hermaphrodites experienced heavier mortality due to predatory fishes than large ones. The sex-dependent reproductive time commitment and size-dependent mortality agree with predictions of the sex-dependent time commitment model. Conversely, I found no evidence that the sex-dependent mortality model explains protandric simultaneous hermaphroditism in the studied species. In contrast to model predictions, mortality due to predatory fishes suffered by simultaneous hermaphrodites was not greater than that suffered by males of the same body size. In L. wurdemanni, the relationship between sex-specific investment and reproductive success seems to change during ontogeny in a way that is consistent with an adaptive adjustment of sex allocation to improve age-specific reproductive success. Record 6 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Growth, survival and histological responses of the marine shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, to three dosage levels of oxytetracycline AU: Author Bray, WA; Williams, RR; Lightner, DV; Lawrence, AL SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture]. Vol. 258, no. 1-4, pp. 97-108. 31 Aug 2006. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans; Toxicity; Marine aquaculture; Exoskeleton; Drugs; Shrimp culture; Histology; Growth rate; Feed composition; Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei; Article Geographic Terms: USA AB: Abstract Toxicity of oxytetracycline (OTC) in prepared feed for penaeid shrimp was evaluated in a 42-day trial with Litopenaeus vannamei (initial mean weight, 10.3 g+/-0.504 S.D.). Four treatments consisted of: (1) 0.0 g/kg OTC (control feed), (2) 4.5 g/kg OTC (1x treatment, maximum recommended dose), (3) 13.5 g/kg OTC (3x treatment) and (4) 22.5 g/kg OTC (5x treatment). Each treatment consisted of 11 replicate tanks, with 8 shrimp per replicate. The test period was three times the recommended OTC label dosing period (14 days). This target animal safety study was conducted under GLP (Good Laboratory Practices) conditions, as part of submissions to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine for approval of

therapeutic use of OTC in penaeid shrimp feeds. Growth rate (weight gain) was found to be OTC-dose-related. There was no significant difference in mean weight gain between control and 1x OTC treatments (9.1 g and 9.2 g, respectively), but growth was strongly depressed in the 3x and 5x treatments (1.50 g and 4.02 g, respectively). There did not appear to be a dose response in mean percent survival of test shrimp (range: 93.2% to 98.9%). Abnormal soft exoskeletons (=shell, cuticle) were observed in 66.7% to 90.9% of shrimp in the 3x and 5x treatments after 42 days, compared with 0.0% and 9.1% in control and 1x treatments, respectively (from sample N=3 per tank=N=33 per treatment, 37.5% of individuals stocked). The high numbers of soft exoskeletons observed could be related to a deficiency of calcium/magnesium, principal shell components, due to divalent cation-chelating properties of OTC. Some dose-related histological changes were apparent in the hepatopancreas (HP) of experimental shrimp sampled after 42 days of OTC feeds. Only slight changes were apparent in the histological presentation of the HPs of the shrimp from the 0x (untreated control) and the 1x treatment levels. In contrast, shrimp sampled from the 3x and 5x OTC treatment levels showed generally reduced levels of lipid droplet storage in the HP, and some necrosis and sloughing of the HP tubule epithelium. The virtually complete absence of HP lipids and the presence of moderate atrophy of the proximal portion of the HP tubules, indicated by markedly reduced tubule epithelial cell height, were the principal characteristics of the HP of shrimp sampled from the 5x OTC group. Mitotic activity in E-cells, a measure of the regenerative capability of the HP, was constant across all experimental groups regardless of the OTC level in the experimental feed. Mean OTC consumed per shrimp in the 1x treatment was estimated to be 0.09813 g over 42 days, compared with 0.16850 g and 0.29687 g in the 3x and 5x treatments, respectively. Feeds containing OTC at higher levels (3x and 5x) were consumed at much lower rates than control and 1x treatments, indicating lower palatability and/or toxicity of extreme dosage levels. The 3x and 5x treatments consumed approximately 46% less feed than the control and 1x treatments. Record 7 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The effects of selective breeding on the genetic structure of shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis populations AU: Author Li, Z; Li, J; Wang, Q; He, Y; Liu, P SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture]. Vol. 258, no. 1-4, pp. 278-282. 31 Aug 2006. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Amplified fragment length polymorphism; Biopolymorphism; Breeding; Differentiation; Genetic diversity; Genetic structure; Growth; Heterozygosity; Marine aquaculture; Marine crustaceans; Population genetics; Selective breeding; Shrimp culture; Article Taxonomic Terms: Fenneropenaeus chinensis; Penaeidae AB: Abstract Seven AFLP primer sets were used to investigate the genetic structure of a wild base population and three generations of marine shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis selected for fast growth (F5-F7). More than 500 bands were generated in total. On average, each primer set detected 33.7 polymorphic markers. The expected average heterozygosity

R.ranged from 0. pp. 30 Jun 2006. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. Cibele Soares. no. Arruda. indicating this as the optimal feed offer. Vol. S.085 to 0. Patricia SO: Source Aquaculture Research [Aquacult. Record 9 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Experimental transmission of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) in three species of marine shrimp (Penaeus indicus. Shrimp culture. Jul 2006. Intestine. Syed Musthaq. Intestines. Diurnal variations. . 257. In order to provide information to improve feed management in shrimp farms. Disease detection. Thirty-two shrimp were observed. genetic diversity tended to reduce. Feed. As time under selection increased. Shrimp culture. Gopal. Gills. vannamei (7. Meat. occurred in both dark and light phases. inactivity was predominant. SC. Disease transmission. Augusto de Lara Menezes. Record 8 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Daily activity pattern of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone 1931) juveniles under laboratory conditions AU: Author Pontes. which characterizes the search for food. Cleaning occurred evenly in both the light and the dark.01 g). Virulence. the differentiation between generations became less. equivalent to 33 shrimp m super(-2). half in light and half in dark phase. no. Haribabu. swimming was predominant and alternated with exploration. Marine crustaceans. at 10% of tank biomass. with a most intense peak 7 h after light phase onset. Viruses. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Activity patterns. Feed was provided once a day. Substrate exploration. exploration of substrate. inactivity and cleaning were recorded through instantaneous focal sampling. Penaeidae AB: Abstract Lack of information on the daily activity patterns of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone 1931) might result in inadequate feed management strategies in shrimp farms. pp. Sahul Hameed. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans. Penaeus japonicus and Penaeus monodon) AU: Author Sudhakaran. Mortality causes. Swimming.]. and the variation of genetic structure of the populations became smaller. Pereira de Lima. Freshwater environments.097. Maria de Fatima. 1001-1006. over 280 h in 15 min h super(-1) windows. Res. Juveniles. 1-4. 136-141. Stomach. Polymerase chain reaction. 37. the daily activity of juvenile shrimp reared in glass aquaria was studied. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei.57 plus or minus 1. Mukherjee. During the dark phase. In the light phase. Viral diseases. using L. Mortality. Hemolymph. AS SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture]. Prawn culture. 10. C. P. Temporal variations. Vol. and again alternated with exploration. Alexandre. Muscles.

This option utilizes chemosynthetic autotrophic bacteria. Currently. Vol. The three nitrogen conversion pathways traditionally used for the removal of ammonia-nitrogen in aquaculture systems are photoautotrophic removal by algae. Penaeus monodon. Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Bacteria. Extra small virus AB: Abstract The susceptibility of three species of marine shrimp (Penaeus indicus. 346-358. heterotrophic bacterial growth is stimulated through the addition of organic carbonaceous substrate. autotrophic bacterial conversion of ammonia-nitrogen to nitrate-nitrogen. In this third pathway. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Ammonia. Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria (AOB) and Nitrite Oxidizing Bacteria (NOB). Water quality control. for the nitrification of ammonia-nitrogen to nitrite-nitrogen and finally to nitrate-nitrogen. ammonia-nitrogen buildup from the metabolism of feed is usually the second limiting factor to increase production levels after dissolved oxygen. Recirculating systems. pp. intestine and hemolymph of three species of shrimp injected with viruses. The reinoculation studies using the inoculum of MrNV and XSV prepared from marine shrimp caused 100% mortality in the post-larvae of freshwater prawn and the moribund post-larvae showed positive for these viruses by RT-PCR. Penaeidae AB: Abstract In intensive aquaculture systems. At high carbon . Bioreactors. JM. and heterotrophic bacterial conversion of ammonia-nitrogen directly to microbial biomass. Culture media. stomach. The results of present study indicate the possibility of marine shrimp acting as reservoir for MrNV and XSV and maintaining their virulence in tissue system of marine shrimp. Traditionally. MB. Nitrogen. Timmons. Bisogni. 1-4. Pond culture. Biogeochemistry. Oxidation. JJ SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture]. Record 10 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Engineering analysis of the stoichiometry of photoautotrophic. autotrophic. Nodavirus. These viruses were also found in different tissues of shrimp fed with WTD-infected prawn meat. The results revealed that these marine shrimp were not susceptible to these viruses which failed to produce mortality in shrimp. Carbonate sediments.Fenneropenaeus indicus. Marsupenaeus japonicus. Aquaculture systems. RT-PCR analysis revealed the presence of MrNV and XSV in different organs such as gill. and heterotrophic removal of ammonia-nitrogen in aquaculture systems AU: Author Ebeling. pond aquaculture has used photoautotrophic algae based systems to control inorganic nitrogen buildup. 30 Jun 2006. the primary strategy in intensive recirculating production systems for controlling ammonia-nitrogen is using large fixed-cell bioreactors. zero-exchange management systems have been developed that are based on heterotrophic bacteria and have been promoted for the intensive production of marine shrimp. no. Article Taxonomic Terms: Algae. 257. Penaeus japonicus and Penaeus monodon) to Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) was tested by oral route and intramuscular injection. abdominal muscle. In the past several years. Intensive culture. but not in control groups fed with uninfected meat.

Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae AB: Abstract The United States imported US$10. develops a set of stoichiometric balanced relationships using half-reaction relationships. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans. Pt.to nitrogen (C/N) feed ratios. & Eng.]. worth $4 billion.Sci. 50-59. and discusses their impact on water quality. Vol. Objectives of the nursery studies were to evaluate the influence of: (1) nursery stocking rates. 2. 12. Van Der Steen. Record 11 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Reproductive technologies for genetic improvement and marine shrimp production in controlled environments AU: Author Alok. Shrimp culture. Aquaculture economics. (2) nursery duration and (3) . Abst. Animal physiology. Reproduction.]. was comprised of marine shrimp. This paper reviews these three ammonia removal pathways. Globally. Vol. Int. Record 12 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title An evaluation of nursery techniques and feed management during culture of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei AU: Author Zelaya. 37. L. Economics. p. 6349. Biotechnology. Population genetics. B . H SO: Source World Aquaculture [World Aquacult. D. heterotrophic bacteria will assimilate ammonia-nitrogen directly into cellular protein. Biotechnological application is a relatively new area in the shrimp industry especially with a respect to shrimp production in controlled environments. Jun 2006. microbial growth fundamentals are used to characterize production of volatile and total suspended solids for autotrophic and heterotrophic systems. Consumers. Seafood.9 billion in 2003. Shrimp fisheries. Forty percent of the imported seafood. no. Shrimp breeding companies are competing to provide high value shrimp to farmers to meet requirements of not only the shrimp producers but also retailers and consumers. Oscar SO: Source Dissertation Abstracts International Part B: Science and Engineering [Diss. Aquaculture development. shrimp producers compete to provide a high value product at low cost. no. Genetic selection using modern molecular and quantitative tools has enormous potential but there is a lack of associated biotechnologies required for their optimal application in shrimp genetic improvement programs and commercial production of postlarvae (PL). aquaculture techniques. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Indexing in process AB: Abstract These studies were conducted to evaluate various management practices for shrimp nurseries and possible effects on growout following nursing. 66. Jun 2006. pp. In addition. Abeydeera.

pp. (Abstract shortened by UMI. 254. Shrimp culture.the use of dried feed. The use of algal paste did not produce better results than algae that grew naturally in nursery tanks. Vibrio. it was found that a longer nursery period enhanced larger juveniles and improved nursery biomass loading.0 x 1. individual shrimp size and total production during the following grow out phase. AC. (2) Late aggressive feeding schedule which minimized early feed inputs when natural productivity is high and maximize feed inputs late in the cycle when natural productivity is more likely to be limiting. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. TCV. The studies included nursery phases and a growout phases. Decapoda. When comparing a nursery period of 14 and 21 days. The experiments were conducted at the Claude Peteet Mariculture Center. algae and newly hatched artemia. Article Geographic Terms: Brazil AB: Abstract Shrimp culture is a very important economic activity in the world and the fastest growing industry in Northeastern Brazil. 1-4. growth and feed conversion during the nursery phase and on survival. Husbandry diseases. Alabama. on survival. Feed composition. Ponds. Decapoda) submitted to antibiotic treatment AU: Author Nogueira-Lima. and (3) Intermediate feeding (IF) which is intermediate to EAF and LAF.1-ha plastic lined production ponds were used for the grow out phase. The evaluation of feed management strategies was conducted with the objective of incorporating general aquaculture considerations into a management and feeding program and evaluating the effects and economic implications of three feeding schedules: (1) Early aggressive feeding schedule with high feed inputs early in the cycle to maximize early growth of the shrimp but then to minimize feed inputs during the end of the production when water duality is most unstable. 748-757. 1931) (Crustacea. Pathogens. were used for the nursery phase of the experiments. Six fiberglass tanks (3. Antibiotics. Marine crustaceans. Gesteira. Findings of the studies suggest that nursery densities in the range of 25 to 65 PL/L have no influence on subsequent growth and survival during grow out. Vibriosis. located under a plastic cover. Vol.9 m) located inside a greenhouse and sixteen round plastic tanks of 1 m super(3). Problems with diseases are common in aquaculture and at the least seven species of . however under grow out conditions nursed juveniles did not differ significantly in production criteria from direct stocked shrimp. Gulf Shores. Mafezoli. 28 Apr 2006. improved feed and culture systems were required. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Disease control. no. Postlarvae in the best performing nursery treatments also had higher yields and better size distributions during the growout phase. However at a higher density (65pl/L). Litopenaeus vannamei. When evaluating type and combination of diets. Twelve 0.5 x 0. in terms of final average weight and biomass loading results suggest that there is a clear advantage in supplementing dried feeds with artemia for 3 days.) Record 13 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Oxytetracycline residues in cultivated marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone. Aquatic drugs. Bacterial diseases. J SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture].

DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Mortality. Penaeidae. Prawn culture. However. After 7 and 12 days of exposure to OTC.21 and 4. Marine crustaceans. Although conditions were similar for both treatments. considered a safe limit by the European Community requirements.i. monoceros. 31 Mar 2006. R. Sahul Hameed. Paratelphusa hydrodromous. Hemolymph. Record 14 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Temporal analysis of VP28 gene of Indian white spot syndrome virus isolate (WSSV) in different crustacean hosts AU: Author Yoganandhan. M. RT-PCR analysis was used to detect the VP28-specific transcript in DNase treated total RNA from hemolymph and gill tissue from WSSV-infected P. Vol. Hosts. pp. Penaeus indicus. rosenbergii and P. Medicated animals were sampled periodically during the treatment period and thereafter. Habitat. The mean OTC tissue residue concentration observed for both experimental environments is within the limits of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determined for vibriosis treatment. Fenneropenaeus indicus. OTC peak concentrations differed. indicus and M.Vibrio bacteria have been documented infecting shrimps during different culture stages. Syed Musthaq. Article Taxonomic Terms: White spot syndrome virus. whereas in freshwater . was attained at day 16 of OTC withdrawal. Symptoms. S. The tissue levels of OTC were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). M. freshwater prawn. 1-4. Deoxyribonuclease. Penaeus indicus and Metapenaeus monoceros. Freshwater crustaceans. Shrimp culture. Freshwater environments. G.i.38 mu g/g for shrimp reared in the laboratory and in the pond. Drug residue levels dropped quickly during the first 72 h after treatment termination. Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Temporal variations.1 mu g/g. K. Gills. Viruses. Paratelphusa hydrodromous) with different habitats and response to WSSV for comparison. the WSSV caused 100% mortality at 72 h p. Oxytetracycline (OTC) has been widely used against these pathogens. Haemolymph. AS SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture]. Macrobrachium rosenbergii and freshwater crab. 253. Balasubramanian. Metapenaeus monoceros. Nucleotide sequence. the maximum tissue residue levels were 17. In the present study the distribution and residue depletion of OTC in Litopenaeus vannamei tissue were evaluated after 14 days of exposure to medicated feed containing 4 g/kg. Sudhakaran. white spot syndrome. 71-81. and transcript was detected at 12 h p. Transcription. The VP28 gene from Indian WSSV isolate was sequenced and the sequence was deposited in GenBank (accession no. Two trials were conducted: in indoor tanks under laboratory-controlled conditions and in cages installed in an outdoor commercial shrimp grow-out pond. respectively. AY422228). Polymerase chain reaction. then slowly and steadily until a residue level of 0. After 25 days of OTC withdrawal no drug residues could be detected. DNA. Article Geographic Terms: India AB: Abstract Temporal analysis of VP28 gene of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was carried out using RT-PCR and Western blot in different hosts (marine shrimp. no. hydrodomous before infection (0 h) and at different time intervals of post-infection. indicus. monoceros. Proteins. In P. Viral diseases. Decapoda. a longer withdrawal period is recommended to ensure complete drug depletion. Genes.

Article Geographic Terms: ISW. It has been estimated that in 1994 alone. no. These observations correlate with the results of mortality data. Kerala AB: Abstract The giant tiger shrimp. Growth rate.i. in India AU: Author Raghavan. Superior growth rate and a high market demand have made it a good candidate among the available marine shrimp species in India for commercial aquaculture. Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) popularly called the black tiger in the international markets. such as vibriosis and White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) in many regions of India from Andhra Pradesh on the east coast to Kerala on the southwest coast. 1995). . 37. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. Husbandry diseases. the losses due to disease outbreaks in the country totaled over US$17.. of late. Mar 2006. 223-227. Aquaculture enterprises.i. Litopenaeus vannamei. India. Prasad.i. Behaviour. Marine crustaceans. Bras. 8-12. Zool. monodon for commercial aquaculture operations in the country (Rajeev and Prasad 2003). DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans. indicus and M. White spot syndrome virus. as an alternative to P. 23. It is in this context that industry sources are actively promoting the introduction of a non-native species. monoceros at 24 h p. Andhra Pradesh. CS SO: Source Revista Brasileira de Zoologia [Rev. pp. ISW. Photoperiods.]. RP. thereby devastating the shrimp culture industry in India and inflicting losses amounting to approximately US$21 million. no. and continues to be. and in P. 1. Litopenaeus vannamei. the Pacific white shrimp. Diurnal variations. Pathogens. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Shrimp culture. Penaeus monodon. Symptoms.]. The expression of this protein was also detected first in P. However. Mar 2006. Record 15 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title A needless diversification: A perspective on the unregulated introduction and culture of the Pacific white shrimp. Bacterial diseases. Swimming. India.crab the transcript was detected at 2 days p. Vol. Decapoda. the species has been observed to be vulnerable to several viral and bacterial pathogens that have resulted in the recurrence of diseases. Aquaculture regulations. the leading cultured species in India. Record 16 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Displacement pattern of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Crustacea. Penaeidae) in light and dark phases during a 24-hour period AU: Author Pontes. has been. with 100% mortality at 84 h p. Litopenaeus vannamei. pp. hydrodomous at 72 h p. 1.6million (Subasinghe et al.i. Biological rhythms. Vol. G SO: Source World Aquaculture [World Aquacult.

To record activity. for 15-minute periods every hour. J. Record 17 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Displacement pattern of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone. Vertical distribution. Mar 2006. 1931) (Crustacea. Bras.].Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract Litopenaeus vannamei daily behavior pattern is still poorly understood. Exploration of the substrate occurred in both phases. L. pp.01).57 +/. which were marked and kept in aquariums (30 l). Zool. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Biological rhythms. 12h:l2 h). Record 18 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Characterization of pH. Exploration of the substrate occurred in both phases. 1931) daily behavior pattern is still poorly understood. with 16 shrimp (33 m super(2)) monitored in each phase for 20 days. for 15-minute periods every hour. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone. To record activity. with a peak between five and seven hours after the lights were turned on. Marine crustaceans. With the aim of optimizing the management of shrimp farms through the study of this animal behavior. Photoperiods. Food availability. organic carbon and redox potential in pond soils of semi-intensive culture of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei AU: Author Vinatea. Andreatta. 12h:12 h). The horizontal and vertical displacements of the shrimp were greater during the dark phase.57 plus or minus 1. Food was provided at random times and a record kept of horizontal and vertical displacement (continuous focal). with a predominance of the swimming behavior. swimming and exploration behavior (instantaneous focal). The horizontal and vertical displacements of the shrimp were greater during the dark phase. 1. swimming and exploration behavior (instantaneous focal). Diurnal variations. Cibele S SO: Source Revista Brasileira de Zoologia [Rev. with 16 shrimp (33 m super(2)) monitored in each phase for 20 days. experiments were performed with juvenile (7. the aquariums were submitted to an artificial photoperiod (light and dark phases. which were marked and kept in aquariums (30 l). no. Shrimp culture. Penaeidae) in light and dark phases during a 24-hour period AU: Author Pontes. With the aim of optimizing the management of shrimp farms through the study of this animal behavior. ER SO: Source . Decapoda.1. Food was provided at random times and a record kept of horizontal and vertical displacement (continuous focal). 23. Vol. with a peak between five and seven hours after the lights were turned on. experiments were performed with juvenile (7. the aquariums were submitted to an artificial photoperiod (light and dark phases.01). with a predominance of the swimming behavior. 223-227. Malpartida.

for larval rearing and production of postlarvae under quarantine protocols. were selected from shrimp where no WSSV or HPV had been detected. Nauplii obtained from 7 individual spawns and unhatched eggs from one other shrimp were transported to the University of Arizona. Organic carbon. Arizona. Organic Carbon. Record 19 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Development of a specific pathogen-free (SPF) population of the Chinese fleshy prawn Fenneropenaeus chinensis AU: Author Pantoja. Article Geographic Terms: INW. 32. and redox potential: -283.8.pH: 6. and the mathematical relationship between them was also investigated. Polymerase chain reaction. White spot syndrome virus. 1. X. 573-578. the two most prevalent viral diseases affecting this species of shrimp in this region of China. Tucson.215). The mean values of the characteristics were as follows . Hydrogen Ion Concentration. Noble.53% (0. derived from 8 different females. 3-4.51 plus or minus 64. Seed production. organic carbon (%) and redox potential (mV). Marine crustaceans. Pesca Sao Paulo]. Arizona. 2006. Viral diseases. Lightner. Vol. Hepatopancreatic parvo-like virus of shrimps. Inst. no. 2001. pp. Qingdao. Aquaculture regulations.05). No significant relationship was found between percentage of organic carbon and redox potential in pond soil (p > 0. Penaeidae AB: Abstract Pond soils of semi-intensive culture of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were studied in relation to pH. captured off the coast of Qingdao. B. Pathogens. Disease control. Vol. J.Boletim do Instituto de Pesca Sao Paulo [Bol. Bacterial diseases. USA. Peoples Republic of China. Productivity. n=1. DNA. Fenneropenaeus chinensis. in Tucson. Song. USA. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Acids.. Xia. Parasites. Marine aquaculture. 25-30.52. Shrimp. It was concluded that the studied pond soils are highly reduced and slightly acid.01) and inversely proportional to the percentage of organic carbon (R super(2) = 0. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei. n=255). Wilkenfeld. but with appropriate amount of organic carbon for productivity. USA.85%. Redox potential. Cultures.51 plus or minus 0. Aquaculture techniques.49 (6. International cooperation. Eight spawns.0 to 7. ISE. Shandong Prov. Disease detection.4 mV (-29 to -523 mV. The resultant postlarvae were kept in Primary Quarantine for approximately 2 months.73 plus or minus 0. n=255). p < 0. DV SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture]. pp. CR.45 to 2. no. China. p < 0. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. 250. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans. while additional tests were performed to determine their specific pathogen-free (SPF) status according to criteria set by the United . Pond culture. Shrimp culture. Seed (aquaculture). pH. Hawaii AB: Abstract A total of 36 gravid female shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis. Gong. Nucleotide sequence. L. were examined by PCR for the presence of WSSV and HPV. People's Rep. H. It was verified that pH is directly proportional to redox potential (R super(2) = 0. from April 20 through April 24. 30 Dec 2005.05). Shrimp culture..30. organic carbon: 1.

States Marine Shrimp Farming Program (USMSFP). Yield. Again. Aquaculture economics. Decapoda. Second. yet formulated diets have never been commercially produced. Fatty acids. Juveniles. DR. Rearing. Finally. Artemia AB: Abstract American lobsters. Record 21 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Artificial food access and digestive tract filling of juvenil marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) (Crustacea. Feed composition. 250. CAR2. CAR2 was a cost effective feed to use. Lobster culture. no USMSFP specific listed pathogens had been detected in any of the 7 hatches and the shrimp were released into Secondary Quarantine at the Oceanic Institute in Kailua-Kona. and better than a custom formulated maintenance diet. or in combination (2:5. CAR1. Article Taxonomic Terms: Homarus americanus. By the time the shrimp had reached an average weight of approximately 0. Diets. Vol. Three separate experiments assessed the utility of rearing American lobsters on these shrimp CAR diets. 3-4. Growth rate. Hawaii for production of a F1 generation. commercial Artemia replacement (CAR) diets have been developed and marketed for use in aquaculture production of marine shrimp. CAR3) were compared to those of animals fed frozen adult n-3 fatty acid enriched Artemia. Goldstein. 1. First.5 year old lobsters fed a gelatin-bound mix of 80% CAR2 and 20% frozen Artemia for five months survived and grew equally well compared to lobsters fed gelatin-bound frozen adult Artemia. Costs. Larval development. and Progression 3. 781-795. and 5:2). The benefits of incorporating formulated feeds into American lobster rearing programs to increase the effectiveness of enhancement programs is discussed. pp. In recent years. Economac 4. survival and growth of stage IV American lobsters fed one of three CAR diets (Artemac 5. A cost/benefit ratio analysis showed that CAR2 was the most cost efficient for juvenile production because of its low overall purchase cost. Homarus americanus. Record 20 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Use of formulated diets as replacements for Artemia in the rearing of juvenile American lobsters (Homarus americanus) AU: Author Tlusty. have been successfully reared in hatchery operations for over a century. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Feeding experiments. stage IV lobsters were fed either CAR2 or frozen adult n-3 fatty acid enriched Artemia exclusively. Survival.4 g. even as a partial replacement for Artemia. JS SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture]. Penaeidae) . Survival was higher in diets that included CAR2. Survival to 3 months was highest for animals fed CAR3 (85%). no. and feeding it two days per week compensated for low quality Artemia. Fiore. MF. while animals fed Artemia had the greatest weight gain (>6 % day super(-) super(1)). 30 Dec 2005. Developmental stages. This F1 generation may be used as a SPF founder population for propagation and selection programs.

Penaeus monodon. a behavioral study was conducted. Nutrition. half of them in reversed cycle. Zooplankton. SJ. The animals accessed the feeding trays and started consumption faster in the light phase hours. G SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture]. Smith. In order to provide tools for improved feed management methods in shrimp farms. no. increasing feed costs and potential environmental pollution of that culture.66 and 1. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture.57 plus or minus 1. Vol. 4.95% per day for the basal to 1. Euphausia. Riding. Zool. one animal per 33 m super(2). Commercial species. Bras. KC. Marine aquaculture. The following variables were registered (continuous sampling) after feed exposition: a) latency to access the feeding tray. Vol. de F. in order to register behavior during light and dark phases. Chromatographic techniques. CS. Diets. pp. Tabrett. Marine crustaceans.01g). 377-390. Diets were fed to six tank replicates of shrimp for 2 weeks. DM. feed wastage and unnecessary nutrient input. 250. Barclay. b) latency to start eating and c) digestive tract filling. Marsupenaeus japonicus. Nutritional requirements. 22. no. Krill products. Feed composition. Record 22 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Evidence of a growth factor in some crustacean-based feed ingredients in diets for the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon AU: Author Williams. Article Geographic Terms: Australia AB: Abstract The essentiality of marine invertebrate meals in diets for marine shrimp is unresolved. Three experiments were carried out with juvenile Penaeus monodon of 3-6 g initial weight to address this issue. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. pp. Shrimp daily growth coefficient (DGC) improved curvilinearly (P<0.05) from 0. 1-2. Dec 2005. 14 Nov 2005. DGCs of shrimp fed diets with krill and the krill PBS-insoluble . In a 6-week growth experiment. Arruda. The same SHM and krill meals were extracted with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and the recovered insoluble and soluble fractions compared with the original meals when incorporated into a basal diet at rates equivalent to 20% of the original (Experiment 2). Feeding experiments. Growth. Wastes.during light and dark phases in 24-hour period AU: Author Pontes. were included in a basal diet at 5% increments from 0 to 15% without altering the gross nutritional specification of the diet and fed to five tank replicates of shrimp. The digestive tract filling was higher half hour following feed offer. using 64 Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles (7. specially in the hours during the light phase. M SO: Source Revista Brasileira de Zoologia [Rev. MC. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Indexing in process AB: Abstract The few data on the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei behavior related to feed offer in trays can result inadequate feeding by the animal.]. They were submitted to artificial photoperiods.68% per day for the 15% SHM and 15% krill diets respectively. shrimp head meal (SHM) or whole dried krill Euphausia spp. 1039-1043.

Scura.5 kDa) and an insoluble PBS/urea fraction. Prior. japonicus feed gave the best DGC (2. Gregory W SO: Source Journal of Virology [J. Article Taxonomic Terms: Invertebrata. were the only diets significantly better than the basal diet (0.15% per day) and both PBS-insoluble and -soluble SHM fractions (1. Warr. 21.34% per day) and better than the krill PBS-soluble fraction (1. Evolution. pp. It is concluded that these crustacean meals contained a growth factor. These fractions. Convergence. 13561-13571. fresh shrimp waste was freeze-dried (SW) and then sequentially fractionated using PBS. Craig L. siRNA. Paul S. Virology.92% per day). Marine crustaceans. injection of short interfering RNAs failed to induce similar responses. RNA-mediated interference. Virol.19% per day). Shepard. SHM (1. Thomas. individually. Sarah. to produce three soluble fractions (PBS-soluble and PBS/urea soluble dialysed material of >3. Browdy. Invertebrate immunity. Guillermo. Models. Gross.57% per day). Robert W. In this study. were incorporated into a basal diet at amounts equivalent to 20% of the original product and evaluated against a commercial Marsupenaeus japonicus shrimp feed when fed to six tank replicates of shrimp in a 2-week experiment. Vol. followed by 6 M urea with subsequent dialysis and affinity chromatography. Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is a common by-product of viral infections and a potent inducer of innate antiviral immune responses in vertebrates. Bartlett. suggesting a size requirement for . Consistent with the activation of RNAi by virus-specific dsRNA. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Byproducts. the hypothesis that dsRNA can evoke not only innate antiviral immunity but also a sequence-specific antiviral response in shrimp was tested. Chapman. and better than the SW diet (1. no.10% per day). innate antiviral immunity is also induced by dsRNA in a sequence-independent manner. all of these diets were better than the basal diet (0.14 and 1.fraction were identical (1.]. 79.79% per day). In Experiment 3. endogenous shrimp genes could be silenced in a systemic fashion by the administration of cognate long dsRNA. Javier. The M. Jaramillo. Edward. and the intact SW. and when combined together. which was present predominantly in the insoluble protein constituent of the meal. Infection. 1 Nov 2005. Viral diseases. and gene silencing could all be induced by injection of long dsRNA molecules. sequence-dependent antiviral protection. Record 23 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Double-Stranded RNA Induces Sequence-Specific Antiviral Silencing in Addition to Nonspecific Immunity in a Marine Shrimp: Convergence of RNA Interference and Innate Immunity in the Invertebrate Antiviral Response? AU: Author Robalino. RNA. Immunity. Gene silencing.19% per day) which.5 kDa or <3. implying the involvement of RNA interference (RNAi)-like mechanisms in the antiviral response of the shrimp. It was found that viral sequence-specific dsRNA affords potent antiviral immunity in vivo. Double-stranded RNA. In the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Eleanor.05% per day). with the diet containing the insoluble fraction (1. While innate antiviral immunity.

Nutritional requirements. Salinity effects. D. Saf. K-M. Feed composition. Shrimp culture. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Solvents. Zheng. Diets.60-3. 11. HU. Nutr.4. Casein-gelatin-based diets supplemented with seven levels of Mg (0.65% with no significant difference among the treatments. C-Q*. pp. no.2. 0. 0. The dietary Mg requirement for optimal growth was 2. Parathion. BM SO: Source Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety [Ecotoxicol. 66-74. Y-N. while there were no significant differences in ash and zinc content in tissues. We propose a model of antiviral immunity in shrimp by which viral dsRNA engages not only innate immune pathways but also an RNAi-like mechanism to induce potent antiviral responses in vivo. 5. Animal nutrition. Prior to the experiment. A.5 g Mg kg super(-1)) for 2 weeks. L. Oct 2005.4 and 8. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Feeding experiments. Potassium. pp. Regression analysis.46 g Mg kg super(-1) by using the polynomial regression analysis based on growth. Record 24 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Dietary magnesium requirement and physiological responses of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei reared in low salinity water AU: Author Cheng. sodium and total phosphorus) content of different tissues were significantly affected by dietary Mg levels. Environ. the postlarvae were gradually acclimated to the low salinity media and fed with a basal diet (0.]. X-J SO: Source Aquaculture Nutrition [Aquacult. Record 25 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Evaluation of sublethal biomarkers in Litopenaeus vannamei on foodborne exposure to methyl parathion AU: Author Comoglio. QI. Calcium. 1. The Mg content in tissues except hepatopancreas was maintained relatively constant regardless of dietary treatments. Marine crustaceans.extracellular dsRNA to engage antiviral mechanisms and gene silencing. M. Anguas. 62.0 g kg super(-1)) were fed to juvenile shrimp. Vol. Liu. S-X. 3. After 8 weeks of feeding. Zinc. survival ranged from 80. Pesticides.11% to 85. no. Penaeidae AB: Abstract An 8-week feeding experiment was conducted to determine the dietary magnesium (Mg) requirement and physiological responses of Litopenaeus vannamei in low salinity water of 2 g L super(-1). Vol. Magnesium. O. Haro. . Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei. Hepatopancreas Mg super(2+)-ATPase and Na super(+)/K super(+)-ATPase activities and muscle content of lipid and protein were not significantly affected by graded levels of Mg. 6. potassium. Amin. Sep 2005. Roque. 385-393. 1. The weight gain and mineral (calcium.8. Bioindicators. Betancourt-Lozano.6.].

AU: Author Pontes.41. Finally. Feeding experiments. Toxicology. Sep 2005.30+/-4.42+/-2.62 (control=14. and hepatosomatic index (HI)) biomarkers were evaluated. increasing the cost/benefit relation . Vol.62=0. the results obtained for the Na super(+)/K super(+)-ATPase activity were significantly higher in control and in 1. biomarkers. M SO: Source Revista Brasileira de Zoologia [Rev.54+/-19.31=13. Acetylcholine receptors. Zool. Feeding. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Feeding behavior. Exploratory behavior. 0. solvent control=83.07+ /-0. Food contamination.62=110. 0. 22.26 mu M P sub(i)*h super(-) super(1)*mgprotein super(-) super(1)). indicating that foodborne exposure can be a reliable toxicological procedure and. no. Bras. 648-652. Foods. Ecotoxicology. CS. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei.31 than in solvent control and in 0.60+/-3. Food availability. 1.31=121.84 mu M P sub(i)*h super(-) super(1)*mgprotein super(-) super(1)). Acetylcholinesterase. Ca super(2+)/Mg super(2+)-exchanging ATPase. Photoperiods. Marine crustaceans. Article Geographic Terms: Brazil AB: Abstract The few data on the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei behavior related to artificial food offer in feeding trays may result an inadequate feeding by the animal.88 mu M P sub(i)*h super(-) super(1)*mgprotein super(-) super(1)). Arruda.14+ /-10.11+/-0.06+/-2.76. Methyl parathion.].01. Penaeidae) in relation to artificial food offer along light and dark phases in a 24 h period.62=7. Light effects.17. Weight.62=100. solvent control=0.02 mu M*min super(-) super(1)*mgprotein super(-) super(1)). Record 26 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Behavior of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) (Crustacea. 0. 1. Toxicity tests. Decapoda.97. 0. Swimming behavior. Exposure.31 mu g methyl parathion*g super(-) super(1) dry weight of food) on juveniles of Litopenaeus vannamei using integrated biochemical (acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and ATPases) and physiological (feeding rate (FR). vannamei. The total-ATPase activity was significantly lower in controls than in pesticide treatments (control=77. could also simulate more realistic exposure scenarios. if combined with pulse exposures.03. Feeding Rates.31=108.90+/-12. The HI was significantly higher in controls than in pesticide treatments. solvent control=7. Sublethal Effects. 1. solvent control=75. The FR was significantly lower in controls than in pesticide treatments while no significant differences were detected in the ER.31=0. shrimp culture.69+ /-22. Feeding behaviour. pp. The results in this study showed that pulse exposures to methyl parathion via food could elicit measurable effects on the marine shrimp L.94+/-17. Biochemistry.62 and 1.05. AChE activity was significantly higher in controls than in pesticide treatments (control=0. de F.63.53+/-20.10. Feeding behaviour. 1. 3.02.Physiology.11+/-0.81. egestion rate (ER). Shrimp.12+/-21. Food.03+/-22. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract Sublethal effects of foodborne exposure to methyl parathion (0. Marine organisms. The Mg super(2) super(+)-ATPase activity was significantly higher in treatments than in controls (control=65.13.08+/-0. Marine crustaceans. Evaluation. Adenosinetriphosphatase.

17. CH. Feeding experiments. 35-40. the high percentage of amino acids lost in the urine could be another explanation of poor utilization of crystalline amino acids by shrimp. vannamei juveniles (7. using 64 L. They were submitted to artificial photoperiods. Proteins. 248. In established intervals.01 g). and about 8-10% for Ile. Lys and Val. Feed composition. Excretion. Urine.57 plus or minus 1.6% for His. 29 Jul 2005. Nutritional requirements. Diets. in order to register their behavior during light and dark phases. Feeding time was higher in the half hour following food offer. Shrimp culture.6% for Phe. especially during light phase. pp. the following activities were registered before and after food exposition: exploration. The total amino acids lost in urine was about 6% of the total oral crystalline amino acids in the diet. Vol. swimming. Catabolism. Penaeus monodon. Nutritive value. respectively. Swimming occurred mostly during the dark phase. feeding and inactivity (instantaneous sampling). In addition to the high concentration of free amino acids in the plasma which might induce catabolism of the absorbed dietary amino acids. Leu. Excretory products. Molecular structure. The individual amino acids lost in urine as a percentage of the crystalline amino acids in the diet were 13. Record 27 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Urinary amino acid excretion by marine shrimp. no. Each treatment had five replicates. in response to orally administrated intact protein and crystalline amino acids AU: Author Liou. Both intact protein diet and a corresponding crystalline amino acid diet were administrated orally after the cannulated shrimp were fasted for 24 h. Penaeus monodon AB: Abstract Oral protein administration was conducted to gain more insight into the ability of the shrimp (Penaeus monodon) to utilize different protein sources and estimate the urinary amino acid excretion. Lin. Urine was then collected from the shrimp for 24 h. Amino acids. SC. half of them in reversed cycle. 1-4. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans. In order to provide tools for optimizing feeding management in shrimp farms. a behavioral study was developed. Record 28 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title White spot syndrome virus in frozen shrimp sold at Massachusetts supermarkets AU: Author . JH SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture]. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. Cheng. making the shrimp more active in all the intervals following its introduction.in shrimp culture and its potential environmental impact. Free amino acid concentrations in urine of shrimp fed the crystalline amino acid diet were significantly higher than those of shrimp fed the intact protein diet. Food offering worked out in both phases as an inductor of substrate exploration.

Article Geographic Terms: USA. Massachusetts. DiagXotics). Rouse. Xu. with an overall prevalence of 4. 24. Results showed a range of 0% to 38. Al-Beik. C. Vol. Viral diseases. USA. Rand. Processing Measurements. KR. Y SO: Source Journal of Applied Aquaculture [J. and this constitutes a substantial risk of importation of this virus into the local environment. Electrophoresis. 117-129. 285-290. A SO: Source Journal of Shellfish Research [J. Z. LA. Boston AB: Abstract One of the most damaging viral diseases affecting the shrimp aquaculture industry is white spot disease (WSD) caused by white spot virus (WSSV). Samples from two size classes were collected in two different batches a month apart. 3-4. 1. 16. W. Polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify a portion of the WSSV genome using a commercial PCR kit (ShrimpCare. Webster. ML. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Crayfish culture. Massachusetts. DH. Mortality. The risk of introducing this virus to cultured and wild shrimp and other native species of crustaceans in the United States warrants investigation. Morbidity.001) differences in WSSV prevalence were observed between shrimp from the two batches purchased a month apart. CD.]. Aquacult. and Tail Meat Proximate Composition of Male and Female Australian Red Claw Crayfish. Appl. Goldsmith. Environmental impact. Mortality causes. Article Taxonomic Terms: White spot syndrome virus. Significant (P < 0. Penaeidae. Xiong. pp. Aquaculture . D.]. Shrimp culture. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Genomes. Meehan-Meola. Alcivar-Warren. Importation. Record 29 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Growth.7% for WSSV prevalence rate in the test populations. 2005. Yancey. no. Results provide preliminary evidence that an appreciable proportion of the shrimp sold in Massachusetts' supermarkets are carrying WSSV. Cherax quadricarinatus. Country of origin seemed to dominate the results. Tail Meat Yield.Reville. The rapid spread of WSSV within wild and cultured stocks of shrimp may be caused by unregulated processing. Nucleotide sequence. and the four test stores. J. white spot syndrome. disposal of infected imported shrimp. Indigenous species. Further investigation is necessary to determine the risk of release of this virus into native fresh and marine water environments in Massachusetts and throughout the United States. WSSV positive samples were visualized by electrophoresis and amplified product of selected samples was sequenced. no. Sequence analysis confirmed the presence of WSSV genome in PCR-positive samples. Polymerase chain reaction. Disease transmission. which causes high morbidity and mortality rates in penaeid shrimp and other crustaceans. Shellfish Res. pp. Husbandry diseases. DB.7%. Muzinic. Vol. Aquaculture. Pond culture. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of WSSV in frozen commodity shrimp sold at four stores in the Boston area belonging to different supermarket chains. or the use of contaminated broodstock. Stocked into Earthen Ponds AU: Author Thompson. the two size classes. Jan 2005.

01 g. no. Growth rate. Forty red claw from each sex were randomly sampled. and that male red claw grow larger. percentage protein averaged 16. higher (P < 0. Red claw were removed from the freezer. 71-80. Cherax quadricarinatus. Gretschel. Body temperature.economics. S.7 g) juvenile red claw. fiber. Behavior. protein. and then were hand-processed so that weights of chelae. Subacute toxicity. Males.53 g for males compared to 20. Weight. weight gain of 8. were stocked in earthen ponds (0.1%. Results from the present study indicate that red claw can be grown as a commercial aquaculture species in locations with limited growing seasons. Food technology. yield of 903 kg/ha. H SO: Source Zoological Studies [Zool. A commercial marine shrimp was fed to all red in two separate feedings. Animal appendages. imaging.413%. Yield.84 g for females).]. each consisting of one-half of the total daily ration between 0800-0830 and between 1530-1600 hours for the duration of the culture period.04 ha) in Kentucky and grown for 86 days so that measures of growth.16%.0%. Stress.01 g. tail. lipid. Napetschnig. and higher cephalothorax weight (32. 44. Velocity.46%. and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of 4. Article Taxonomic Terms: Cherax quadricarinatus. Aquaculture products. and higher tail muscle weights compared to females so that it might be economically advantageous to stock all-male populations of red claw in ponds to achieve maximum production. Human food. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Heavy metals. Further research on growth and processing yields of red claw should be conducted to assist the industry.05) in the percentage moisture. and frozen (-20 degree C) for processing measurements and proximate composition. There were no significant differences (P > 0.42%. Article Geographic Terms: USA.05) chelae weight (13. Vol.41 g for males compared to 26. pp.38 g for females). Total weight and number of red claw from each pond were recorded at the harvest. and percentage ash averaged 1.0%. processing characteristics. males had significantly (P < 0.1 g for males compared to 6. and ash in the tail muscle of male and female red claw when analyzed either on a wet-weight basis and averaged 81.63. chill-killed by lowering the body temperature in an ice-bath.05) higher final individual weight (71. G. survival of 64. Females. fiber averaged 0. higher tail weight (25. survival. individually weighed to the nearest 0. have larger chelae. higher tail muscle weight (18. Kentucky AB: Abstract Small (0. . Bioaccumulation. Jan 2005.65 g). Cadmium.99 g for males compared to 14. Record 30 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Monitoring Behavioral Responses to the Heavy Metal Cadmium in the Marine Shrimp Hippolyte inermis Leach (Crustacea: Decapoda) with Video Imaging AU: Author Untersteiner. and tail muscle were obtained to the nearest 0. Food conversion.89 g for females). Swimming. After 87 days. When analyzed by sex. Muscles. T. thawed. Puchner. Stud.05 g) compared to females (53. percentage lipid averaged 0. and proximate composition of tail muscle in male and female Australian red claw crayfish could be obtained. red claw had a final average individual weight of 59.6 g. H.44 g for females). 1. Aquaculture enterprises. Kaiser.

Test organisms. 615-620.0%.e. Ruiquan SO: Source Acta hydrobiologica sinica/Shuisheng Shengwu Xuebao [Acta Hydrobiol. Sin. The locomotory activity of the test organisms was analyzed under normal conditions (without heavy metal stress) and after application of a subacute Cd stress. The two prawn cDNAs possess high identity with marine shrimp cDNAs. Open reading frames. Record 32 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title .. Amino acid sequence. Freshwater environments. no. At initiation (0 h) of Cd exposure. Test animals were stressed by Cd of the following 3 concentrations: 1 (C sub(1)). including 140 residues of mature peptide and 18 residues of signal peptide. pp. which encodes 158 amino acid residues. Audiovisual materials. Ye. Signal peptides. Cloning. The amplified cDNA fragments were inserted into pGEM-T vector. using a video camera and a Pentium PC equipped with a standard low-cost frame grabber. too.5 ppm (C sub(3)). Lysozyme. 29. the median moving velocity was for the first time highly significantly (p less than or equal to 0. Enzymes. Wu. Vol. Pollution effects. Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Subacute effects were evaluated using changes in the locomotory behavior (i. the subacute toxicity of the heavy metal cadmium to Hippolyte inermis Leach was investigated. moving velocity and moving distance) as indicators. Pollution indicators. Polymerase chain reaction. Record 31 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title cDNA cloning and expression characterization of lysozyme gene in two freshwater prawn AU: Author Gao. Shrimp were exposed to the heavy metal concentrations for 12 h under static conditions. Haihua. 2005. Bai.01) reduced with the 1 ppm Cd treatment. The locomotory activity was analyzed by means of real-time image analysis. respectively. Toxicity tests. respectively.4% and 98. the trajectories were reconstructed as binary image sequences.1%.05) decrease in the average swimming velocity at C sub(3). Junjie./Shuisheng Shengwu Xuebao]. Their nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity is above 83. 2 (C sub(2)). the test animals showed a significant (p less than or equal to 0. Gene expression. Decapoda AB: Abstract In this study. Macrobrachium nipponense AB: Abstract Total RNAs were isolated from haemocytes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii and M. Sequence analysis revealed that both of the two freshwater prawn lysozyme cDNAs contain an open reading frame (ORF) of 477nt. For a sequence of 3000 images per treatment. Hemocytes. where 10 shrimp were moving simultaneously.0% and 80. nipponense. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Freshwater crustaceans. Article Taxonomic Terms: Hippolyte inermis.Marine crustaceans. Fengying. and 3. Xing. The cDNAs encoding lysozyme were amplified by RT-PCR. Nucleotide sequence. Lao. Genes. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity between the two prawn cDNAs is 99. After 3 h of Cd exposure. 6.

7-. PJ Source Diseases in Asian aquaculture 5: proceedings of the fifth Symposium on Diseases in Asian Aquaculture. were used as a WSSV strain-specific genetic marker. the 7-TRS genotype dominated. MA. NT. Phuong. E. Shrimp culture. Sotelo-Mundo. 23-TRS and 14-TRS) were not detected in cultured shrimp from the same pond. Disease detection. Islas-Osuna. Genomes. with some broodstock harbouring more than one genotype. no. Polymerase chain reaction. KD. Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Viral diseases.e. 24-28 November 2002. In healthy ponds and in healthy broodstock or postlarval batches collected from hatcheries.and 23-TRS) were found in unidentified species including a large crab. 6. NJ. 15 Dec 2004. The disease first emerged in East Asia in 1991 and has since spread throughout most shrimp farming regions of Asia and the Americas. Yepiz-Plascencia.]. Genotypes. RR SO: Source Electronic Journal of Biotechnology [Electron. J. pp. Disease outbreaks usually result in high mortalities in affected ponds. Biotechnol. respectively. Walker. A wide range of other crustaceans can also act as apparently healthy carriers of infection.AU: SO: DE: AB: Genotypic variations in tandem repeat DNA segments between ribonucleotide reductase subunit genes of white spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) Isolates from Vietnam Author Hoa. WSSV genotypes containing 4-. 5-. MG. 3. Article Geographic Terms: Vietnam Abstract White spot syndrome is a viral disease that affects most commercially cultivated marine shrimp species. On the other hand. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon. TT. 339-351. Oanh. Garcia-Orozco. Record 33 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Recombinant expression of marine shrimp lysozyme in Escherichia coli AU: Author de-La-Re-Vega. Hodgson. Australia. The results also suggest that genotype analysis in this TRS region will be a useful tool for tracking virulent strains of WSSV.and 9.TRS elements were detected with no evidence of any predominant genotype. SA. 14. GM. located between genes encoding the large (RR1) and small (RR2) subunits of ribonucleotide reductase. Vol. However. Jan 2005.e. 8. In this report. Analysis of approximately 157 WSSV isolates showed common variations in the number of repeats. Romo-Figueroa. These results suggested that stocked postlarvae rather than invading wild crustaceans were the source of WSSV infection and disease. Calderon-Arredondo. amongst shrimp sampled from disease outbreak ponds. variations in the number of a 54 nucleotide tandem repeat sequence (TRS). a small crab and wild shrimp. WSSV genotypes containing greater numbers of tandem repeat elements (i. DTH. Preston. 7. However. High repeat number genotypes (i. RAJ. 9-. Queensland. RNA. shrimp may also be infected chronically with no signs of disease and often obtain the infection in hatcheries from infected broodstock. The marker was applied to examine the extent of variation among WSSV isolates from Penaeus monodon hatcheries and farms in different regions of Vietnam and to obtain a better understanding of the progression of infection in ponds during grow-out. [np]. DE: Descriptors .

which can be attributed to external factors that could affect the grocery store experiment. coli. Davis. Although Lyz was produced as insoluble protein in inclusion bodies. it has not been possible to purify this protein because of the very low amount present in the shrimp blood cells (hemocytes). Dec 2004. Inland water environment. Also. S. 1-4. 236. Record 35 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Reproductive readiness of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei grown in a brackish water system AU: Author Parnes. Vol. Hemocytes. A bacterial protein expression system based on the T7 polymerase promoter was used. Raviv. Marine crustaceans. p. pp. Escherichia coli AB: Abstract Shrimp Lysozyme (Lyz) is a key component of the antibacterial response as part of the innate defense in Crustacea. 6. A grocery store experiment was done and a mail survey was sent out. low-income rural locations. both procedures were performed in two localities with different demographic characteristics. Int. marketing efforts should focus on freshwater prawns' flavor attributes. A* SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture]. E. freshwater prawns. Shellfish. Taste. This emphasizes the importance advertising campaigns could play in making consumers more familiar with the product. Marketing. in different contexts. Freshwater crustaceans. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus. 14 Jun . no. Details of the protein recombinant expression techniques applied to this shrimp protein are presented. results did not show a consistent equivalence between the two alternative methods. its refolding led to an active protein with a yield of similar to 10%. Article Geographic Terms: USA. C. Mississippi AB: Abstract This study analyzed the willingness-to-pay for a new shellfish product. Education establishments. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Consumers. 42. Larger quantities of freshwater prawns are more likely to be sold in more populated and higher income urban locations than less populated. Sagi. C. In an effort to produce enough protein to study its function and biochemical properties we have overexpressed Lysozyme from marine shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) in E. Segall.Article Subject Terms: Lysozyme. however. Vol. Results indicated that consumers showed an equal behavior toward marine shrimp and freshwater prawns. 2009. Blood cells.]. and using alternative methods that included revealed preference data and stated preference data. Rosa Karina SO: Source Masters Abstracts International [Masters Abst. Finally. 593-606. S. Inclusion bodies. Record 34 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Comparison of revealed and stated preferences for a new shellfish product: The case of freshwater prawns (Machrobrachium rosenbergii) AU: Author Gallardo. no. Mills. Promoters.

1 or 2 days (habituation period) before being transferred to challenge ion treatment solutions.110 super(6) plus or minus 5.2004. but either strongly monovalent or strongly divalent. Salinity tolerance.8% of the cells were spiked. 236. with no habituation period. 72 h) with a constant or variable rate of salinity reduction. first became evident before the appearance of white spermatophores. 48. increased shrimp . physiological. Brood stocks. and 81. Melanization of the males. Some male shrimp started to develop spermatophores about 6 months after the first post-larval (PL0) stage. J* SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture]. shrimp were acclimated from 30 ppt to freshwater (1 ppt TDS) utilizing various acclimation times (32. Sexual maturity. pp. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Acclimation. normal-looking. Animal physiology. Vol. no. some of the ovaries had become opaque and the vitellogenin gene was found to be expressed in the ovary-but not in the hepatopancreas-of 7 out of 10 females. and some with developed. Reproduction.8 g female with a fully developed ovary that was found in the brackish-water-held broodstock is reported. Marine crustaceans. Female ovaries were transparent and appeared to be arrested in a previtellogenic stage. Shrimp culture. Shrimp culture. A unique case of a 46. The shrimp populations exhibited a bimodal growth curve with the females being significantly bigger than the males at the end of the growout period. Brackishwater aquaculture. habituation period. During each of three experiments. beyond a weight/age threshold of 20 g/8 months. Spermatophores. Osmoregulation. Developmental stages. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans. 14 Jun 2004. 1-4. An acclimation time of 72 h compared to 48 h. Growth curves. white spermatophores were observed 8 months after PL0. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. Ion treatment solutions derived from chloride-based chemicals were of the same total ion concentration. which eventually affected about a third of the male population. Shrimp were then held at the final acclimation salinity for 0. WJ. and molecular tools. 285-296.810 super(6) cells per compound spermatophore. Ovaries. and final freshwater ion composition on the survival of freshwater-acclimated Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae was investigated. The shrimp were cultured on two commercial shrimp farms in brackish water that was pumped from artesian wells that tap into a geothermal aquifer. Mortality causes. Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract The effect of acclimation time. Record 36 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Mortality of freshwater-acclimated Litopenaeus vannamei associated with acclimation rate. Scarpa. Litopenaeus vannamei. The sperm count in these males was 10.6 plus or minus 19. However. Survival. and ionic challenge AU: Author McGraw. 40. Penaeus AB: Abstract The reproductive readiness of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (formerly Penaeus vannamei) cultured in brackish water was characterized by applying morphological. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. habituation period.

Jun 2004. However. RN in April 1977 with cysts from a San Francisco Bay (California.5 billion in 1994 to 11. 2. respectively (Table 1). This demonstrates a critical period for freshwater acclimation of marine shrimp at lower salinities. Monteiro. for example. vannamei postlarvae. In this context the development of small-scale Artemia farming has been proposed as a complimentary means of reducing harvesting pressure in local saltworks (Camara 2003). pp.4 billion in 2003. Through the years. This expansion has required increasing quantities of land. 2001).survival by 27%. Vol. postlarvae and feeds. USA) stock (Persoone and Sorgeloos 1980). Food organisms. Farmed marine shrimp larvae in northeastern Brazil consume Artemia as live nauplii. hatched from encysted embryos. 35. no. but the carrying capacities of salt ponds inhabited by Artemia are still largely undetermined. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei. introduced Artemia dispersed to over 40.4 tons and 246 tons.. Article Geographic Terms: Brazil. The survival of freshwater-acclimated shrimp can be improved by either extending the acclimation time from 48 to 72 h or providing a habituation period of 2 days after 48-h acclimation. LG. The commercial production of farmed marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in northeastern Brazil has grown from 40. Reis.000 tons in 2001 to 60. The longer freshwater acclimation time and habituation period probably allowed shrimp to equalize hemolymph ions before transfer to ionically unbalanced challenge solutions. Decreasing acclimation time at higher salinities (i. Diets. there are growing concerns about the long-term sustainability of current harvesting practices. MF SO: Source World Aquaculture [World Aquacult. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Artemia. is found on a year-round and permanent basis in the State of Rio Grande do Norte (RN) in northeastern Brazil as a result of inoculations made in Macau. Not only are Artemia being collected in a reduced harvest area since several hundred hectares of saltworks have been converted to shrimp growout ponds. among other resources.128 tons in 2002. Record 37 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Farming Artemia in a multi-cycle culture system in Northeastern Brazil AU: Author Camara. and it was expected to exceed 16. Although all Artemia biomass and most cysts available in Brazil are harvested in local saltworks as a byproduct of the solar salt industry. growth at these ion concentrations still needs to be verified. 30 down to 1 ppt) and increasing acclimation time at lower salinities (1 ppt) allowed successful freshwater acclimation of shrimp within 32 h. MR. Artemia are used as live. Brine shrimp culture.4 billion in 2002. . Costa. Rio Grande do Norte AB: Abstract The brine shrimp Artemia sp. grew from 0. A 1-day habituation period compared to no habituation after 48-h acclimation also increased mean shrimp survivals by 27%.]. 40-42. Rearing. Accordingly. frozen or dried product to feed juvenile and broodstock shrimp.e. In terms of biomass. estimated consumption of Artemia cysts and biomass will reach 16.000 ha of solar saltworks in RN and became an important asset in the development of a local aquaculture industry (Camara 1990. Brazilian demand for L. Crustacean larvae. PA.

spermatic mass. Light microscopy. One of the main problems relies on the limitations for the determination of sperm cell viability. RT SO: Source Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology [Behav. Article Taxonomic Terms: Lysmata wurdemanni. there is no protocol routinely used for this procedure. 349-356. Ecol. Shrimp culture. Social behavior. they were analyzed by optical microscopy and flow cytometry. 544-550. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei. Sex reversal. Social behaviour. Salazar. JA. Vol. Penaeidae AB: Abstract Although the cryopreservation of penaeid prawn sperm or embryos has definite applications in the aquaculture industry. Hermaphroditism. These results show that flow cytometry is a valuable tool to evaluate sperm cell viability in decapod species and it is more sensitive technique than optical microscopy. 6. After thawing. Cells were frozen by fast and slow cooling rates. Biotic factors. Record 39 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Experimental test of socially mediated sex change in a protandric simultaneous hermaphrodite. individuals begin benthic life in a male phase (MP) but later change to a female phase (FP) with female external morphology. although the percentage of viable cells was always lower when determined by the later. no. and complete spermatophore of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. we evaluated the toxicity and cryoprotectant effect of four agents. Iodine. the marine shrimp Lysmata wurdemanni (Caridea: Hippolytidae) AU: Author Baeza. pp. which was also utilized to determine spermatic viability by DNA staining with propidium iodine. Cryobiology. the best result was obtained when the spermatic mass was frozen by slow cooling rate in the presence of methanol (61. Considering viability by morphotype analysis. pp. Flow cytometry. Toxicity. Freezing storage. Evaluation. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans. Cooling. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Sperm. Spermatophores. In this study. Hippolytidae AB: Abstract In Lysmata wurdemanni. in sperm suspension. Methanol. Bauer. but with both male and female reproductive capacity . Vol. M* SO: Source Cryobiology [Cryobiology]. M. Apr 2004.6%).]. There was a positive correlation between morphotype analysis and flow cytometry. Thawing. Jun 2004. 3. Cryopreservation. Aquaculture techniques. C. Sociobiol. Aquaculture. Life history. no. at three different concentrations.Record 38 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The use of flow cytometry in the evaluation of cell viability of cryopreserved sperm of the marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) AU: Author Lezcano. 55. 48. Granja. DNA.

65-68. and in Alabama. Panama and other Latin American countries. This expansion has also taken place in the Western Hemisphere and there are now several inland shrimp culture operations in Ecuador. no. Article Geographic Terms: Asia. Arizona. More recently. DE SO: Source Aquaculture Magazine [Aquacult. It has been common during the past several years with the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) in Thailand and other Asian countries. Record 40 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Status And Issues In Inland Shrimp Farming Part 1 AU: Author Jory. Aquaculture development. Florida. sex change may be influenced not only by abiotic factors related to breeding [Bauer (2002) Biol Bull 203:347-357] but also by social factors in certain demographic situations. We experimentally tested for social mediation of sex change by rearing male-phase individuals (MPs) in both large and small social groups with different sexual and size composition. 30. Georgia and Texas in the U. An MP may gain reproductively by increased growth before changing to FP at a larger size (fewer but much larger broods). Mexico. 2. USA AB: Abstract The activity of inland culture of various marine shrimp species in areas away from the coast has been growing considerably in recent years. Experimental results from 'small groups" (1-2 individuals) were qualitatively similar but not as conclusive as those from large groups. Record 41 of 500 DN: Database Name . South America. speed of sex change was inversely related to the abundance of female-phase individuals (FPs) in the group (sex-ratio induction). Litopenaeus vannamei. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon. In this and the next column. In L. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Industries.(protandric simultaneous hermaphroditism). wurdemanni. Mar-Apr 2004. Aquaculture enterprises. Thailand. Latin America. The number and complexity of social interactions in large groups may be necessary to stimulate labile sex change in this species. Increased allocation to female function (more rapid change to FP) may occur when male mating opportunities are lower because the simultaneous-hermaphrodite FP can immediately reproduce as a female while maintaining male mating capacity. Shrimp culture. Size-ratio induction of sex change by small MPs was suggested but not confirmed. and also some of the technical issues faced by the industry. Aquaculture techniques. Marine crustaceans. it has expanded significantly in Asia with the introduction of the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) into several countries. Mag. Brazil.]. Previous studies have demonstrated that the size (timing) of sex change varies considerably in natural populations. When FPs are abundant. the status of inland shrimp farming in various countries around the world is briefly discussed based on available information. In the 'large group" experiment. pp. delayed sex change might be adaptive because the costs of female reproduction are considerable. Vol.S.

Food conversion.]. 31. and subsequent subdivision into two clades prior to the emergence of the Panamanian isthmus. Crayfish culture. KR. 3-4. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Freshwater aquaculture. pp. Phylogen. with a single relatively recent colonisation of the Western Hemisphere. Temperate zones. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus. 15. DH. Stocking density. Evol. Manomaitis. YL. Marsupenaeus. Colonization. Growth rate. Aquacult. Article Geographic Terms: IW. Muzinic. DB. Pond culture.]. no. Temperature Climate AU: Author Webster. Litopenaeus. .l. Article Geographic Terms: USA. Chu. Survival. was rejected. Nucleotide sequence. LA. + Fenneropenaeus + Farfantepenaeus + Litopenaeus). and one outgroup were combined with previous sequences from seven additional species to allow analysis of 26 of the 28 recognised (or nominated) species. CD. 39-49. Stocked at Three Densities in Earthen Ponds in a Cool.l. Cytochrome-c oxidase. The molecular data support an Indo-West Pacific origin of the genus. Vol. TY. Thompson. Disease control. Phylogenetic analyses do not support the validity of all the previously created six subgenera (or genera) but provide evidence for division of the genus into two previously unrecognised clades (Melicertus + Marsupenaeus and Penaeus s. that the subgenera Farfantepenaeus and Litopenaeus are paraphyletic. Cherax quadricarinatus. pp.l. Cherax quadricarinatus. Yancey. Dasgupta. Xiong. no. were stocked in July at three rates of 12. Aquaculture economics. Record 42 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title A Preliminary Assessment of Growth. genus of marine shrimp.000/ha. rRNA 16S. KH SO: Source Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution [Mol. Article Taxonomic Terms: Cherax quadricarinatus. Survival. derived from mitochondrial DNA AU: Author Lavery. Farfantepenaeus. and Economic Return of Australian Red Claw Crayfish. Appl. Rouse. Yield. Geographical distribution. Cytochromes. 1. Yield. Aquaculture techniques. Tam. Pacific AB: Abstract Mitochondrial DNA sequences were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of the Penaeus s. 2004. Melicertus. Evolution. YK. Apr 2004. S. Rearing. Kentucky AB: Abstract Juvenile (mean weight 8. Newly derived sequences of both 16S rRNA and COI genes from 19 species of Penaeus s. L SO: Source Journal of Applied Aquaculture [J. Mitochondrial DNA. S. in particular the subgenus/genus subdivision. A key conclusion from a previous molecular study. Marine crustaceans.ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the shrimp genus Penaeus s.s. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Phylogeny. 37-50. Fenneropenaeus. This phylogeny was used to test the validity of hypotheses on the species groupings. DNA. and on the species' evolutionary history.1 g) Australian red claw crayfish. Chan. Vol.

yield. organic carbon concentration in the mature (M) underlying sediment layer. total ammonia nitrogen (TAN). Sediment oxygen demand was most sensitive to changes in dissolved oxygen concentration in the overlying water. Tucker. Soc.7%. Mississippi AB: Abstract Sediment oxygen demand (SOD) measured in 45 commercial channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) in Northwest Mississippi using in situ respirometry (N = 167) ranged from 63 to 1. There were no significant (P > 0. Hargreaves. Models for SOD in this . Dissolved oxygen.04%/day. and 24. Red claw were fed a pelleted marine shrimp diet twice daily. yield. James A.2% and females comprising 51. feed conversion ratio. Article Taxonomic Terms: Ictalurus punctatus. pp. and pH was measured daily. Six variables were included in multiple regression models that explained slightly more than half of the variation in SOD. 0. particulate organic matter concentration in the water. Mean SOD in this study (359 mg/m super(2) per h) was greater than that reported previously for catfish ponds but was similar to SOD in semi-intensive marine shrimp ponds. John A.4 g. At harvest. 461 kg/ha. 35.05) different among all treatments. organic carbon concentration at the immediate sediment-water interface (flocculent or F-layer) combined with the upper 2 cm of sediment (S-layer). and economic return and that red claw can grow to marketable size in a cooler temperate region of the United States with a short (<110 days) growing season by stocking a larger-size (8 g) red claw. and -$2659/ha.05) differences in final individual weight. These data indicate that there is no advantage to stocking red claw at rates below 24. Ponds had continual aeration provided. and alkalinity were measured twice weekly. Final individual weight of males and females was not significantly (P > 0. 805%.000/ha into two.000/ha. percentage weight gain.000/ha in terms of growth. nitrite. survival. These variables were: dissolved oxygen concentration at the beginning of respirometry incubation. Oxygen demand. Sediment-water interface. 42.038 mg/m super(2) per h. and economic return among all treatments and averaged 58. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Sediment chemistry. Article Geographic Terms: USA. 322-334. World Aquacult. respectively. 3.8%. Vol. Fish culture.02-ha earthen ponds in a cool temperature region of the United States (Kentucky) and grown for 70 days. 2004. there were no significant (P > 0. water temperature.18. . Fish ponds. Freshwater aquaculture. specific growth rate. percentage survival.05) differences in the percentage of males and females harvested from the ponds among any stocking rate with males comprising 48. Dissolved oxygen and temperature were measured twice daily (0900 and 1530 hours). Craig S SO: Source Journal of the World Aquaculture Society [J. particulate organic matter concentration in water above the sediment surface. 3. Record 43 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Factors Affecting Sediment Oxygen Demand in Commercial Channel Catfish Ponds AU: Author Steeby.]. and total depth of accumulated sediment. no. 7. Nine variables were selected and measured to assess their relative importance in accounting for variation in SOD.47. and the concentration of organic carbon in the combined flocculent and upper sediment (F+S) layer.

californica is similar to that of L. hatching. no. Vol. Record 45 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title A mu-class glutathione S-transferase from the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: Molecular cloning and active-site structural modeling . Individuals apparently change from MP to FP in a single molt. 24. Thus. Protandry. molting. Crust. 1. wurdemanni from the Gulf of Mexico and L. Pleopod flanges related to embryo attachment and incubation are somewhat masculinized in FPs of L.]. Prespawning FPs maintained alone did not produce successful broods of embryos. Size-frequency distributions of sexual phases showed that individuals develop first in the male phase (MP) and then change to the female phase. Biol. WA SO: Source Journal of crustacean biology [J. amboinensis from the Indo-West Pacific. pp. observations were made on the sexual system of L. Time-lapse video observations confirmed that FPs are able to copulate as males and inseminate postmolt. Reproductive cycle. Female-phase individuals maintained in pairs went through successive cycles of embryo brooding concomitant with gonadal vitellogenesis. as shown by (a) otransitionalo individuals that were fully MP externally but whose ovotestes were full of vitellogenic oocytes and (b) a distinct change in the presence/absence and growth of pleopod characters from MP to FP. Record 44 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Protandric simultaneous hermaphroditism in the marine shrimp Lysmata californica (Caridea: Hippolytidae) AU: Author Bauer.research predict that the mass of sediment below the upper 2-cm surface layer on average contributes only ~20% of total SOD. prespawning FPs. Observations on a large number of female-phase individuals (FPs) from a museum collection indicated that FPs with broods containing advanced embryos spawn again (successively) soon after brood hatching. Article Taxonomic Terms: Lysmata californica AB: Abstract To investigate the extent of protandric simultaneous hermaphroditism (PSH) in the genus Lysmata. californica. californica are outcrossing simultaneous hermaphrodites. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Hermaphroditism. Maintaining aerobic conditions at the sediment-water interface will minimize accumulation of organic matter in pond sediment. californica. RT. Spawning. FPs of L. Protandric simultaneous hermaphroditism is probably widespread if not ubiquitous in the genus Lysmata. a species from the warm-temperate eastern Pacific. 131-139. The sexual system of L. and spawning. Newman. and relative growth of male ejaculatory ducts is similar in MPs and FPs. Female-phase individuals retain male gonopores from the MP phase. Stratification and normal daily fluctuation of dissolved oxygen concentration in eutrophic culture ponds likely limit expression of sediment oxygen demand. 2004.

407. Harris-Valle. but not in pleopods. LT SO: Source Integrated agriculture-aquaculture. no. Amino acid sequence. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Agropisciculture. A primer. Aquaculture systems. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract A cDNA clone coding for a mu-class glutathione S-transferase (GST) was isolated from a hepatopancreas cDNA library from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. 2004. and. Rice field aquaculture. The deduced amino acid sequence (215 amino acids) has >50% identity to rodents and other mammals mu-class GSTs.3-dimethyl-2-cyano-1-nitrosoguanidine. is more conserved compared to the flexible C-terminal domain II. Stocking (organisms). Oryza sativa. Detoxification. the shrimp GST transcript was detected in hepatopancreas. Gloria SO: Source Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology [J. Residue Q208 appears to be a key to substrate specificity by comparison with mammalian GST mutants. Carmen A. 2004. The shrimp GST sequence was computer modeled and found to fit the classical two-domain GST structure. Vietnam. no. Hepatopancreas. care and maintenance. hemocytes. pp. Shrimp culture.AU: Author Contreras-Vergara. Silang. This is the first report of molecular cloning and structural modeling of a crustacean GST and provides new insights into the nature of the detoxification response on marine invertebrates. Tec. Rogerio R. AU: Author Hung. FAO documento tecnico de pesca [FAO Doc. Domain I. 245-252. 86-89. Gills. pp.rice-freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and freshwater prawn or marine shrimp (Penaeus monodon) monoculture in the dry season. Penang (Malaysia) . Muscles. harvesting. Using RT-PCR. Polymerase chain reaction. Pesca]. stocking. gills. Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Prawn culture.]. 18. Mol. fertilizing. and shrimp Q208 may affect the affinity to substrates like aminochrome or 1. This position is commonly occupied by serine or threonine in mammalian mu-class GSTs. Agro-acuicultura integrada. Rome (Italy). Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. Vietnam AB: Abstract A description is given of 2 systems of rice field aquaculture that farmers in coastal areas of southern Viet Nam use to increase their incomes . and muscle. dike and trench construction. CA: Corporate Author FAO. Toxicol. of Rural Reconstruction. feeding. 5. Vol. Yepiz-Plascencia. Cavite (Philippines). International Inst. The following aspects are covered: site selection. predator prevention. Penaeus monodon. Record 46 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Rice-prawn and rice-shrimp culture in coastal areas of Viet Nam. Aquaculture techniques. land preparation and transplanting for rice. Substrate specificity. Sotelo-Mundo. Plant culture. Biochem. pest control. Hemocytes. Citlalli. Manual basico.. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Glutathione transferase. World Fish Cent. containing the glutathione (GSH) binding site.

compared to feeding a steam-pelleted. 1.]. Feeding experiments. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Crustacean fisheries. biomass increased. Aquaculture techniques. Brackishwater environment. Feed efficiency. Stock assessment. The major threats to crustacean fishery of the State of West Bengal have also been discussed along with the conservation issues. India. JH. Biomass. Proteins. Trade. Coastal fisheries. 1-2. In the present communication. Kentucky AB: Abstract This study compared the current recommended technology of "phase feeding" diets. Aquaculture economics. pp. estuaries. Article Geographic Terms: India. Costs. Food conversion. India comprising of three districts. 1-3. South 24-Parganas and East Midnapore is dominated by mangroves. MKD. Article Taxonomic Terms: Decapoda. West Bengal. Overexploitation. Marine crustaceans. North 24-Parganas. practical diet containing 32% protein . backwaters and brackishwater bheries. no. increasing in nutrient density as the relative prawn. Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Aquacult. Vol. many of which are of commercial value. Nutritive value. West Bengal AB: Abstract Coastal West Bengal. Pellet feeds. an inventory of a total of 34 species of commercially important prawns and crabs has been prepared along with a list of 13 species of ill-tapped/untapped crustaceans. Fishery economics.penaeid) and crab production and their export from the state have been presented. Stocking density. All these ecosystems are very rich in fauna including the crustaceans. Food additives. Fishery management. namely. Tidwell. Pond culture. Commercial species.Record 47 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Crustacean fishery resources of coastal West Bengal and their conservation issues AU: Author Roy. Environ. Estuarine fisheries. Diets. Backwaters. S. Vol. no. NC SO: Source Journal of Environment and Sociobiology [J. Freshwater crustaceans. Article Geographic Terms: USA. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Prawn culture. Underutilized species. pp. LA. 147-156. D SO: Source Journal of Applied Aquaculture [J. Raised in Earthen Ponds in a Temperate Climate AU: Author Coyle. ISW. Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Nandi. Bright. Appl. 71-80. 2004. Record 48 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Effects of Different Feeding Strategies on Production and Economic Returns for Freshwater Prawn. Data for marine shrimp (both penaeid and non. Depleted stocks. Yasharian.]. 16. Resource conservation. Annual variations. Sociobiol. Fishery resources. 2004. Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

Azulay. S. S.272 kg/ha. Two treatments were evaluated. C. overall. After 97 culture days. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei. FCR. Vitellogenesis.500/ha and were provided with artificial substrate in the form of polyethylene "safety fence" oriented vertically at a rate to increase available surface area 50%.00/kg increase in the break-even price in the phase-treatment compared to feeding the diet containing 28% protein exclusively. T. fed a steampelleted prawn diet containing 28% protein for weeks 5-12. it was detected after the females reached a certain size and age threshold. A SO: Source Israeli Journal of Aquaculture/Bamidgeh [Isr. Article Geographic Terms: Israel. was expressed in the female./Bamidgeh].02-ha ponds for each treatment. p. we found that the vitellogenin gene. Older female shrimp that grew in brackish water (2-3 ppt) and were fed a commercial pelleted diet could be manipulated to . prawn were fed a 28%-protein.2. or survival which averaged 2. based on morphological and physiological examinations. steam-pelleted diet throughout the entire 18-week production period. Gonads. The gonads of the female were vitellogenic. however. some added expense may be justified. Aquacult. however. Polymerase chain reaction. Vg gene expression was not detected in young previtellogenic females using the same set of primers. average individual weight. Negev Desert AB: Abstract A unique case of the full development of female gonads was discovered during a routine check of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp broodstock grown in geothermal brackish water at a commercial shrimp farm in the Negev. or pays. Goshen. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. no. Using PCR and specific vitellogenin primers. Sexual maturity. Dec 2003. there was no significant difference (P > 0. C. Brackishwater aquaculture. which was partially sequenced in our laboratory. without clear signs of secondary vitellogenesis. Vol. 2. Female shrimp were sampled from the farm at various times. Raviv. Segall. 4. Davis. However. There appears to be little benefit to feeding expensive marine shrimp diets to freshwater prawn. Treatment 1 was phase-feeding where prawn were fed unpelleted distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) for the first four weeks. and fed an extruded marine shrimp diet containing 40% protein for weeks 13-18. The added expense of the marine shrimp diet resulted in approximately a US $1. 55. Females. Sagi. and 92%. All ponds were stocked at 87.4 g.05) between treatments in terms of production. We therefore decided to probe the issues of gonad maturation and the timing of vitellogenin gene expression in this marine shrimp when it is grown in geothermal brackish water from the Negev in southern Israel. 233. 28. Record 49 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Gonad maturation and vitellogenesis in a marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) grown in geothermal brackish water AU: Author Parnes. D. J. Gene expression. if the market being addressed requires. In Treatment 2.throughout the entire production period. Feeding rates in both treatments were based on a feeding table. the percentage of prawns which reached over 30 g was increased approximately 20% in the phase-fed treatment. Geothermal springs. more for large animals. There were three replicate 0.

Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. 1-4. Most pond aquaculture cannot be conducted without discharge. Baldwin. Environment management. 32-35. Fitzsimmons. Dec 2003.]. Many involved in aquaculture believe that application of best management practices (BMPs) could be a reasonable and affordable way to improve the quality and reduce the volume of pond effluents. Article Geographic Terms: USA. Effluents from pond aquaculture resemble non-point sources of pollution more than point sources. Arizona AB: Abstract Interest in aquaculture in the state of Arizona is on the rise. including finfish producers. Currently. Freshwater fish. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans. 34. Vol. Thus. Shrimp and fish producers are concerned that these regulations will be unnecessarily restrictive and expensive. primarily marine shrimp. Water quality control AB: Abstract Pressure from environmental groups will force most governments to impose effluent regulations on aquaculture. 101-112. 31 Oct 2003. D. K SO: Source World Aquaculture [World Aquacult. pp. 226. Aquaculture development. Record 51 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Guidelines for aquaculture effluent management at the farm-level AU: Author Boyd. Marine aquaculture. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture effluents. Pollution control. research/educational facilities and distributors. rounded out production. will be difficult or impossible. Tilapia. 4. pp. while other culture organisms. Arizona aquaculture production in 2000 was 680 tons. Vol. no. Fish culture. enriched diet).start vitellogenic processes by transferring them to a marine-like environment (30 ppt. there are more than 30 licensed aquaculture operations in Arizona. Most of these females developed a full vitellogenic ovary with clear expression of the vitellogenin gene in both the hepatopancreas and the ovary. no. several . as done for point source pollution. TK. application of traditional effluent treatment methods to meet effluent standards. Finfish including tilapia. trout and catfish accounted for 590 tons. Wastewater treatment. GIS. CE SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture]. Record 50 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Aquaculture development potential in Arizona: A GIS-based approach AU: Author McIntosh. bass. marine shrimp producers. During recent years. but typically they are sprawling operations where large volumes of relatively dilute effluents are released at many points. Culture effects. Fish and shrimp farms tend to be concentrated in specific regions. Aquaculture regulations.

Nitrate. Nitrogen removal. Cultures. Culture effects. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei. Aug 2003. Artificial substrata. Biotechnology.]. Microbial mats. This treatment via constructed microbial mats is a technically feasible method for simultaneously reducing effluent nutrient loading (especially nitrate and ammonia) and for reducing organic loading (especially BOD sub(5)) of shrimp culture effluents.organizations have suggested systems of BMPs for making pond aquaculture more environmentally responsible. J. These include international development organizations (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and International Finance Corporation). Effluent treatment. There also is considerable discussion among producers and governmental agencies in several nations regarding BMPs. Garcia. Aquaculture effluents. University of Rhode Island). Many shrimp producers in several nations have installed settling basins. 131-139. There is an obvious attempt by producers in Latin America. and producers are becoming more aware of environmental issues. Although the BMP approach is largely a 'paper list' at present. Nitrogen. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Ammonia. a research center (Coastal Resources Center. Wool. no. Shrimp culture. Mexico AB: Abstract In coastal countries. Organic Loading. and a few large shrimp farms monitor effluent quality. The treatment concept relies on the immobilization of natural marine microbial consortium on glass wool to mitigate the levels of dissolved nitrogen from a shrimp culture effluent. Record 52 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Ex-situ bioremediation of shrimp culture effluent using constructed microbial mats AU: Author Paniagua-Michel. Vol. 28. Australian Prawn Producers Association. Shrimp. industry groups (Global Aquaculture Alliance. Oceans. marine shrimp industry poses a problem with respect to the waste effluent disposal into the ocean as well as the nearby area. Article Geographic Terms: ISE. The Aquaculture Certification Council (ACC) plans to implement a certification program based primarily on compliance with BMPs during 2003. Australia. Wastewater treatment. Constructed microbial mats offer an interesting alternative for shrimp culture effluents. Biochemical oxygen demand. Asia. Bioremediation. and Alabama Catfish Producers). the topic is being discussed widely. pp. Pollution control. Our results indicate that average efficiencies of ammonia nitrogen removal from shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) effluent was 97% and 95% for nitrate nitrogen. Eng. Coastal waters. and state agencies in the USA (Missouri Department of Natural Resources and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services). Nitrates. Coastal zone. over a 20 days period of treatment. Marine Shrimp Culture Industry of Thailand. O SO: Source Aquacultural Engineering [Aquacult. Effluents. and it is expected that regulatory programs based on BMPs will be forthcoming. and some producers are voluntarily adopting BMPs. The contents of BMP documents presented by the different groups are remarkably similar. . and the United States to improve production practices. 3-4. Ocean dumping.

Prawn culture. Jul 2003. no. E SO: Source Biology of Reproduction [Biol. pp. A. Aquaculture techniques. Lubzens. R. 51-53. 34. Gene expression. 2. Record 54 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Effect of different feeds and feeding technologies on prawn production AU: Author Coyle. S. Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Fertilizers.Record 53 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Relationship Between Vitellogenin and Vitellin in a Marine Shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) and Molecular Characterization of Vitellogenin Complementary DNAs AU: Author Avarre. J. respectively. Proteins. Yield. no. Reprod. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus semisulcatus AB: Abstract The source of yolk proteins in crustacean ovaries has been the subject of controversy for several decades. 355-364. as shown by SDS-PAGE. Nutritional requirements. Aquaculture economics. Artificial substrata. Tietz. as determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Moulting. Vitellogenesis. Jun 2003. J SO: Source World Aquaculture [World Aquacult. Sexual maturity. These results indicate that penaeid shrimps constitute a unique model for vitellogenesis. Nucleotide sequence. Although a VTG gene was also found in the males. To offer a new insight into the relationship of vitellogenin (VTG) and vitellin (VT). VTG and VT apoproteins were composed of two and three major subunits. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: cDNA. DNA. Yolk. similar to 7. Polymerase chain reaction. 1. Animal nutrition.]. Feed composition. and both extraovarian and intraovarian synthesized proteins have been implicated. N-terminal sequences of these subunits revealed the presence of a cleavage site at a consensus motif for a subtilisin-like endoprotease in VTG and VT and an additional cleavage site in VT revealed by an unidentified endoprotease. Two cDNAs (7920 and 2068 nucleotides [nt]) were sequenced for VTG from the ovary and one cDNA (7920 nt) was sequenced from the hepatopancreas. Feeding. a comparison of extraovarian VTG and ovarian VT of the marine shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus was performed at the protein and cDNA levels.]. Hepatopancreas. The mRNA expression pattern was related to the stage of ovarian development and to the molt cycle. Article Geographic Terms: . Body size. 69. Costs. Vitellogenin. pp. Pellet feeds. Tidwell. Ovaries. VTG cDNA from hepatopancreas was similar to VTG cDNA from ovary. Shrimp culture. showing intraovarian gene expression and synthesis of yolk protein. Stocking density.8-kilobase transcripts were only detected in the ovary and hepatopancreas of females. Michelis. Vol. Vol. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Feeding experiments. Diets. Habitat improvement (physical).

]. which are typically fed high protein. While prawns can receive substantial nutritional benefit from natural foods in ponds at relatively low prawn biomass densities (<1. Record 55 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Minimum environmental potassium for survival of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) in freshwater AU: Author McGraw.000 kg/ha). DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans. they have also been expensive 2. high quality diets. To be sure that maximum prawn production rates are being achieved by these new technologies. feed costs are a relatively small proportion of total costs 5-15 percent.000 kg/ha to over 2. Scarpa. Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Sodium compounds. increased stocking densities. Jun 2003. K super(+). WJ. such as added substrate and increased stocking density. a 40 percent protein marine shrimp diet for the remaining four weeks of the production period.USA. no. physiologically. such as added substrate. prawns are fed a 22 percent protein unpelleted organic fertilizer. currently in research ponds. Vol. Kentucky AB: Abstract The commercial culture of the freshwater prawn. pp. Shellfish Res.500 kg/ha in our research ponds when combined with other management factors. which were used primarily to enhance natural pond productivity rather than to serve as a complete diet for the animals. including substrates and grading. 263-267. Prawns have typically been fed agro-industrial byproducts or low protein diets. Fresh water. Survival. have increased prawn production rates from 900-1. Shrimp culture. at higher production rates prawn are likely to be more dependant on commercial feeds. followed by a 28 percent protein steam pelleted diet formulated similar to catfish feed for the next six weeks and finally. size grading and increased feed rates. 22. Chlorides. While these changes in feeds and feeding have been effective. Recent developments in prawn production technologies. In studies at Kentucky State University. In phase feeding. Research has shown that. so we initiated a series of studies to evaluate the cost/benefit relationships of the different feeds and feeding scenarios. Osmoregulation. When these feeding and production technologies were changed. Potassium. and SO sub(4) super(2-)) on the short-term survival of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in freshwater (<1 ppt .000 kg/ha five years ago to over 2. especially the large high value individuals (>40-50 g). DDGS (Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles) at 20kg/ha/day for the first month. 1. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract The effect of three essential osmoregulatory ions (Mg super(2+). J SO: Source Journal of Shellfish Research [J.500 kg/ha. Ions. Distilled water. In prawn farming. we have used what we call phase feeding in recent years. we must be sure that potential production rates are not constrained by suboptimal diets. production rates increased from 900-1. in the United States has increased considerably in recent years and estimated pond production now exceeds 600 hectares. freshwater prawns actually have nutritional requirements that are similar to penaeid shrimp.

29 plus or minus 0.68 mu g Chl a/mg TSS) or 36ppt (1. J. 4. as is currently being done in the wastewater industry. and the contribution of ciliates as food sources. respectively. There was no significant difference between survival rates of shrimp reared at 9ppt. Recirculating systems.72 g). K super(+). DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Salinity effects. more particularly. Solutions with K super(+) exhibited an average increase in survival of 20% and 42% above solutions without K super(+) at 24 and 48 h. dynamic interactions between ciliates and their diverse roles within the shrimp production system. The regulatory aspects involved in maintaining K super(+) in crustaceans under hypo-osmotic conditions are discussed. Res.26 g to 10.37 plus or minus 0. 345-355. This study demonstrates the necessity of K super(+) in "freshwater" at a minimum concentration of 1 ppm for the survival of this euryhaline marine shrimp. 34. within experimental zero-water exchange culture systems AU: Author Decamp. Tacon.93 plus or minus 0. Conquest. Shrimp postlarvae (PL-18 and -28) were acclimated from seawater (32 ppt) to freshwater (700 ppm TDS. no. Shrimp culture. O. Ten shrimp were placed in triplicate 4-L plastic containers holding 2 L of treatment solutions for 24-48 h. Concentrations of ciliates (max 6000 cells mL super(-1)) showed considerable fluctuations over the sampling period.61 mu g Chl a/mg TSS) salinity. 18ppt or 36ppt.72 mu g Chl a/mg TSS) than tanks with 18ppt (1. ciliated protozoa. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract Recent efforts have been made to culture marine shrimp in systems operating under low or zero-water exchange and with decreased water salinity. Record 56 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Effect of salinity on natural community and production of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone). but decreasing salinity from 36ppt to 9ppt led to a significant decrease in final shrimp body weight (from 13. whereas Mg super(2+) and SO sub(4) super(2-) had no effect. Tanks with 9ppt salinity were characterized by a higher pH.]. Potassium was found to significantly (P < 0. 280 ppm Cl super(-)) over 48 h and held for an additional 24 h before being placed in treatment solutions. Mar 2003. Delanoy. Vol.05) increase shrimp survival. L. Cody. Treatments consisted of various Mg super(2+). but also by a significantly higher concentration of chlorophyll a (Chl a) per weight of suspended matter (1. reflecting the impact of water salinity. and compare this information with shrimp growth and survival. Record 57 of 500 . AJ SO: Source Aquaculture Research [Aquacult. Future work should address the potential of ciliates as an indicator of aquaculture water quality.40 plus or minus 0.total ion concentration) was examined in several experiments. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of various salinity levels on qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the natural community and.23 plus or minus 2. pp. G. and SO sub(4) super(2-) concentrations in Na super(+) and Ca super(2+) solutions that were all derived from chloride or sodium based chemicals added to distilled water.

After the beginning of shrimp farming in the 1970's in the country. Songsangjinda. such as hatcheries. the Brazilian industry has gone through a series of crises until becoming the 7th largest world producer of farm-reared shrimp in 2002. Article Geographic Terms: ASW. 34. Environmental protection. MP SO: Source Arquivos de Ciencias do Mar [Arq.DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Results of the code of conduct for marine shrimp farming demonstration in Songkhla. there has been environmental degradation of coastal areas as well as physical. Southern Thailand AU: Author Tookwinas. The second phase was the farm demonstration program.128 Mt of marine shrimp. Cienc. The first phase. Vol. 1998 to 1999. Farfantepenaeus. TCV. Environment management. The farm practice manual was developed along the guidelines established in phase one. Among all farmed marine organisms. Mar]. Penaeus. Environmental monitoring. the Thailand Department of Fisheries (DOF) has paid a great deal of attention to these issues to help minimize the impacts and maintain or sustain the shrimp farming industry. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Environmental impact. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. The results of the monitoring program at demonstration farms are presented here. Vol. 9-11. Northeast AB: Abstract With fisheries catches stable at the global level. 23-28. the country harvested 60. Record 58 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Environmental impacts of shrimp farming in the Brazilian Northeast. Culture effects. no. S. Brazil. feed. pp. Coastal zone management. penaeid shrimp are the most promising group for Brazilian mariculture. biochemical. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. Thailand AB: Abstract In the last decade.5% of Brazil's . The shrimp farming industry includes not only the shrimp farms but also involves associated industries. The Northeastern region accounted for 96. The DOF has developed a Code of Conduct for Sustainable Marine Shrimp Farming Industry in Thailand that was initiated in June 1998 with funding from the World Bank in two phases. 2003. In response. Shrimp culture. P SO: Source World Aquaculture [World Aquacult. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Environment management. AU: Author Gesteira. Mar 2003. was the commitment to an environmental management system among stakeholders and the development of guidelines. Paiva. Environmental impact. pp. processors and exporters. chemical and drug suppliers. Shrimp culture. Aquaculture regulations. 36. which was conducted in 2000. In that year. 1. social and economic impacts of shrimp farming on the coastal environment. aquaculture has become the most important alternative.]. Marine aquaculture.

2003. Marine aquaculture. Mag. K SO: Source Journal of Applied Aquaculture [J. Human food. Cirrhinus mrigala. Oyster culture. Macrobrachium rosenbergii. There were several excellent shrimp papers presented and covering topics like nutrition and feeds. Labeo calbasu. 1-2. production and others. Aquaculture techniques. Jan-Feb 2003. pp. health. Article Taxonomic Terms: Decapoda AB: Abstract The World Aquaculture 2002 meeting was successfully held in Beijing. no. Pearl oysters. Fish culture. Perna perna. 29. Per capita availability of fish in the country is 9. Marine fish.]. Record 60 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Indian Aquaculture AU: Author Gopakumar. The construction of ponds in mangrove-covered lands and the collection of wild post-larvae are practices that are no longer part of this activity. Aquacult. Vol. Is clear that the survival of the farming business relies on the protection of the environment to which it is intimately linked. the reduction in biodiversity during the catch of wild post-larvae and the escape of exotic species into the natural environment. Article Geographic Terms: India AB: Abstract Fish play an important role in the nutrition of people in India. 13.8 million tonnes during 1999-2000. Cultured organisms. fax 225-388-3493 or by email at: wasmas[at]aol. Conferences. The major impacts of this activity are the destruction of mangrove forest. no. Pinctada fucata. Mussel culture. as some of them are not relevant to shrimp culture. pp. the salinization of aquifers. the pollution of nearby areas by farm effluents. If you are interested in additional information. Shrimp farming has led to controversial debates between environmentalist and farmers. Perna viridis.total production. Freshwater fish. This production level makes . DE SO: Source Aquaculture Magazine [Aquacult.5 kg with production at 5. World. Appl. 1. Record 59 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine Shrimp Papers At World Aquaculture 2002 AU: Author Jory. Freshwater aquaculture. Here I briefly comment on some of the most relevant papers.]. refer to the Book of Abstracts. All these impacts can be mitigated though good farming. Vol. 42-48. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture development. 1-10. Article Taxonomic Terms: Catla catla. genetic improvement. China last April. Marine aquaculture. Labeo rohita. which should be available from the World Aquaculture Society Home Office (phone 225-388-3137.com). Penaeidae. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture.

Labeo rohita. Nitrate nitrogen is especially effective as a nitrogen source for treating pond bottoms because it also is a soil oxidant. Feeding. China is the leading aquaculture producer. Labeo calbasu). India must intensify culture production methods for this increased production values to be achieved. Aquacult. Physicochemical properties. Culture media. Water quality control. no. With marine fishery production/capture steady at 3 million tonnes per year. Record 61 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Bottom Soil and Water Quality Management in Shrimp Ponds AU: Author Boyd. and calbasu.5%) or too high (> 3 or 4%). once feeding rates exceed 20 to 30 kg/ha per day. Aquaculture techniques. inland aquaculture production must increase from its current level of 2. However. Bottoms should be dried for 2 to 3 weeks to enhance oxidation of organic matter and other reduced substances. Water and soil conditions have a great influence on the efficiency of shrimp production. India cultures many different species including Indian major carps (catla. Within 1 or 2 weeks. freshwater shrimp. fertilization should be used cautiously because of the danger of causing excessive phytoplankton blooms. organic carbon analyses can indicate if organic matter concentrations are too low (< 0. Habitat improvement (fertilization). In soil with excessive organic matter. naini. Pond culture. Soil pH should be measured and agricultural limestone applied to acidic pond bottoms. but water exchange often can be reduced to much lower levels than commonly applied.India the second largest aquaculture producing country in the world. Sediment chemistry. green and brown mussels. 11-33. India must increase its current level of production to 7-8 million tonnes per year. CE SO: Source Journal of Applied Aquaculture [J. Catla catla. Appl. and pearl oysters for domestic and international markets. Fertilization with 1-2 kg N and 0.]. rohu. pp. Substrata. natural food should be abundant and postlarvae can be stocked. Once ponds have been filled with water. To meet the increased demand for fisheries products by 2010. 1-2.5 million tonnes to 5 million tonnes by 2010. Cirrhinus mrigala. After a shrimp pond has been drained for harvest. Water exchange is widely used in shrimp farming. Applications of 2 to 4 kg/ha of N and P sub(2)O sub(5) at 2. marine shrimp. nitrogen fertilizers may be applied at 200 to 400 kg/ha to enhance microbial activity. Shrimp culture.to 3-day intervals are usually adequate. Empty pond bottoms also may be tilled to 5 to 10 cm depth with a disk harrow to encourage oxidation. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine aquaculture. 13. Mechanical aeration can be used to increase feeding rates and allow higher levels of shrimp production. oysters. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae AB: Abstract Marine shrimp farming has become an important component of aquaculture. chemical fertilizer containing both nitrogen and phosphorus should be used to encourage natural productivity. Vol. and a review of water quality and bottom soil management will be provided. Suggestions on the use of better practices to minimize . 2003.5-1 kg P sub(2)O sub(5)/ha at intervals of about 1 week should be continued for a few weeks.

Hawaii AB: Abstract We used an experimental procedure based on a mathematical epidemiology model to compare the transmission. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Brackishwater aquaculture. Ground water. Fresh water. the results from which were similar. Article Geographic Terms: ISE..37) than for the TSV exposures (0. Virulence. Aquaculture techniques. Thailand. Hawaii I. and the United States AU: Author Boyd. for the TSV-exposed shrimp. pp. Soc. Vol. Ions.possible adverse environmental effects of shrimp farming are provided. The estimated virulence coefficient was higher for the WSSV exposures (0. highly susceptible population of shrimp maintained by the U. and recovery coefficients of Litopenaeus vannamei (Kona stock) exposed to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) or Taura syndrome virus (TSV). most animals died 24-48 h postexposure.61 for the TSV exposures and 0.]. Ecuador. Record 63 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Concentrations of Major Ions in Waters of Inland Shrimp Farms in China. Aquat.12). Surface water. 34. People's Rep. virulence.S. Lotz. Shrimp culture. vannamei used in the experiments were from the original unselected. Hawaii. 524-532. World Aquacult. Marine Shrimp Farming Program. USA. Two experiments were conducted. The L. 1. 15. MA. Mortality. CE. 48-54. T SO: Source Journal of the World Aquaculture Society [J. Thunjai. White spot syndrome virus. The estimated transmission coefficients were 0.or TSV-infected shrimp cadaver for 14 h and then isolating the exposed shrimp individually for 5 d to determine the number of infections and deaths. Ecuador. Article Taxonomic Terms: Taura syndrome virus. USA. 2003. In contrast. Pond culture. Viral diseases. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Disease transmission. Shrimp culture. no.41 for the WSSV exposures.10) than for the WSSV exposures (0). Brines. Anim.. Chemical analysis. 4. Litopenaeus vannamei. 2003. Kona Coast. For the WSSV-exposed shrimp. JM SO: Source Journal of Aquatic Animal Health [J. most died 48-96 h postexposure. Record 62 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Transmission. USA AB: Abstract . the estimated recovery coefficient was higher for the TSV exposures (0. and Recovery Coefficients of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) and Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) Infections in Kona Stock Litopenaeus vannamei AU: Author Soto. Culture media. Vol. Virulence. no. pp. Thailand. Health]. Article Geographic Terms: China. The procedure involved exposing 12 susceptible shrimp to a single WSSV.

granular salt has been applied to ponds to increase salinity. but ionic imbalance has been problematic in the United States and Ecuador. salmonids. Nutritive value. In some cases. i. In other nations. 141-152. in 2000. may differ greatly from seawater in ionic proportions. it was possible to collect water samples from inland shrimp culture ponds in China. and Texas of the United States.Culture of marine shrimp in inland areas has been done in Thailand for more than a decade and now is being attempted in many other nations. and carp. as well as granular salt which may be added to ponds to raise salinity. Fish oils. During a recent study of inland shrimp farming techniques (Boyd. fish oils will switch from being a primary energy source in . the primary sources of low-salinity water for shrimp culture are saline ground water from wells and surface water. but supply and demand concerns will increasingly result in fish meal being combined with grain and oilseed proteins to produce blends suitable for growing fish. The brine solution used in Thailand has proportions of major ions similar to those of seawater. Arizona.e. the protein and amino acid content and digestibility of fish meal and marine byproducts will become critically important as proteins from marine sources switch from a primary role in feeds to a specialty role as sources of essential amino acids that are limited in proteins from grains and oilseeds. Pond water prepared by mixing freshwater and brine solution usually is similar to seawater with respect to ionic proportions. shrimp are cultured in ponds containing water of 2 to 5 ppt salinity prepared by mixing brine solution from coastal seawater evaporation ponds with freshwater. Groundwater and surface water. and thus marine byproducts can have different specifications for each. Fish culture. in press). The percentage of annual world fish meal and oil production used by the aquaculture feed industry was 10% and 6% in 1988 compared to ca. marine fish. Article Geographic Terms: USA AB: Abstract Aquaculture production increased by more than 12% per year in the past 15 years and is expected to continue to do so for the foreseeable future. Fishery products. Fatty acids. Fish meal. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Seafood. Byproducts. In Thailand. Amino acids. These samples were analyzed for salinity and concentrations of major ions to provide information on the characteristics of waters used for inland shrimp culture. Likewise. Fish meal and oil fulfill specific roles in feeds for each species group. Florida. Thus. and Thailand and in Alabama. Proteins. Over 70% of the fish meal and oil consumed by aquaculture is used in feeds for four species groups. respectively. Feed composition. marine shrimp. Shrimp culture. The amino acid profile of fish meal is optimum for aquaculture feeds. There have not been problems with shrimp stress and mortality from imbalances of major ion concentrations in inland shrimp culture in Thailand. requiring more feeds and thus more fish protein and oil. pp. 2002 Conference Proceedings. 2003. 43% and 75%. Record 64 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine Byproducts for Aquaculture Use AU: Author Hardy.. Food additives. Ecuador. RW SO: Source Advances in Seafood Byproducts.

AU: Author Hung. Plant culture. no. The reproduction of cultured shrimp was lower than marine shrimp. Prawn culture. and stocking density was 10ind/m super(2). At the second stage shrimps from the fist stage were transferred to another pond and released with a stocking density of 1ind/m super(2). Penaeus orientalis grew rather fast. Record 66 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Rice-prawn and rice-shrimp culture in coastal areas of Viet Nam.000m super(2) area and water level at 1. 2003. Rev. 2003. Shrimp culture. Vietnam AB: Abstract The experimental closed life-cycle culture of Penaeus Orientalis Kishiouye 1918 in brackish water areas was conducted in order to maintain and protect the genetic resource of Vietnam and to add to the structure of cultured shrimp species in Northern provinces. Penaeus monodon. Shrimp culture. Peches]. while male shrimp weighed 37. Vietnam AB: Abstract . DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans. 2. Brackishwater aquaculture. Record 65 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Closed life-cycle culture of Penaeus orientalis Kishiouye 1918 in brackish water areas. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. Pond culture. 407. The research was carried out in two stages 1995-1996 and 1996-1997 in abrackish water pond of 2.5g.diets to a specialty role in finishing diets to supply omega-3 fatty acids. Rice field aquaculture. meanwhile the quality of their eggs and larvae were similar to marine shrimp. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus orientalis. AU: Author Quyen. pp. Oryza sativa. pp. Tech.5%) in brackish water ponds and reached maturity at 11 months old in the condition of artificial culture.].7g. LT SO: Source Integrated agriculture-aquaculture: A primer. no. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Agropisciculture. Aquaculture techniques. Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium rosenbergii. NV SO: Source Fishries review [Fish. The first stage started with size PL 15 until shrimp weighs 25-30g. female shrimp weighed 68. Vietnam. after 11 months.5m. Aquaculture systems. 24-26. 86-90. reaching an average weight of 25. The experimental result showed that although living in unfavourable condition.4g after three months of culture. Penaeus Orientalis could sexually develop and ripen with high rate (80. FAO Document technique sur les peches [FAO Doc. Spawner shrimp were kept separately and grown out in ponds. Experimental culture. Integration agriculture-aquaculture: principes de base et exemples.

Shrimp culture. harvesting. NV SO: Source . Penang (Malaysia). Rome (Italy). 50:25:25) and D3 (squid + trash fish + bioencapsulated bloodworm. land preparation and transplanting for rice. Just when gonads were ripe. dike and trench construction. suggesting a possible link with differences in egg quality. AU: Author Chiem. Cavite (Philippines) Record 67 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Increasing cholesterol deposition in oocytes of eyestalk-ablated tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) by feeding bioencapsulated live prey AU: Author Kian. Evidently. World Fish Cent. Malaysia. Broodstock were fed 3 times dally at 0800 h.A description is given of 2 systems of rice field aquaculture that farmers in coastal areas of southern Viet Nam use to increase their incomes . fertilizing. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. no. Eyestalk extirpation. is the most widely cultured species of marine shrimp not only in Malaysia but the whole of Southeast Asia. stocking. Live bloodworm were bioencapsulated using tricalcic phosphate. Oocytes. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans. Ovaries. feeding. Cholesterol. of Rural Reconstruction. Crustacean culture. bioencapsulated bloodworm contributed to substantially increasing the cholesterol content of the intraovarian oocytes. Rahman. Notable quantitative differences in cholesterol were seen in the three batches. 1300 h. Penaeus monodon. 18. Kota Kinabaly AB: Abstract Tiger prawn. pest control. Vol. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon. predator prevention. Survival of the seed produced in hatcheries is highly variable even in specimens of the same population. RA SO: Source Journal of aquaculture in the tropics [J. Mustafa. S. International Inst. Three batches of females were subjected to unilateral eyestalk ablation and were fed different diets (D1-D3) while in captivity: D1 (squid + trash fish in 50:50 ratio). Ration size was 10% body weight per day. 4. Record 68 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Shrimp release into the sea. This study is a part of investigations of factors that influence the quality of egg and measures that could be taken to improve the quality.rice-freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and freshwater prawn or marine shrimp (Penaeus monodon) monoculture in the dry season. care and maintenance.. pp.]. Aquacult. 309-314. The following aspects are covered: site selection. with values of 482 plus or minus 80 mg/100 g (D1). 50:25:25). 569 plus or minus 95 mg/100 g (D2) and 615 plus or minus 95 mg/100 mg/100 (D3). AYS. D2 (squid + trash fish + bloodworm. CA: Corporate Author FAO. Silang. 2003. tiger prawn were sacrificed and gonad samples removed for cholesterol analysis. and. Trop.

000 tones a year. Mag. pp. But recently. MED.Egypt and Saudi Arabia. Egypt. no. Resource conservation. Peche Ind. Seed (aquaculture). it can be estimated that there is 70-80 thousand tones of marine shrimp per year and the shrimp catch can be up to 30. rev. Record 69 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Egypt and Saudi Arabia: shrimp culture AU: Author Feidi. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Both these states are considered the pioneers in commercialization of shrimp mariculture in the Arab region. There has been an increase in demand for seafood products in the Arab world in general. Marine aquaculture. Egypt. With the purpose to restore of natural balance. 3. release density of 0. But it requires a supply of shrimp seeds.Fisheries review [Fis. Arab Rep. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. right zone for release. Aquaculture development. pp. Poisson]. Aquaculture enterprises. This growing local and international demand for seafood has led several Arab states to engage in marine aquaculture. The main species cultured by far is Penaeus monodon.5-1 seed/m super(2). Article Geographic Terms: ISW.].. Two Arab states in particular have shown significant progress in marine shrimp farming on a commercial basis . Saudi Arabia. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture./INFOSAMAK Mag. Quang Ninh about 100 millions of shrimp post larvae (PL 12-15) has been released for recent five years. marine shrimp seed was released into sea to preserve shrimp resources. 45-47. Ranching. Arab Rep. Record 70 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Seawater irrigation system for intensive marine shrimp farming in Thailand AU: Author . no. 2003. Details are given of the various shrimp culture enterprises and their activities in these 2 countries. Binh Dinh. AB: Abstract The world shrimp culture industry is now well developed and competitive. 2003. Nghe An. 7. In some provinces such as Khanh Hoa. especially in terms of international trade. Stocks. Spec. Vietnam AB: Abstract Based on the data collected from surveys regarding the marine shrimp stock of Vietnam in the period from 1975 to 1987. I SO: Source INFOSAMAK international magazine/INFOSAMAK magazine specialise dans la peche et des industries de poisson [INFOSAMAK Int. the decline of marine shrimp resources has great impacts on socio-economic conditions in many coastal areas.000-32. and in the Arab states surrounding the marine waters of the Arabian Peninsula in particular. ISW. providing also some information on other mariculture attempts in other Arab states. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon. 36-37.

Record 72 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Reducing the environmental impact of aquaculture AU: Author McIntosh. Nutritional requirements. Animal nutrition. 68. pp. Aquaculture techniques. Shrimp culture. no.]. diets to be used. D SO: Source Fisheries Science [Fish. Since diet costs can be as much as 70% of the operating expenses for an aquaculture enterprise. determination of nutrient requirements specific for red claw may allow for less expensive. Manomaitis. Phosphorus. Since producers may use an expensive marine shrimp diet to feed red claw. Nov 2002. Culture media. Mag. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine aquaculture. DB. Rouse. pp. 28. L SO: Source Aquaculture Magazine [Aquacult. Article Taxonomic Terms: Cherax quadricarinatus. Very little information exists on their nutritional requirements. Article Geographic Terms: USA. Aquaculture effluents. thereby reducing operating costs and potentially increasing profitability. Water quality. Diets.For the past 3. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Crayfish culture. Oct 2002. 35-40. 5. Int. it is imperative that the least expensive diet be formulated that meets the nutrient requirements of the species. KR. Sci.Tookwinas.Part 2 AU: Author Webster. Article Geographic Terms: Thailand Record 71 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Culture And Nutrition Of Red Claw Crayfish . Feed composition.]. CD.Sci. Kentucky State University in an attempt to learn about their culture habits. Thompson. DM SO: Source Dissertation Abstracts International Part B: Science and Engineering [Diss. Kentucky AB: Abstract Kentucky State University . Muzinic. Sep-Oct 2002. 4. Abst.]. the benefits that aquaculture can have. yet nutritious. Yingcharoen. Pt. suppl.5 years. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. Vol. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Environmental impact. Irrigation water. 63. Intensive culture. Pollution control AB: Abstract Aquaculture has great potential to help supply the nutritional needs of a growing population. & Eng. Sea water. Pollution effects. 855-858. 1. have largely been overshadowed by the environmental degradation some segments of the industry have caused. Vol. LA. we have grown red claw indoors and in ponds at the Aquaculture Research Center. p. To date. Vol. no. B . S. however. The following body of work describes my efforts to help reduce the . 2007.

8622. 601-620. This suggests that by tracking δ[super]15N and/or δ[super] 13C through a high-density. flow-through aquaculture facilities. Chapter 5 describes work conducted in Idaho. SM SO: Source Reviews in Fisheries Science [Rev.698 kg of nitrite-nitrogen. In chapter 3. Aquaculture economics. A linear regression of %P (corrected) on δ[super]13C and δ[super] 15N resulted in R2[super] values of 0. respectively. Recent expansion of the aquaculture industry in Arizona has made it possible to study the integration of olive groves with marine shrimp culture. shrimp farmers have suffered significant economic losses over the last decade because of environmental problems associated with traditional farming practices and viral diseases that have plagued the industry. Aquaculture. I decided to conduct a farm trial to quantify the effects of these shrimp farm effluents on olive trees. Trees in all treatment groups grew an average of 40. Technology transfer. Record 73 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine Shrimp Farming in the Western Hemisphere: Past Problems. Despite this level of production. While growth of trees irrigated with shrimp farm effluent did not improve in respect to the other treatments.environmental impacts of aquaculture. 8.93 kg of total phosphorus (TP) were made available as fertilizer each day in the effluent water. as part of a larger study aimed at reducing the effluent loads of phosphorus (P) from high density. In an effort to improve shrimp performance. 3-4. no. I describe the characterization and evaluation of the effluent from an inland.]. 0. I found that 0. representing about 10% of the world's supply of farmed shrimp. Based on the results of this first study. Sci. Article Geographic Terms: Western Hemisphere AB: Abstract Shrimp aquaculture expanded significantly during the 1980s and now represents a multibillion dollar industry. shrimp farmers in the Western Hemisphere produced an estimated 125.843 and 0. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. Our findings suggest that both δ[super]15N and δ[super] 13C are good better proxies for P. Fish. farmers are adopting biosecure approaches to shrimp culture that include reduced water exchange and the use of . our results do indicate that irrigating with low-salinity water had no noticeable negative effects. By integrating aquaculture production into traditional agriculture. after correcting for P retention. Aquaculture techniques. low-salinity shrimp farm as a potential source of irrigation water. This work is described in chapter 4.1 cm over the four month study period.7 kg of nitrate-nitrogen and 0. 10. Research steps were taken to establish a relationship between TP and the carbon 12/13 isotope ratio (δ[super] 13C) and/or the nitrogen 14/15 isotope ratio (δ[super]15N). Vol. pp. flow-through aquaculture facility over time I will be able to determine the residence time of P with a high degree of accuracy. the impact of farming on already limited water resources and the reliance on chemical fertilizers can be reduced. Present Solutions. Sep 2002. Aquaculture development. Aquaculture statistics.41 kg of ammonia-nitrogen.000 metric tons of product. and Future Visions AU: Author Moss. In 2001. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture.

PL . DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Small scale aquaculture. is considered to be the cause of many of the problems encountered. 2002. small-scale aquaculture. a serious outbreak of epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) occurred in 1998. Rome (Italy). This paper describes ongoing aquaculture extension projects and the role of the government extension services in the provision of fish health management. FAO fisheries technical paper [FAO Fish. Disease problems are occasionally observed. Disease control. Intensification of traditional aquaculture systems. Although these efforts have had a positive impact on the industry. These outbreaks served to highlight the importance of aquatic animal health management in Bangladesh. small-scale. Pond culture. Husbandry diseases. MdN SO: Source Primary aquatic animal health care in rural. However. Fish culture. Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA) Record 75 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Twin Meiosis 2 Spindles Form After Suppression of Polar Body 1 Formation in Oocytes of the Marine Shrimp Sicyonia ingentis AU: Author Hertzler. The long-term viability of shrimp aquaculture depends on appropriate technologies that are designed to mitigate negative environmental impacts and reduce the introduction and spread of pathogens. Record 74 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Extension methodologies for aquatic animal health management in rural pond culture. integrated with rice cultivation and certain fish species. aquaculture development. pp. Dhaka. 287-296. Lessons from Bangladesh AU: Author Islam. Pap. and these are mainly attributed to poor husbandry. CA: Corporate Author FAO. 406. With these technologies in place. Tech. the shrimp aquaculture industry could expand in an environmentally responsible manner. Development of the United Kingdom (DFID). (UK). the risk of crop loss still exists. no.]. Article Geographic Terms: Bangladesh AB: Abstract Bangladesh has a long history of rural. promoted by many extension projects. while simultaneously increasing production and profitability for the shrimp farmer. although other species are cultured in both monoculture and polyculture. either traditional. Bangladesh. Department for Int. Freshwater prawn farming. most of it carp culture. Technical proceedings of the Asia Regional Scoping Workshop. Shrimp culture.high health seed. These technologies must be integrated into a holistic approach to shrimp culture that incorporates major advances used in terrestrial meat production with novel approaches to aquatic animal husbandry. 27-30 September 1999. is also practised. improved traditional or polyculture. and viral infections of marine shrimp occurred in 1994 and 1996. Development projects.

Matias. Mar 2002. FF. Addition of silica seemed to depress the growth rate of Oscillatoria sp.]. Bacteria. Shrimp culture. Vol. Habitat improvement (fertilization). Vol. the diatoms significantly decreased whereas cyanobacteria increased in both ponds. 100-103. Bull. HB. Woods Hole]. Diatoms. Chaetoceros calcitrans. Succession. MS. After 34 days. Silica. Dominant species.56 mg m super(-3) in the first phase to 186. LR. Res. Marine Biological Laboratory. Chlorophyll a increased from a mean of 35. phosphorus and carbon was added to the pond water. Woods Hole [Biol. 202. Phytoplankton. 269-278. Article Taxonomic Terms: Oscillatoria. 2. pp. Phosphorus. no. FM. pp. Record 77 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Combining taste panels with focus groups to elicit consumer preferences toward a new shrimp product. Marine crustaceans.12 mg m super(-3) to 242. Garrido. Zubaidah. Mar. Davis. KJ. Otwell. no. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Meiosis. Nitrogen. Nutrients (mineral). Aquaculture. Lab. Ecological succession. Penaeidae.00 mg m super(-3) in the final phase. Intensive culture.81 mg m super(-3) in the treated and control ponds respectively. Carbon. WS SO: Source . Kwan. Apr 2002. and from 42. 4. significantly increased when a combination of nitrogen.SO: Source Biological Bulletin. Bacillariophyceae. Diatoms were dominant and the cyanobacteria were absent in both treated and control ponds at the beginning of the culture period. Biological development. Reproduction. The specific growth rate of Oscillatoria sp. Pond culture. Oocytes Record 76 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Phytoplankton succession in intensive marine shrimp culture ponds treated with a commercial bacterial product AU: Author Yusoff. Community composition. TS SO: Source Aquaculture Research [Aquacult. Cyanobacteria were significantly higher in the control compared with the treated ponds during the final phase of the culture. Nutrient enrichment should be minimized and the supply of nitrogen and silica should be adequate for promoting the growth of beneficial phytoplankton in aquaculture systems. Biol. Cyanophyta. Algal bioassay showed that the addition of nitrogen either alone or with silica to pond water significantly increased the specific growth rate of Chaetoceros calcitrans . DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture techniques. AU: Author Wirth. 33. Chaetoceros AB: Abstract Succession of phytoplankton dominance was studied in shrimp culture ponds treated with commercial bacterial products. Nutrients.

and challenges. Scophthalmus maximus. AU: Author Lee. John A.' Cheng-Sheng Lee pp. Theodorou pp. 545-557. Hargreaves pp. 391-402. O'Bryen. Nick Brown pp. Oncorhynchus mykiss. and future visions. 433. February 12-15. 601-620. Dicentrarchus labrax. Ictalurus punctatus. 2002 (Proceedings of a workshop held by the Oceanic Institute. Sparidae. 11. Conferences. John Forster pp. Channel catfish farming in ponds: lessons from a maturing industry. 2. Moss pp.450. present solutions. Salmonidae AB: Abstract The following papers are included in this proceedings: 1. 9. Fish culture. 13. et al. Flounder culture and its challenges in Asia. 577-591. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Freshwater aquaculture. Honolulu. Marketing. Consumers. Technical responses to challenges in milkfish aquaculture. 230 pp. Thirteen papers are compiled here from a workshop convened to discuss technical solutions to challenges faced in the past by different aquaculture production systems. et al. I. Aquaculture effluents. Aquaculture techniques. USA. Environment management. Shaun M. pp.Journal of Food Distribution Research. Tilapia production systems in the Americas: technological advances. Wade O. Shrimp culture. Mao-Sen Su. Current and future technological trends of European seabass-seabream culture. Improved shrimp growout systems for disease prevention and environmental sustainability in Asia. Chiu Liao. Chen-Sheng Lee pp. John A. and to use the lessons learned to predict what technological improvements or . pp. General discussion on 'Aquaculture Growout Systems--challenges and technological solutions. Flatfish farming systems in the Atlantic Region. et al. 3. 10(3/4):391-620. 10. Makoto Nakada pp. pp. and to provide shrimp farmers with the consumer-preference information needed to develop successful direct marketing strategies. C. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. Seriola quinqueradiata. Odour AB: Abstract This study was conducted to evaluate acceptability to consumers of the appearance. Gary Fornshell pp. Taste. 593-600. Fishery products. Water quality control. Technical innovations in eel culture systems. Watanabe. 451-464. Paralichthys olivaceus. Anguillidae. trends. 4. Chanos chanos. Rainbow trout--challenges and solutions. Hawaii. 152-154. Tadahisa Seikai pp. aroma. Aquaculture systems. Yellowtail culture development and solutions for the future. 529-543. Disease control. 499-528. 6. CA: Corporate Author Florida Sea Grant Record 78 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Aquaculture growout systems--challenges and technological solutions. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans. 5. texture and overall likeability of freshwater-farmed marine shrimp versus domestically wild-harvested and imported farm-raised products. The shrimp clearly have market acceptance. 8. 2001). Platichthys flesus. Farming salmon: an example of aquaculture for the mass market. 12. 421-432. 403-419. flavor. Marine shrimp farming in the western hemisphere: past problems. PJC SO: Source Reviews in Fisheries Science. 559-575. 7. Tilapia. Mar 2002. 2002. Marine aquaculture.

Inst. 53. Murthi.]. Farfantepenaeus duorarum. Article Taxonomic Terms: Artemia. and salmon are covered. 1-2. 21 Jan 2002. Marine shrimp.innovations will be needed in the future. S. AS. White spot syndrome virus. Disease resistance. Shrimp culture. eel. carp. milkfish. The PCR detection for WSSV revealed no positive results for Artemia exposed to WSSV by immersion challenge and oral route. Sathish. Jayaraman. channel catfish. Disease transmission. Fish. Gulf Caribb. indicus fed WSSV-infected shrimp meat. Rasheed. No mortalities were observed in the juveniles of Penaeus indicus fed with Artemia exposed to WSSV by immersion challenge and oral route. no. to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) and Infection of Menippe adina with WSSV AU: Author Soto. The WSSV failed to infect the developmental stages of Artemia. Record 79 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title An investigation of Artemia as a possible vector for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) transmission to Penaeus indicus AU: Author Sahul Hameed. Penaeus indicus AB: Abstract The pathogenicity of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) for different developmental stages of Artemia was carried out by immersion challenge and oral route in order to investigate the possibility of Artemia acting as a reservoir or carrier of WSSV to marine shrimp. 1-10. K. 204. Vol. environmental sustainability and a variety of region. The PCR analysis was WSSV-positive for P. Topics included disease prevention. V. indicus fed Artemia exposed to WSSV. no. Article Taxonomic Terms: Farfantepenaeus duorarum. tilapia. European seabass and seabream. whereas it was negative for P. yellowtail.and animal-specific issues. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Viral diseases. Histology. Yoganandhan. Murugan. Biological vectors. indicus fed with WSSV-infected shrimp meat. Food organisms. Proceedings of the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute [Proc. Animal diseases. pp. VR. Polymerase chain reaction. Japanese flounder. Survival. K SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture]. whereas 100% mortality was observed in P. Vectors. there were no differences in mortality between control and challenged groups. Shrimp culture. Litopenaeus vannamei. halibut. Shervette. Article Geographic Terms: ASW. 38-45. USA AB: Abstract . MA. BLM. Menippe adina. White spot syndrome virus. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Viral diseases. JM SO: Source Proceedings of the Fifty-Third Annual Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute. pp. turbot. trout. Record 80 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Susceptibility of Litopenaeus vannamei. M. Histological studies agree with these observations. Lotz.

The L. and that M. Fish. S SO: Source Proceedings of the Fifty-Third Annual Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute. From the M.]. Portland Bight AU: Author Aiken. The five most abundant fish species numerically were Anchoa lyolepis (dusky anchovy). duorarum.. Sardinella anchovia (Spanish sardine). adina challenge.81 for L.White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) can cause 100% cumulative mortality to farmed shrimp. Jamaica. Portland Bight AB: Abstract Sampling of mangrove. We used an experimental procedure that is based on a mathematical epidemiology model to compare the survival of F. comprising 92 finfish species from 41 families. In addition. adjoining the country's largest landing site. A total of 18. Our results suggest F. duorarum is as susceptible to mortality from WSSV as L.16 kg of fishable species were taken comprising 2. KA. duorarum and M. we compare the mortality rate of WSSV infected Farfantepenaeus duorarum to Litopenaeus vannamei. Menippe adina were challenged by injection of a homogenate containing WSSV and exposed per os to WSSV infected tissue. Most (69%) of the 92 finfish species came from mangrove-seagrass habitats. vannamei. Proceedings of the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute [Proc. 157-176. and 0. vannamei. plus eight crustacean species from six families. Article Taxonomic Terms: Pisces. Eucinostomus gula (silver jenny). Inst. The experimental procedure involved exposing 12 uninfected susceptible shrimp to a single infected shrimp cadaver for a specified period of time and then isolating the exposed shrimp individually to determine the number of deaths. In addition to the WSSV inclusions. including three elasmobranchs families. duorarum. vannamei used in the experiment were obtained from the United States Marine Shrimp Farming Program. adina is susceptible to infections by WSSV. confirming the small sizes taken. Record 81 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Preliminary Assessment of Nearshore Fishable Resources of Jamaica's Largest Bay. Crustacea. Gulf Caribb. and F. Coastal fisheries. 53. Mollusca. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Fishery surveys. vannamei and F. seagrass (Thalassia. Adult. adina were obtained from the wild.75 for F. A statistical difference was not detected in final mean mortality rates between L. duorarum to L. Syringodium and Halodule) and nearshore sandy habitats over 13 months in Jamaica's largest bay. Fishery resources. The mean mortality rate from a WSSV exposure was 0. pp. vannamei from exposures to WSSV. two of the four crabs injected with WSSV died. Diapterus rhombeus (caipita mojarra). Montemuro. Article Geographic Terms: ASW. and . basophilic. In this contribution. and both of those were found to be histologically positive for WSSV associated lesions. Hay. and two molluscan species. and there is increasing concern over the possible introduction of this virus into wild shrimp and crab populations in the Gulf of Mexico. B. we demonstrate that the stone crab (Menippe adina) is susceptible to WSSV infection. intranuclear inclusions were found in hypertrophied nuclei of hepatopancreatic cells which may be caused by another pathogen.389 individuals. sub-adult and juvenile fishes were captured with two types of seines nets deployed in shallow waters of not more than 2m depth. no. yielded 98 species. and were represented entirely by juveniles.

Currently only a few facilities. Species richness for the total area is high (SR = 98). DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture development. sampling of waters deeper than 2 m would be necessary for a more complete assessment. Portland Bight and the area just west of it was shown to possess important juvenile fishable resources which occupied shallow nearshore zones as well as deeper areas that are fished commercially. Stokes. and thus. [np]. while the nation's commercial catch has remained fairly constant. Litopenaeus vannamei. BJ. Similarity in diversity between sample stations and areas were measured using Jaccard's coefficient of similarity. (1987). The economic value of the fishable resources is thought to be so great that loss of these nursery areas through poorly planned development or other means. notialis. In addition. CR. This study was limited to very shallow waters. appeared to function as a giant nursery for many useful species. These fishable resources are inextricably linked with the larger body of resources landed at Old Harbour Bay beach. Prototypes. Rearing. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei. Marine aquaculture. and preliminary results suggest diversity in adjoining bays was sometimes different from each other. Record 82 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Preliminary characterization of a prototype minimal exchange super-intensive shrimp production system AU: Author Weirich. of these . Jamaica's largest fish landing site. Aquaculture systems. Crustaceans comprised 7. CL. through movement from the Portland Bight area into deeper. As a result. it was apparent that some areas functioned as critical nursery areas for many species and that the entire area as a whole. southern white and southern pink shrimps) were caught. Mangrove-seagrass complexes in eastern Portland Bight had higher species diversity than western. Bratvold. as well as equal numbers of directly dependent vendors and their respective families in adjoining parishes. Water quality control. Despite limited sampling. would affect the livelihoods of several thousand fishers. Two commercially important marine shrimp species (Penaeus schmitti and P. focusing on the production of Pacific white shrimp. Aquaculture economics. 2002.1% with Callinectes spp. with molluscs contributing 2% of all species taken. and not unlike that (SR = 87) found in the Florida Everglades by Thayer et al. Intensive culture. Browdy. Article Geographic Terms: USA AB: Abstract Over the last two decades there has been a significant increase in US consumer demand for marine shrimp. Culture tanks. Although US demand for marine shrimp is high. exist in the US. Recirculating systems. despite nearly identical ecology and physico-chemical characteristics. approximately 80% of shrimp consumed in the US are imported and of this amount it is estimated that over 50% originate from shrimp farms located in Asia. AD SO: Source Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Recirculating Aquaculture. McAbee. exploited reef areas and through directly supporting the commercially fished reef species by providing forage species. Crustacean larvae. (blue swimming crab) the most abundant species. Shrimp culture. D.Haemulon sciurus (bluestriped grunt). its contribution to world farm-raised shrimp production is insignificant.

Raceway culture. Disease control. AZ and a State of Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board Technology Development and Transfer grant (# 004952-079). .e. Record 83 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Design and construction of a commercial biosecure. All effluent water is drawn from a screen standpipe located in the middle of the settling basin. environmentally isolated broodstock also necessitates the use of totally. PG. shared facilities and shared personnel. Bend. the raceways were used to acclimate 5. [np]. a cleaning system consisting of notched 5 cm polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe located along the lateral walls and medial partition suspends uneaten feed and particulates off the bottom. Each raceway has a central concrete partition and a 1. Two of the raceways have a combination upflow bead (2. The need for specific-pathogen-free (SPF) broodstock that are either geographically or environmentally isolated from common diseases has become a priority. In addition. Recirculating systems. Biofilters. recirculating shrimp production system AU: Author Lee. All four raceways have protein skimmers and activated charcoal filters. expansion and development of the US farm-raised shrimp industry would provide many economic benefits including reduction of the nation's considerable trade deficit.2 m super(3))/fluidized sand (1.operations. Lawrence. The system is composed of 4-3. Intensive culture. The tanks and filters were all new construction and artificial sea salts were used to establish and maintain the salinity (5-25 ppt).5 x 10 super(6) postlarvae before they were stocked into production ponds.3 m W X 33 m L X 1. The other two raceways have a reciprocating biofilter (8. The establishment of commercial. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine aquaculture. The latter is more difficult to accomplish because of possible sources of contamination from influent sea water. Shrimp culture. several produce only larval shrimp. Gila. South Carolina. closed.000 biosecure adult broodstock. and Texas. This research project was supported by Woods Brothers Shrimp Farm. A commercial biosecure facility composed of 4-100 mt raceway systems has been designed and constructed. Hawaii. viruses) have had a serious negative economic impact on marine shrimp farming world-wide. Aquaculture systems.6 m deep settling basin at one end. which has resulted largely from imports of seafood products. Each raceway was designed to produce >100 shrimp m super(-2) for a total of 40. Design AB: Abstract Production losses from disease (i. 2002. located primarily in the states of Florida. In addition. which are sold and distributed mainly to foreign buyers.44 m super(3)) biofilter system supplied with water from a 2-1 hp pumps (200 lpm). Filtered water is returned to the surface of the raceways along the central partition at 1-2 m intervals. AL SO: Source Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Recirculating Aquaculture. Turk. Clearly. closed recirculating water filtration systems to contain the costs of water replacement due to declining pH and nitrate accumulation.3 m D concrete raceways housed in greenhouses. Engineering.9 m super(3)) supplied by an airlift pump (500 lpm). PE.

Albert G. AU: Author Lee. Masachika Maeda pp. Food additives. 188 pp. Microbial intervention in aquaculture. Leading experts on microbial ecology. water quality. and for the Japanese abalone. rumen ecosystems. Sarah Horowitz. Koji Nagao. et al. water and water treatment. Dehority pp. Recirculating systems. F. 12. and to further explore its potential as a source of nutrition and for biocontrol in aquaculture production. 119-131. and control the microbial floc within dynamic aerobic fermentors. Role of bacteria in the nutrition of bivalve mollusks: intriguing results and research possibilities. et al pp. 4. The nutrition and feeding of marine shrimp within zero-water exchange aquaculture production systems: role of eukaryotic microorganism. Shaun M. The aim of a recent workshop was to better understand. 7.Record 84 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Microbial approaches to aquatic nutrition within environmentally sound aquaculture production systems. pp. Workshop discussion and recommendations on microbial contributions to aquatic nutrition. Water quality control. Tacon pp. 13. monitor.J. Blackall. Olivier Decamp. Justice C. 19-30. 61-78. Andrew Brittain. and through their ability to remove potentially toxic metabolites from the water column.Jeffreys pp. Bacteria. Russell P. O'Bryen. Microorganisms. Harry Birkbeck and David W. wastewater treatment. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine aquaculture. Lytha Conquest. 6. Feed composition. pond dynamics. 2002. as a source of dietary nutrients for the culture species. Food organisms. Aquaculture systems. Moss pp. Mollusca AB: Abstract The following papers are included in this proceedings: 1. Microbial communities and their use in aquaculture. 109-117. Record 85 of 500 DN: Database Name . Microbial ecology of Australian prawn aquaculture systems--sediments. Haliotis discus. 31-60. Ami Horowitz pp. Ian Forster. Human commensal enteric bacterium as a food additive to aquatic nutrition: application to processed feeds for the Japanese kuruma prawn. 10. Conferences. Tatsuhior Fukuba. Mollusc culture. 161-182. 1-18. et al pp. Verner. 3. Feeding. Digestion and microbial interactions in the rumen ecosystem. Overlooked microbial agents in aquaculture: nanobacteria. P SO: Source World Aquaculture Society. 149-160. Shrimp culture. CC. Forest Rohwer pp. Baiano pp. Dietary importance of microbes and detritus in penaeid shrimp aquaculture. Nutritive value. 9. 11. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. Farooq Azam.79-86. 99-107. 133147. et al. Linda L. Toru Inuta. Scott Haskell. 183-187. Marsupenaeus japonicus. 2. Burk A. 8. T. Microorganisms play an important role in maintaining the health and stability of aquaculture production systems. Overlooked microbial agents in aquaculture: thraustochytrids. Cultured organisms. and aquaculture production systems presented the papers that are compiled here along with a summary of discussion sessions. Herwig pp. Nutrition. Development of the intestinal microflora in early life stages of flatfish. 5.87-97. The microbial loop in aquaculture.

Kou. The ovary is also frequently reported to be the site of yolk protein synthesis in penaeid shrimp. 42. with increases in the late winter and early spring. Kuan-Fu. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract The site of yolk protein synthesis in crustaceans has long been a subject of controversy. and recruitment of the marine shrimp Lysmata wurdemanni is described and analysed. The deduced amino acid sequence of Vg in P. breeding. Lo. Seasonal variations. The same PCR product was obtained using cDNA from the hepatopancreas or the ovary as a template.]. Ching-Ming* SO: Source Invertebrate reproduction and development [Invertebr. Article Taxonomic Terms: Lysmata wurdemanni AB: Abstract The temporal pattern of population abundance. vannamei showed high identities of 57% and 78% with those from M. Vol. was sampled monthly for one year and then bimonthly in a second. Vol. Spawning. in which the hepatopancreas was confirmed to be the extraovarian site of vitellogenin synthesis. Deng-Yu. Ovaries. pp. respectively. the shrimp Lysmata wurdemanni (Decapoda: Caridea: Hippolytidae) AU: Author Bauer. Hermaphroditism. 137-143. no. A portion of the vitellogenin gene structure was reported recently in a freshwater giant prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). no. Ying-Nan.ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Hepatopancreas and ovary are sites of vitellogenin synthesis as determined from partial cDNA encoding of vitellogenin in the marine shrimp. the partial structure of the vitellogenin gene is further presented. Chu-Fang.. RT SO: Source Journal of crustacean biology [J. Dev. declining during the fall to zero values in early winter. Abundances were greatest in the summer. Chen. 2-3. Guang-Hsiung. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Vitellogenesis. Reprod. Record 86 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title reproductive ecology of a protandric simultaneous hermaphrodite. A population inhabiting the rock jetty in Port Aransas. rosenbergii and P. U. The same location of the intron in the sequenced region of genomic DNA was also found between these three species.S. Hepatopancreas. 22. Yolk. it contained a high proportion of larger (older) individuals. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Population number. The breeding season was seasonal but extended. . monodon. 2002. When the population reappeared in late winter to early spring. Kuo. Texas. Penaeus vannamei AU: Author Tseng.A. Crust. Protein synthesis. vannamei. Breeding seasons. DNA. pp. 742-749. 4.]. It is therefore concluded that the hepatopancreas and ovary are sites of vitellogenin synthesis in P. 2002. Genes. Recruitment. Biol. The disappearance of the population in early winter is attributed to its movement beneath the jetty or to some other location inaccessible to sampling. Liu.

Water quality control. Biochemical oxygen demand. Thus. Aquaculture effluents. Aquaculture techniques. Record 88 of 500 . At alpha = 0.08. Record 87 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The use of commercial probiotics in the production of marine shrimp under no water exchange AU: Author Samocha. shrimp final yield. However. Microorganisms. the 3 months study revealed no significant difference between tanks treated with the commercial bacterial supplement and those that were not. is not strikingly unusual or different from that of gonochoristic shallow-water carideans. it appears that commercial bacterial supplements might have some advantage.05. although its timing and intensity varied between years. The commercial bacterial supplement was further tested for its microbial activity on shrimp sludge. Horowitz. based on this work and other studies of probiotics' use in aquaculture. for the mean shrimp survival. Spawning of a new brood occurred soon after hatching of the previous one. Litopenaeus setiferus AB: Abstract The effect of a commercial bacterial supplement (probiotics) on the high density production of Penaeus setiferus in an outdoor tank system with no water exchange was studied. Physicochemical properties. as shown by the significant positive correlation between the degree of embryonic development (nearness to hatching) in an FP and the degree of ovarian maturation (nearness to spawning) in its ovotestes. The probiotics treatment had no effect on the nitrogen cycle in the tanks. with an unusual hermaphroditic sexual system. but more studies are necessary to answer this issue unequivocally. AL. Recruitment occurred primarily in the spring and summer in both years. TM. finally changed sex. A. Shrimp culture. The observed pattern of breeding. Intensive culture. Horowitz. However. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine aquaculture. The breeding pattern of this shrimp. Their relative abundance was greatest in late winter to early spring when a group of large MPs. biological oxygen demand (BOD) in the treated sludge was lower than that of the untreated sludge. 2002. S SO: Source Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Recirculating Aquaculture. Biogeochemistry. Article Taxonomic Terms: Bacteria.Most female-phase individuals (FPs) incubated broods of embryos continuously during the warmer months (spring through early fall). Recirculating systems. some differences were significant at alpha = 0. Lawrence. and shrimp final weight. Sludge. recruitment. at the end of the test. and population abundances of Lysmata wurdemanni is what might be expected of a primarily tropical species living in an area transitional between the tropical Caribbean and warm temperate Gulf of Mexico biogeographical provinces. using high (45%) and low (20%) protein diets and high aeration. far past minimum FP size. Male-phase individuals (MPs) changing to FPs were found throughout most of the year. [np]. No major differences were noted in respiration and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the treated and control sludge samples.

Geographic distribution and area demarcation on the fisheries resource of South Atlantic albacore. Vol. Chiu Liao. Yun-Yuan Ting.-T. W. Microbiology.-S. Sciaenops ocellatus. Yu. [vp]. Tuna fisheries. Sciaenops ocellatus. Emily Y. Yun-Yuan Ting. for reducing edwardsiellosis in cultured European eel. Chiu Liao. Bacillus toyoi. Yu. Enterococcus faecium. Jong-Yih Lai. The exotic American eel in Taiwan: ecological implications. Aquaculture development strategies in Asia for the 21st century. Chiu Liao. By Shan-Ru Jeng. Liu. Houng-Yung Chen. Technical responses to challenges in milkfish aquaculture. Article Geographic Terms: Taiwan. By Chi-Lun Wu. Hepatopancreas and ovary are sites of vitellogenin synthesis as determined from partial cDNA encoding of vitellogenin in the marine shrimp. Penaeus vannamei. Chang. Wei-Cheng Su.-Y. Chu-Fang Lo. Tsung-Han Lee. Fu-Guang Liu. By Y. Chiu Liao. C.-N. Epinephelus malabaricus. Epinephelus malabaricus. Hui-Fen Chang. Fish physiology. Effects of dietary protein level on growth performance. Shean-Ya Yeh. W. larvae in captivity. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Fishery organizations. Emily Y. Sciaenops ocellatus Linnaeus. Han. Fish culture. Thunnus alalunga. Inducing effects of hormones in metamorphosis-arrested grouper larvae. Chang. Cheng-Sheng Lee. Chanos chanos. Disease control. Marine ecology. Roles and contributions of fisheries science in Asia in the 21st century.. Effects of size difference and stocking density on cannibalism rate of juvenile grouper Epinephelus coioides. H. By I. I.-I. Fishery resources. Sylvie Dufour. Record 89 of 500 DN: Database Name . Anguilla japonica. Selectivity and accessibility of prey in captive juvenile red drum. Thunnus albacares. Guan-Ru Chen. By Shuenn-Der Yang. By I. 2002. C. Litopenaeus vannamei. By Jinn-Rong Hseu. Commercial species. Kuan-Fu Liu. By I. By Long-Jing Wu. Target strength. By C. Fishery sciences. Chiu Liao. An evaluation of two probiotic bacterial strains. Determination of in situ target strength of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) aggregated around sub-surface fish aggregating devices by acoustics. Article Taxonomic Terms: Bidyanus bidyanus. Ying-Nan Chen. Jiun-Chern Lin. Technical innovation in eel culture systems. Histological changes in the thyroid and digestive glands during spontaneous and artificially-induced metamorphosis of larvae of the grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus). Chang. Asia AB: Abstract This issue contains reprints of the following articles: Regulation of pituitary gonadotropin II and growth hormone content by sex steroids and pituitary extract in the aquacultured Japanese eel. Anguilla anguilla L. Chang-Ming Kuo. Chang-Fong Chang. Documents. Chiu Liao. Ya-Ke Hsu. By Deng-Yu Tseng. By Ying-Mei Lin. Yung-Sen Huang.-H. By Mao-Sen Su. Le-Min Chen. By Feng-Cheng Wu. Epinephelus coioides. By I. Docosahexaenoic acid is superior to eicosapentaenoic acid as the essential fatty acid for growth of grouper. Anguilla japonica. Chiu Liao. Enterococcus faecium SF68 and Bacillus toyoi. I. 1. Aquaculture development. Wu-Chang Lee. Chyng-Hwa Liou. Tzeng. Guang-Hsiung Kou. Timing and factors affecting cannibalism drum.DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Fisheries Research Institute Collected Reprints SO: Source Fisheries Research Institute. Jinn-Rong Hseu. By Jinn-Rong Hseu. Chang. By I.-W. carcass composition and ammonia excretion in juvenile silver perch (Bidyanus bidyanus).

10ppt. 10ppt. 1. Thus. The O:N ratio (ratio of oxygen consumed to nitrogen excreted in atomic equivalents) showed a decreasing trend when the high-saline acclimated shrimps were abruptly exposed to low-saline media. Aquaculture systems. Record 90 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Seawater irrigation system for intensive marine shrimp farming in Thailand AU: Author Siri Tookwinas.]. 2002. 2002. Exposure to different grades of high-saline media on the other hand induced a significant decrease in ammonia excretion rate of low-saline acclimated shrimps. Irrigation. There are criteria for site selection because shrimp farmers are required to form associations so they can work closely together. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. indicating a shift towards protein dominated metabolism. The system has 3 components: water intake.]. Ammonia. Vol. Acclimation. no. Dhana Yingcharoen SO: Source SEAFDEC Asian aquaculture [SEAFDEC Asian Aquacult. 15ppt and 20ppt) to lipid/carbohydrate dominated metabolism in high salinities (25ppt. 30ppt and 35ppt). Marine aquaculture. Vol. Crust. Biol. pp. Development projects AB: Abstract The aim of the seawater irrigation system (SIS) is to clean up shrimp pond effluent and provide high quality seawater for shrimp farming. 1. and 15ppt) and high (30ppt and 35ppt) salinities. Diwan. there appears to be a shift in energy substrate utilization in these shrimps from protein dominated metabolism in low salinities (5ppt. Salinity tolerance. pp. A reverse trend could be observed in the O:N ratio when the shrimps were exposed to high-saline media indicating a shift towards lipid dominated metabolism in high salinities. BR. Excretion. A significant increase in ammonia-N excretion was observed when high-saline acclimated shrimps were abruptly exposed to different grades of low-saline media. Article Taxonomic Terms: Metapenaeus monoceros AB: Abstract The present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of an abrupt change in the salinity of the medium on the oxygen consumption and ammonia-N excretion of the marine penaeid shrimp Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius). Intensive culture. 22. AD SO: Source Journal of crustacean biology [J. no. 45-52. 3-4. treatment reservoir and discharge system. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Salinity effects.ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Effects of acute salinity stress on oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion rates of the marine shrimp Metapenaeus monoceros AU: Author Pillai. The construction site must be on the coastal area outside a . 24. 15-16. Results showed that in both low-saline (5ppt)as well as high-saline (35ppt) acclimated shrimps the respiratory rates were significantly lower in midrange salinities (20ppt and 25ppt) and significantly higher in both low (5ppt.

Zhang.mangrove forest and located away from a production agricultural area. dry-cooked WSSV-SHM (oven-dried at 90 degree C for 1 h) and commercial SHM at a level of 10% in the diets. In both Experiments I and II. Five SIS projects. Polymerase chain reaction. Diets. Detection. Vol. In Experiment II. the pooled hemolymph samples from five shrimps were taken with 2-week feeding interval and determined in triplicate for WSSV detection using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. raw fresh WSSV-SHM and freeze-dried WSSV-SHM at 10% in each diet. Kasornchandra. J. Q SO: Source . Feed. were completed and operated. Biological pollutants. pp. Boonyaratpalin. All construction sites must have undergone an environmental impact assessment. five diets were used: Diet 1 as the control diet without WSSV-SHM.2 g were fed to apparent satiation with each of four diets for 8 weeks. The Department of Fisheries has planned for another 28 projects.]. W.500 ha with 1. respectively. monodon . 15 shrimp with a mean body weight of 18. Feeds.8 g. Microbial contamination. 383-387.300 farmers (families). that will cover almost 44. Diets 2-4 contained wet-cooked WSSV-SHM (autoclaved at 115 degree C for 15 min). M SO: Source Aquaculture Research [Aquacult. Record 91 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Effect of dietary shrimp head meal contaminated with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) on detection of WSSV in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius) AU: Author Pongmaneerat. Shrimp. weighing 10. Record 92 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The status of marine fish culture in China AU: Author Hong. 32. In both Experiments I and II. PCR products from hemolymph samples showed the negative results for all dietary treatments. Disease detection. s1. Dec 2001. oven-dried WSSV-SHM (60 degree C for 8 h). S. J. respectively. White spot syndrome virus AB: Abstract The effects of supplementary shrimp head meal contaminated with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV-SHM) in the diet on detection of WSSV in Penaeus monodon Fabricius were investigated. Feeding experiments. In Experiment I. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Pathogens. Viral diseases. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon. were fed each diet for 6 weeks to satiation. These results suggested that using commercial SHM and WSSV-SHM in diets had no adverse effects on WSSV infection in P. Boonyaratpalin. Res. Diets 2-5 containing steamed WSSV-SHM (100 degree C for 15 min). Diet 1 was the control diet containing no WSSV-SHM. no.000 ha of culture area. and should be located on the area listed in Thailand's Coastal Zone Management Plan. which cover a culture area of 6.

with production in 2000 of more than 40. Paratelphusa hydrodomous and P. no. Sathish. Rasheed. Marine aquaculture. Heart. and was estimated to be 400. 1 Oct 2001.000 mt for the year 2000. pulvinata) AU: Author Sahul Hameed. Article Taxonomic Terms: Pisces.000 tons. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture statistics. Record 93 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in two species of freshwater crabs (Paratelphusa hydrodomous and P. after intramuscular injection. Vol. K. 32. Haemolymph. V. Fish culture. People's Rep. hydrodomous. Its combined production of 20.000 tons. Paratelphusa pulvinata AB: Abstract The susceptibility of two species of freshwater crabs. S. Record 94 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Reproductive biotechnology in finfish aquaculture. in the marine sector it lies a distant fourth in importance. no. heart tissue. Donaldson. vp 18-20.World Aquaculture [World Aquacult. Vol. eyestalk. pp. Article Geographic Terms: China. Article Taxonomic Terms: Paratelphusa hydrodromous. the production of the large yellow croaker is the most important. AS. at 60 and 84 h. 179-186.700 mt by 1998. In 1996 the total output of marine fish by aquaculture was only 182. 201.67. Viral diseases. EMC SO: Source . AU: Author Lee. The results revealed that these freshwater crabs were as highly susceptible as marine shrimp. The presence of WSSV in the moribund crabs was confirmed by PCR and histological analysis. crustaceans and molluscs in 1998 increased to 24 million mt in 1999. AB: Abstract China is the leading producer of aquaculture products in the world. White spot syndrome virus. K SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture].8 million metric tons of fish. still well behind seaweeds. molluscan shellfish and marine shrimp. Although marine fish production has more than doubled in five years. CC. Jayaraman. Eyestalks. M. Gills. Hemolymph. 3-4. it is only about 4. By far the largest part of the industry is freshwater fish production. It also caused 100% mortality when given orally. Yoganandhan. Thus. WSSV caused 100% mortality in both P. Dec 2001. 4. That increased to 306. Murugan. pulvinata to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was tested by oral route and intramuscular injection. Freshwater crustaceans. Among all the cultured marine fish.]. It was found in gill. respectively. abdominal muscle and hemolymph. Experimental infection. pulvinata and P.0 percent of the total output of all cultured marine animals and plants. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Mortality.

205-228. Vol. N. Brock and R. et al. pp. Biological stress. Hew and G. Donaldson pp. 63-98. 320 pp. Aravossis. Cryopreservation of finfish and shellfish gametes and embryos. pp. Water pollution. Synergism. 137-159. C. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Freshwater crustaceans. B. 5. Freezing storage. Inter. K. Disease prevention and control for gametes and embryos of fish and marine shrimp. Endocrine sex control strategies for the feminization of teleost fish. 8. Sakellaropoulos. pp. 12. C. L. Envir. N. C. Toxicity tolerance.Proceedings of a workshop. The environmental regulation of maturation in farmed finfish with special reference to the role of photoperiod and melatonin. Endocrine manipulations of spawning in cultured fish: from hormones to genes.136. M. Record 95 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Assessment of toxicity and bioaccumulation of organotin compounds. Daphnia magna. 2. M. Disease control. and progeny.]. Bioaccumulation. Genetics and broodstock management of coho salmon. LC sub(50) values for the effect of organotin compounds on Daphnia magna were also determined. P. 2. Endocrinology. Effect of broodstock nutrition on reproductive performance of fish. Induced breeding. and prospects. Liao pp. 10. Sexual reproduction. A. C. Tsiridis.-H. Daphnia magna proved to be more sensitive than Artemia franciscana as a test organism in detecting tin toxicity. 303-320. Honolulu. 6. Meyers. Hawaii. Y. J. Marine crustaceans. et al. Belgium AB: Abstract The toxicity of four organotin compounds towards freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna and marine shrimp Artemia franciscana was investigated. J. Gametes. 499-505. Sep 03-06. Chao and I. 2001. 2001. Monosex male production in finfish as exemplified by tilapia: applications. Petala. 3-24. October 4-7. Izquierdo. A. Fish culture. Ermoupolis. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Brood stocks. Monosex culture. Scie. Biotechnology. Volume 1. Schreck. Hadjispyrou. Tech. problems. Article Taxonomic Terms: Artemia franciscana. C. F. Lee and E. Piferrer pp. 99. Aquaculture techniques. AU: Author Kungolos. Proceedings. 3. 229-281. 25-42. et al. M. pp. Animal nutrition. Selective breeding. M. S. et al. 4. trialkyltin compounds were more toxic than dialkyltin compounds. [Proc. Effects of stress on fish reproduction. J. 43-62. Embryos. Antifouling substances. Furthermore. pp. General discussion on 'Reproductive biotechnology in finfish aquaculture'. Genetic improvement of aquaculture finfish species by chromosome manipulation techniques in Japan. 7. Arai pp. 283-301. Bullis pp. The role of aquatic biotechnology in aquaculture. Genetics. 161-189. Tributyltin chloride proved to be the most toxic among all four organotin compounds. K. Article Taxonomic Terms: Pisces AB: Abstract The following papers are included in this report: 1.-S. 11. Conf. Fletcher pp. A. 2001. Greece. et al. Zohar and C. 9. Sexual maturity. Heavy metals. pp. V. Mylonas pp. Beardmore. L. Chemical compounds. 191-204. Article Geographic Terms: ANE. GP SO: Source 7th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology. Samaras. gamete quality. S. Syros I. Conferences. Bromage. Tributyltin chloride had an LC sub(50) value .

cruciata. Squilla mantis. 1-11. Shrimp culture. pp. Aquaculture. Viral diseases.00095 mg/L and dimethyltin dichloride had an LC50 value equal to 19. no. Hosts. Detection of carrier animals required two-step nested PCR. Macrophthalmus sulcatus. 1-2. I* SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture]. The results indicate that wild-caught asymptomatic marine shrimp such as Metapenaeus dobsoni. Joseph. of the Aegean. The sector is characterized as a commercially artisanal industry except for the industrial shrimp trawl fishery. I*.27 mg/L. SK. CA: Corporate Author Univ. Otta. Fishery statistics. conch and shrimp fisheries. MS. Parapenaeopsis stylifera. The incidence of the virus in non-cultured crustaceans from shrimp farms was also studied. Solenocera indica. The interactive effects between tin and cyanide and tin and beryllium on Artemia franciscana were also investigated. Record 97 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Fisheries statistical report 2000 DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Fishery industry. Metopograpsus messor. Charybdis annulata. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Polymerase chain reaction. Chakraborty. Macrobrachium rosenbergii AB: Abstract The presence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) of shrimp in various marine crustaceans was studied by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Presently. the fisheries sector ranks as the third foreign exchange earner in the country and has contributed 8% of the . 198. Prawn culture. Karunasagar. C. Vol. DNA. of Environmental Studies Record 96 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Detection of new hosts for white spot syndrome virus of shrimp using nested polymerase chain reaction AU: Author Hossain. Trade. Solenocera indica and Squilla mantis carry WSSV.equal to 0. This virus could be detected in apparently healthy marine crabs Charybdis annulata. sail sloops and canoes. Metapenaeus dobsoni. Parapenaeopsis stylifera. Gelasimus marionis nitidus and Metopograpsus messor. The virus could also be detected in asymptomatic Macrobrachium rosenbergii cultured inland far away from coast. Gelasimus marionis nitidus. The industry is considered to be lucrative and successful. Article Taxonomic Terms: White spot syndrome virus. The artisanal fishing fleet is composed of open boats. Article Geographic Terms: Belize AB: Abstract The capture fisheries industry of Belize contributes significantly to the economy of the country and has traditionally revolved around the lobster. B. 15 Jun 2001. Macrophthalmus sulcatus. mainly because of the good prices obtained on the foreign market and because most fishermen belong to one of the four main cooperatives. Industrial products statistics. Disease detection. Charybdis cruciata. Karunasagar. Syros (Greece) Dep. A.

like a number of the measures applied by aquaculturists to eliminate or reduce the pathogen/disease risks associated with gametes and embryos of fish and marine shrimp. the quality of the techniques used during gamete production.GDP in 2000. A few bacterial and fungal pathogens are also dispersed in this way. Disinfection. The tactics highlighted are the application of BMPs to maintain gamete and embryo health. collection. Production and export statistics are provided for the lobster. Gametes and embryos may also provide the means for vertical transmission of certain pathogens from brood animals to their offspring. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Disease detection. and pre. Prevention of the diseases that stem from these agents involves primarily the application of the best management practices (BMPs) available for broodstock selection and maturation. Capture Fishery Unit Record 98 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Disease prevention and control for gametes and embryos of fish and marine shrimp AU: Author Brock. 1-4. JA. Embryos. Disease transmission. aquarium fish and shark fishery sectors. Gnotobiotics. Fungi. gamete production. Eggs. Microbial contamination. the principal biological impact of the disease occurs typically well beyond egg hatching. Fish culture. pp. Disinfectants.Specific viruses. Brood stocks. For the vertically transmitted biotic agents. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae AB: Abstract Disease prevention is a facet of the total quality management for gametes and embryos of fish and marine shrimp. conch. collection and storage. Aquaculture. Gamete health is strongly influenced by broodstock health and nutrition. 137-159. Infestation.to post-hatch egg incubation. Poor quality gametes or unhealthy conditions during collection and incubation can result in embryo mortality and/or lead to the attack of the eggs by saprophytic bacteria and fungi. Marine organisms. Vol. (Belize). Aquatic bacteria. Gametes. Specific techniques have been developed for the control of selected pathogens of high economic significance to fish and penaeid shrimp culture. Shrimp culture. 1 Jun 2001. Saprophytes. marine shrimp. bacteria and fungi are the major infectious agents of concern for the gametes and embryos of fish and marine shrimp. Bullis. no. Incomplete knowledge regarding BMPs that are unattainable because of system or other constraints and human error are important factors hindering the prevention of egg transmitted infectious diseases of the mass cultured fish and shrimp species. are discussed here. finfish. the use of specific pathogen-free (SPF) broodstock. storage and pre. the use of pathogen-free . R SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture]. the testing and elimination of broodstock carriers of specific pathogens. Disease control. Using specific pathogens as examples. CA: Corporate Author Belize Fisheries Dep. There are a number of viruses of fish and shrimp which may transfer from broodstock to the offspring at the time of spawning.to post-hatch conditions in embryo incubation. 197. chemical treatment of the broodstock to control a specific pathogen.

DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Yolk. Immunology. behaviour and function in P. 279-283.]. Penaeus vannamei. Botterblom. monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against different haemolymph molecules of the marine shrimp Penaeus monodon were produced and characterised. Blood cells. JHWM SO: Source Developmental & Comparative Immunology [Dev. Antibodies. The mAbs also reacted with haemolymph components of three freshwater crustaceans. N. Record 99 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Yolk Synthesis in the Marine Shrimp. nor with blood cells of two vertebrates.]. Well-described mAbs can be used in studies of the crustacean defence system and may finally result in a better insight into this system. and mechanical rinsing with pathogen-free water of the eggs or the early larval stages. monodon was compared with other crustaceans and disparate taxa. pp. chemical treatment of the gametes. Protein synthesis. chemical and/or physical disinfection of the culture water. monodon. Rombout.culture water. A bioassay was developed to measure specific yolk protein synthesis in vitro. LS SO: Source American Zoologist [Am. Vol. no. CBT. In the present study. This comparative study shows reactivity of the mAbs with a wide range of crustaceans and related animals and suggests that well conserved molecules are recognised. Hemocytes. Haemolymph. no. Record 100 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Monoclonal antibodies against haemocyte molecules of Penaeus monodon shrimp react with haemolymph components of other crustaceans and disparate taxa AU: Author van de Braak. It was suggested that these mAbs could be used in studying haemocyte differentiation. Zool. pp. the embryos or the early life stages. Taverne. 3. 458-464. Ovaries. Vol. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon. Jun 2001. No reactions were observed with haemolymph of an insect and a mollusc. a terrestrial isopod crustacean and with coelomic fluid of an annelid. Penaeus vannamei AU: Author Quackenbush. 4. which may indicate functional importance. . Hemolymph. Comp. Immunol. 41. May 2001. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract Eyestalk neuroendocrine factors control specific yolk protein synthesis in the ovaries of the shrimp. The eyestalk neuroendocrine complex may also produce a peptide capable of stimulation of yolk synthesis. Crustacea AB: Abstract In a previous study. van der Knaap. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Monoclonal antibodies. 25. MHA. Defence mechanisms. WPW. the reaction of these mAbs on P.

no. In searching for highly expressed mRNAs during oogenesis in the marine shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus ). Developmental stages. Here I summarize these papers. Record 102 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Molecular Characterization and High Expression During Oocyte Development of a Shrimp Ovarian Cortical Rod Protein Homologous to Insect Intestinal Peritrophins AU: Author Khayat. The deduced amino acid sequences revealed the presence of repeated cysteine-rich domains that are related to the chitin-binding domains of insect intestinal peritrophins. 49-56.Record 101 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine Shrimp Culture At Aquaculture 2001 AU: Author Jory. the International Triennial Conference and Exposition of the World Aquaculture Society (WAS). 27. Louisiana State University. Several shrimp papers were presented at the Special Shrimp Session of the WAS Conference. The last such shrimp session was held in 1995 in San Diego. Chitin.com. Aquaculture techniques. crustacean tachycitin. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans. was recently held in Orlando. Mar-Apr 2001. Mag. Lubzens. no. and this one was surely overdue. 2. Parker Coliseum. Florida on January 21-25. and invertebrate chitinases. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Molecular weight. Similar cysteine-rich domains were reported in insect intestinal mucin. H. pp. Penaeus semisulcatus AB: Abstract Penaeoid shrimp oocytes nearing the completion of oogenesis are enveloped in an acellular vitelline envelope and possess extracellular cortical rods (CRs) that extended into the cortical cytoplasm. Sammar. Baton Rouge. two related cDNAs have been isolated that encode a mature protein of 250 amino acid residues. Babin. Cytoplasm. Apr 2001. Mucins. pp. Aquatic insects. M. 64. Aquaculture enterprises. Nagasawa. A. Vol.]. Tietz.]. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae AB: Abstract Aquaculture 2001. These cortical specializations are precursors of the jelly layer (JL) of the egg. DE SO: Source Aquaculture Magazine [Aquacult. Oogenesis. B. LA 70803 USA wasmas[at]aol. Vol. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. Hepatopancreas. PJ. California. under . 1090-1099. The shrimp ovarian peritrophin (SOP) is glycosylated and can bind chitin when extracted from CRs. Its apparent molecular mass in SDS-PAGE is 29-35 kDa and 33-36 kDa. E SO: Source Biology of Reproduction [Biol. Readers interested in copies of the proceedings should contact the World Aquaculture Society 143 J. M. Intestines. Reprod. 2001. M. Funkenstein. 4.

Pinctada maxima. fertilized eggs that were surrounded by a JL matrix. Cherax quadricarinatus. P SO: Source World Aquaculture [World Aquacult. Ornamental fish. Pearl oysters. Research is underway to develop culture methods for new species of coral reef fish for the food (Plectropomus sp. 32. Northern Queensland is an ideal location to research and study tropical aquaculture with industries based in this region including pearl oysters (Pinctada maxima. and in the cloudy. purified CRs.) and bivalves (Pinctada spp. Pomacentrus sp. Aquaculture techniques.). marine shrimp/prawns (Penaeus sp. SOP is a major protein of CRs and the JL.. Penaeidae. Oyster culture. The university is located in the middle of the aquaculture region of northern Queensland providing access to industry for collaborative research and graduate employment. Amphiprion sp. Vol. Record 104 of 500 DN: Database Name . whitish flocculent material appearing in sea water immediately after spawning.nonreducing or reducing conditions.). Metapenaeus sp. Article Taxonomic Terms: Amphiprion. 13-17. Queensland AB: Abstract James Cook University (JCU) is the largest University in tropical Australia and is located adjacent to the Great Barrier Reef. Lysmata sp. Lutjanus. and was immunodetected in ovaries. Shrimp culture. Stenopus sp. pp.. 1. The maximal exploitation of wild fisheries combined with the increasing demand for protein and healthy food. SOP mRNA was abundant in the shrimp ovary and was detected before the presence of the corresponding protein.].) markets. respectively. Lates calcarifer. and marine crustaceans (Scylla sp. Mar 2001.. Pomacentrus. Article Geographic Terms: Australia. Saccostrea sp. Cromileptes. Shrimp expressed SOP mRNA in ovaries at all oocyte developmental stages. Immunolocalization in tissue sections determined that SOP was present in oocyte cytoplasm and in extraoocytic CRs. Tropical Australia is the most productive aquaculture region in the country... Plectropomus.. Tropical environment. Hippocampus. Epinephelus. Saccostrea. whereas expression in the hepatopancreas was restricted to vitellogenic stages. a major component of which will be tropical aquaculture. barramundi (Lates calcarifer) and aquarium fish. Epinephelus sp. redclaw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus). Tropical fish. Pearl culture. Crayfish culture.). will ensure the continued growth of aquaculture within Australia. Aquaculture development. Record 103 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Aquaculture research and training in the tropics AU: Author Appleford.. This is the first demonstration that a protein with similar features to insect intestinal peritrophins is a component of CRs and is therefore a main precursor of the JL of spawned shrimp eggs.. no. Cromileptes sp. estuarine fish (Lutjanus sp. Panulirus sp. Australia's most valuable aquaculture industry).. Stenopus.) and ornamental (Hippocampus sp. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Training.

Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. Vol. Record 105 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine shrimp farming in northeastern Brazil AU: Author Nunes. The current phase of rapid growth is characterized by . Vol. pp. brine solutions from coastal salt farms or solid salt may be transported to the ponds and mixed with freshwater to provide enough salinity for shrimp culture. Aquaculture economics. Soils. In some areas. the Thai government banned inland shrimp farming in response to concerns about salinization of soil and irrigation water. Environmental legislation. Inland waters. Mar 2001. However. and the Thai government is now attempting to find a way to address the concern and still allow inland shrimp farming. Mar 2001. this practice never became established in the area. Suresh. Article Geographic Terms: Brazil AB: Abstract Brazil is the latest nation to experience a rapid growth in shrimp culture.]. 1. Marine organisms. 32-38. Article Geographic Terms: Thailand AB: Abstract There is considerable interest in the farming of marine shrimp in inland areas where slightly saline water is available and even in some freshwater areas. Aquaculture. Environmental impact. During the mid 1990s. aquifers containing naturally saline water exist. Salinity. AJP. shrimp farmers in central Thailand began to mix brine solution with irrigation water in inland ponds to culture shrimp. Considerable controversy over the ban remains. Shrimp culture. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. no.ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Inland shrimp farming and the environment AU: Author Boyd. Legislation. Ponds. AV SO: Source World Aquaculture [World Aquacult. 1. Government regulations. pp. After going through several stages of trial and error the industry is finally flourishing in the northeastern part of the country. Irrigation water. Aquaculture development. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. Where saline water is not available naturally.500 ha of inland shrimp farms in central Thailand. and a 1997 survey reported that there were about 11. Penaeus monodon. but some reliable information is available. 10-12. Saline waters for inland shrimp ponds can be obtained in two ways. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Environmental impact. Historical documentation of inland shrimp farming is lacking. I visited a site near Mahasarakham in northeast Thailand where salty ground water was being used by a few farmers to produce Penaeus monodon. no. 32. Saline water. Groundwater pollution. During the summer of 1998. Inland water. and ponds can be filled from wells developed in these aquifers. 32. In 1989. CE SO: Source World Aquaculture [World Aquacult.]. This practice became a major activity. Water quality.

]. A. Heavy metals. belonging to different taxonmic groups. Copper was 4. Periclimenes petersoni. 103-117. In recent years efforts have been made to understand . Aiptasia padilla AB: Abstract Many species of marine shrimp. These species are strikingly colorful and relatively easy to maintain as adults in an aquarium environment. Aquarium culture.. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Ornamental fish. pp. The results of this study were compared with the other studies and discussed. Bioaccumulation. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans. no. Mar. S. [n. Periclimenes yucanicus. Lead. are collected from wild for the aquarium trade. Lethal effects.g. Record 106 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Individual and combined effects of copper and lead on the marine shrimp.25 times more toxic to Palaemon than lead. Direct and indirect impacts of collecting these shrimp have caused concerns. Synergism. Record 107 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Overview of Marine Ornamental Shrimp Aquaculture AU: Author Lin.p. the expected mortalities were not similar to those observed mortalities which suggested that paired metals acted interactively. 1837 (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) AU: Author Bat. some Lysmata species are facultative or obligatory cleaners of fish parasites and some (e.]. Sci. It is also raising concerns related to the environmental and economic sustainability of the industry. Stenopus. J. M SO: Source Turkish Journal of Marine Sciences [Turk. 2001. Aquaculture techniques. Lysmata wurdemanni. Copper. Lysmata rathbunae. Toxicity tests. Culha. Several of these species have developed close symbiotic relationship with a variety of other animals. L. Palaemon adspersus Rathke. Bilgin. calculating the LT sub(50) (lethal time for 50%) and the LC sub(50) (lethal concentration for 50%). 2001. For example. When tested in combinations of paired metals. J SO: Source Marine Ornamentals 2001: Collection. Article Taxonomic Terms: Lysmata grabhami. L. 2. Shrimp culture. Bioassays. Vol. Guendogdu. Article Taxonomic Terms: Palaemon adspersus AB: Abstract The acute toxicity by single or combinations of copper and lead to the marine shrimp Palaemon adspersus Rathke. M. grabhami) live symbiotically with sea anemones. 7. Culture & Conservation Program and Abstracts. Toxicities of mixtures of copper and lead were assessed also using the toxic-unit concept. Akbulut. 1837 (Decapoda: Natantia) was evalulated by static bioassays. Each bioassay lasted up to 30 days and survival time has decreased with increasing concentrations of copper and lead in the environment.expansion of surface area and intensification of production.

and the control of environment. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. Periclimenes petersoni and P.the biology of these shrimp and develop cultivation technology to reduce wild collection while sustaining the aquarium trade industry. Fish culture. 314.6 to 1. yucanicus are very small (therefore less popular in the aquarium trade) and their broodstocks are difficult to maintain (Creswell and Lin. pp. The quality of formulated feed produced by some sectors is not high.2000 in the northern coastal area of Vietnam. Record 108 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Status and solution on proper user of littoral zone for aquaculture development in the Northern Coastal area of Vietnam. situation of marine shrimp. Shrimp culture. Surveys. for Marine Fisheries Record 109 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Progress in Larviculture Nutrition of Fish and Shellfish AU: Author Sorgeloos. CA: Corporate Author Research Inst. During 1998 -2000 the research station of Brackishwater Fisheries carried out the experimental culture of tiger shrimp in the system of reduced water exchange and obtained good results. They possess both spirocysts and nematocysts that used in selfdefense and prey capture and therefore are harmful to other tank inhabitants. Tuyen tap cac cong trinh nghien cuu nghe ca bien. Among 26 species being cultured with different culture models. 1997). Littoral zone. Aquaculture development. pp. epidemic diseases in the intensive culture areas has not been carried out regularly. the number of fry with good quality has not been large enough for aquaculture. P SO: Source NATO Science Series: Series A: Life Sciences. Mollusc culture. Lysmata rathbunae and L. wurdemanni. The production in experimental ponds ranged from 820. 392-401. . fishes and mollusc culture with productivities and yields in the period 1999 . This method gives more income and less disease. Vietnam AB: Abstract The paper presents result of the survey on marine littoral area for aquaculture. Vol. have the additional value in controlling the glass anemone Aiptasia padilla. 2. Culture knowledge of fishfarmers is still low and limited. two very similar species (often marketed together). 2001. The anemone can proliferate quickly through asexual reproduction in an aquarium. V SO: Source Proceedings of Marine Fisheries Research. The research and development have largely concentrated on the species of cleaner shrimp Lysmata and banded coral shrimp Stenopus and complete life cycle culture has been achieved for several species. Potential resources.806 kg/ha/crop and 1000 to 1668 kg/ha/crop in the close circulated-water shrimp culture system. Vol. AU: Author Dung. 116-118. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine aquaculture.

crabs) and fish (e. Shrimp culture. the rotifer Brachionus spp. Genomes.g. Phytoplankton culture. flounder. In order to breed for resistance or tolerance to these diseases. little is known about the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the response of the shrimp immune system to viral attacks.g. and 3) map the QTL for TSV and WSV resistance. Fish culture. DNA. Taura syndrome virus. among others. clam. Penaeus monodon. 2001. Type II markers include microsatellites isolated from both L. crustaceans (e. resistance to diseases. are essential live food in the farming of several species of molluscs (e. Two of these diseases are Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) and White Spot Virus (WSV). turbot. Zooplankton culture. Brine shrimp culture. bass. susceptibility to environmental pollutants. Selective breeding.g. Article Taxonomic Terms: White spot syndrome virus. it is important to first identify the genes responsible for these traits. Published information on the status of genetic maps for Penaeus monodon and Marsupenaeus japonicus will also be reviewed. ShrimpMap is a collaborative effort supported by Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine and the US Marine Shrimp Program Consortium (USMSFP). and the brine shrimp Artemia spp. vannamei and P. oyster.Modern Aquaculture in the Coastal Zone-Lessons and Opportunities. A brief overview is given of the latest developments in their production and use in industrial hatcheries. Genotypes. Information on the progress made to develop markers for genetic . Disease resistance. 2001. a genetic (linkage) map for penaeid shrimp is needed. Polymorphic Type I and Type II markers are used for genotyping. and cold tolerance. grouper. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Food organisms. To do this. 11 p. The goals of ShrimpMap are to 1) develop highly polymorphic markers from penaeid shrimp. bream. vannamei challenged with TSV and WSV. Type I markers include complementary DNAs (cDNAs) and/or expressed sequence tags (ESTs) obtained from L. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Viral diseases. A SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. This paper will present a review of progress made to develop a genetic map for Litopenaeus vannamei (ShrimpMap). Record 110 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title ShrimpMap: A genetic approach to understand immune response and disease resistance in shrimp AU: Author Alcivar-Warren. yellowtail. freshwater prawn. Genome mapping is the first step towards identification of the quantitative trait loci (QTL) responsible for economically important traits like high growth. halibut). Marsupenaeus japonicus. 2) construct a moderate-density genetic map for shrimp. Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract Viral diseases cause serious economic losses and threaten the sustainability of the shrimp industry worldwide. marine shrimp. monodon genomic libraries. Three-generation reference families are being used for linkage mapping. Larvae AB: Abstract Different species of microalgae. Penaeidae. Immunology. scallop). To date however. Animal nutrition. Shellfish culture.

A 3 x 3 factorial experiment was designed to observe the growth of shrimp fed diets ranging from 30 to 40% crude protein and 3850 to 4200 kcal/kg gross energy levels. Diets will be fed four times a day at the rate of 15% body weight /day. Growth rate. MF. Freshwater aquaculture. Body conditions. Shrimp culture. Preliminary mRNADD results showed that 59% of the cDNAs had no significant homology to other genes in the GenBank database and 41% were weakly or moderately similar to known or unidentified genes. 4 tanks/diet) will be acclimatized to freshwater and the diet for two weeks. Diets. A cDNA library using shrimp from the highest TSV-surviving family has also been cloned and thousands of clones identified. Daily feed consumption will be recorded to calculate the feed conversion ratio. 7% were homologus to potential immuno-regulatory genes of other organisms and were used as probes for gene expression analysis by Northern blotting. Nine practical diets with various protein to energy ratios will be fed to juvenile (<1 g) L. 23 p. Feeding experiments. J SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. Feed composition. 35% of ESTs contained microsatellites and 86% of these had enough flanking sequences to develop primers. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract Litopenaeus vannamei. Because we breed for TSV resistance. Bioenergetics. It is . The ability of this species to tolerate freshwater makes it possible to expand its farming in inland waters or in indoor recirculating aquaculture systems. Under these altered conditions it is presumed that the requirement for protein and energy of the animal might change. Hundreds of differentially expressed cDNAs have been isolated by mRNADD from RNA of juveniles before and after TSV challenge. Growth in terms of body weight gain will be measured once a week. an important marine shrimp of the western hemisphere. ESTs are isolated using either mRNA differential display (mRNADD) or cDNA library cloning. Allele amplification conditions are being optimized and polymorphic markers used for linkage mapping. Biochemical composition. is usually cultured at salinities of 25 to 45 ppt. vannamei in freshwater. Based on this presumption. vannamei along with a commercial control diet for 6 to 8 weeks.analysis will be presented. Information from ShrimpMap will be valuable for studying the genetic mechanisms that regulate resistance to viral diseases in shrimp. TSV was chosen as a model for understanding the immuno-regulatory mechanisms of shrimp to a viral attack and for developing Type I markers for QTL mapping. 2001. Initial and final carcass composition (protein and lipid) will be analyzed to support the growth. Experimental culture. Record 111 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Protein and energy requirements of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in freshwater AU: Author Anwar. It is expected that a change in salinity necessitates the animal to readjust the osmotic balance at the expense of certain nutrients and energy. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture techniques. Moreover. Water quality parameters will be monitored on weekly basis. a growth trial was planned to delineate protein and energy requirements of juvenile L. Test animals (n=10/tank. Of the known genes. Scarpa.

Systems for estimation of lethal infective waterborne or injected dosages of have been developed and applied. bait or commodity shrimp and basic research into the physiological responses of shrimp following infection. Current studies are focusing on stabilizing microbial communities in larval culture systems to improve larval growth and survival Disinfection reduced hatchery hatchery efforts reduce hatchery Ongoing work is exploring improving larval survival. vannamei grown in freshwater. Research. Technology transfer. Intensive culture. USMSFP disease control research in SC has supported the establishment of local diagnostic capabilities which are applied for screening local stocks and to respond to potential problems which may arise. The has been a leader in the development of intensive shrimp culture technologies was among the first to successfully demonstrate intensive culture in zero exchange systems. Genetics. 2001. 88 p. as a byproduct of basic research on shrimp reproductive biology and for supplementing industry seed supplies. research efforts are directed at the evaluation of the growth potential of these stocks under local conditions and on the study of the response of these stocks to challenge with and/or Broodstock nauplii postlarvae have been produced at to demonstrate production systems designed for local conditions. Article Geographic Terms: USA. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture development. demonstration and transfer of shrimp farming technologies for application in South Carolina. Selective breeding. A dedicated bioassay laboratory has been established at a remote facility separate from local water bodies. Aquaculture techniques. The development and commercialization of shrimp maturation and hatchery technologies continues to be an important goal at the SC researchers and growers use healthy and genetically improved stocks based upon the US Marine Shrimp Farming Programs selective breeding efforts at the Oceanic Institute. Microbes play a major role in pond dissolved oxygen dynamics. CL SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. Optimization of culture systems which do not rely on water exchange depends upon an understanding of the pond microbial community. Basic and applied research is ongoing to measure pond microbial processes and to explore management regimes. Record 112 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Current us marine shrimp farming program research at the Waddell Mariculture Center AU: Author Browdy. Aquaculture systems. Induced breeding. The bioassay facilities support diagnostic tests on local. Studies include manipulation of C/N to increase rates of waste degradation. Marine aquaculture. augmentation of microbial . Shrimp culture. Biotechnology. Brood stocks.expected that the study will provide useful information on possible modifications for practical diets of L. health and growth while reducing hatchery water usage. natural food availability and mineral recycling rates. South Carolina AB: Abstract The Waddell Mariculture Center maintains an integrated shrimp mariculture development program aimed at research. At this lab basic research on virus host relationships and factors affecting pathogenicity are carried out in controlled systems based on the individual challenge of large numbers of shrimp.

Strains. Phytoplankton. and/or Nannochloropsis salina. Interestingly. not only to determine survivability. Article Taxonomic Terms: Algae. The former two traditional species were used. Survival. and using combinations of rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis. but with the goal of finding new combinations of planktonic feeds without the use of Artemia. The next trials are ongoing. Artemia salina. six replicate tanks of Litopenaeus vannamei nauplius (stage 1-3) larvae were fed single-strains and seven combinations of Chaetoceros muelleri. Baca. Nannochloropsis salina. differential feeding did occur where larvae favored Chaetoceros. over Nannochloropsis. along with novel species never tried before.. B. in shellfish and fish larviculture has become problematic because of high cost. Porphyridium . medium strain. as well as the latter less successful species. Food preferences. Isochrysis. Algal species commonly used in the larval culture of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were tested. Feed composition. Tahitian Isochrysis sp. Algal numbers were adjusted each day with the proper species to obtain a total level of 10.000 cells/ml. and use novel algal species. Rhodomonas (Cryptophyceae).. A pure diet of Chaetoceros produced the highest survival (61%). Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract The intensive use of brine shrimp. Screening of various algal species and methods for shrimp larviculture was performed by various workers (e. over Isochrysis. but to detect any differential feeding by protozoeal larvae. and of interest were the dynamics of larval feeding and growth on algal diets. Survival rates were promising for several non-Artemia diet combinations.communities through addition of bacterial products and surface area enhancement to provide alternative habitat. Brachionus plicatilis. R SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. Record 113 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Plankton alternatives to artemia for growth of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei larvae AU: Author DeMicco. inconsistent availability. Artemia-augmented diets. 180 p.g. E. Hubbard. 16 d from nauplii. Zooplankton. Food organisms. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Chaetoceros muelleri. These technologies are now being applied in super-intensive greenhouse enclosed raceway units which will offer new opportunities for expansion of the shrimp culture industry beyond current coastal earthen pond based systems. followed by the combination of all three species (58%). As expected. Mass culture. Diets. Some novel genera which grow well in warmwater mass culture and are being tested include Pavlova (Prasinophyceae). In the first basic screening test. also on various diets) to assess the feasibility of using different natural diets as substitutes for traditional. higher rates of survival and more rapid development occurs. Aquacop) in the late 1980s and the present work is a continuation of some of that research. Feeding experiments. These two trials also produced the shortest period required to reach post-larval stages. The present paper will provide a review of the current USMSFP supported research activities in these areas. some in combination with HUFA-enriched rotifers. and potential for spreading disease. Crustacean larvae. Nauplii. 2001.

polysaccharides. Recirculating systems.3 m W X 33 m L X 1. AL. SPF broodstock culture systems AU: Author Lee. commercial. biosecurity). First. inland marine shrimp raceway production and environmentally isolated.2 m super(3))/fluidized sand (1. 0.44 m super(3)) biofilter system supplied with water drawn from the sump by 2-1 hp pumps (800 lpm).05 m super(3) activated carbon filter.3 m D concrete raceways housed in a greenhouse.7 m super(3) submerged oyster shell biofilter. each raceway had a central concrete partition. and Micromonas (Prasinophyceae). PG. respectively. Lawrence. After acclimation. (4) inland raceways were used to acclimate >6. a laboratory biosecure broodstock system (5. a 2. environmentally isolated systems (40-45 g).600 L) was constructed and operated. Effluent was drawn from a screened standpipe located in the 1. C. a 1 m super(3) bead filter. The accomplishments to date are: (1) Texas Parks and Wildlife granted the first shrimp quarantine certification in the coastal zone due to the indoor system's biosecurity. Nannochloris (Chlorophyceae).2-1. Brood stocks. T. Article Geographic Terms: USA AB: Abstract Production losses from disease have had a serious negative economic impact on marine shrimp farming worldwide. ultraviolet sterilizer. NH sub(4)-N. 900 L shrimp culture tanks (artificial sea water). NO sub(2)-N and NO sub(3)-N remained below intended limits. These raceways were operated in partial flow-through mode using low salinity groundwater and in a totally closed. Second. closed recirculating water filtration systems to contain the costs of water replacement due to declining pH and nitrate accumulation. 363 p. Turk. C. Pelagococcus (Pelagophyceae).5 g wk super(-1)). protein skimmer. Zuercher. Ochromonas (Chrysophyceae). The system was composed of 2-1. G. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Record 114 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Biosecure.6 m deep settling basin and flowed into a 1 m super(2) sump at the opposite end. These were selected as genera or representatives of classes (divisions) rarely used in aquaculture but which have unique and/or abundant fatty acids. The other raceway design had a reciprocating biofilter (8. 2001.05. a commercial biosecure facility composed of 4-100 mt raceways was designed and constructed. Establishment of commercial. PE SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. Davies. The system was composed of 3. biosecure broodstock necessitates use of totally. Aquaculture systems. and vitamins. and 15 ppm. The need for specific-pathogen-free (SPF) broodstock that are either geographically or environmentally isolated from disease has become a priority (i.9 m super(3)) supplied by an airlift pump (800 lpm) also drawing from the sump. Woods. Filtered water was returned to the surface of the raceways. denitrifying bioreactor and automated process control system. 0. 0. Aquaculture equipment. Samocha. Raceway culture.1.e. Disease control. recirculating mode. Spawning. (3) ultra-high intensity (100-300 shrimp m super(-2)) production was obtained in inland raceways with excellent survival (70-86%) and growth rate (1.5 x 10 super(6) postlarvae .(Rhodophyceae). (2) shrimp were reared to adult size in indoor. resulting in a harvest in less than 120 d. One raceway design had a combination upflow bead (2.

YHV. and TSV. now. Husbandry diseases. Article Geographic Terms: USA. land-based shrimp production. White spot syndrome virus. Marked improvements in TSV resistance in selected stocks of L.before stocking. Stocking (organisms). several new farms have been started in the desert southwest region. HPV. Disease detection. Disease transmission. Marine birds. vannamei were found relative to the reference Kona stock and some resistance to WSSV was found in a few selected families. AZ and grants from the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board's Advanced Technology Program (#004952-068) and Technology Development and Transfer Program (# 004952-079). The annual Shrimp Pathology Short Course was well attended. there was no consistent inland production of shrimp. Marine Shrimp Farming Consortium (USMSFC) were within Objectives 1 (Stock Improvement) and 2 (Disease Control). In research and development using molecular methods. vannamei adults collected off Panama. UAZ collaborated with the Oceanic Institute to develop a new SPF family from wild L. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei. Under Objective 1. These results prove the concept for biosecure. Arizona AB: Abstract Activities at UAZ during the FY 2000 reporting period in the U. WSSV. Five chapters for the 2000 OIE Aquatic Animal Diagnostic Manual and Code were contributed by UAZ which also serves as an OIE Reference Laboratory. and provided diagnostic services to the shrimp culture industry. (5) inland raceways were used to over-winter broodstock.S. With the 2000 class. 375 p. UAZ performed disease resistance evaluation challenge studies (to WSSV and TSV) on 101 domesticated families of Litopenaeus vannamei USMSFC and domestic industry breeding programs. Record 115 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Research activities at the University of Arizona (UAZ) AU: Author Lightner. A generic bacterial probe was developed for confirmation and . Frozen products. Disease control. Before this industry/university collaboration. processing and reporting 428 case submissions in FY 2000. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Aquaculture products. Gila Bend. and (7) shrimp in an inland raceway from which no water was discharged (0% water exchange) reproduced naturally (no ablation) and postlarvae grew within the same raceway. Disease resistance. IHHNV. 2001. This research project was supported by Woods Brothers Shrimp Farm. Standard PCR methods for detection of WSSV. Also within Objective 1. In FY 2000 UAZ was most active in research. Taura syndrome virus. and HPV and RT PCR methods for TSV and YHV were further refined and the improved methods were applied to diagnostic testing and to research questions. DV SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. UAZ further developed diagnostic and detection methods for IHHNV. Viral diseases. and service efforts within Objective 2. UAZ helped draft the new Aquaculture Rules for the Arizona Department of Agriculture. (6) a pilot maturation laboratory at the inland commercial site was used to obtain commercial spawning (8-10% spawns/night). teaching. 21 short courses and workshops in shrimp pathology and diagnostics have been given since 1989 and 629 students from 50 countries have been trained. Polymerase chain reaction.

Real time PCR methods. H. Taura syndrome virus AB: Abstract Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) occurs in the major shrimp farming regions of the Western Hemisphere and has caused catastrophic economic losses on shrimp farms. The objective of this study was to compare family survival of juvenile L. stylirostris L. BJ. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Husbandry diseases. A retail sample of L. the U. monodon were found to be positive for WSSV and/or YHV. SY. developed to TSV and WSSV to different types of antibody based diagnostic tests was investigated. family survival may differ among labs because of procedural differences in the challenge test. SM. VM. whereas with WSSV the infectivity is apparently lost after passage through the avian gut. In response to TSV problems facing the U. Of these. The application of MABs. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei. Castille. Lotz. shrimp heads and tails were found to contain similar WSSV virus loads. BL. vannamei after exposure to TSV in three USMSFP laboratories and one commercial shrimp farm where TSV was expected to be enzootic because of prior TSV-caused epizootics on the farm.S. JM. Survival. Record 116 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Family survival of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei to Taura Syndrome Virus in field and laboratory challenges AU: Author Moss. DV. Bowers. Prior. and a number of samples of Asian P.S. Eighty families of specific pathogen free L. CL. A new rickettsial pathogen of shrimp was isolated by UAZ and its characterization was begun in FY 2000. Marine Shrimp Farming Program (USMSFP) established a selective breeding program to enhance TSV resistance in the Pacific white shrimp.S. 2001. Our ongoing survey of frozen commodity shrimp from U. vannamei were produced at the Oceanic Institute. retail sources continued in FY 2000. Lightner. shrimp farming industry. survival under these conditions may not be predictive of survival in commercial ponds. White. capable of detecting and quantifying very small numbers of IHHNV and WSSV. In addition. Bullis. Viral diseases. were developed and applied to research questions and to limited use as a new diagnostic method for WSSV.differentiation by hybridization of putative lesions due to bacterial pathogens such as rickettsia from lesions due to other causes. RA SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. laboratory conditions. real time PCR was used in conjunction with DNA probes by hybridization to investigate the relative WSSV load in the heads and tails of shrimp from an emergency harvest. Breland. AL. Litopenaeus vannamei. In one study. However. FL. Disease resistance. vannamei to viable virus (either through feeding of infected tissue or by injection) under controlled. SM. vannamei suggested the emergence of a new strain of the virus. Lawrence. Contrary to assumptions made in recent risk assessments. 459 p. Studies in which captive sea gulls were fed TSV and WSSV infected shrimp confirmed that TSV remains present and infectious in gull feces for several days after ingestion. vannamei from Central America was positive for WSSV and infectious to indicator shrimp. 65 families were selected for TSV . Selective breeding. Research on TSV from the Mexican 1999-2000 epizootic in cultured L. Argue. Resistance is assessed by exposing known families of L. Arce. Browdy.

68. SM. and UAZ and BSF (r super(2) = 0. Oceanographic institutions.41. P < 0. However. Otoshi.7 . Argue. Selective breeding.5% plus or minus 17. Hawaii AB: Abstract Through the U. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei. and 28 families were evaluated at Waddell Mariculture Center (WMC) where they were infected with TSV by injection.14. GCRL and BSF (r super(2) = 0. However. Mean survival was 72. 60 families were selected 100% for growth. the Oceanic Institute (OI) has established a selective breeding program to improve the performance of specific pathogen free Pacific white shrimp. regression of mean family survival was not significant between WMC and GCRL (r super(2) = 0.0% and ranged from 0-82. 15 families were unselected control families. 24 families were evaluated at the University of Arizona (UAZ) where they were exposed to TSV in a per os challenge for 14 days.resistance and 15 families were unselected controls.0%. BJ. Viral diseases. shrimp in the round pond exhibited a mean harvest weight of 20. Research. n = 41).8 g plus or minus 4. 460 p.4 (SD) and harvest weight ranged from 4. Survival. In addition to growout . Mean family survival at GCRL was 45. P < 0. Husbandry diseases. Litopenaeus vannamei.08. CA.0 g plus or minus 4. shrimp in the recirculating raceway exhibited a mean harvest weight of 22.S. Disease resistance. 2001. family survival at WMC was 61.001. Calderon. Hennig. Arce. OL SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts.3% and ranged from 20.1% and ranged from 14. Also. During the past year. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Record 117 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Shrimp research activities at the Oceanic Institute AU: Author Moss.8%.001.6-93. P = 0.9 g. family survival at UAZ was 21.7 (SD) and family survival ranged from 45 .4% and ranged from 7. after which time percent survival by family was recorded. 41 families were evaluated at Bowers Shrimp Farm (BSF) in Texas where they were reared in replicate ponds containing TSV-infected shrimp for eight weeks.1 g. family survival was different when TSV was administered via injection.55. After 16 weeks. Of the 80 families that were evaluated. Regression of mean family survival was significant between GCRL and UAZ (r super(2) = 0. Importantly. In addition to laboratory challenges. representative shrimp from 80 full-sib families were stocked in OI's 337-m super(2) round pond and 58-m super(2) recirculating raceway for growout comparisons at a stocking density of 200 shrimp/m super(2). SM. Mean survival was 75.9%.33. Representative shrimp from all 80 families were evaluated at the Gulf Coast Research Laboratory (GCRL) where they were exposed to TSV in a per os challenge for 21 days. n = 24). Family survival was similar in labs using a per os TSV challenge. these results indicate that per os laboratory challenges provide a tool to evaluate and compare TSV resistance among families of L. Article Geographic Terms: USA.3-57.001.6 (SD) and harvest weight ranged from 10.9 (SD) and family survival ranged from 45 . and 5 families were inbred lines to evaluate inbreeding depression.0-93. family survival at BSF was 24. n = 28). Marine Shrimp Farming Program (USMSFP). despite procedural differences between labs. n = 16).8%.61. After 14.100%. P < 0. vannamei and to predict their performance in farm environments where TSV is enzootic.5 weeks.6% plus or minus 11. FRO.9 .100%.

n = 24). have traditionally been constructed adjacent to estuarine water sources in wetlands and mangrove swamps.evaluations. Record 118 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Closed systems for sustainable shrimp culture AU: Author Ogle. JM SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts.3 . There was a significant positive relationship between mean family survival to TSV between GCRL and UAZ (P < 0.S.001. Mississippi AB: Abstract The mainstream of shrimp research and production for the past two decades has been focused on pond production. OI worked jointly with UAZ over the past year to diversify the germplasm of the breeding program by developing new candidate SPF shrimp stocks from Panama. Mean survival of representative shrimp from 79 full-sib families to TSV at GCRL was 38% and survival ranged from 8. shrimp farming industry by providing shrimp to research institutions and the commercial sector.5 to 120 acres in size with farms occupying 600 acres. it has not been until recently that interest has grown in developing a more sustainable means for growing shrimp such as closed systems. The molted exoskeletons will clog pump intakes . The external tank filtration can be run either in series or in parallel but all such systems require that water be removed from the culture tank and then returned by pumping. 2001.81. Filtration. Lotz.2%.139 postlarvae. Closed systems for shrimp have typically been copied from the classical fish systems. Article Geographic Terms: USA. Aquaculture systems. 489 p. JT. Additional components may include a tank for secondary solids removal. Development of closed systems for shrimp culture have paralleled the development of pond culture in time but not in scope. 123. Shrimp ponds which can be 0. In addition to shrimp research. aeration or oxygenation devices and protein shimmers. Recirculating systems.500 sentinel shrimp were provided to USMSFP Consortium institutions and private farms for disease-related research and for biosecurity purposes. Aquaculture techniques.3%. Although the ecological impacts of such operations have been pointed out.S. Culture tanks. OI has supported the U. vannamei are being maintained at OI's secondary quarantine facility with the expectation that they will be included into the breeding program during the next year. families of L. juvenile. Some of the earliest attempts at shrimp production utilize closed systems. six maternal families of F sub(1) Panamanian juvenile L. For marine shrimp which must molt to grow such systems are difficult to maintain. r super(2) = 0. To date.76. Also. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture.51. UV sterilization. Mean survival of representative shrimp from 24 full-sib families to TSV at UAZ was 32. 274. and a third tank for biological filtration. During the past year. There have been so few such ventures that they can all be discussed here. vannamei that were selected for resistance to Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) were challenged with TSV at the Gulf Coast Research Laboratory (GCRL) in Mississippi and at the University of Arizona (UAZ). a second tank for solids removal.9% and survival ranged from 0 . and broodstock shrimp were distributed throughout the U. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei. In addition. Rearing. Such systems use one tank for the animals.

2001. hurricanes and lower end-of-the-season prices for their crop. A. J SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. This management strategy relied upon the superior growth performance of the US Marine Shrimp Farming Program selected stocks and higher growth rates. Whetstone. For that reason modern shrimp systems have become simpler with fewer external filters or pumps and relay on in tank filtration. This strategy was to provide two crops of reasonably sized shrimp during a single growing season of 155 days. The production season is limited to one crop per year due to temperature. Coupling these high yield production systems with a temporally partitioned pond reclamation system offers the hope of long term 0% water exchange. In addition. biologists at the Waddell Mariculture Center (WMC) stocked a low-density production study focused on producing two crops of shrimp in 75 to 80 days each. The contribution of algal and bacterial processes and the effects of low protein feeds on the growth and survival of shrimp in these systems are current areas of interest to researchers as is genetic improvement. South Carolina AB: Abstract Each year. Stocking density. CL. Richardson. which can be achieved at low densities in earthen ponds. The system currently in use by the GCRL consists of a tank with central aeration. water and energy making them truly more sustainable for the future. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei. USA. Survival. J. 612 p. Since that time the systems have been operated for a year at a time with no water addition. In an attempt to minimize some of these production risks and improve marketing opportunities. The GCRL has operated a closed system for the maturation and reproduction of Penaeus vannamei almost continuously since 1985. SC shrimp growers use only high health shrimp and some years there is a shortage of postlarvae for optimum stocking dates. Article Geographic Terms: ANW. Pond culture. The first crop would provide a . Thus the development of closed systems will enable shrimp culture to move out of environmentally sensitive areas and reduce the consumption of protein. Growth. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Experimental culture. That aeration mixes a suspended bacterial floc which purifies the water. At the GCRL a variety of closed systems have been used. By 1994 those filters had been replaced with aerobic trickling filters packed with a plastic media and in 1996 the systems were standardized and further simplified. Similar bacterial driven systems have recently been described for the pond production of marine shrimp. Browdy. The experience gained in evaluating different filters for the maturation system was applied to the grow out systems. It is interesting that both pond and closed system research for shrimp production seem to be converging on s similar end point. shrimp growers deal with a number of issues associated with producing shrimp in SC.and screens. Growers are also concerned with the possibility of disease. Shrimp culture. The original design described in 1992 used submerged biofilters packed with clam shell. A number of systems were built utilizing a variety of filters. Record 119 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Low density double cropping pond management strategy using Litopenaeus vannamei in South Carolina AU: Author Stokes.

Two high-density ponds were stocked at a rate of 300.263 KG/HA for the first and 1.000shrimp/HA and managed for 155 days. All ponds were stocked with high health postlarvae produced at the WMC. The FCR for the low-density ponds was . All water was filtered through a 185-micron mesh screen to minimize disease introduction. copper (Cu). manganese (Mn).25HA ponds were stocked in the study. Trace metals.125KG/HA.863 KG/HA for second crop. problems with seed availability would be minimized. selenium (Se).9. 10 p. iron (Fe). Brood stocks. water quality deterioration is less likely in zero water exchange systems. Cultured organisms.density crops was 4. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Heavy metals. Meehan. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei. mercury (Hg).000shrimp/HA and managed for 80 and 75 days respectively prior to harvest. lead (Pb). Mean shrimp harvest size was 24g. However. By reducing stocking numbers and spreading stocking to two times per season. The ponds were fertilized prior to stocking and filled using the puddle method.221 KG/HA with a mean FCR of 1. chromium (Cr). potassium (K). These fifteen metals were measured in whole body homogenates from 12 Litopenaeus vannamei broodstock maintained at the . Pond culture.9 for the first and 1. At lower stocking densities. silver (Ag) and vanadium (V). Production results and costs will be analyzed and compared to determine risk and production benefits for both the high and low-density two crop production strategies in SC. The low-density ponds had a mean survival rate of 89% for the first and 86% for the second crop. The high-density ponds had shrimp survival rates of 88 and 59%. 2001. Production averaged 5. USA. Sexual reproduction. Recirculating systems. High and low density ponds were managed with no routine water exchange.2 for the second crop. The other two ponds were stocked at a low-density rate of 150. D SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. Article Geographic Terms: ISE. Shrimp in the latter pond experienced mortality due to a black gill problem.5% squid) commercial shrimp diet according to a WMC feed management regime. In this study. nickel (Ni). frozen samples of whole shrimp were digested with a concentrated nitric acid digestion and trace metal analyses were performed for aluminum(Al). The shrimp were fed a 36% protein (with 2. Production averaged 2. with 24 and 12 hp aeration per HA respectively phased in according to oxygen demand. antimony (Sb). Record 120 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Preliminary results on trace metal concentrations in cultured shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei AU: Author Alcivar-Warren. Hawaii AB: Abstract Heavy metals affect immune and reproductive system function. AA. barium (Ba). and a genetic component to heavy metal susceptibility has been reported for freshwater shrimp. limited information is available on trace metal concentrations in marine shrimp or on the molecular genetic mechanism(s) involved in susceptibility to heavy metal accumulation. Bioaccumulation.mid-season cash flow when prices are generally higher and would also be harvest before hurricane season. Mean harvest production for both low. Mean shrimp size was 17g and 15g respectively. cadmium (Cd). Aquaculture systems. Four 0. Immunity.

Oceanic Institute, Hawaii. Six broodstock originated from a flow-through, dirt pond and six were from a closed, recirculating raceway. There were variable concentrations (ppm, mean (SD) of trace metals among and within collection sites. Analysis of variance showed no significant differences (P > 0.05) in trace concentrations of K, V, Cr, Ba, Pb, Se, Ni, Cu and Sb in shrimp maintained in either the dirt pond or the recirculating raceway. Trace concentrations of Al, Mn, Ag and Fe were significantly higher (P < 0.10) in shrimp from the dirt pond (17.13 (18.69, 1.12 (0.51, 0.10 (0.04 and 19.30 (17.62, respectively) than from the recirculating raceway (0.00, 0.49 (0.15, 0.05 (0.02 and 5.72 (0.95, respectively). Only Cd and Hg were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in shrimp from the recirculating raceway (0.16 (0.04 and 0.03 (0.00, respectively) than from the dirt pond (0.01 (0.01 and 0.02 (0.00, respectively). Record 121 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Review of Texas A&M U.S.D.A. Marine Shrimp Farming Program, 2000 AU: Author Lawrence, A; Samocha, T; Castille, F; Bray, W SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. p. 353. 2001. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Research programmes; Shrimp culture; Marine aquaculture; Selective breeding; Nutritional requirements; Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae; Article Geographic Terms: USA, Texas AB: Abstract In addition to the authors, collaborating scientists with the Shrimp Mariculture Project (SMP) research program included Drs. W.Neill, D.Gatlin and W.Grant, Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, and Dr. J.Dixon, Soil and Crop Sciences, of Texas A&M, Drs. D.McKee, J.Fox, E.Jones and J. Mott, Texas A&M at Corpus Christi and Dr. P.Lee, Marine Biomedical Institute, University of Texas, and scientists from the other USDA Marine Shrimp Farming Program. Three students completed Doctor of Philosophy degrees and seven students completed Master of Science degrees in 1999 and 2000. Collaborative research programs are ongoing with the commercial shrimp farms in Texas and the following companies: North American Agrisystems Archer, Daniels, Midland; Distributors Processing, Inc. (DPI); Seaboard; Solvay Duphar; Industria Organica; Ziegler Brothers, Inc.; Rangen, Inc.; and Baker Brothers. In addition to $323,000 from the USDA Marine Shrimp Farming Program, about $350,000 was received from other grants, about $450,000 from the State of Texas and a minimum of $1,500,000 of "in kind" support from private companies during 2000. For 2000, offspring of genetic crosses were received from Oceanic Institute reared to 4 to 5 gm size, and tagged. Populations of these tagged shrimp were sent to Harlingen Shrimp Farm and Bowers Shrimp Farm in Texas. The purpose was to evaluate these genetic crosses under commercial conditions in Texas. No class I shrimp diseases were observed at either the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station Flour Bluff or Port Aransas research facilities for 2000. Vitamin requirements for Litopenaeus vannamei stylirostris were determined with no water exchange. Carotenoids were shown to increase survival in the presence of Class I pathogens. A simulation model for the nitrogen cycle with no water exchange was developed. Protein and energy requirements at different salinities and temperatures in the presence of no water exchange were determined. Fifteen papers were published and 59 oral presentations were given by

the Shrimp Mariculture Research Project staff in 1999 and 2000. Record 122 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Floating cages as an alternative for growing the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in open sea water AU: Author Lombardi, JV; Marques, HLA; Barreto, OJS; Gelli, VC; Pereira, RTL; de Paula, EJ SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. 384 p. 2001. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture; Cage culture; Rearing; Polyculture; Algal culture; Experimental culture; Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei; Article Geographic Terms: Brazil, Sao Paulo, Ubatuba AB: Abstract Shrimp culture plays an important role in worldwide aquaculture. However this activity has some limitation for expanding, since the use of coastal lands is rigorously controlled by environmental protection laws, particularly in some States of Brazil. The aim of this study was testing floating cages as an alternative for rearing the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in open sea water, in order to attend principally to the requirements of fishermen communities. The experiment was carried out in the Aquaculture Research Centre of Sao Paulo State's Fishery Institute in Ubatuba - SP - Brazil (24 degree 26'S; 45 degree 04'W). Experimental cages (1.00 m x 1.00 m x 1.20 m) were constructed with a polyester/PVC mesh (5 mm) and fixed in PVC floating frames. Postlarvae of L. vannamei were reared during 60 days in nursery cages and so they were transferred to the growing cages. Since growth was very heterogeneous in the nursery phase, juveniles were grouped according to their different weight category and stocked in 6 growing cages in a density of 100 shrimps m super(-2). Commercial pellets 35% PB was supplied once a day, and shrimps were harvested after 103 days of growing phase. Macroalgae Kappaphycus alvarezii were also fixed in floating tubes and disposed inside 3 cages, in order to better use the available space in the water column. There were no negative interferences in culturing shrimps and algae inside the same cage. However, positive aspects must be better studied for testing the viability of using algae as shelters, shade providers, and bed for other organisms which could improve the natural food source for shrimp. The results has demonstrated that floating cages are a viable alternative for rearing L. vannamei in open sea water. Further, the association with algae seems to be feasible for best exploration of available space inside cages. Record 123 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Process control of pond sediment redox AU: Author Peterson, EL; Indran, G SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. p. 525. 2001. DE: Descriptors

Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture; Pond culture; Ponds; Aeration; Redox reactions; Aquaculture systems; Aquaculture equipment; Article Taxonomic Terms: Metapenaeus endeavouri; Article Geographic Terms: Australia AB: Abstract Process control of pond aeration is currently under demonstration at two marine shrimp farms which are members of the Australian Prawn Farmers Association. The speed of paddlewheels and propeller-aspirators are automatically reduced when pond water is saturated by photosynthesis. The low-speed operation of paddlewheels and propellers does not erode pond levees, and so feed pellets are not smothered by silt if they are applied during daylight. The hypothesis is that the process control system will cause pond sediment to be more aerobic. Two adjacent one-hectare ponds were stocked with Metapenaeus endeavouri 30 PL/m super(2). Each was provided with four 2hp paddlewheels and four 2hp propeller-aspirators. "Pond A" was conventionally aerated at fill speed, day and night. Pond "B" was controlled to run at halfspeed during daylight. Each pond demanded 13 kW of electric power at ffill speed, but "Pond B" consumed only 2.5 kW during daylight hours. Sediments were probed across each pond a few weeks before harvest. Redox results are plotted, confirming the hypothesis that "Pond B" would be more aerobic, while "Pond A" would accumulate anaerobic sludge. Record 124 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Review of engineering for sustainable shrimp farming AU: Author Peterson, EL SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. p. 526. 2001. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture; Pond culture; Ponds; Aquaculture engineering; Site selection; Aquaculture development; Article Geographic Terms: Australia AB: Abstract Investors get what they pay for when they fail to engage suitably qualified consultants. There are multi-disciplinary firms which have learned from successes and failures in many industries to provide investors with a facility which will be durable and efficient. Developers should allow more capital investment at the beginning, so that long-term costs of operation may be minimised. Advise on selecting an aquacultural engineering consultant is given by Mayo (1998). The present paper addresses issues which developers of shrimp farms should consider before they purchase property upon which they would build a marine shrimp farm. These issues should be addressed as a "schematic design" by an Engineer before heading into full scale development. These three factors are the foundation of a profitable farm: Access to waterway with sufficient tidal flushing to provide good water quality in and out; Land that is high enough above the tide to avoid acid sulfate soils and provide good drainage and Soil that has sufficient clay content so ponds do not leak, but also some aggregate content. There are other important factors which must be satisfied when choosing land to build a farm: Access to freshwater, power, and a nearby quarry to provide inexpensive sand and gravel. Topographic surveys should be completed and a schematic hydraulic design should be drafted for the candidate site. Key features to be

account for are as follows: Header dam to provide pumped storage and pre-treatment of water requirements. Gravity feed open channels to growout ponds, with screened control weirs. Hydrodynamically designed pond - square ponds are the rectangle shape which most closely approaches a circle. Round ponds are internally superior, but farm-layout may require that ponds be square. The worst ponds may be triangular and rectangular shapes having distorted aspect ratios far from 1:1. Corners should be filled in and rounded as much as practical. Pond levee banks should have a slope no steeper than 1:2, topped with road gravel, and slopes protected with gravel or geotextiles. Salt tolerant plants should be encouraged, and Open channel drains connected to pond outlet structures by culverts under levee banks - these channels should flow through sediment trapping pond before the final step. Record 125 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Effect of chronic Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) infections on survival of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to salinity stress AU: Author Lesber Salazar, A; Soto, AM; Lotz, JM SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. p. 564. 2001. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture; Husbandry diseases; Viral diseases; Infectious diseases; Survival; Biological stress; Temperature effects; Temperature tolerance; Article Taxonomic Terms: Taura syndrome virus; Litopenaeus vannamei; Article Geographic Terms: USA, Mississippi AB: Abstract Taura syndrome virus (TSV) is one of the most important shrimp viruses affecting farmed shrimp in the Western Hemisphere. Infected shrimp go through an acute phase in which most mortality is observed. In the ensuing chronic phase shrimp remain infected but otherwise appear normal. If chronically infected shrimp resume normal functions they should be as likely to survive a stress test as naive shrimp. Therefore we undertook this study to determine if chronically infected shrimp can withstand salinity shock as well as naive shrimp. All shrimp were obtained from the SPF program of the United States Marine Shrimp Farming Program. Chronically infected shrimp were shrimp that had survived a previous TSV laboratory per os challenge. Two experiments were conducted that compared survival of chronically infected and naive L. vannamei subjected to different salinity shocks. In the first experiment, shrimp were transferred from tanks containing 24 ppt seawater individually into jars containing either 6, 12, 18, or 24 ppt seawater. The second experiment consisted of transferring chronically infected and naive shrimp from 24 ppt into seawater of 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 ppt. Figures and show percent survival of chronically infected and naive shrimp from the different salinity shock treatments from experiments 1 and 2. In both experiments there was a statistically significant difference in survival between chronically infected and naive shrimp at the salinity shock of 6 ppt. (Pearson Chi-square test, alpha = 0.05). These results suggest that chronically infected shrimp are not as likely to resist stress as naive shrimp. Record 126 of 500

DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Penaeid shrimp culture: Think globally AU: Author Scarpa, J SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. p. 579. 2001. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Historical account; Aquaculture development; Shrimp culture; Animal diseases; Aquaculture economics; World; Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae AB: Abstract As for many aquacultural enterprises, shrimp farming accounted for a small share of the world market for many years. In 1975, farmed shrimp accounted for about 2% of the world market, but now accounts for 24.5% or 737,000 metric tons (1997). Within the United States, there are 42 farms producing about 1900 metric tons with a value of just under US $12 million (1997). This is a small share of the 320,000 metric tons that the U.S. imports yearly with a value of approximately US $3 billion. As can be seen, a majority of shrimp come from overseas, especially Central America, South America and Asia. How has this industry grown so rapidly? Primarily by advances in all facets of culture: hatchery to harvest. Early culture relied upon Mother Nature for postlarvae that were stocked in coastal ponds at low densities with little management (i.e., extensive aquaculture). As shrimp nutrition and pond culture was studied, feeds and aeration systems were developed leading to semi-intensive and intensive culture scenarios with production greater than 5,000 kg/ha. As in many agricultural systems, as densities increased the threat of disease becomes a reality. For shrimp farming this came in the form of a multitude of viruses (e.g., B.P., IHHN, Taura, Whitespot, Yellowhead) over the last two decades, for which there was little recourse but to sell at a small size or lose a crop. The disease threat has lead to a renewed effort in water reuse, or zero water exchange, for pond or tank culture, as well as efforts in health management, vaccines, and genetic selection. Efforts by the U.S. Marine Shrimp Farming Program have led to the development of Specific Pathogen Free broodstock and health management guidelines to limit the spread of viruses through infected broodstock, postlarvae, and poor culture practices. Record 127 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Relative susceptibility of Litopenaeus vannamei (Kona stock) to white spot syndrome virus and Taura syndrome virus AU: Author Soto, MA; Lotz, JM; Shervette, VR SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. p. 602. 2001. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Disease resistance; Survival; Immunity; Viral diseases; Fish diseases; Article Taxonomic Terms: White spot syndrome virus; Taura syndrome virus; Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract We used an experimental procedure that is based on a mathematical epidemiology model to study the survival rate of Litopenaeus vannamei from exposures to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Taura syndrome

focuses on the role of microorganisms within these production systems. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. and then isolating the exposed shrimp individually to determine the number of infections and deaths. vannamei are as susceptible to TSV as to WSSV. most animals died between 48 and 96 h post-exposure. susceptible shrimp are exposed to the infected cadaver for 14 h and isolated for five days. zero-water exchange production systems have shown that shrimp can also derive a substantial portion of their nutrition from microorganisms endogenously produced within these culture systems.62. studies conducted by the project at OI with shrimp reared under experimental. The paper presents the major findings of the project to date on the nutrition and feeding of L. In this study. Litopenaeus vannamei. Recirculating systems. I. Obaldo. L. Conquest. Our results suggest the original unselected population of L. Divakaran.55. for the WSSV exposed shrimp. Article Geographic Terms: ISE. O. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei. and from a TSV exposure was 0. vannamei in outdoor experimental zero-water exchange production systems. most animals died between 24 and 48 h post-exposure. 630. S. p. Hawaii AB: Abstract The paper describes the research activities of an ongoing USDA-ARS funded project implemented by the Aquatic Feeds and Nutrition (AQUAFAN) Program at the Oceanic Institute (OI) in Hawaii. that optimizes economic returns while minimizing deleterious effects on the environment. L SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. and from a TSV exposure was 0. Water quality. studies have shown that these production systems behave as living aerobic bioreactors. biosecure. J. and for the TSV exposed shrimp. vannamei used in the experiments are from the original unselected population of shrimp (Kona stock) that have been maintained by the United States Marine Shrimp Farming Program.52. In experiment two. In experiment one. In both experiments. Conventional pond or tank-based growout farming practices for marine shrimp generally employ the use of high quality (and therefore high cost) nutritionally complete. USA. Nutrition. The L.60. and in particular. Dominy. The overall goal of the five-year project is to develop second generation feeds technology and management for the intensive culture of Pacific white shrimp. A. However. The experimental procedure involves exposing 12 susceptible shrimp to a single infected shrimp cadaver for a specified period of time. In fact. Record 128 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The nutrition and feeding of marine shrimp within biosecure zero-water exchange aquaculture production systems: A status report AU: Author Tacon. similar in many respects to an activated sludge wastewater treatment facility.virus (TSV). artificially compounded diets or aquafeeds for the duration of the production cycle. Decamp. the mean survival rate from a WSSV exposure was 0. The resident microorganisms also play . Cody. these aquafeeds are usually formulated to satisfy all of the known essential dietary nutrient requirements of the cultured species. W. Artificial feeding. Forster. A statistical difference was not detected in final mean survival rates between the WSSV and TSV exposed groups from either experiment (chi-square test). 2001. the mean survival rate from a WSSV exposure was 0.

The trials were started in the early 2000 at two farming sites in Songkhla and Rayong. The pond preparation. After preparation of the manuals. more locally specific manuals have been prepared in small local workshops with groups of volunteer shrimp farmers. Aquaculture regulations. The yield is still high in comparison with previous crops (normal operation without using the Code of Conduct manual). Songsangjinda. Policies. K. approach to aquatic nutrition and health management. chemical and drug usages. Particular emphasis is placed in this project on the development of a more holistic. harvesting. rather than just to the cultured shrimp. and maintaining ecosystem health and stability. Frozen Food Association. Manuals. Chankaew.an essential role in biological waste treatment by harnessing and removing potentially toxic fecal wastes and metabolites from the culture system. 2001. 643. social conflict observation and documentation checking was carried out by staff of Department of Fisheries. farm sanitation. A monitoring program for water quality in the culture pond. a trial has been started at these two locations to demonstrate intensive marine shrimp farming using the principles of the Code of Conduct. Aquaculture techniques. effluent treatment. Shrimp harvesting was done in October 2000. Based on the guidelines. Animal Feed Mill Association) under initial support from the World Bank. SS SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. Buyer and Seller Club. shrimp fry stocking. which it is hoped will be widely accepted among the shrimp farmers in Thailand. and with technical inputs from universities and the Department of Fisheries. shrimp health management. feeding. P. Phillips. p. The paper presents the results of the demonstration trials which indicate that implementation of the Code of Conduct can lead to more profitable farming. Yang. Article Geographic Terms: Thailand AB: Abstract The mission statement on the environment policy basis for the Code of Conduct for Sustainable Marine Shrimp Farming in Thailand was signed in 1998 by government and shrimp farm industry representatives (Department of Fisheries. or systems-oriented. S. Record 129 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Implementation of the Thai Code of Conduct for Shrimp Farming: preliminary results from demonstration studies in Thailand AU: Author Tookwinas. culture technique. effluent management. Aquaculture Business Club. These favorable results provide a basis for further dissemination of management practices following the Code of Conduct for shrimp farming. Marine Shrimp arming Association. training and documentation have been carried out following the Code of Conduct. Guidelines on the farming methods based on the Code of Conduct were prepared in a consultation workshop among the farming associations in various coastal locations. . Canning Food Association. M. farming area. social responsibility. These manuals have been prepared in Songkhla and Rayong provinces in early 2000. water management. although operational costs are less. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. and on the need to reduce feed costs by developing and better tailoring new second generation feeds and feed management practices to the intended farming system and aquatic ecosystem.

P. Pond culture. Shrimp culture. These techniques were successfully applied to study 16 species of penaeid shrimps: Penaeus chinensis (2n = 88). Xiphopenaeus kroyeri(2n = 78) and Sicyonia ingentis(2n = 64). but the majority of the chromosomes in testis and ovaries were the "dot" shape. the embryos were treated in 0. P. The somatic chromosomes were obtained from embryo. More. Record 131 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Successful intensive culture of Litopenaeus vannamei on a white spot syndrome virus-contaminated farm in Panama AU: Author Lawrence. duorarum(2n = 88). There has been relatively little research undertaken on the chromosome number.Record 130 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Studies on the chromosome of marine shrimps with special reference to different techniques AU: Author Zhang. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Vectors. Metapenaeus ensis (2n = 78). merguiensis (2n = 88). WA. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Karyotypes. P. Royo. P. esculentus (2n = 88). P.5hr and then placed in 0. 712 p. ovaries and testis. W. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae AB: Abstract Progress in penaeid genetics and biotechnology research has been slow because of a lack of knowledge on fundamental aspects of their biology. P.04% colchicine for 1-1. The gastrula provided the best chromosomes.0) were microscopically observed. 2001. Air-drying preparation stained with 2-5% Giemsa solution with a phosphate buffer (pH=7. penicillatus(2n = 88). This paper reports techniques for obtaining high qualitative somatic and meiotic chromosome from embryo to adult stages of marine shrimp. J SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. nauplius larvae. japonicus (2n = 86). structure and composition in the penaeidae. Disease control. fixative was change twice in the course. P. P. P. Trachypenaeus curvirostris (2n = 70 =42m+10sm+12st+6t). AL. Shrimp culture. branchia.7%(w:w) KCl 30-50min and fixed with fresh Carnoy's solution (methanol: acetic acid =3:1) for 2hr. P. other larvae and adult tissues including antennal gland. X. vannamei(2n = 88). M SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. 2001. semisulatus(2n = 90). Analytical techniques. P. Among these species. One reason for this is due to the relatively small size and large number of chromosomes. so diploid and haploid chromosome can be obtained. setiferus (2n = 90). L. The testis lobes contained both meiotic and mitotic cell. 753 p. Chromosomes. stylirostris (2n = 88). Meiotic chromosomes were prepared from testis lobes. 11 species are the first estimates of the number of chromosome. Viral diseases. Bray. Phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy proved to be useful tools for the purpose of observation. aztecus(2n = 88). Zhou. Xiang. Article Taxonomic Terms: . Intensive culture. monodon (2n = 88).

DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Thailand. The test. However. was demonstrated. The USDA program-derived stocks averaged production of 29. and comparison of postlarvae sources. Pellet feeds. 2001. However. can overcome white spot virus contamination even in the most heavily infected areas. use of pond liners. Feeding equipment. Aquaculture techniques. was conducted in newly constructed ponds beside existing contaminated earthen ponds. pp. and postlarvae sources on a farm with concurrently stocked conventional earthen ponds known to be heavily contaminated with white spot virus. water.1 ha lined ponds in Panama in a test designed to exclude viruses from soil. like Ecuador. Panama AB: Abstract Panama. while white spot is the major reason for decimated production in Panama. this test was designed to avoid most contamination from these venues. while the wild broodstock derived stocks averaged 24. no. including water-borne. owned by North American Agrisystems. conducted during the second half of 2000 under a Memorandum of Agreement between and Texas Agricultural Experiment Station and the oldest shrimp farm in the Western Hemisphere. two sources of postlarvae were stocked into the intensive ponds: domesticated high health postlarvae derived from the USDA Marine Shrimp Farming Program and wild broodstock-derived postlarvae. Both groups achieved 80% survival in the intensive ponds. Water content AB: Abstract .. through water filtration to approximately 25 micron level. Since a broad range of potential vectors have been implicated in white spot infectivity. shrimp culture production virtually came to a complete halt in 1999 and 2000 in Panama due to this virus. intensive ponds averaged 80% survival in contrast with 8. Food Prod. Technol. 10. Vol. Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquat. RK SO: Source Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology [J.White spot syndrome virus. Indeed. Results indicate that management techniques. but the growth of the USDA program stocks was 42. of Houston. including both design and operational considerations. Indonesia. Rout. the superior growth potential of domesticated stocks.192 pounds per ha (per crop). Additionally. 2. Inc. Record 132 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Aquafeed Extrudate Flow Rate and Pellet Characteristics from Low-Cost Single-Screw Extruder AU: Author Bandyopadhyay. 3-15. Agromarina de Panama. Sri Lanka. Texas. soil-borne. and numerous other shrimp producing countries worldwide. and through organisms ranging from copepods and crabs to many microorganisms. S.34% survival in 600 ha of traditional earthen ponds on the same farm harvested within 30 days of the intensive ponds. Aquaculture equipment. even in a virus-contaminated environment. Article Geographic Terms: ASW.440 pounds per ha. the test ponds were uncovered and adjacent to infected conventional earthen ponds. The zero water exchange. and shrimp-borne.]. has been profoundly affected by White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV or "White Spot" virus). Additionally. IHHN virus and NHP (necrotizing hepatopancreatitus) are also present and affecting crop production. Eighty percent average survival of Litopenaeus vannamei was achieved in 18 intensive 0.1% higher.

Shrimp culture. Fish diseases. All the variables were highly significant having positive linear relationship (r super(2) = 0. Immunity. over-predicted Q sub(Exp) within 9 to 89%. cooking extruder by extruding a marine shrimp feed mix. Penaeus monodon AB: Abstract .99) with the experimental flow rate Q sub(Exp). Vol. The most desirable values of the properties were 90. AU: Author Peterson. and 1347. 0. no. Ponds. as well as marine shrimp. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Sediments. Harris. Decapoda AB: Abstract Diseases are a major threat to the sustainability of the aquaculture industry. screw speed. Barrel temperature showed optimum values within 68-94 degree C. increasing importance is being placed on understanding the mechanisms that make nutrition a key factor in host defense against pathogens.Extrudate flow rate and effects of extrusion variables on extrudate properties were studied in a laboratory (small-scale) single-screw. Modelling. pp. 10 Alice Street Binghamton NY 13904-1580 USA. Animal nutrition. Fish culture. 25. Wadhwa. however. 2001.9 kg/m super(3) true density.3% water stability. Response surface design was followed to examine the effect of screw speed (20-140 rev/min) L/D ratio (8-16). 2001. Nutrition and Fish Health is the first book to provide comprehensive information on nutrition as a means to improve fish health and defend against infection. Prediction improved with increased L/D ratio. LC. and 92-94 rev/min was the optimum speed for water stability and true density. Simulation. The combined effects on water stability. Shrimp culture. mosture content. 51-65. JA SO: Source Aquacultural Engineering [Aquacult. Article Taxonomic Terms: Pisces. and barrel temperature. Recirculating systems. Nutrition and Fish Health offers state-of-the-art information on diseases affecting cold-water and warm-water fish. Aeration. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus japonicus. barrel temperature (60-100 degree C) and moisture content of feed mix (20-60%). EL. Record 134 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Arrangement of aerators in an intensive shrimp growout pond having a rectangular shape.99 expansion ratio.]. expansion ratio and true density of extrudate showed that L/D 12-14 and moisture content 30-35% were optimum for the three properties. Q sub(Theo) calculation from the simplified flow model. Eng. 1. Record 133 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Nutrition and Fish Health SO: Source Food Products Press. Animal diseases. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Disease resistance. Because antibiotics have many drawbacks.

and culture additions. The pond microbial community plays a major role in pond dissolved oxygen dynamics. Computational fluid dynamic models were produced for three schemes that were identified in a survey of Australian Prawn Farming Association members. These recommendations are consistent with the long-established practice of establishing pond-wide circulation. A comparison of results indicates that conventional aerators should be arranged diagonally or in parallel. Discharge of nutrient rich effluent from intensive culture systems can contribute to eutrophication of receiving waters potentially impacting both natural biota and local culture operations. Record 135 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Emerging technologies for reducing environmental impacts and improving biosecurity for shrimp aquaculture AU: Author Browdy. Aquaculture effluents. Disease control. techniques are emerging for community manipulation through supplementation of limiting nutrients. 'parallel' (side by side). reducing total nutrient discharge while improving natural productivity in the pond. Aeration. 2001. and 'diagonal' (diverting apart). and 'dead spots' (sediment traps). These arrangements are 'in-line' (series). Environmental impact. selective habitat expansion. Nutrients (mineral). Biodegradation.Simulations have been conducted to suggest general principles for the arrangement of aerators within a rectangular pond used for the growout of marine shrimp such as Penaeus monodon and Penaeus japonicus. bacterial biomass may provide efficient. improving the outlook for controlling disease risks. Technologies for treatment of effluents include sedimentation. Model results were assessed on the basis of benthic shear stress by classifying regions of pond bottom as 'red zone' (excessive stress). Decapoda AB: Abstract The environmental sustainability of aquaculture in general and shrimp farming in particular has received increasing attention in recent years. Technical innovations have focused on reducing effluent volume and on discharge treatment. 29. Efficiency and cost effectiveness of treatment can be improved through the reduction of exchange volumes and emphasis on drain harvest effluent. Nutrient cycles. Biogeochemical cycle. It is also apparent that low-speed operation would be advantageous. 'green zone' (desirable). CL SO: Source 6th Asian Fisheries Forum Book of Abstracts. With appropriate aeration rates and optimal pond carbon to nitrogen ratios. and mechanical and biological filtration. Further research along . nontoxic decomposition of waste. Based on an improved understanding of pond microbial ecology. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. Infectious disease remains one of the most important risks constraining marine shrimp culture worldwide. natural food availability and nutrient recycling rates. Water filtration. A growing volume of scientific research and industry experience confirms that water exchange may be reduced or eliminated. Culture effects. Recent studies have demonstrated very high production rates in biosecure systems designed for and managed without water exchange and incorporating water reuse between crops. p. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Biofilters.

Acute toxicity and chronic effects of pesticides on juvenile shrimp were carried out. Pesticides. Trinidad and Tobago AB: Abstract This document assembles three reviews of the marine shrimp and groundfish fisheries of the Brazil-Guianas shelf (northern Brazil. French Guiana. Water Quality Control. 46. SO: Source FAO Fish. p. Toxicity. only few pesticides were listed in the previous study. Fourth Workshop on the Assessment and Management of Shrimp and Groundfish Fisheries on the Brazil-Guianas Shelf. It is found that Malathion was the most toxic among many pesticides tested. Fishery management. ASW. Hon-Cheng SO: Source 6th Asian Fisheries Forum Book of Abstracts. Venezuela and during previous meetings of the stock assessment experts of the WECAFC Ad Hoc Working Group on Shrimp and Groundfish Resources in the Brazil-Guianas Shelf.these lines will improve the outlook for more profitable and sustainable production technologies. BPMC and Diazinon being the least. Aquaculture. The resources reviews are based on technical reports prepared prior to and during the Workshop in Cumana. Suriname. Conferences. Brazil. Suriname. Record 136 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Studies on water quality criteria of pesticides for farming black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon AU: Author Chen. The document also contains ten Management Reports. prepared by fishery scientists for presentation at the Meeting of Fisheries Managers and Ministers of . Finfish fisheries. Shrimp fisheries. with Butachlor. 2001. Due to their highly harmful effects. Shrimp culture. Guyana. Guyana. Shrimp. ASW. Venezuela. Water Pollution Effects. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine fisheries. 651. 152 pp. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon. ASW. followed by Toxaphene and Endosulfan. Rep. 2-13 October 2000. Water quality. Pollution effects. the present paper continued to provide similar information on criteria with other important pesticides for protection of shrimp culture. Cumana. Stock assessment. Article Geographic Terms: ASW. French Guiana. Article Geographic Terms: Taiwan AB: Abstract In establishing water quality criteria of pesticides for black tiger shrimp farming. this marine shrimp has been extensively cultured in freshwater area where many kinds of pesticides were intensively used. ASW. 2001. Nowadays. Venezuela. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Toxicity tests. no. a concentration that can support normal life of shrimp was drawn out as a biologically safe concentration and can be considered as a criterion. Record 137 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Regional reviews and national management reports. Trinidad and Tobago and eastern Venezuela) and one on environmental aspects of the area. ASW.

Each report contains a number of recommendations for fisheries management. AU: Author Morales. Circ.. Annex 2 contains a list of references on shrimp and groundfish species and environmental issues of the area. used in the various Workshops. Fish culture. Aquaculture economics. Experiences of selected developing countries. on the Gulf of Fonseca coast (Pacific Ocean). Factors determinant of success or failure of these two cultures in Honduras are listed. For marine species. further research and international co-operation in data collection and assessments. Article Geographic Terms: Honduras. 2001. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture systems. Honduras. AS SO: Source . DANIDA (GCP/INT/575/DEN) and Norway (GCP/INT/648/NOR). Rome (Italy) Record 139 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Shrimp and prawn farming development in West Bengal: present status./FAO Circ. 261-293. Abstracts of the various papers included in the document are cited individually in this issue of ASFA. only shrimp is cultured. constraints and strategy AU: Author Upadhyay.. Aquaculture development. Experiences de certains pays en developpement. ISE. The historical development and the current situation of tilapia and shrimp culture are given. Promotion de l'aquaculture commerciale durable en Afrique subsaharienne. [FAO Fish. Shrimp culture. Rome (Italy) Record 138 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Commercial tilapia and shrimp culture in Honduras. These Management Reports are the culmination of stock assessment work carried out since the establishment of the WECAFC Ad Hoc Working Group on Shrimp and Groundfish Resources in the Brazil-Guianas Shelf in 1988. 971. aquaculture is an important activity inasmuch as a lot of local personnel are employed in farms or packing plants. held in Port of Spain. in particular in the four Workshops sponsored by CFRAMP and FAO and WECAFC and funded by CIDA.. Freshwater aquaculture includes tilapia culture projects countrywide. As an employment source. Fonseca Gulf AB: Abstract Two main aquaculture areas have been developed in Honduras: freshwater aquaculture and marine shrimp culture. Atlantic Fishery Comm. Rome (Italy) Fishery Development Planning Serv. no. L SO: Source Promotion of sustainable commercial aquaculture in Sub-Saharan Africa. Peches]. Article Taxonomic Terms: Oreochromis. CA: Corporate Author FAO/Western Cent. pp. CA: Corporate Author FAO Fisheries Dep.the WECAFC Ad Hoc Working Group on Shrimp and Groundfish Resources in the Brazil-Guianas Shelf. Trinidad and Tobago. from 26-29 March 2001.

C.]. and. Suggestions have also been reported for stepping up production of shrimp through aquaculture.960 t. Rice field aquaculture. India with rich resources for aquaculture has vast potential for commercial farming of marine shrimp. 2001. Chimes]. pp. 407. Aquaculture enterprises. Prawn culture. J SO: Source Aquaculture in the Third Millennium. fertilizing. care and maintenance. 341-355. Record 140 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Rice-prawn and rice-shrimp culture in coastal areas of Viet Nam AU: Author Hung. Fish consumption. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. India. dike and trench construction. Aquaculture systems. pp. ISW. Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium rosenbergii. feeding. Moehl. Marine aquaculture. 10-11. Aquaculture techniques. of Rural Reconstruction. Article Geographic Terms: . DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Agropisciculture. Various constraints that face the shrimp culture have been highlighted. Cavite (Philippines) Record 141 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title African aquaculture: A regional summary with emphasis on Sub-Saharan Africa AU: Author Machena. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. for Living Aquatic Resources Management. Shrimp culture. Plant culture. LT SO: Source Integrated agriculture-aquaculture: A primer. Oryza sativa. 91-98. The following aspects are covered: site selection. Article Geographic Terms: India. land preparation and transplanting for rice. Securing the second position next to Andhra Pradesh. pest control. freshwater prawns and other commercially important fish. Vol. Rome (Italy).523 ha of area are presently being used for traditional farming. Penaeus monodon. The shrimp production through farming during 1999-2000 was 19. Prawn culture. Makati (Philippines). predator prevention. West Bengal. Aquaculture development. Silang. Food fish. Tech. 2001. no. 81-84. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture systems. pp. CA: Corporate Author FAO. Vietnam AB: Abstract A description is given of 2 systems of rice field aquaculture that farmers in coastal areas of southern Viet Nam use to increase their incomes . Pap. FAO fisheries technical paper [FAO Fish. harvesting. West Bengal AB: Abstract West Bengal. Fish culture. 20. stocking.rice-freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and freshwater prawn or marine shrimp (Penaeus monodon) monoculture in the dry season. Aquaculture development. Vietnam. International Inst. no. International Cent.Fishing chimes [Fish. 2001. India 34.

optimal use of these resources has frequently been curtailed by poor infrastructure and lack of production inputs. available and inexpensive labour. However. CA: Corporate Author Network of Aquaculture Cent. availability of nutrient inputs. Integrating aquaculture into the rural economy can bring benefits. Aquaculture is estimated to be 95 percent small scale. Cote d'Ivoire. Mean yield is approximated as 500 kg/ha/yr. and access to credit for commercial-scale enterprises. Three quarters of aquaculture production comes from low-income countries. although a few farms are found in Seychelles. Rome (Italy) Record 142 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Integrating aquaculture into rural development in coastal and inland areas AU: Author Haylor. The 1997 combined aquaculture production of the region was 40 300 mt. although these are often exploited by nearby populations. especially in coastal areas. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture development. Zimbabwe. Fish consumption has been decreasing as supply decreases relative to a growing population: from 9 kg per capita in 1990 to 6 kg per person at present. strong public institutions. Commercial finfish culture is fresh or brackish water. conducive investment policies to attract increased private-sector participation. Rural development. the key region being Asia. G. Commercial tilapia farms report pond yields of 10 to 15 mt/ha/yr. A typical scenario would be a 300 m super(2) pond producing 15 kg a year relying on family labour and on-farm inputs. Over half the countries report producing less than 100 mt annually. in Asia-Pacific. as well as environmental and social risks. Bland. Marine shrimp culture is concentrated in Madagascar. Developing countries AB: Abstract Aquaculture has an important role in rural development. oysters. Mussels. Bangkok (Thailand). pp. 2001. Mozambique and Kenya. The potential for expansion is nevertheless considerable. although the range is wide. S SO: Source Aquaculture in the Third Millennium. but requires several enabling factors that include: a positive perception of aquaculture. while Clarias yields can exceed 20 mt/ha/yr. Resource management. There is little reporting of production from the region's many reservoirs. with Nigeria. abalone and seaweed are also marine cultures in some countries.Africa AB: Abstract The African Region consists of 48 countries and five island nations. 73-81. often at a very low level. most of which are practising some form of aquaculture. FAO. The largest producer is Nigeria (17 700 mt) followed by Madagascar (5 100 mt) and Zambia (4 700 mt). with fish ponds integrated into the mosaic of agricultural activities. Lessons must be learnt from the case of uncontrolled expansion of . Kenya and South Africa being important producers. high demand for fish and a climate that favours a year-round growing period. from less than a hundred to more than 10 000 kg/ha/yr. The attributes of Sub-Saharan Africa include under-utilized water and land resources. sound policies at the national level. within which Chinese production predominates.

pp. The tests were conducted in aquariums with a water feedback system and a sediment layer of 2 cm. Penaeus paulensis. ASW.intensive marine shrimp production. people-centred integrated sustainable development and a multi-sectoral agenda. and fish-in-rice systems have wide application. affecting the survival of both P. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus schmitti. The sediment from Saco do Engenho (Sepetiba Bay) was the most toxic. through the promotion of effective representative organizations. CA: Corporate Author Network of Aquaculture Cent. ASW. 7. Effective rural development comes through sound governance. Bays. Sepetiba Bay. Brazil. 28. Vol. Toxicity. Ilha Grande Bay AB: Abstract A methodology to test the toxicity of marine and estuarine sediments was developed using postlarval organisms of the marine shrimp Penaeus schmitti and P. Bangkok (Thailand). reforestation can benefit coastal defences and aquatic resource production. . The postlarvae exposure time to the sediments was 10. Sediment pollution. Bioassay. Test organisms. developed through wide-ranging public involvement and. in Asia-Pacific. peoples' livelihoods. ALN. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Toxicity testing. Bioassays. The tested sediments were collected in contaminated sites of Guanabara and Sepetiba Bays and at the reference site of Ilha Grande inlet in Rio de Janerio. Article Geographic Terms: ASW.g. where the objective is the development of remote rural economies. schmitti. Chem. Rio de Janeiro. WC. RBC. The toxicity of the sediments was evidenced with exposures of 28 d or longer. 19. whilst integrated pond-dyke cropping systems in delta areas have demonstrated complementary resource and energy flows. Sediment chemistry. Pollution effects. Sediments. Regulation and policy should aim to internalise the external effects of aquaculture (e. Campos. the 'polluter pays' principle). which build management capacity. In more developed countries. which include aquaculture. no. Brazil. Rio de Janeiro. Estuaries. Testing Procedures. Pollution surveys. Rio de Janeiro. participation at all stakeholder levels. Brazil. Shrimp. Much greater emphasis on advocacy (outside of the subsector) is required to raise awareness of the role for aquaculture in rural development and to raise the stakes for institutional change. 1881-1884. Special attention is required to empower and link stakeholders to policy decisions. Pfeiffer. Marine pollution. Guanabara Bay. JRD. In inland areas. Sediment Contamination. and 52 d. paulensis. where necessary.]. FAO. Rome (Italy) Record 143 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Development of sediment toxicity test with tropical peneid shrimps AU: Author Moraes. Toxicity tests. Toxicol. Borges. Policy coherence must be a primary objective. the stability and environmental impact of aquaculture should be key considerations in any future planning. The sediment from Guanabara Bay was toxic to P. fry nursing networks represent low-risk entry points for rural development. schmitti and P. AN SO: Source Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry [Environ. Marine organisms. benefit from participatory approaches. Jul 2000. In coastal areas. Brazil. In developing economies. affecting its survival after 28 d of exposure. Guimaraes. paulensis.

lamerrae and M. especially in the more developed countries. M.Record 144 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Tolerance of Macrobrachium rosenbergii to white spot syndrome virus AU: Author Sahul Hameed. M. MX. Moribund animals were screened for the presence of WSSV by western blot or histopathology. pp. The results indicated the susceptibility of marine shrimp and freshwater prawn to this virus except M. rosenbergii to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was tested by immersion challenge. Fish culture. It will continue to grow as an industry and to provide a higher percentage of the world's needs for fishery products. diminishing supplies and increasing costs of sea-caught fish. Anilkumar. lamerrae and M. no. Cage culture. This virus failed to produce mortality with any of the methods of infection applied in M. lamerrae and M. RT SO: Source Marine and Freshwater Products Handbook. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture development. greater consistency in supply and quality of cultured fish. by oral route. Susceptibility. Penaeus indicus. Disease resistance. P. Aquaculture enterprises. Macrobrachium rosenbergii. This virus caused 100% mortality in M. by immersion method and 53. Prawn culture. Reasons for this are increasing demand for fish worldwide. 2000.3% and 66. Vol. Macrobrachium idella. 183. 3-4. pp. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture. rosenbergii. 847-858. idella. indicus and P. utilization of resources unsuitable for other types of food production. AS. Shrimp culture. rosenbergii. Record 145 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Aqualculture AU: Author Lovell. respectively.3% and 53.3% mortality in M. monodon. Marine aquaculture. M SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture]. monodon when the animals were injected WSSV intramuscularly. Article Taxonomic Terms: White spot syndrome virus. 207-213. Charles. Their susceptibility to WSSV was compared with that of Penaeus indicus and P. and attractive investment opportunities in aquaculture. oral route and intramuscular injection. idella. idella. Pond culture AB: Abstract Aquaculture is the fastest-growing food-producing industry in the world today. The exact mechanism of tolerance of M. Penaeus monodon AB: Abstract The susceptibility of Macrobrachium idella. lamerrae. Viral diseases. Macrobrachium lamerrae. The WSSV caused 43. respectively. Fish farming has demonstrated extremely rapid growth during the last . 15 Mar 2000.7% mortality in M. rosenbergii to WSSV is not known at present and the possibilities for this tolerance are discussed.

Article Geographic Terms: Brazil.29 x 10 super(5) CFU/g. and areas of Western Europe. hybrid. Rde L SO: Source Arquivos de Ciencias do Mar [Arq. also with chorion. Crustacean larvae. Ocean pen culture of salmon is a thriving industry in Norway. Aquaculture is more than a science in its infancy. it is now recognized as a viable and profitable enterprise worldwide. zoea. Channel catfish farming in the United States is an example of the rapidly growing aquaculture industry. PCC. The standard plate counts (SPC) of aerobic bacteria performed with the water from the tanks yielded mean values of 3. 1994). Vibrio fluvialis and Vibrio spp.000 tons in 1993 (USDA.76 x 10 super(4) CFU/g. are being cultured on a large commercial scale in Europe and Japan. Chile. Bacterial diseases. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei. and tilapia. These values were lower than those obtained from the samples of postlarvae. and subsequently studied. Record 147 of 500 . Gesteira. Martins. Six samples were collected and processed from the different steps of culture process such as: water from the larviculture tanks. while batch Ib with chorion yielded an estimated <10 super(3) CFU/g.two decades. LC. Cienc. CM. Farming of penaeid (marine) shrimp .100/100g (zoea. Similar figures were obtained for batch 2. AU: Author Vieira. containing disencapsulated cysts of artemia. The cysts of artemia had MPN values for Vibrio under 10/100g. where it provides 90 percent of the salmon consumed in that area and is a valuable export commodity. It has grown from almost obscurity in 1970 to an annual production of over 180. Monteiro. Marques. Record 146 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Vibrio spp. shrimp postlarvae and nauplii of artemia). striped bass. 107-112. pp.is the fastest growing aquaculture enterprise worldwide. Vibrio. yielded SPC values of 1. such as sea bream and turbot. shrimp nauplii. The MPN for Vibrio in the water sample was 40/100 ml while that for the remaining samples exceeded 1. Northeast AB: Abstract Microbiological analyses were carried out at a larviculture facility in Northeastern Brazil in order to identify the agent causing increased mortality in larvae and postlarvae of the shrimp species Litopenaeus vannamei. Susceptibility tests proved nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol to be the most effective antibiotics against this vibriosis. Carvalho. Mar]. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Vibriosis. The following strains were isolated from the samples: Vibrio alginolyticus. shrimp postlarvae.primarily in Central and South America and Asia . TCV. Vol. zoea and nauplii of artemia (>10 super(6 ) CFU/g). Shrimp culture. supplying approximately 25 percent of the world's consumption of shrimp. 2000. High-value marine species. cysts of artemia and nauplii of artemia. 33. RHSdos F. Among the many marine and freshwater species emerging in commercial importance in the United States and around the world are redfish. Mortality causes. Batch Ia. and its bearing on marine shrimp larviculture. Disease control.

This potential has important implications for Florida. DE SO: Source Aquaculture Magazine [Aquacult. 35-43. pp.25M) showed best viability rate (75 to 80%) in freeze thawed spermatozoa. USA.S. Feb 2000. no. Trop. because the U. 26. mostly from Canada. This potential exists in three main areas: for the production of bait shrimp for its many avid sports fishermen. no.]. Vol. Jan-Feb 2000. AD. S SO: Source Journal of Aquaculture in the Tropics [J. and China. and for growout to market size. Mag. Florida AB: Abstract Florida probably has the best shrimp culture potential in the continental U. The importance of cryogenic storage of spermatozoa is discussed. Among several cryoprotectants used. 15. Vol. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. Thailand. pp. Article Geographic Terms: ASW.S. 27. Record 149 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Taiwan's offshore potential: first symposium outlines country's cage culture SO: Source Fish Farming International [Fish Farm. Activational changes in spermatozoa during acrosome reaction after induction with egg water have been mentioned.]. Rearing. Milne Edwards AU: Author Diwan. Shrimp culture. Viable spermatozoa was preserved successfully for a period of 60 days at -35 degree C and -196 degree C temperatures. Seed (aquaculture). and DMSO (5%) and trehalose (0. 1. no. DE: Descriptors . 1. Joseph. Aquacult. Vol. 72-79. Aquaculture development. or overseas. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus indicus AB: Abstract Attempts on cryopreservation of spermatozoa have been made in penaeid shrimp Penaeus indicus. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Cryopreservation. Jan 2000. Trade.S. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Bait culture. Record 148 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Cryopreservation of spermatophores of the marine shrimp Penaeus indicus H. Int. Spermatophores. p. 26. imported more than $8 billion in seafood in 1998.DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Shrimp: Potential For Development of Marine Shrimp Farming in Florida AU: Author Jory. a combination of DMSO (5%) and glycerol (5%). 1.]. for production of penaeid shrimp postlarvae to supply growout farms in the state or elsewhere in the U.

pp. held in its aftermath at the beginning of November at Tungkang Marine Laboratory (TML) of the Taiwan Fisheries Research Institute. Biogenic deposits.3 and 18.]. The nitrogen cycle was considered as two systems. Phytoplankton. Nitrogen cycle. Excretory products. physiological activities and biomass of oysters. The amount of N harvested as oyster product was about 1. is now a top priority in the national aquaculture plan. N. In the present study. disease and the eventual collapse of the industry in the early 1990s. Article Geographic Terms: INW. The strategy. Faecal pellets. Shrimp culture. This process varies seasonally due to the seasonal variations of PON. Tamiji. Japan. Harvesting. 2. Biogeochemical cycle. Biomass. Rajendran. The N processing rates were found to be high in summer and low in winter. Although Taiwan has been at the forefront of intensive marine shrimp farming in Asia.Article Subject Terms: Cage culture. its uncontrolled and rapid expansion has led to problems of land subsidence. The release of total dissolved N from the bottom to the water column is about 8. Maeda. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Oyster culture. Matsuda. The result was self-pollution. The results show that about 26% of N productivity was supplied to process by cultured oysters in the OC system. over-abstraction of ground water and degradation of coastal zone waters. Yamamoto. Marine molluscs.. which aims to switch production from inland to the sea. Oceanogr. Aquaculture development. 223-231. no. Particulate organic nitrogen. Primary production. 56.1 ton N/d while the natural sedimentation rate and N regeneration in the PP system are 8. Hiroshima Prefect. However. sustainable marine aquaculture practices. Taiwan AB: Abstract The most devastating earthquake recorded in Taiwan's history did not discourage 200 participants from 15 countries from discussing current developments at the first international symposium on cage aquaculture in Asia. the government fisheries agency has devoted time and resources to developing alternative. Excretion. Off-bottom culture.0 and 2. Aquaculture enterprises. The biodeposition and excretion of N in the OC system are 3.0 ton N/d which indicates that the PP system is a major system regenerating N in the water column. P.3 ton N/d. Hiroshima Bay AB: Abstract The predominance of bivalves affects the cycle of materials in the coastal ecosystem. Vol. Honshu. the results suggest the . Environmental impact.3 ton N/d which is about 10% of daily N loading in north Hiroshima Bay. Record 150 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The role of suspended oyster culture on nitrogen cycle in Hiroshima Bay AU: Author Songsangjinda. (1) the primary production (PP) system and (2) the oyster culture (OC)system. 2000. Osamu. the role of suspended oyster culture on the nitrogen cycle was demonstrated for the northern Hiroshima Bay. Culture effects. According to the N cycle developed in the present study. Article Taxonomic Terms: Crassostrea gigas. Mollusc culture. Hajime SO: Source Journal of Oceanography [J.

rosenbergii and M. prophylaxis and therapeutics has been reviewed in this chapter. In addition. Apart from the obvious negative impact that diseases may pose to prawn production. Important diseases have also been associated with freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) culture which could seriously affect commercial production but virus diseases that would threaten the industry on a large scale have not been reported. Recently. reported that. relevant information on health and defence mechanisms diagnosis.significant role of suspended oyster culture on the nitrogen cycle in Hiroshima Bay. This may be partly due to the growth in the importance of penaeid culture during the 1980s and 1990s. diseases have already jeopardized the development of freshwater prawn culture. Before describing the specific diseases and other problems that have been found to affect freshwater prawns. Macrobrachium nipponense AB: Abstract Intensive prawn farming is characterized by the confinement and husbandry of the population in artificially constructed production systems. our results indicate that oyster production was efficiently harvested. SLS SO: Source Freshwater Prawn Culture. These authors particularly noted that mortalities of broodstock occurred during the overwintering period and that "white shrimp disease" occurred during the grow-out period. Fish diseases. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Prawn culture. Record 152 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Study on the endoplasmic reticulum variation during spermatogensis in Penaeus chinensis. Some suggest that infectious diseases. Various biotic or abiotic factors within intensive systems challenge the health of cultured populations and failure to control them usually leads to feeble or even disastrous production results. Bueno. mainly viruses. Intensive culture. 2000. nipponense in China. though they are not as serious as those for penaeids. some diseases comprise marketability of the final product by rendering poor flesh quality (muscular necrosis) or undesirable aesthetic changes (black spot or heavy fouling by epibionts). Record 151 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Health management AU: Author Johnson. SK. AU: Author . in a paper describing the culture of M. a circumstance that attracted the attention of most of the active crustacean health specialists. have been responsible for the collapse of many marine shrimp farming ventures in the past few years. 239-257. pp. Disease control. Though the body of literature concerning prawn disease contains many excellent scientific works. the composite is small in comparison to that available for many other aquaculture animals. Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium rosenbergii. such as hatchery tanks and grow-out ponds. suggesting that oyster culture could probably be used as a tool to remove N from Hiroshima Bay.

11. Labour costs.. The results of cost and earning analysis revealed that the intensive farm had the highest production cost followed by semi-intensive and extensive which account for 71. Penaeus chinensis was studied.085.020. 54. 515. 68. Wei SO: Source J.99 Baht for medium farm and 18. Fish.909. Suo'an. AU: Author Malinee Smithrithee SO: Source Abstracts of Master of Science Theses (Fisheries Science) 1985-1990. 2000. extensive. Record 153 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine shrimp culture development approach in Amphoe Muang Samut Sakhon. Wang. Cost analysis.701. Lai. 47.173. Kasetsart Univ. Sci. Yield per rai per year of small medium and large farm were 525. However. semi-intensive and intensive.46.578. Article Geographic Terms: Thailand. The RER of the sperm in the thelycum of the female shrimp concentrates to form a granular shape. Investments.01. Aquaculture development. in terms of return from .580. In the spermatocyte I. Vol.Kang. 31. Changwat Samut Sakhon. Changwat Smut Sakhon (Thailand) in this study.]. in term of the earning per rai intensive farm gave the highest earning 38.26 and 18. The samples covered three types of culture. Xiamen Univ.74 Baht and extensive farm got loss for 14.054. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus chinensis AB: Abstract The endoplasmic reticulum variation during spermatogenesis in the marine shrimp. Economic analysis. medium (50-100 rai) and large (> 100 rai). the RER becomes smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). Intensive culture. pp. no.100 farms from the shrimp in Amphoe Muang Samut Sakhon. i.51 and 426. The analysis on cost and earning of intensive farms showed that total cost per rai per Year of small. The spermatogium has more endoplasmic reticulum vesicles. In the spermatocyte II. In each type of culture the samples were further divided into three groups according to the farm size. rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) appears around the nucleus and parallels the nuclear membrane. endoplasmic reticula are less. endoplasmic reticulum vesicles are abundant. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Spermatogenesis. At the early stage of spermatid. At middle stage of the spermatid.18 Baht.679. Du. 849-854. namely small (< 50 rai). Ultrastructure.808. Cell membranes. Changwat Smut Sakhon AB: Abstract One hundred and six shrimp farms were sampled from 1. 6. However. Developmental stages.129. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Amphoe Muang Samut Sakhon. p. Xianjiang. 2000. (Nat.e.18 Baht per rai per year respectively.5982.54 Baht followed by semi-intensive farm 7. There is developed RER in the cytoplasmic band of the main body of the sperm in male shrimp.60 Kg.12 Baht for large farm. Extensive culture. medium and large farms were 72. The net profit per rai was 36.88 and 68.88 Baht respectively.)/Xiamen Daxue Xuebao. There are 1-3 big circular granules composed of endoplasmic reticulum vesicles. Some endoplasmic reticula fold at one side of the nucleus and 2 annular lamellae bodies form on the cytoplasm. Nanshan. 39. Thailand.99 Baht for small farm. [Notes Fac.

18 percent of total cost followed by medium intensive farm which gave profit 69. Section 2 includes papers dealing with overviews of important shrimp and groundfish resources and their fisheries. no. French Guiana. Suriname. 2000. Report of the Third Workshop on the Assessment of Shrimp and Groundfish Fisheries on the Brazil-Guianas Shelf. Brazil. Trinidad and Tobago. AU: Author . ASW.. 24 May to 10 June 1999. Stock assessment. Section 19 is a report of a task group on snapper fisheries of the Brazil-Guianas Shelf.276). Tobago AB: Abstract This document assembles the reports on the marine shrimp and groundfish fisheries of northern Brazil. and total invested capital affected to the changes of production for 46. There is an extensive list of references in Section 21. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine fisheries. Fishery resources. There was not any input that affected the production for extensive farm. CA: Corporate Author Kasetsart Univ. Section 3 deals with fisheries management practices in the area in the context of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. Section 20 contains a report on a meeting where the results of assessments were presented to the fisheries managers and recommendations were drafted for follow-up activities. held in Belem. 206 pp. Brazil. for the intensive farm. Atlantic Fishery Comm. Shrimp fisheries.11 percent of total cost. Fishery management. it includes a discussion on future management measures. CA: Corporate Author FAO/Western Cent. ASW. The names and addresses of the various authors can be obtained from the section headings and the list of participants in Section 22. Conferences. ASW. Suriname. From the regression analysis of input and output. ASW. Sections 4 and 5 contain papers on stock assessment methodology applicable in the region.investment the medium semi-intensive farm gave the highest profit of 91. Guyana. Guyana. 628. Article Geographic Terms: ASW. ASW. SO: Source FAO Fish. Rep. Trinidad and Tobago.6 percent. Trinidad and Tobago and eastern Venezuela prepared for and during the third Workshop on the assessment of shrimp and groundfish fisheries on the Brazil-Guianas Shelf. of Fisheries Record 154 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Western Central Atlantic Fishery Commission. Caribbean Sea. Brazil. Rome (Italy) Record 155 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title (Present state of aquaculture in the northeastern region of Brazil). stocking density. Bangkok (Thailand) Fac. Sections 6 to 18 deal with national or sub-regional assessments of selected shrimp and groundfish fisheries.. Caribbean Sea. Fishery economics.10 June 1999. the labor cost had high correlation with the production for semi-intensive farm (R 2 = 0. Section 17 also deals with the bio-economics of shrimp fisheries in general and in particular with seasonality. 24 May . Trinidad. risk and uncertainty. Belem. French Guiana.

000 tons of marine shrimp and 62 tons of freshwater prawns. Most of the production is sold on the domestic market. a research program should be organized in order to meet the real demand of the activity. Silva. This deficiency. as well as research and extension in the area. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture. The financial support is provided by Conselho Nacinal de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq). AU: Author Poli. JR SO: Source Aquaculture in Brazil: Basis for sustainable development. The main crustacean species are marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. CR. pp. Aquicultura no Brasil: Bases para um desenvolvimento sustentavel. The production capacity is about 233 million of freshwater fish fingerlings. Shrimp culture. Aquaculture annual production in the region is about 11. Therefore. Fundacao Banco do Brasil (FBB). Santa Catarina and Parana (Brazil) display a large number of environments suitable for developing Aquaculture. Brazil AB: Abstract The northeastern region of Brazil shows great potential for developing aquaculture. Record 156 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title (Present situation in the southern region of Brazil). However. Rio Grande do Sul. Aquicultura no Brasil: Bases para um desenvolvimento sustentavel. tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) and carps (common and the Chinese). Fish culture. A. Fish culture. Spain. Shrimp culture. JA. Article Geographic Terms: ASW. Mollusc culture. financial support and regularization. Several organizations act in the region on education. Santa Catarina. therefore it is difficult to present the real situation of the region. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture. pp. Parana AB: Abstract The southern states of Rio Grande do Sul. Brazil. they are not enough to support the demand of the region. 2000. Correia. 14 million of freshwater prawn post-larvae and 5. 323-351. 15.000 tons of freshwater fishes. On the other hand. USA and Japan. Borghetti. except for marine shrimp with 30% of the production exported to France. All northeastern state universities offer courses in aquaculture.5 billion of marine shrimp post-larvae. The main cultivated fish species are Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). red tilapia (hybrid of Oreochromis spp). as well as to provide an extension service to improve the aquaculture technology in the region. Grumann. The aquaculture statistical data are very scarce. without focusing on the characteristics of the activity. extension classes. 267-288. Research institutions. Brazil. Aquaculture economics. plus the lack of data brought difficulties to the present work.Pereira. Article Geographic Terms: Brazil. Brazil. 2000. in order to make the work as representative as . Banco do Nordeste (FUNDECI) and state foundations for science and technology. Aquaculture economics. Ede S SO: Source Aquaculture in Brazil: Basis for sustainable development. Aquaculture development. ALNda.

no. India. Record 157 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Present status of marine shrimp and freshwater prawn hatcheries. production systems. 3.possible of the aquaculture status in the southern region.034 tons. Vol. AU: Author Ponnuchamy. among others. The species production is carried out in Santa Catarina and Parana states and corresponds to 326 tons. The majority are native. 131-137. with an average production area smaller than 0. It is the most significant activity in mariculture and is typical in the coast of Santa Catarina. 19. Pond . DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture development.]. however. The document also presents the number of producers. The data show a promising activity. 151-233. Chimes]. besides those relating to tiger shrimp for the benefit of entrepreneurs including new comers. there are important issues that need to be addressed. 8. Total production sums up to 48. R SO: Source Fishing chimes. Fish. no. The results show an increasingly developing activity in marine and continental waters. installed larvicultures. pp. Hatcheries. it needs intervention in the production chain in order to solve problems that compromise the area. AW. Fish farming includes 29 species and is the most diverse group in southern Brazil aquaculture. 2000. 10-11. operating commercially in the south part of the country since the beginning of the nineties as an alternative for sustainable use of sea and continental waters. In spite of advanced development. treatment unity. P SO: Source Reviews in Fisheries Science [Rev. information was gathered from institutions involved directly or indirectly in the area. Sci. and consumer sales price. and trouts are still produced in larger scale. Shrimp culture. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Seed production. This species has shown better results than the native ones. with promising perspectives. Vol. tilapias. Menasveta. 2000. Andhra Pradesh AB: Abstract The overall situation and the measures necessary to improve the quality of seed produced at marine shrimp hatcheries are described in this write-up.5 ha.275 tons carried out in small production units. Record 158 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Some Recent Issues and Innovations in Marine Shrimp Pond Culture AU: Author Fast. Article Geographic Terms: ISW. but exotic species such as carps. pp. Visakhapatnam [Fish. its operational aspects and problems are also highlighted. Marine shrimp culture is being commercially implemented as small family projects introducing the species Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp culture. Mollusc culture is responsible for a production of 8. Project estimate for setting up a scampi hatchery.

pp. a temperature range of 25--28 degree C and incubation in a normal atmosphere. World.culture.]. Dec 1999.2 MMT predicted 10 years earlier. These changes included: use of specific pathogen free (SPF) and specific pathogen resistant (SPR) shrimp seed. As a result of shrimp disease problems.4 million metric tons (MMT) in 1990 to about 0. Both epithelial-like and fibroblastic. Vol. U. in double-strength Leibovitz's L-15 medium supplemented with 15% fetal bovine serum. However. for which there are still few certain solutions. Ekpanithanpong. 1% glucose. Only cells from lymphoid organ could be subcultured and confluent monolayers achieved within 10 days . or about 25 to 30% of total shrimp supply. Khongpradit. R. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon. Cell culture. Article Geographic Terms: Thailand AB: Abstract Primary shrimp cell cultures were developed from lymphoid organ and ovaries of black tiger shrimp. which effected shrimp yields worldwide. Lymphocytes. Penaeus monodon. 231-235.8 MMT in 1999. The most serious diseases were viral. 4. Lymphoid cells. 15% shrimp meat extract. development of probiotics and immunostimulants to reduce disease susceptibility. The primary reason for this shortfall was shrimp disease. Husbandry diseases. Cell lines. and exotic shrimp introductions. basal medium supplemented with 0. life-cycle culture. J. Biotechnology. 21. Aquaculture techniques. Laboratory culture. Record 159 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Progress in the development of shrimp cell cultures in Thailand AU: Author Kasornchandra. 5 g/L NaCl. no. Within 3 days. development of biosecure systems to prevent disease access during shrimp's entire culture cycle. use of water recycling and reuse growout systems. shrimp culture at inland locations away from coastal influences. environmental awareness and concerns about shrimp culture sustainability became increasingly important with the informed public during the 1990s. In addition. The optimum conditions for primary culture in vitro were obtained in L-15 medium with an osmolality of approximately 730 plus or minus 10 mmol/kg. Culture media. 80% confluent monolayers were obtained from the lymphoid organ while cultures from other tissues required 5 days. Ovaries. reduced biodiversity. Seed (aquaculture). Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae AB: Abstract World cultured shrimp production increased from 0. Disease control.01% cholesterol could enhance good growth and cells performance initiated from lymphoid organ. and genetic selection and improvements through closed. Herein we review developments with these culture innovations and environmental issues that have occurred during the last 10 years. Increased production was well below 1. This included concerns about habitat degradation and destruction. Boonyaratpalin. Cultures were maintained for at least 43 days.like cells were observed from those organs within 2 days incubation. Environment management. pond culture practices changed to reduce disease incidence. reduced or zero water exchange during pond growout. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Media (culture). S SO: Source Methods in Cell Science [Methods Cell Sci.

Healthy cultures of the lymphoid cells did not persist beyond the third passage. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Rye. Nutritive value. Feeding experiments. Rocha-Meza. Aquaculture '99. T. SG. The diets used in these studies were isoproteic and isolipidic.post-spilt. Aquaculture '99. la Asociacion Nacional de Acuicultores de Colombia. 287-291. JA. even when 100% of the fish or soy meals have been replaced. Aquaculture development. vannamei and P. Feed composition. la cual. so it is plausible to think that red crab contains a growth promotor. gremio creado por los camaricultores desde la iniciacion de la industria y entidad que habia contribuido con la adopcion de medidas de apoyo muy utiles y pertinentes en sus respectivos periodos ya habia creado en 1993. 2. Aquaculture techniques. californiensis. Civera-Cerecedo. Mexico and previous nutritional studies have demonstrated that red crab meal (RCM) is a good alternative ingredient for fish or soyprotein meals used in marine shrimp feeds. R SO: Source Acuicultura '99. 246-257. 1. pp. Article Taxonomic Terms: Pleuroncodes planipes. and their amino acid profile was not significantly different. Nov 1999. buscaria encausar los esfuerzos de los empresarios y el posible apoyo del Estado. Angarita. The inclusion of RCM in the diet increases the growth of L. Animal nutrition. Vol. Yield. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Diets. The major objectives of the present research were to obtain two fractions from red crab (protein concentrate and lipid extract). el Centro de investigaciones de la Acuicultura de Colombia. M SO: Source Acuicultura '99. Record 161 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Nutritive value of protein and lipid fractions for red crab (Pleuroncodes planipes) and white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) AU: Author Goytortua-Bores. Vol. MR. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei. ACUANAL. de forma paralela al gremio. Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract The red crab Pleuroncodes planipes is a very abundant crustacean in Baja California. pp. Rearing. Application of these primary shrimp cell cultures for studying pathogenic viruses of shrimp in vitro will be discussed. . entidad que inicio sus actividades de investigacion de forma virtual y con timidas acciones. Article Geographic Terms: Colombia AB: Abstract Original Abstract: En el ano de 1993. CENIACUA. Nov 1999. Shrimp culture. Gitterle. Record 160 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title First results of the program of genetic selection of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. in Colombia AU: Author Suarez. E.

5%) were prepared: the reference diet (DR) contained fish meal as main protein source and fish oil as lipid source.9% of the total haemolymph lipids associated with this fraction. While 16. respectively. Tietz. Biol. freezed dried red crab (diet DLL). the ovaries of Penaeus semisulcatus have accumulated almost equal amounts (approximately 16 mg lipid g super(-1) protein) of phospholipids and triacylglycerols. most of the increase in levels of ovarian lipids during ovarian maturation was associated with an increase in triacylglycerol levels in the floating fat fraction and of phospholipids in the infranatant fraction. For these purposes. pp.8%) were recovered in the high-density lipoprotein fraction after density ultracentrifugation. The gradual decrease in the relative abundance of polyunsaturated fatty acids as the ovaries matured supports previously published results suggesting intra-ovarian synthesis of saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids. Approximately 30% of the total fatty acid content of both phospholipids and triacylglycerols is made up of polyunsaturated fatty acids. A. M. The phospholipids consist mainly of phosphatidylcholine (75-80%) and phosphatidylethanolamine (20-25%). The fish oil from the DR was replaced by red crab lipid extract (diet DELL). Vol. Haemolymph. leaving less than 0. 202. and to elucidate the nature of the growth promotor. these lipoproteins carried only 64-89 mu g lipid mg super(-1) protein compared with 538.8%) that could be removed by further sequential centrifugation at a higher NaBr density. Khayat. E SO: Source Journal of Experimental Biology [J. Exp. T. Jul 1999. and a last diet with fish protein concentrate and red crab oil (diet DAL).]. fresh red crab was submitted to a Soxhlet extraction with petroleum ether.2% of the lipids were recovered from the very high-density lipoprotein fractions. E. Then the remaining solvent in the liquid and solid phases was evaporated under vacuum and at room temperature under a hood. fish protein concentrate (diet DCPP). red crab protein concentrate (diet DCPL). The two fractions obtained were included in different diets and evaluated in a feeding trial with juvenile white shrimp. no. 13. Most of the lipids found in the female haemolymph (64. 1819-1829. replacement of fish meal and fish oil of the DR by red crab protein concentrate and lipid extract (diet DCP+EL). DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Lipids. The presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the ovaries indicates the occurrence of lipid transport to the ovary during oocyte maturation. Eight isoproteic (40%) and isolipidic diets (6. Vitellogenesis AB: Abstract By the end of oocyte development. The haemocyanin fraction recovered from this stage of fractionation contained substantial amounts of lipid (16. R. Record 162 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Lipid accumulation in the ovaries of a marine shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus (De haan) AU: Author Ravid.9 mu g lipid mg super(-1) protein in the high-density lipoprotein fraction. indicating that the high-density . Boehm.to include them in practical diets in order to determine their effect on the growth of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles. The fish meal was partially replaced with red crab meal (diet DHL). Michelis. In fractions obtained by centrifugation of ovarian homogenates. Lubzens.

Article Taxonomic Terms: Rotifera AB: Abstract Group/genera and density of zooplankton and phytoplankton in 4 shrimp ponds at Trat Province were studied. the contribution of very high-density lipoproteins to lipid transport cannot be ruled out at this stage. DA SO: Source World Aquaculture [World Aquacult. 2. Jun 1999. 30. V SO: Source Proceedings of the 37th Kasetsart University Annual Conference. Record 164 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Zooplankton and Phytoplankton in Marine Shrimp Pond between Rearing AU: Author Rungsupa. Vol.Port Aransas and the Coastal Conservation Association/Marine Development Center. Davis Power Plant near Corpus Christi. which is still strong today. Three ponds were shrimp rearing pond the other control pond had no shrimp. Pond culture. In this study.lipoproteins are more likely to be the main transporters of lipids to the ovary. Texas AB: Abstract Corpus Christi. no. Texas A&M University excavated shrimp grow-out ponds at the Barney M. Niyomthamm. Texas has a long and rich history in the aquatic sciences and mariculture. May 1999. Phytoplankton. In addition to Texas A&M facilities. adding much to the knowledge of marine fish and shrimp culture. In the late 1960s. The University of Corpus Christi developed a marine biology program in the early 1950's. In 1968. The studied period of 130 days was started from the first rearing day which sampling plankton by . Poonsuk. Record 163 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The aggie mariculture program AU: Author McKee. Fish culture. However. 24-26. 246-251. we present two models for lipid transport to the ovary based on the abundance of phospholipids and triacylglycerols in the haemolymph and on the amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids accumulated within the ovary during vitellogenesis. USA. Eventually that project grew to include a research facility in Port Aransas that continues as The Texas A&M University System Shrimp Mariculture Research Laboratory. Education establishments. assisting in the development of commercial shrimp farming worldwide. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. pp. pp. K. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture enterprises. Article Geographic Terms: ASW. Shrimp culture. Zooplankton. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department-Corpus Christi are active in mariculture development. S.]. Texas delved into marine shrimp culture research with pioneering work undertaken by Corny Mock and Harry Cook at the Galveston Laboratory. the Fisheries and Mariculture Laboratory of The University of Texas.

SC.m control pond was 1. 261-268.filtered rearing water with 32 micron mesh size and preserved with 4% formalin.13 .]. Group/genera.m . the second order was blue green algae. and including several allele-diagnostic insertions and deletions.9 x 10 super(6) cells/cu.m .26 .36. Biotechnol. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus vannamei. Fish. the alleles are so similar to one another that a phylogenetic analysis does not cluster them into monophyletic groupings. Among 44 individuals analyzed. Vol.25 x 10 super(6) individuals/cu.4. Blue green algae was only one group that growth in the opposite direction compared to the other group.25 x 10 super(6) cells/cu. Genotypes. Tachino.m control pond was 2. Record 166 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Estimation of the carrying capacity for marine shrimp farming area at Kung Krabaen Bay AU: Author Siri Tookwinas SO: Source Thai marine fisheries research bulletin [Thai Mar.69 x 10 super(6) cells/cu. Average density of blue green algae in rearing pond was 8. SR SO: Source Marine Biotechnology [Mar. Record 165 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Intraspecific Genetic Diversity in the Marine Shrimp Penaeus vannamei: Multiple Polymorphic Elongation Factor-1 alpha Loci Revealed by Intron Sequencing AU: Author France. suggesting that we have identified two separate.5% sequence differences.m control pond was 0. pp. Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract Intron sequences from the elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1 alpha) gene from the marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei reveal extensive variation even among inbred populations of hatchery-raised shrimp. Vol. 3. we found 13 alleles varying by up to 7.51 .m control pond was 0. Palumbi. 17-25. High heterozygosity contrasts with low genetic variation at allozyme loci.86 x 10 super(6) cells/cu. 1999. pp. N.m. Bull. Res. dinoflagellate and diatom.m and average density of diatom was 0.86-26.9. no. Shleser. Average density of Rotifer in rearing pond was 1. TF Jr. We partitioned the observed alleles into two groups representing hypothetical duplicated loci. A possible explanation is that concerted evolution is acting to homogenize genetic variation among these two putative loci. density and most observed time between rearing pond and control pond was compared.006 x 10 super(6) cells/cu. Duda.]. 1. 1999.4 x 10 super(6) cells/cu. The first maximum group found was Rotifer. RA. Population genetics.71x10 super(6) individuals/cu. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Genetic diversity. However. 7. polymorphic loci. but we observed up to four alleles per individual. . Average density of dino-flagellate in rearing pond was 8.

59. Overexploitation. hardness. Record 167 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The Potential for Macrobrachium rosenbergii Culture in Arid Regions AU: Author Brooks. Article Geographic Terms: USA. rosenbergii. After spawning.Sci. rosenbergii. However. Simultaneously. 8. Constraints to culture include high ambient pH of surface waters. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Prawn culture. Crustacean larvae. However. GB SO: Source Dissertation Abstracts International Part B: Science and Engineering [Diss. Mitigation measures should be taken in order to reduce the impact on coastal environment. I reviewed physical conditions in Central Arizona and compared them to known requirements for culture of M. Aquaculture techniques. alkalinity. Vol. which was just equivalent to the farming area in 1994 (142. rosenbergii.DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Irrigation water. Agriculture. The integration of a highly valuable crop such as Macrobrachium with irrigated agriculture could be of benefit to arid land farmers. the objectives of my research were to: (1) Determine if the physical conditions for prawn culture occur in Arizona. My results suggest M. was estimated in 1994 by the mass balance model. B . p. contaminants and low winter water temperatures.62 ha in 1997. no. rosenbergii likely can be cultured seasonally in ponds filled with surface water within the representative region. Arid environments. periodic high hardness and . Int. Polyculture.76 ha). Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Environmental impact. the larvae were collected and the fecundity of the adult females determined. Thamai. Therefore. successful mass culture will require refinement of techniques used in my study. (2) Investigate the feasibility of inland larvae culture.]. Thailand. (3) Raise to maturity and spawn M. Culture effects. the shrimp farm around the bay has been expanded to 170. Wastewater aquaculture. Kung Krabaen Bay AB: Abstract The carrying capacity for marine shrimp farming area at Kung Krabaen Bay. Feb 1999. Abst. & Eng. (4) Assess the utility of a new species evaluation protocol.09 ha. Thailand. Aquaculture development. Pt. Chanthaburi. Using a specific farming region in Arizona as a model of arid land systems.039 mg/1. Constraints to culture include high source water pH. pressures to find more lucrative and water efficient crops are increasing in arid regions. 3789. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. Arizona AB: Abstract Recent declines in the availability of large marine shrimp reinvigorated the market for the freshwater prawn M. To meet these objectives. In 1994 the carrying capacity for marine shrimp farming was estimated at 167. developed a model larvae culture method and stocked postlarvae from the larvae culture experiments into ponds where they could grow to maturity and spawn. The maximum water quality criteria in Kung Krabaen Bay in terms of total ammonia was 0. Larvae culture is possible within the representative region. Freshwater crustaceans. it can be concluded that the shrimp farming area is over the carrying capacity of the bay. Pond culture. safe for aquatic organisms.

alkalinity levels and low winter temperatures. Improved filtration techniques in the incubator and a consistent availability of Artemia for food are also issues of concern. Prawns hatched and grown in Arizona spawned readily, were as fecund as other cultured stocks and produced viable larvae up through stage 2. the protocol I used was appropriate for evaluating a species for aquaculture at a new location. Overall, M. rosenbergii shows potential as a candidate for integration with irrigated agriculture systems within arid farming regions. Record 168 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Bio-Modulation of the Non-Specific Immune Response in Marine Shrimp with Beta-Glucan AU: Author Dugger, DM; Jory, DE SO: Source Aquaculture Magazine [Aquacult. Mag.]. Vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 81-86. Jan-Feb 1999. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture; Pathogenic bacteria; Antibiotics; Immunology; Disease control; Viral diseases; Therapy; Reviews; Immunostimulants; Immune response AB: Abstract The development of commercial culture of marine shrimp species has not occurred without incidences of both infectious and non-infectious diseases. In recent years several disease outbreaks have caused major problems and decimated the shrimp farming industries in several countries, including the top producing countries during the last ten years (China, Thailand, Indonesia, Taiwan and Ecuador). Virus diseases, for example, have severely affected the shrimp farming industries of many countries, causing significant production and economic losses. We now know there are 20 distinct viruses, or groups of viruses, which we are certain can infect penaeid shrimp. Other pathogens are also very important in marine shrimp farming, particularly various infectious bacteria. Shrimp farmers will undoubtedly need new weapons to fight back, and immunostimulants particularly betaglucans - are one of the potential weapons shrimp farmers may use effectively in their fight against shrimp diseases. Record 169 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Water Quality and Phytoplankton Communities in Intensive Shrimp Culture Ponds in Kung Krabaen Bay, Eastern Thailand AU: Author Tookwinas, S; Songsangjinda, P SO: Source Journal of the World Aquaculture Society [J. World Aquacult. Soc.]. Vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 36-45. 1999. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture; Water quality; Phytoplankton; Intensive culture; Article Geographic Terms: ISEW, Thailand, Kung Krabaen Bay AB: Abstract

Water quality and phytoplankton communities were studied in 20 intensive shrimp culture ponds and in the inlet and drainage canals at Kung Krabaen Bay, Eastern Thailand during the first shrimp crop of 1992. The grow-out ponds were categorized into two groups: low stocking density (<60 PL/m super(2)) and high stocking density (>60 PL/m super(2)). The results showed that there were no significant differences in water quality between the two stocking density groups. Phytoplankton collected using a 60- mu m mesh net consisted of 79 genera with concentrations ranging from 1,822 to 72,527 cells/L from the first month up to the time of shrimp harvesting. Water quality deteriorated in high and low stocking density shrimp ponds, which had an influence on abundance and diversity of net phytoplankton communities. Biochemical oxygen demand and ammonia-nitrogen were most closely related to abundance of net phytoplankton communities during the shrimp grow-out period. Salinity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen appeared to play an important role in phytoplankton community variation in inlet and drainage canals. Phytoplankton community structure in drainage canals showed more variation than in ponds. The management implications of the results and recommendations for further studies are also considered. Record 170 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Composition and Abundance of Macrobenthos in Intensive Tropical Marine Shrimp Culture Ponds AU: Author Shishehchian, F; Yusoff, FM SO: Source Journal of the World Aquaculture Society [J. World Aquacult. Soc.]. Vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 128-133. 1999. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Community composition; Zoobenthos; Shrimp culture; Pond culture; Abundance; Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon AB: Abstract The macro and meio-faunal benthic communities in shrimp ponds play a major role as natural food for shrimps. Earlier works indicated that penaeid shrimps are omnivores feeding mainly on live prey. Recent literature on shrimp feeding behavior in nature and in culture ponds shows that the diet of penaeid shrimp consists of crustaceans, fish, mollusks, polychaetes, radiolarians, sponges, nematodes, foraminifers, rotifers, copepods, insects, vegetable matter, algae, mud and sand particles. However, the significance of each food item has not yet been determined. Benthos forms one of the major food sources for shrimp in intensive and semi-intensive culture, in addition to artificial feed. Despite its importance as food, little information is available about the variation, composition and abundance of macrobenthos in culture of Penaeus monodon. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the composition and abundance of macrobenthos in P. monodon pond culture, the variation in macrobenthic community within the culture period, and the relation of this variation, with the fullness of the shrimp gut. The pond facilities were located at 2 degree 49' North and 101 degree 22' East on Carey Island, Peninsular Malaysia. Record 171 of 500

DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Chemoreception studies in relation to feeding responses in the marine shrimp H. Milne Edwards (Penaeus indicus) and Miers (Metapenaeus dobsoni) AU: Author Fernandez, CH SO: Source Naga [Naga]. Vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 20-21. 1999. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Feeding behaviour; Chemoreception; Chemical stimuli; Shrimp culture; Marine aquaculture; Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus indicus; Metapenaeus dobsoni AB: Abstract A study of chemoreception in relation to feeding and other factors involved showed that feeding behavior in shrimps can be triggered by chemical stimuli. However, Peneaus indicus and Metapenaeus dobsoni differ significantly in their chemotactic response to different stimuli. Record 172 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Application of water quality data to estimate the cultured oyster biomass in Hiroshima Bay AU: Author Songsangjinda, Putth; Matsuda, Osamu; Yamamoto, Tamiji; Rajendran, N; Maeda, Hajime SO: Source Fisheries science. Tokyo [Fish. Sci.]. Vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 673-678. 1999. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Oyster culture; Growth; Mortality; Water quality; Biomass; Modelling; Article Taxonomic Terms: Crassostrea gigas; Article Geographic Terms: INW, Japan, Honshu, Hiroshima Prefect., Hiroshima Bay AB: Abstract The cultured oyster biomass was estimated using biomass model, which was composed of the variables of growth, mortality, oyster fresh meat weight (FMW) and oyster numbers. Oyster growth and mortality were estimated using multiple linear equations composed of water quality variables. Results of the present study showed that actual growth was best modeled using an equation composed of difference values between two successive months of chlorophyll a, salinity and dissolved oxygen. The cumulative mortality estimated by the equation, which was composed of the variables FMW, annual minimum values of temperature, DO and chlorophyll a, also well simulated the observed mortality. The cultured biomass of oysters in different oyster culture areas (Atada, Miyajima, Hiroshima and Ondo) were estimated according to the culture techniques (Ikisu, Yokusei and Nokoshi). The results showed that the cultured biomass in all areas increased up to the maximum at the beginning of harvest season, and dropped sharply due to harvesting. The estimated growth and cumulative mortality of oyster were not much different between areas, indicating that a difference of oyster biomass in each culture area was significantly depended on the number of cultured oysters. Thus, this approach provides quantitative information of the cultured biomass of oysters in Hiroshima Bay which

has been difficult to monitor directly in the culture area. Record 173 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title On farm quality assurance for shrimp production in Thailand AU: Author Tookwinas, S; Boonyaratpalin, M; Choongam, C; Poongern, J SO: Source Papers presented at the Bangkok FAO Technical Consultation on Policies for Sustainable Shrimp Culture. Documentos presentados a la Consulta Tecnica FAO/Bangkok sobre Politicas para el Cultivo Sostenible del Camaron. no. 572, suppl., pp. 111-122. [FAO Fish. Rep./FAO Inf. Pesca]. 1999. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture; Intensive culture; Culture effects; Water quality control; Aquaculture regulations; Article Geographic Terms: ISEW, Thailand; ISW, Thailand AB: Abstract Intensive marine shrimp farming has been practised in Thailand for some 10 years during which period shrimp culture expanded rapidly along the coastal provinces of the country. Aquatic pollution due to effluent discharges and encroachment of culture areas into various ecosystems have been associated with the deterioration of coastal environment and mangrove destruction. Drug (and antibiotic) residues in shrimp flesh have also been found from time to time, causing in a few cases the rejection of products by importers. Mass mortalities caused by water pollution and diseases have occurred in many culture areas which have led to decrease in production and crop failures. Department of Fisheries (DOF) has had many programmes for marine shrimp farming sustainability. First, mobile units for technical services and disease inspection at farming sites have been organized and deployed by coastal aquaculture stations and centres. Water quality, red tide and farm sanitation monitoring programmes have been organized and scheduled in line with EU regulations. DOF has been appointed by the Government as the competent authority for export quality control of fisheries products to the EU markets. Raw materials as well as finished products are being inspected for quality and safety to consumers. Environmentally sustainable farming systems such as water recirculation, semi-closed water systems and biological treatment procedures have been studied and demonstrated by DOF. It is hoped that these measures could help in ensuring the sustainable farming of marine shrimp and producing high quality products. CA: Corporate Author FAO, Rome (Italy) Record 174 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Study on number and karyotype of a marine shrimp Trachypenaeus curvirostris AU: Author Zhou, Linghua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Jianhai SO: Source Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica/Haiyang Yu Huzhao [Oceanol. Limnol. Sin./Haiyang Yu Huzhao]. Vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 250-254. 1999.

DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans; Chromosomes; Karyotypes; Article Taxonomic Terms: Trachypenaeus curvirostris AB: Abstract The chromosomal number and karyotype in a marine shrimp Trachypenaeus curvirostris which is an important commercial species for the Chinese fisheries were studied using the materials of testicular tubules, embryos and nauplius larvae. The shrimps were collected from the coastal areas of Shilaoren, Qingdao, Shandong Province in April to July, 1990, 1994 and 1997. This tissue treatment process is as follows. Embryos: They were collected in a beaker and immersed with colchicine solution. 1-1.5 hours later, the embryos were treated by hypotoniclysis firstly with seawater (50%) for 20 min and then with KCl solution (0.075 mol/L) for 10-20 min. Another method is to undertake the hypotonic treatment with sodium citrate solution (0.3%) for 20-30 min. Nauplius: They were placed in a beaker and immersed with colchicine solution. 2-2.5 hours later the larvae were hypotonized with KCI solution for 20-30min. Adult shrimp: Colchicine was injected (1.5 mu g per body weight g) into the muscle of the first or the second abdominal segment, and kept alive in seawater for 4-6 hours. Individual shrimps were then sacrificed, the testis dissected out and cut into 2-3mm p ieces.They were hypotonic with KCI solution (0.075mol/L) for 20-30min. All tissues were fixed with fresh Carnoy's solution (methanol:acetic acid = 3:1) three times. Chromosome preparation and observation: Embryo, larvae or pieces of testicular tubules were placed on a clean slide and spread using a forcep. The samples were stained with 5% Giemsa solution (pH = 7.0). The spread plates were observed and photographed with an Olympus microscope. Classification of chromosome was based upon the methods of Levan et al (1964). The testicular tubules from the shrimp were used was the experimental materials for determining chromosome complements of meiotic bivalents. The somatic cells from the embryos and nauplius larvae were applied for both of karyotypes and the number of diploidy chromosome was determined. The results indicate that the chromosomal number of shrimp Trachypenaeus curvirostris is: n = 35 (2n=70). According to Levan's standard, the chromosomal karyotype of Trachypenaeus curvirostris is 2n = 42M + 10SM + 12ST + 6T. No sex-chromosome in the complements was observed. Record 175 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Separation of shrimp haemocytes (Penaeus monodon) and the opsonic effect of serum on phagocytic activity AU: Author Ekpanithanpong, U; Supamattaya, K; Boonyaratpalin, S SO: Source Asian fisheries science. Metro Manila [Asian Fish. Sci.]. Vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 337-342. 1999. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans; Haemolymph; Phagocytosis; Serum; Immunity; Disease resistance; Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon AB: Abstract Two cell types of shrimp (Penaeus monodon) haemocytes were separated by continuous gradient centrifugation. Granular haemocytes and hyaline cells were demonstrated in vitro for their phagocytic activity using glutaraldehyde-fixed sheep red blood cells (SRBC super(f)). The

4. 1999. In contrast.phagocytic activity of granular haemocytes was two times greater than that of hyaline cells. Polyunsaturated fatty acids. Oxidation. and differences were observed for the different variables measured between sexes. E SO: Source Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. but decreases in PUFA (primarily 22:6(n-3)) with increasing size-age in both sexes. superoxide dismutase. B [Comp. Physiol. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans. fluorescence intensity showed increasing trends in both sexes with increasing size-age. Article Geographic Terms: ANE. G. suggesting that opsonin in serum is one of the factors that play a role in the enhancement of shrimp phagocytosis. Biochem. The fatty acid composition showed increases in monounsaturated fatty acids (particularly 18:1 and 24:1 isomers) and dimethyl acetals. when expressed as % fluorescence brain super(-1) ( lambda sub(ex/em) 350-445 nm and lambda sub(ex/em). only males presented an upward trend with size-age ( lambda sub(ex/em) 400-455). increasing significantly in males but decreasing in females. glutathione peroxidases. Antioxidants.. Decapoda AU: Author Mourente. dietary antioxidants (vitamin E). Enzymatic activity. 400-455). the mechanisms that may result in the deposition of age-pigments in relation to the physiological age of this species in its natural environment were investigated. Moreover. 405-416. no. the oxidation status (malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and the fluorescence intensity of lipid-soluble fluorescent products (LSFP)) and lipid composition (lipid classes and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) as pro-oxidants) in neural tissues from males and females of wild-caught size-class distributed blue and red marine shrimp Aristeus antennatus. trawled off the south coast of Spain. Enzymes. pp. The antioxidant enzyme activities showed clearer patterns . Vol. However. Haemocytes opsonized by shrimp serum increased phagocytic activity compared to the normal one. 1816) Crustacea. Spain AB: Abstract The objectives of the study were to characterize the enzymic antioxidant system (free radical scavenging enzymes such as catalase. The proportion of polar lipids (primarily phosphatidylcholine. cerebrosides increased significantly from size-age class I to III in males but no significant differences were observed in females. when expressed as % fluorescence mg super(-1) brain total lipid. The concentration of vitamin E (ng mg super(-1) brain) did not show significant differences between different size-age classes within the same sex and showed a molar ratio of one molecule of vitamin E per approximately 200 molecules of PUFA in brain membranes. Three different size classes were defined for males and four for females. Diaz-Salvago. B]. Brain. 124B. However. phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine) predominated over that of neutral lipids. Record 176 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Characterization of antioxidant systems. glutathione transferase and glutathione reductase). The concentration of MDA (nmol g super(-1) brain) did not present any marked trend with size-age in both sexes. Lipids. Article Taxonomic Terms: Aristeus antennatus. oxidation status and lipids in brain of wild-caught size-class distributed Aristeus antennatus (Risso.

Publ. Embryo cryopreservation and in vitro fertilization have not been developed. Induced breeding. Article Geographic Terms: ISE. Cent. Thanomkiat. Biol. and techniques for commercial gamete production and spawning in Costa Rica. Eyestalk ablation is still the only hormonal technique for female maturation. fertilization. pp. Biotechnology. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. but serotonin treatment could be an alternative. 1999. Warraporn. 1999. Costa Rica AB: Abstract The current knowledge on shrimp sex determination. 87-92. is reviewed. Special publication. 15-16. Prompoj SO: Source Proceedings of an International Workshop on the Rehabilitation of Degraded Coastal Systems. Suitability of sites for shrimp culture was judged on a scale of 1-4 related to degree of compatibility. Phuket Marine Biological Center. Tookwinas. Heredia [UNICIENCIA]. Marine aquaculture. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. J SO: Source UNICIENCIA. Article Geographic Terms: ISW. ISEW. Thailand AB: Abstract Seventeen coastal zone characteristics were selected as criteria in a compatibility analysis used to evaluate sites suitable for marine shrimp culture in the Gulf of Thailand and along the Andaman coast. hormonal control of maturation. 19-24 January 1998. AU: Author Siri. Record 178 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Using multiple-use criteria for coastal zone planning for marine shrimp culture in Thailand. Andaman Sea. although the different patterns encountered between sexes for the variables measured points to males as better subjects for this type of study. It was found that controlled reproduction of shrimp is a commercial activity. Coastal zone. no. Kwanruethai. Phuket Mar. Sex determination.]. The advance on spermatophore production is a new contribution for the controlled reproduction of shrimp. Record 177 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title (Reproduction control of marine shrimp). Results showed that the most suitable area for marine shrimp culture was in the southern Gulf of . 101-110. AU: Author Alfaro Montoya. Phuket [Spec. 20.with increasing size-age in males than in females. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. pp. Aquaculture techniques. Hormones. however the genetic model for sex determination and sex reversal have not been established. Eyestalk extirpation. Vol. Site selection. with catalase and glutathione transferase presenting downward trends and superoxide dismutase and total glutathione peroxidase showing upward trends. The fluorescence analysis of brain LSFP was not a useful tool to separate the population into different size-age classes.

. especially in Samutpakarn.. Zhou. Sin. Record 180 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Studies of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers on genomic DNA polymorphism in six species of marine shrimp.195 ha. The importance of of cryogenic storage of spermatozoa is discussed. 30. Sperm.894 ha. Milne Edwards. Linsheng. Article Geographic Terms: ISW. It has been estimated that suitable areas for shrimp farms can be found in 17 coastal provinces with a total area of 62. DNA. Activational changes in spermatozoa during acrosome reaction after induction with egg water have also been recorded. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus chinensis. Penaeus indicus H. Shoulin.25M) showed best viability rate (75 to 80%) in freeze. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Population genetics. Genetic diversity.Thailand with an area of 39. AU: Author Diwan. no. Among several cryoprotectants used. 159-166. Shandong Prov. pp. People's Rep. Marine crustaceans. Phylogenetics. no. Penaeus indicus. Jiaozhou Bay AB: Abstract Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was applied to study the polymorphism of genomic DNA of six marine shrimps in different . AD./Haiyang Yu Huzhao. 46. Parapenaeopsis tenella. Freezing storage. thawed spermatozoa. DMSO (5%) and trechalose (0. 62-67. 1999. Viable spermatozoa could be preserved successfully for a period of 60 days at -35 C and -196 C. 1. Genomes. Vol. Metapenaeus joyneri. 2. The second most suitable area was on the south-west coast of Thailand with an area of 6. Shrimp culture. Fish. pp. Biopolymorphism. Article Geographic Terms: INW. (Thailand) Record 179 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Cryopreservation of spermatophores of the marine shrimp. 1999. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Spermatophores. Jianhai. Ruiyu SO: Source Oceanol. Vol. Samutsongkarm and some parts of Petburi provinces are not suitable for marine shrimp culture. CA: Corporate Author Phuket Marine Biological Cent. Liu. AU: Author Song. The central Gulf of Thailand. Xiang. Trachypenaeus curvirostris. India AB: Abstract Attempts on cryopreservation of spermatozoa have been made in penaeid shrimp. Marine crustaceans.. S SO: Source Indian J. Linghua.809 ha.111 ha. and the third most suitable area was on the north eastern Gulf of Thailand with an area of 16. a combination of DMSO (5%) and glycerol (5%). Joseph. Chemotaxonomy. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus indicus. Limnol. Zhang. China. Samutsakorn.

1931 .72% of it was grazed by zooplankton in the period of 6 hours. respectively in 6 hours. 0. and the relevant selection indices were 0. Exopalaemon carinicauda and Crangon affinis. 0. etc. The results and in good overall agreement with classical taxonomy. Record 182 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Development of a bath challenge for the marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei Boone. Amplifications with 20 primers under predetermined optimal reaction conditions (samples were first heated at 94 degree C for 5 min. And followed by 45 cycles of 1 min at 94 degree C. AU: Author Zhao. 35. 1996. The phylogenetic trees were constructed with the method of bootstrap on the basis of the presence and absence of the amplified polymorphic DNA fragments. genus and species. Trachypenaeus curvirostris. families. 1 min at 36 degree C.38ml /(L times h). 36. The amplified fragments were scored as present (1) or absent (0) for each DNA sample and an index of degree of band sharing (F) was calculated by using Nei and Li' s matching coefficient method. The results showed that the total clearance rate of zooplanktonic community is 80. As far as the abundance of the major algal species. The results from the three methods of cluster analysis are similar in general. Shandong Province.4345 and 0. 1.families or genus Penaeus chinensis.46%.56%. Liu. Qingdao in Oct.25ngC/(ind times h). 2.the total grazing rate is 10. Parapenaeopsis tenella. pp. Zooplankton grazed most effectively on phytoflagellates such as Cryptomonas ovata. then held at 72 degree C for 10 min. the selective feeding rates on them were 92. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Zooplankton.7331. Phytoplankton.50 mu gC /L times h). Platymonas cordiformis and Cyclotella sp. no. i.13 mu l/(ind times h).6717. Wen. 19. 1999. and 2 min at 72 degree C.. i. Record 181 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title In situ grazing capacity of zooplankton grazing on phytoplankton in marine shrimp ponds.) gave 282 reproducible amplified fragments ranging between 230 and 2800 bp. e. The value of (1-F) was used to evaluate genetic distances between species. On the basis of numbers per liter.68%. Navicula sp. 217-222.22% and 32./Shengtai Xuebao]. and with the methods of UPGMA and NJ on the basis of genetic distances. Vol.3913. Guocai SO: Source Acta ecologica sinica/Shengtai Xuebao. 11. which were collected from Jiaozhou Bay. 72. Grazing AB: Abstract A direct counting method was used to estimate in situ grazing capacity of zooplankton grazing on phytoplankton in the marine shrimp ponds located in Haiyiang city. It is suggested that random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) approaches are as useful in providing markers for marine animal genetics as they have been for other species. Sin. Metapenaus joyneri. and the relationships indicated by the phylogenetic trees show the difference between orders. e. Beijing [Acta Ecol.

MV SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture]. a selective breeding program is being developed by the U. Record 184 of 500 . Shrimp culture. The breeding program relies not only on heritability estimates for fast growth and resistance to Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) disease but also on using genetic markers to assist in broodstock management and ensure the best quality of the program. 0 to 13% for the third. Currently. A SO: Source Abstracts of the First Annual Northeast Aquaculture Conference and Exposition. Marine Shrimp Farming Program (USMSFP) based on cultured specific-pathogen free (SPF) and resistant (SPR) Penaeus vannamei stocks which originated from populations of various geographic regions in Mexico and Ecuador. and 0 to 3% for the control. Vol. Vibrio parahaemolyticus AB: Abstract Despite the major financial losses caused by vibriosis in shrimp culture. Therapy. Turnbull. Bacterial diseases. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus vannamei. Gomez-Gil. A. Aquaculture. Record 183 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Genetic markers: A basic tool for genetic seletion programs in shrimp aquaculture AU: Author Alcivar-Warren. no reliable laboratory model has yet been developed for this disease. Four different treatments were applied to the shrimp: (1) shrimps were wounded on the third abdominal segment and were immediately exposed to a bath of Vibrio parahaemolyticus afterwards. Escalante. In this study. parahaemolyticus. Pathogenic bacteria. limited information is available on the optimization of economically important quantitative traits. Disease control. and (4) control. The experiment was repeated four times to verify the reproducibility of the technique. due to the lack of controlled breeding programs within the industry. Vibriosis. 169. B. G. shrimps were neither wounded nor challenged. a bath challenge technique was developed for juveniles of the marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. 283-290.S. 1 Dec 1998. Nov 1998. Hybrid culture. Aquaculture techniques. pp. A reproducible experimental model is therefore urgently required for further study. (2) shrimps were only wounded. Alday-Sanz. In shrimp. 12 to 22% for the second. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus vannamei AB: Abstract Marker-assisted approaches for selective breeding of aquaculture species may lead to controlled genetic manipulation that can strategically enhance the growth performance and disease resistance characteristics of the species. Mortality. All the mortalities occurred within four days and the cumulative mortalities were significantly different between treatments: varying from 37 to 52% for the first treatment. JF. 3-4.AU: Author Roque. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Genetics. p. (3) shrimps were only exposed to V. 74. no.

MA. handling. Storage effects. 1998. A SO: Source Ophelia [Ophelia]. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Chromosomes. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus notialis. 27-30 August 1996. Kisumu. Record 185 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Post-harvest management and spoilage of tropical shrimps (Penaeus notialis) AU: Author Hodari-Okae. 2. No telocentric chromosome or secondary constrictions were observed. no. Karyotypes. Curing. Kenya. confirmed by the modal haploid chromosome number of n = 44 found in adult testis. Annan. Rep. 83-95.DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Karyotype of the marine shrimp Penaeus indicus (Crustacea. The most common marine shrimp species (Penaeus notialis) was smoked in traditional ovens. Nauplii. The chromosomal analysis of nauplii revealed a modal diploid chromosome number of 2n = 88. Vol. Nov 1998. Processing fishery products. Diter. Article Geographic Terms: Ghana AB: Abstract Traditional shrimp processing sties and marketing centres in Ghana were surveyed to evaluate the effectiveness of traditional methods of processing and storage. Plahar. Fish spoilage. No sex chromosomes could be identified. Decapoda) established by using an image analysis system AU: Author Morelli. Analytical techniques. Developmental stages. Drying involved spreading the shrimps in the open sun on mats. Improper and unhygienic management. NT SO: Source Report and proceedings of the sixth FAO Expert Consultation on Fish Technology in Africa. The chromosome pairing. sea sand or bare ground. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus indicus AB: Abstract A cytogenetic study was carried out in the shrimp Penaeus indicus using semi-automatic image analysis. Drying. M. Kenya./FAO Rapp. Crustacean larvae. a technique for chromosome morphometric measurements newly applied in crustaceans. 574. Fishery industry. automatically performed by a software application. resulting in considerable quantitative and qualitative . revealed variations in the karyotypic formula. pp. Kisumu. 8 to 15 submetacentric (SM). 27-30 aout 1996. Le Dean. Smoking and sun-drying were found to be the only methods used in shrimp processing in this country. 49. and 1 to 4 subtelocentric (ST) pairs. pp. not only due to differences of chromosome condensation between metaphases. The beetle Dermestes frischii was found to infect the shrimp in large quantities. In eight metaphases karyotyped were counted 27 to 35 metacentric (M). storage and marketing procedures were found to lead to massive economic and financial loss to the processors and retailers alike as a result of high contamination of the shrimps. Peches]. no. 38-44. Quality control. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp fisheries. L. V. WA. Imaging techniques. Rapport et contributions de la sixieme Consultation d'experts FAO sur la technologie du poisson en Afrique. Vonau. [FAO Fish.

After 8 d of being fed OTC-enriched Artemia sp. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon AB: Abstract Feeding experiments were conducted using amino acid test diets to determine the dietary requirements of juvenile Penaeus monodon for lysine and arginine. Kanazawa. 29.12 mu g OTC/shrimp. Juveniles. which is twelve times greater than the average minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) cited in the literature for sensitive strains of Vibrio spp. no. Gomez-Gil. Bautista-Teruel. 95-104. Animal nutrition. pp. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon. Vol. Packaging is done by loading the fish in sacks and paper-lined baskets in large quantities such that stacking during transporation leads to fragmentation and spoilage. Feeding experiments. World Aquacult. B SO: Source Journal of the World Aquaculture Society [J.]. JF. and the water of the experimental system were measured by radial diffusion bioassay. The natural protein was supplied by casein and gelatin. Record 187 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Requirements of juvenile marine shrimp. enriched with oxytetracycline (OTC). Various bacteria and fungi were isolated in the processed shrimp. OM. Arginine. 1 May 1998. The amounts of this antibiotic in the Artemia sp. The process of sun-drying exposed shrimps more to deterioration due to oxidation. 249-251. antibiotics. Turnbull. Lysine. Bacteriocides. no. A.. Rome [Italy] Record 186 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Delivery of Bioencapsulated Oxytetracycline to the Marine Shrimp Penaeus monodon AU: Author Roque. Nutritional requirements. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Disease control.losses. both microbial counts increased correlating with a decrease in sensory quality. The recommended therapeutic dose for treatment of bacterial infections is four times the MIC. 2. Amino acids. OS. 1-4. the shrimp. Fish diseases. Soc. Vol. although no pathogen of public health significance was isolated. Jun 1998. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. CA: Corporate Author FAO. With storage. pp. Crystalline l .. the shrimp were found to contain 3. MN. The results indicated that 11% of the OTC was taken up by the Artemia sp. Two sets of the test diets were prepared. A SO: Source Aquaculture [AQUACULTURE]. with resultant increase in free fatty acids as compared to the smoking process. Shrimp culture. Artemia. 164. Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) for lysine and arginine AU: Author Millamena. Vibrio AB: Abstract Post larvae of shrimp Penaeus monodon were fed Artemia sp. Reyes.

much of this production continues to rely on nauplii derived from wild gravid spawners collected at sea. Reviews. 3-21. the process of vitellogenesis in penaeid shrimp and the mechanical and physiological processes involved in fertilization. 164. However. serious gaps remain in the basic understanding of the hormonal control of reproduction. In many areas. PL20.6-3. Record 188 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Recent developments in penaeid broodstock and seed production technologies: improving the outlook for superior captive stocks AU: Author Browdy. there is a generally accepted perception among hatchery managers and growers that performance of nauplii and postlarvae derived from wild matured spawners is superior to captive matured or pond reared animals. hatchery production technologies have improved slowly over the past 20 years.18-3. This information is crucial in formulating cost-effective practical diets for juvenile tiger shrimp.3% of dietary protein. The requirement of juvenile P. in areas with readily available indigenous stocks of species of choice. were randomly distributed at 10 shrimp per tank in 40-l fiberglass tanks and reared on the diets for 50-56 days. Challenges associated with disease control and reducing reliance on natural feeds are being met through research efforts in the private and public sectors. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture.5 mg.08% of the diet or 5. monodon for lysine was estimated to be 2. wild stocks are facing increasing pressure and shrimp farming continues to . fry are still collected from the wild for stocking into ponds. CL SO: Source Aquaculture [AQUACULTURE]. 1 May 1998. Seed (aquaculture).28% of the diet and another set contained arginine at 0. Seed production. Brood stocks. high quality seed for stocking ponds. Improved hygiene and biosecurity. Presently. Hatcheries AB: Abstract Pond culture of marine shrimp currently accounts for about 30% of world supply and production continues to expand. One set of experimental diets contained graded levels of lysine at 1. Stock assessment. Shrimp postlarvae.85% of the diet or 5. Growth.0% of the diet. pp. 1-4. Pond culture. To stabilize seed supplies and expand to new areas. and K-carrageenan to prevent leaching losses of amino acids. Aquaculture techniques. The future success of shrimp farming will depend upon increasing supplies of healthy.-amino acids were added to provide an amino acid profile similar to shrimp muscle protein except for the test amino acid. Although techniques for captive maturation and spawning have been well defined. Vol. As we approach the 21st century. no. development of probiotics and immunostimulants and improvement of artificial feeds promise better postlarval fitness while reducing cost and improving reliability of production. with mean weight of 21 plus or minus 0. survival and feed conversion efficiency were determined at termination of feeding trials and signs of nutritional deficiency noted. Lysine and arginine requirements were determined from relationships between weight gains and dietary lysine and arginine levels as analyzed by the broken-line regression method. The amino acid mixture was pre-coated with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and diets were further bound with CMC.2% of dietary protein while the requirement for arginine was 1. cornstarch.

93 were obtained. and mean abnormal sperm of 32. 160.05) indicating that either seawater or Ca-free saline can be used as the homogenate medium and as the storage medium for gonadal tissue to be used in gross morphology determinations. 24 and 36 h. Temperature tolerance. 12. Research and development efforts aimed at closing the life cycle of several commercially important species are underway. The development of healthy. New viral disease epidemics continue to arise and spread quickly across entire regions. The present paper is a review of recent developments in penaeid broodstock and seed production technologies focusing on current limitations while defining the significant potential offered by emerging developments. 63-67. encouraging results illustrating the potential for disease control. Additionally. Sperm. significantly impacting industry viability. Shrimp culture. Record 190 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Nutritional Requirements of the Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium . DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Sea water.d.expand into new areas. 1-2. Thirty additional males were sacrificed and their carapace sections (without hepatopancreas and tail section) were placed into either seawater or a Ca-free saline solution in an incubator at 15 degree C for 3. Lawrence.. Spermatophores. vannamei males (48. no. seawater was compared with Ca-free saline solution as the medium for tissue storage and for sperm homogenization. n =9) was taken with freshly ejaculated spermatophores and evaluated for sperm counts and percent morphologically abnormal sperm.00 x 10 6 plus or minus 8. While significant limitations remain. genetically improved shrimp stocks represents a tremendous economic opportunity while potentially improving the outlook for long term industry sustainability. for use in sperm gross morphology evaluations.09% plus or minus 9.24 s. Record 189 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Male viability determinations in Penaeus vannamei: evaluation of short-term storage of spermatophores up to 36 h and comparison of Ca-free saline and seawater as sperm homogenate media AU: Author Bray.3 g plus or minus 2. AL SO: Source Aquaculture [AQUACULTURE].e. Vol. A baseline sample of P. Freezing storage. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus vannamei AB: Abstract Short term storage up to 36 h was evaluated for male gonad tissue of the marine shrimp. pp. 1 Apr 1998. WA. away from traditional sources of wild seed. 6. Gonads. There were no significant differences in either sperm counts or percent abnormal sperm observed at each time period ( proportional to =0. Baseline values of mean sperm of 52. In addition. Penaeus vannamei .75 s. There were no significant differences between the freshly ejaculated spermatophores and spermatophores stored up to 36 h at 15 degree C for either total sperm counts or percent abnormal determinations. disease resistance and improved growth have been reported. samples taken at each time interval were compared with the baseline sample.

both classes of n-6 and n-3 PUFAs with more than 20 carbon atoms [>20C] are equally effective in producing maximum weight gain responses. Qualitative and quantitative fatty acid requirements of the freshwater shrimp are reflective of the lower n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio found in the body tissue. if any. Vol. rosenbergii. A comparison of essential amino acid proportions [A/E ratios] between M. The dietary requirement for PUFAs appears to be lower than that of penaeid shrimp. no. rosenbergii requires dietary phospholipid. There is still a level of uncertainty about whether M. Anim. A combination of dietary phytosterols is equally effective as cholesterol in satisfying a dietary sterol requirement of 0. M. Penaeidae AB: Abstract The nutritional requirements of the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii are reviewed and compared with those reported for several species of marine shrimp genus Penaeus. 1-2. Record 191 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Isolation and identification of Mycobacterium peregrinum from the Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei AU: Author Mohney. Nutritional requirements. rosenbergii and penaeid species suggests only minor.rosenbergii: Comparisons with Species of Penaeid Shrimp AU: Author D'Abramo. Sci. differences in requirements of essential amino acids exist. Amino acids. Aquat. DE: Descriptors . DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Prawn culture. pp. pp. rosenbergii and penaeid shrimp appear to use the same biosynthetic pathway for the production of the carotenoid astaxanthin from dietary beta -carotene and canthaxanthin. Penaeid species require sterols. LL. BT*. A requirement may be age dependent. Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium rosenbergii. if not all. 1. Health]. The freshwater prawn obtains most. particularly phosphatidylcholine. 6. 10. JH.6% for juvenile M. a vitamin C requirement for M. Absence of dietary 18 degree C n-3 or n-6 PUFAs does not affect growth but is associated with a reduction in the weight of the midgut gland expressed as a percent of whole body weight. Poulos. Fish. rosenbergii has been identified and estimated to be 100 mg/kg. The levels of different ingredients used in the manufacture of diets will ultimately depend on relative digestibilities and nutrient requirements as influenced by the age of the animal and the system used for culture. as suggested for larval and juvenile forms of penaeid species. Brooker. 83-88. Cage. LR SO: Source Reviews in Fisheries Science [Rev.]. Vitamin C. Mar 1998. Mar 1998. of its dietary energy requirement from carbohydrates and lipids. but dietary phytosterols are not as effective as cholesterol in promoting growth. Protein sparing is maximized when the dietary lipid: carbohydrate ratio is 1:4. DV SO: Source Journal of Aquatic Animal Health [J. Lightner. Most of the information has been derived from experiments with juveniles. thus sparing protein. 153-163. In contrast to marine shrimp. no. Crustacean larvae. GD. Fatty acids. Using water-stable sources of dietary vitamin C. Vol.

GJ SO: Source Marine Biology [Mar. pp. Penaeus vannamei AB: Abstract Mycobacterium peregrinum was isolated from multifocal. including male gonopores. Pathogenic bacteria. Article Taxonomic Terms: Lysmata wurdemanni. RT. Article Taxonomic Terms: Mycobacterium peregrinum. USA. 1998. "Transitionals. using time-lapse video observations on mating in pairs of "female-phase" (FP) individuals. male pleopod characters were absent or reduced. Videotape recordings. Carapace. no. All smaller individuals possessed characters typical of caridean males. However. This is the first identification of this species of Mycobacterium in shrimp. 2. The potential for accidental infections of shrimp farm or packing plant workers from handling infected shrimp is of concern since nodular skin lesions induced by the bacterium are difficult to treat. ejaculatory ducts. Vol. and cincinnuli on the first pleopods. Port Aransas AB: Abstract Simultaneous hermaphroditism with outcrossing. The lesions appeared to be the result of opportunistic infections in otherwise healthy animals. Body size. which spawn eggs and incubate embryos. showed a greater relative size. also had male gonopores and an ovotestis terminating in ejaculatory ducts containing sperm. Texas. Record 192 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Simultaneous hermaphroditism in the marine shrimp Lysmata wurdemanni (Caridea: Hippolytidae): An undescribed sexual system in the decapod Crustacea AU: Author Bauer. and a female incubatory character. Human diseases. the gonad of these male-phase (MP) individuals was an ovotestis with an undeveloped ovarian partion. Holt. 223-235. In FPs. were rare and overlapped completely in size with FP and larger MP individuals. Smaller size classes of the population were composed only of MPs while larger size classes consisted of both MPs and FPs. Lesions. New records. Cultured organisms. peregrinum in cultured shrimp has a direct negative impact on the marketability of shrimp because it causes obvious black lesions. Reproductive behaviour. wurdemanni. is documented in the shrimp Lysmata wurdemanni. Social interactions may mediate MP change into FP hermaphrodites in L.Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. The presence of M. expanded pleopod flanges. melanized nodular lesions in the carapace of the cultured marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei. Article Geographic Terms: ASW. wurdemanni and other Lysmata may determine the exact form of the sexual system in these species. It is suggested that not all MPs transform into FP hermaphrodites. 132. female-phase hermaphrodites maintained in isolation were unable to self-fertilize spawned eggs.]. . DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans. appendices masculinae. Copulations between FPs resulted in successful spawning and development of embryos. Seafood. Microbial contamination. The social system of L. However. Processing fishery products. Hermaphroditism. Microbiological analysis. Bacterial diseases. a previously unconfirmed sexual system in decapod crustaceans." individuals with MP characters but an ovotestis containing vitellogenic oocytes. Biol. FPs.

Vol. copper (Cu super(2+)). These strains were able to grow in the presence of silver (Ag super(+)). 159. All 10 isolated strains were resistant to erythromycin (30 mu g/mL). 333-343. JA SO: Source Aquaculture [AQUACULTURE]. Quiel E. ampicillin (100 mu g/mL). DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Pathogenic bacteria./REV. The polymorphism suggests the presence of repeated DNA sequence elements in the intergenic spacer region upstream from the promoter for transcription of the rRNA genes. no. Article Geographic Terms: ISW. Biological resistance. Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated from the alimentary canal and gills of the shrimp as the sole isolate. CAN. 186-189. cobalt (Co super(2+)). pneumoniae. 3-4. Feb 1998. Therapy. RNA. MICROBIOL. nickel. furazolidone (100 mu g/mL). 44. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Genetic variance. pp. P. We have found that the rRNA genes are polymorphic within and between individual shrimp and between selectively bred families. and penicillin (100 IU). and copper was encoded by a 3. Vol. Article Taxonomic Terms: Klebsiella pneumoniae. nickel (Ni super(2+)). and zinc (Zn super(2+)) at concentrations up to 10 mM.5-kb plasmid of K. Biopolymorphism. Record 194 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Structure and polymorphism of ribosomal RNA genes in the marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei AU: Author Bagshaw. Resistance to lead. Penaeus vannamei. Kumar.and metal-resistant strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from Penaeus monodon of the coastal waters of deltaic Sundarban AU: Author Choudhury. MICROBIOL. such repeated . R* SO: Source Canadian Journal of Microbiology/Revue Canadienne de Microbiologie [CAN.Record 193 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Multidrug. India during the premonsoon period in 1996. All the strains showed similar plasmid profiles. lead (Pb super(2+)). JC. ranging in sizes from 1. cobalt.]. Sundarbans AB: Abstract Marine shrimp of the species Penaeus monodon were collected from the coastal region (Haroa) of the deltaic Sundarbans of West Bengal. cadmium (Cd super(2+)). In other organisms.8 to 120 kb. India. Shrimp culture. Marine aquaculture. 1 Jan 1998. J. 2. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus vannamei AB: Abstract We have examined the structure and polymorphism of the genes that encode ribosomal RNA in the Pacific whiteleg shrimp. pp. no.. Synthesis of a 14-kDa periplasmic protein was increased when they were grown in presence of 10 mM Cu super(2+). West Bengal. Penaeus monodon. Aquaculture techniques.

pond aeration systems have been developed which will sustain large quantities of fish and invertebrate biomass.elements have been shown to serve as alternative promoters or enhancers for transcription. Intensive culture. management and production of a recirculating raceway system for the production of marine shrimp AU: Author Davis. Both bait shrimp (Penaeus setiferus) and food shrimp (P. 1998. vannamei. 18. vannamei) have been produced with final biomass loads as high as 10 kg/m super(3) utilizing 100-120-day and 160-175-day production cycles. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aeration. Although traditional pond production systems will continue to be the dominant driving force in aquaculture expansion. no. This paper reports on techniques which have been developed for the production of marine shrimp in recirculating raceway systems and typical results which have been observed over a 6-year production period. the observed polymorphism might be linked to traits important for shrimp aquaculture. 1998. Raceway culture. If the same is true in P. Eng. water reuse systems is one alternative to conventional pond production systems which addresses restrictions associated with environmental regulations and user conflicts of coastal land and water usage. Results from multi-phase growouth are most promising and indicate that this may be a suitable mechanism to optimize biomass loading of the culture system. Vol. no. 1. Penaeus vannamei AB: Abstract Despite continuing problems with disease outbreaks and environmental concerns over effluent pollution and land usage. the consistent results of production. 9-40. 3.]. Vol. . Recirculating systems. pp. Aquaculture systems. Ponds AB: Abstract During the past decade. Eng. Record 195 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The design. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus setiferus. world shrimp farming continues to expand. there is continued interest in alternate production systems. Record 196 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Pond water aeration systems AU: Author Boyd. pp. Arnold. CE SO: Source Aquacultural Engineering [Aquacult. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. 193-211. DA. Although the economic viability of recirculating production systems for bait and food size shrimp have yet to be proven. respectively. low water usage and ease of waste management are encouraging and warrant further economic and marketing evaluations. 17. CR SO: Source Aquacultural Engineering [Aquacult. The use of high density.].

Fishery management. This reduces the loss of oxygen from ponds by diffusion. Water circulation devices also enhance DO supplies in ponds by mixing DO supersaturated surface waters with deeper waters of lower DO concentration. additions of compounds which release oxygen through chemical reactions. Bartley. Aerators usually are positioned in ponds to provide maximum water circulation. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture development. The Iranian Fisheries Company SHILAT is involved in developing national programmes for development. pp. Article Geographic Terms: Iran AB: Abstract Recent developments in the aquaculture sector in Iran are outlined. and accumulation of sediment piles in central areas of ponds where water currents are weaker. Paddlewheel aerators and propeller-aspirator-pumps are probably most widely used. trout and marine shrimp currently form the basis of Iranian aquaculture. 19. Stocking (organisms). Automatic devices to start and stop aerators in response to daily changes in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations are improving. Newsl. Several procedures have been used in attempts to increase DO concentrations in ponds. These methods include exchanging part of the oxygen-depleted pond water with oxygenated water from a well. Freshwater aquaculture. To promote aquaculture as an independent economic activity. Record 197 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Iran promotes aquaculture development AU: Author Rana. DM SO: Source FAO aquaculture newsletter. Rome [FAO Aquacult. release of pure oxygen gas into pond waters.]. Aeration-performance testing has been important in selecting design features to provide cost-effective yet efficient aquaculture pond aerators. or other source. application of fertilizer to stimulate oxygen production by photosynthesis of aquatic plants. The culture of carp. and aeration with mechanical devices which either splash water into the air or release bubbles of air into the water. K.These aeration systems are modifications of standard wastewater aeration equipment. 26-30. which include: making the private sector solely . pond. with various re-stocking programmes for the Caspian Sea and other inland water bodies. Amounts of aeration vary from as little as 1-2 kW ha super(-1) in some types of fish culture to as much as 15 or 20 kW ha super(-1) in intensive culture of marine shrimp. no. Augmentation of natural supplies of DO in ponds often is necessary to prevent stress or mortality of fish and crustaceans when DO concentrations are low. Aquaculture development in the country started in the early 1970s. but they are expensive and not completely reliable. Calculations suggest that about 500 kg additional production of fish or crustaceans can be achieved per kW of aeration. 1998. Recent studies suggest that the use of heavy aeration to provide the greatest possible production is less profitable than moderate aeration to improve water quality and enhance feed conversion efficiency. This practice can result in erosion of pond bottoms and inside slopes of embankments. Iran has taken several initial steps to encourage private sector involvement. Inland fisheries. management and conservation of aquatic resources for fisheries and aquaculture.

with the aim to study the sustainability of marine shrimp aquaculture in tropical areas. Mekong R. the temporal variation during the course of the project (3 years) and the relation between the ecological structure and farm productions. ecology and remote sensing as helping tools for diagnosis AU: Author Fuchs. GIS. J. The current situation and capacity are outlined. granting 25 year tax exemption for farms. Developing countries. An evaluation of the relationship existing between productivity and characteristics of each ecosystem has been conducted by correlating ecological indicators data (concentration of total suspended matter. Indonesia AB: Abstract The STD3 project titled "Assessment of tropical shrimp aquaculture impact on the environment in tropical countries using hydrobiology. Martin. Lastly. all geographic data originated from the various compartments of the study have been geo-referenced and loaded into a geographical information system. using hydrobiology. Site selection. JLM. Sustainable development. chlorophyll. Remote sensing.. particulate organic matter. Socio-economic aspects. mounting effective public promotion initiatives to increase fish consumption.responsible for fingerling production for ongrowing. New Caledonia. Aquaculture effluents. Populus. Productivity. (ii) analyse the socio-economical aspects and profitability of the aquaculture industry and of common resources (iii) use remote sensing and geographical data bases for diagnosis and monitoring of site degradation (iv) reinforce the capacity of Asian scientists through training. Issy-les-Moulineaux (France). providing low interest loans. indicating also potential for future development. 263 pp. Record 198 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Assessment of tropical shrimp aquaculture impact on the environment in tropical countries. and. providing low price fisherlings from state hatcheries. percentage of pheopigments in total pigments and cyanobacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria in water and sediments) with the average production of the farms. subsidizing feed ingredients for feed production. Issy-les-Moulineaux (France) DRV/RA Record 199 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts . J SO: Source Ifremer. Environmental impact. Article Geographic Terms: Asia. Socioeconomic aspects. Aquaculture. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. ecology and remote sensing as helping tools for diagnosis" was initiated in 1994. providing low priced or free land with service. mainly Indonesia and Vietnam. such as roads and canals for shrimp farms. The study concerned the spatial structure and seasonal influence of these ecosystems. Aquaculture development. through the following tasks :(i) improve site selection and study the impact of aquaculture on marine environments presenting a variable sensitivity to organic sewage. CA: Corporate Author IFREMER Paris. 1998.

B [Comp. Recirculating systems CA: Corporate Author Virginia Sea Grant Record 200 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Shrimp plasma HDL and beta -glucan binding protein (BGBP): comparison of biochemical characteristics AU: Author Yepiz-Plascencia. These proteins are involved in the transport of lipid and the recognition of foreign matter. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Antibiotics. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Serological studies. 121B. 3. SO: Source . B]. Lipids. Vol. Furthermore. Penaeus californiensis AB: Abstract A high density lipoprotein (HDL) and beta -glucan binding protein (BGBP) have been found in the hemolymph of marine shrimp.. Jimenez-Vega. F. suggesting that there is a close relationship between the ability to respond to foreign matter and the diet as a provider of essential nutrients. LM. 373-376. Romo-Figueroa. G SO: Source Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. 309-314. they are recognized by antibodies prepared independently. Shrimp culture. For a detailed comparison. Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus californiensis. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei. Vargas-Albores. no. et al. and their biochemical characteristics determined. 1998. The amino acid composition is similar and there is a high degree of similarity in the N-terminus. Malaysia AU: Author Anon. G. Similarities in the color of the proteins and the molecular mass were noted. 1998. respectively. Record 201 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The national prawn fry production and research centre in Kedah. Physiol. These results reveal that BGBP and HDL in shrimp hemolymph are the same protein. Biochem. Prophylaxis. Ruiz-Verdugo. pp. SO: Source Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Recirculating Aquaculture. Proteins. Haemolymph. Both proteins from each of the shrimp species are monomeric with approximately the same molecular mass in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis ( approximately 100-112 kDa) and contain carbohydrate and lipid.TI: Title The use of commercial probiotics in the production of marine shrimp under no water exchange AU: Author Samocha. Nutritional requirements. HDL and BGBP were purified from two shrimp species. pp. F.

were surveyed from 1989-1994.60 kg/ha/crop and 12.120 mg/l plus or minus 0.001 in the bay. Ammonia. 3) to provide training in brackishwater aquaculture to ensure effective transfer of technology to the target groups for sustainable aquaculture development.801 CFU/ml plus or minus 17. Shrimp culture. 0. Water quality. The BOD and ammonia loading were 699. 2) to mass produce fish and shrimp fry for supply to small scale farmers and also for stock enhancement programme. Kedah AB: Abstract An account is given of the activities of the National Prawn Fry Production and Research Centre in Kedah. Biochemical oxygen demand. Details of major achievements made are outlined. Khung Kraben Bay. which . 0. Carrying capacity of Kung Krabaen Bay. Pollution effects. 0.]. Malaya.032 mg /l plus or minus 0. Developing countries. Sci. Thamai District. Aquaculture techniques. Canals. Effluents. Malaysia.017 mg/lc} . Aquaculture effluents. 1. which was set up with the following objectives: 1) to develop and refine hatchery technology for brackishwater fish and crustacean species with culture potential. Seed production. Chanthaburi. Nutrients. Research institutions. Article Geographic Terms: Malaysia.024 in shrimp ponds. 1. 4) Breeding and culture of cephalopods.0012 in shrimp ponds.012 mg/l/ plus or minus 0. no. Thailand. The average transparency was 0.33 in the discharge canal. 2) Development of hatchery technology for marine fish.Aquaculture Asia.012 in the water supply canal. eastern Thailand AU: Author Tookwinas. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Fish culture. and.002 in the water supply canal. 1998. Thamai District.81 kg/ha/crop. Culture effects.003 CFU /ml plus or minus 15. 303-316.001 in coastal waters and 0. Vol. Aquaculture. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture.4 in the bay and 23. Current research projects include: 1) Refinement of hatchery technology for marine shrimp. Nitrogen.401 mg/l plus or minus 0. Record 202 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The environmental impact of marine shrimp farming effluents and carrying capacity estimation at Kung Krabaen Bay. Carrying capacity. and.110 in Kung Krabaen Bay and 1. Fry. 11. 5) Feed formulation. Hatcheries. Khung Kraben Bay AB: Abstract Water quality parameters in marine shrimp farms around Kung Krabaen Bay. Thailand. Bangkok [Aquac.425m plus or minus 0. 34-36. 3-4.680m plus or minus 0. 3. East Thailand.400 ton/ha /crop.002 in discharge canals. The total effluent discharge loading into the bay was around 67. Total area of the farms engaged in intensive marine shrimp farming at Kung Krabaen Bay was around 142. Asia].008m plus or minus 0. Environmental impact. 6) Alternate use of shrimp ponds. Bacteria. respectively. pp. S SO: Source Asian fisheries science.76 ha. Aquaculture development. 0. Chanthaburi. Pond culture. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. 3) Larviculture of mudcrab and swimming crab. Vol. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. pp. 1998. Total bacterial plate count was 19. Total ammonia-nitrogen was 0.635m plus or minus 0. Bays.530 in the surrounding coastal areas. Metro Manila [Asian Fish. no.

2% in Pontal do Peba and Pirambu. Rio Formoso [Bol. Population dynamics. Jian. 1. pp. was estimated using a mass balance model. Record 203 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Catch of marine shrimp with single and double trawling in the Piacabucu/AL and Pirambu/SE municipalities AU: Author Santos.1 mg/l. Ivo. Regeneration. CPUE (Kg/hour of trawling) of the fleet based in Pontal do Peba was higher between April and August but in Pirambu no such tendency was verified. 6. Fishing effort AB: Abstract The indexes of the prawn fisheries in the Sao Francisco mouth from 1986 to 1988 were analyzed. pp. no. Sexual behaviour. MCF. Female:male = 5:1 and 2:1 were arranged to test the effects of different sex ratio . Xiutao. Unmated male and female shrimp were stocked separately in indoor tanks and employed for experiments after one week acclimation. The carrying capacity for intensive marine shrimp farming loading at Kung Krabaen Bay can be allowed up to 543. 17-34. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Li. Ammonia-nitrogen in receiving water or in the bay was set as the optimum safe concentration for sea water standard at 0. production increased in 15. and supplementary experiments were carried out in 1994 and 1995. 1998.19. Marine crustaceans. Unmated cultured shrimp with body lengths of 13. AB: Abstract This paper deals with the mating ability and spermatophore regeneration of marine shrimp Penaeus chinensis under laboratory conditions. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Vol. Males. People's Rep. 29. 22-28. Cultured organisms. CEPENE]. Initial observations were made in 1987. Limnol. Cient. Spermatogenesis. Kong. Conghai SO: Source Oceanol. respectively. Record 204 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Studies on the mating ability and spermatophore regeneration in marine shrimp Penaeus chinensis. Sun. 1. The water balance model for carrying capacity and water quality prediction in the bay were discussed in detail. Article Geographic Terms: China.93 ha. Tec. Trawling. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus chinensis.has a total water surface area of 640 ha. Qingyin. Fishery biology. AU: Author Wang. 1998. no. Yang.7 cm were used in the experiments. Jie. Vol. CTC SO: Source Boletim tecnico cientifico do CEPENE.0% and 74./Haiyang Yu Huzhao. the fishing power index (FPI) of double trawl was slighthy superior to single trawl and the conversion fishing power index from single to double was of 1. The increase in the fishing effort was considerable after the replacement of single by double trawl. Sin.5-15.

male's maturity. pp. The accumulated mating rate (AMR). (DBO) Record 205 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Sustainability and Environmental Issues AU: Author Boyd.13 and 1. a sustainable project is one that can continue to make a profit for a long time. in environmental and socioeconomic considerations. and socioeconomic impacts. while molting of the female is an absolute necessity for P. Sociology. the natural mating ability of male P. (2) The average time needed for males to regenerate new spermatophores after mating and again with mate females was around 3 days. Environmental impact. Environmental management AB: Abstract It is popular to talk about sustainability of agricultural and industrial activities. (3) The finding that in the 5 day frequent mating period. The factors which influenced the mating ability and spermatophore regeneration of male P. One view of sustainable aquaculture is that it uses . In business terms. Marine aquaculture. The daily mating rate is defined as the number of mated females divided by that of males in the tank. is used to indicate the average mating ability of the males in each trial. but depended on the relative number of the males and females available for mating selection. while AMR in the two trials of female:male = 2:1 were only 1. Water quality control. 601-624. Coastal zone management. Food (see also Animal foodstuffs).on mating ability and spermatophore regeneration in male P. it could not enhance the male's potential mating ability. However. Tucker. respectively.. Main results were as follows. which indicated that the potential mating ability of male P. Aquaculture economics. CS SO: Source Pond Aquaculture Water Quality Management. Pond culture. Environment management. sex ratio. light intensity. environmental effects. (1) In laboratory conditions.60. chinensis was determined by its biological characteristics. Even though higher ratio of female might induce more mating of the male in the short term. The word sustainability is used so often and in such varied contexts that it is essentially meaningless. chinensis might attain 3-4 times. Resource management. feed utilization. Coastal areas. Economics. temperature. energy consumption. Resources. CE. chinensis were the shrimp's state of health. These same factors should be included in considerations of sustainability in aquaculture. (4) There were no significant differences between the AMR sub(S) obtained from the whole mating season for trials of female:male = 5:1 and those of female:male=2:1. Culture effects. Fishing and fisheries. and so might induce and/or promote the male's mating ability and spermatophore regeneration. chinensis to mate.43. indicated that in this period. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture. more females were available for mating selection. Aquaculture effluents. sustainable projects are those that do not cause serious environmental and social impacts and do not deplete the resource base. Water use. water use. AMR in the two trials of female:male = 5:1 were 2. Some male shrimp might regenerate new spermatophores and mating was observed again in the very next day. Stocking density. chinensis. 1998. is obtained by summing up the daily mating rate of the trial during the mating season. 5. Factors usually included in discussions of sustainable agriculture are land use. etc.

Aquaculture systems. Since 1984. Sustainable aquaculture should involve the wise use of resources. Biomass. outbreaks of viral disease continue to cause crop failures in Texas and South Carolina. The tested system reduced the likelihood of pathogen contamination by disinfection of intake water and physical exclusion of some possible vectors which could carry disease. Phytoplankton. Substrata. According to data from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Smyth. the annual catch of fish. disease diagnosis and control protocols. good environmental stewardship.minimum inputs. but inputs do not necessarily have to be minimal or profits low. Article Taxonomic Terms: Chaetoceros gracilis. This expansion was possible because of the growing demand for fisheries products and the failure of the global catch fishery to keep up with the demand. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss sustainability issues related to aquaculture and to suggest some possible courses of action.1 ha pond was covered with a plastic roof and walls of fine mesh shade cloth to . Ammonia. but they apply to aquaculture in general. 1998. high health and genetically improved shrimp stocks. D SO: Source Aquaculture '98 Book of Abstracts. Chlorination. Aquaculture has grown rapidly during the second half of the 20th century. A greenhouse structure erected over a 0. Disease control. p. recent environmental and social complaints related to aquaculture could greatly influence its future course. and avoidance of negative social impacts. and the current annual production of near 20 metric million tons is around 18% of total world fisheries production. Most authorities think that there is little chance of increasing the catch from natural sources. and environmentally friendly growout technologies to provide a basis for the profitable controlled production of healthy shrimp. Water quality control. shrimp. The situation described above will ensure a good market for aquacultural products. Pathogenic bacteria. CL. The growth of shrimp farming has been particularly rapid during the past decade. Article Geographic Terms: USA AB: Abstract The US Marine Shrimp Farming Program has developed fast growing. T. and other fisheries products has stabilized at between 80 and 90 metric million tons. Nevertheless. These issues originated mainly from concerns over the expansion of marine shrimp farming in the coastal zone. Record 206 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Preliminary development of a biosecure shrimp production system AU: Author Browdy. so the future should be promising. Water filtration. and the only hope of supplying the increasing demand is through aquaculture. Oxygen consumption. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Bacterial diseases. Nitrification. it appears doubtful that aquacultural production can continue to increase fast enough to meet the rising demand for fisheries products (Csavas 1993). The present study explores strategies for more biosecure growout technologies. Disinfection. Bratvold. but this is not a practical view because low-input aquaculture is seldom very profitable. However. 71. Nevertheless. there has been a consistent growth of aquacultural production of 8-14% per year (Anonymous 1996). Pond culture. and 30% of the shrimp placed on the world market today come from aquaculture.

mean size at harvest was 13g. The microbial community was monitored throughout the season. Marine pollution. This was followed by a sharp increase in water column bacterial abundance. Incoming seawater was disinfected with chlorine at a CT of 1200 to 2000 min x ppm by pumping sand filtered seawater and a concentrated chlorine solution into a raceway contact chamber and then into the pond over a nine-day period. 1998. Szyper. gracilis bloom (Day 16) was followed by a large bacterial bloom and then a large mixed algal bloom (Day 30). The initial modest C. J SO: Source Aquaculture '98 Book of Abstracts.allow air exchange.2:1. phytoplankton and zooplankton abundance and biomass. destruction of pathogens may not require complete disinfection. Article Geographic Terms: Tanzania AB: Abstract In recent years the marine shrimp farming has been expanding rapidly along the coasts of many Asian and Latin American countries. At least 99% of the bacteria and yeast present in the filtered seawater were destroyed by this disinfection procedure. Culture effects. The study provided hands on experience in designing and managing a biosecure production strategy providing useful basic information for future development efforts. and residual chlorine concentrations dropped rapidly. oxygen consumption and nitrification rates. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. JB. The following parameters were measured weekly: bacterial abundance. A 5. making nitrifiers the last group to stabilize.5% bleach solution was poured over a small section of the sediment near the drain that did not dry completely. for a production rate of 9109 kg/ha/crop. Chlorinated water additions ceased on Day 9. despite significant residual chlorine in the overlying water column. Coastal waters. Survival was 70%. p. Feeding trays were used to monitor consumption but feed was offered at a constant rate from stocking to harvest. CK. The initial very large fluctuations in phytoplankton and appeared to reach more normal fluctuation levels by Day 50. Eutrophication. 330. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus. the pond was fertilized and inoculated with a pure culture of Chaetoceros gracilis (Day 13). Marine aquaculture. However. of which C. The initial bloom and stabilization of nitrifying bacteria lagged about 20 days behind the other measured groups. Record 207 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Environmental impact assessment for a shrimp farm project in Tanzania: A case study AU: Author Lin. Disinfection success was assessed by colony forming units (CFU) on nutrient media and direct bacterial counts by fluorescence microscopy. Two days after residual chlorine reached undetectable levels. The biosecure pond was stocked at a density of 100/M super(2) on Day 16. gracilis was a small component. Man-induced effects. Environmental impact. Overall the food conversion ratio was 2. The sediment was dried and limed. and total ammonia concentration. CFU were abundant on all plates from the sediment site. and likely contamination of the interstitial water with water column water during the sampling process. These results suggest the difficulty in achieving sediment disinfection. indicating a lack of sediment disinfection. causing alteration or deterioration of many natural habitats and resources as . however. Hambrey.

p. Marketing. 364. ZO SO: Source Aquaculture '98 Book of Abstracts. common carp. Malaysia. gourami. Aquaculture development. . feeds for several species of freshwater and marine finfish are available. yellowtail. This decline has resulted in the closure of several less efficient local feed manufacturers and the consolidation of others. There are also changes in their research and development priorities as well as the technical field services provided to farmers. rockfish. For sustainable development of any large-scale project in aquaculture. the technical preparedness and environmental awareness for large-scale aquaculture projects are relatively under developed in this part of the world. Fish culture. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Feed preparation. crucian carp. We will present a preliminary Environmental Impact Assessment for a proposed shrimp farming project in Tanzania. Economics. 1998. catfish. most of the marine shrimp producers have suffered production losses due to a multitude of problems. Distribution. These include extruded floating and pellet feeds for the culture of tilapia. but also to establish a model to serve the future shrimp farming expansion in Tanzania and possibly in other parts of African continent. The environmental impact assessment of this project was not only aimed to safeguard the environment around the proposed shrimp farming area. mainly from Thailand.well as socio-economics of coastal communities. carp. seabass and grouper. Article Geographic Terms: Thailand. where physiographical conditions are favorable and natural shrimp stocks abound. the adverse environmental impact has repeatedly led to unsustainable shrimp culture in most of so-called advanced shrimp culture countries. flatfish. Industrial production. trout. The paper will present information on the feed manufacturing activities and production volumes based information from official and industry sources. there was an expansion in the manufacture of feeds for the marine shrimp to meet the demands of the expanding shrimp aquaculture industry. Record 208 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Recent trends in aquaculture feed manufacturing in the Asian region AU: Author Merican. Besides feed for the marine shrimp. Eventually. some aspects of feed technology and raw material utilisation as well as the future roles of the industry in the development of aqauculture in the region. Feed manufacturers have shifted to the production of feed for freshwater and marine finfish and towards the integration of feed production with marine shrimp farming. However. In the race for finding new territory for shrimp farming. It will also discuss the marketing and distribution network. freshwater prawn. Taiwan AB: Abstract In the early 1990's. Special attentions are needed to promote and develop aquaculture in harmony with the environment and socio-economic settings. African continent is a new frontier. Shrimp culture. Since 1993. Asian multinational companies. integrated environmental impact assessment should be regarded as a standard requirement. Taiwan and Malaysia also expanded and set up feed mills near the marine shrimp culture areas. mudfish. A great potential for shrimp farming development exists along the coasts of East Africa.

Recirculating systems.postlarvae produced from hatchery-reared nauplii obtained from OI's breeding program. Culture media. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei. Survival. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract The Pacific white shrimp accounts for 85-90% of production in the Western Hemisphere. Through the U. in freshwater AU: Author Scarpa. Experimental culture. 1998. J. using specific pathogen free (SPF) white shrimp.postlarvae produced from hatchery-reared nauplii obtained from captive broodstock from Panama. Penaeus vannamei.S. In the last few years. Selective breeding. Cultured organisms. Espinoza. S. viral disease outbreaks have caused erratic production and crop failures at some farms. Marine Shrimp Farming Program. whereas juveniles will be fed TSV-contaminated shrimp tissue. p. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. 473. Shrimp culture. G. Water hardness. In addition. Norris. Magnesium. S. Pruder. Shrimp will be stocked into 12 0. the Oceanic Institute (OI) has established a selective breeding program to enhance disease resistance to Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) and improve growth. 1998. Initial stocking density will be 20 shrimp/m2 and % survival will be determined after about eight weeks. Vaughan. 2postlarvae produced from hatchery-reared nauplii obtained from gravid females collected from the wild in El Salvador. Natural populations. Article Geographic Terms: Honduras AB: Abstract The use of high health and genetically improved shrimp stocks provide significant opportunities to advance the shrimp aquaculture industry by improving growout performance. Wigglesworth.25-ha ponds (4 replicates/treatment) at a commercial shrimp farm in Honduras that previously experienced outbreaks of TSV. G. Acclimation. p. disease challenge tests will be performed on postlarvae and juvenile shrimp from the three different sources. Results from the pond trial and disease challenge tests will be discussed. The performance of selectively-bred shrimp will be evaluated by comparing survival of P. J SO: Source Aquaculture '98 Book of Abstracts. J. Postlarvae will be exposed to four different concentrations of a TSV-challenge filtrate. 377. While . Record 210 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Culture of the marine shrimp. Penaeus vannamei. Arce. and 3. Comparative studies.Record 209 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Comparative field survival trial between selectively-bred and wild white shrimp. Penaeus vannamei. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Freshwater aquaculture. DE SO: Source Aquaculture '98 Book of Abstracts. vannamei obtained from three different sources: 1. in Honduras AU: Author Moss.

although lethargy was apparent. but not calcium. added to low-hardness freshwater increased survival of freshwater-acclimated postlarval shrimp. resulting from the addition of large amounts of feed in intensive shrimp ponds. RJ SO: Source Aquaculture '98 Book of Abstracts. Hopkins. 1998. USA. This was tested on the Pacific white shrimp. Aquaculture techniques. 2) freshwater-acclimated postlarval shrimp could survive freshwater diluted with distilled water to 1/2 strength with 10% mortality and to 1/3 strength with 33% mortality. Shrimp culture. WA. but could not survive direct transfer to similar to 0 ppt salinity. 5) postlarval shrimp acclimated to freshwater could survive total ammonia-nitrogen concentrations of 3. Sandifer. Article Geographic Terms: ANW. South Carolina AB: Abstract Sustainable aquaculture practices developed over the past 5 years. alternative culture systems are also being explored. Article Taxonomic Terms: Decapoda. Whetstone. because preliminary investigations established that the shrimp could withstand a freshwater environment. Cox. Experiments were performed to examine environmental factors known to affect acclimation of marine species to freshwater and the grow-out performance of the shrimp. 3) magnesium. at the Waddell Mariculture Center to minimize negative impacts of effluent to coastal estuaries. Aquaculture enterprises. p. indicating that a hardness level of greater than 150 mg/L as CaCO sub(3) may be necessary for culture waters. With dense phytoplankton blooms. One of the primary goals of the Waddell Mariculture Center's sustainable aquaculture research is to significantly reduce or discontinue water exchange as a method of reducing phytoplankton density. It was determined that: 1) postlarval shrimp could survive direct transfer from 28-30 ppt salinity to 10 ppt salinity with no mortality and 5 ppt salinity with 20% mortality. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shellfish culture.75 mg/L up to 24 hrs. there are a host of factors that need to be understood before marine shrimp culture in freshwater becomes standard. Browdy. It is apparent that the Pacific white shrimp can be acclimated and grown to a commercial size in certain freshwaters. JS. AD. 4) the longer postlarval shrimp spent in freshwater after initial acclimation (acclimation time) increased survival of those shrimp when transferred to low-hardness freshwater. an alternative method of removing phytoplankton was . Future research areas include further delineation of nutritional and environmental requirements of these shrimp in freshwater. Penaeus vannamei. Record 211 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Commercial scale application of sustainable aquaculture practices on a shrimp farm in South Carolina AU: Author Stokes. The environmental factors were tested on postlarval shrimp because this is the common stage for grow-out facilities to utilize for stocking their ponds. were applied at a commercial shrimp farm in South Carolina. However. and 6) shrimp could be grown to 15 grams whole weight in similar to 4 months in freshwater recycle systems. PA.disease resistant and high health strains are being developed for the industry. JM. CL. 522. One such alternative system is the use of freshwater to grow a marine species. Rhodes.

Smith.developed for intensive shrimp management systems.5mm during the same time. The oysters placed at mid water increased in size by 24. J. 1998.4mm in 287 days while the clams in the culture bag increased in size by 5. The clams that were bottom planted increased in size by 12. Artemia AB: Abstract Bloodworms (Glycera spp.000 and 250. Through 1994 hatchery production varied between 100. The use of shellfish to reduce phytoplankton densities could potentially reduce pumping costs and provide an additional crop for sale while reducing the potential negative impact of pond effluent on receiving waters. After 342 days in the shellfish production pond. D. Because very little of the feed goes into shrimp tissue. . at a rate of 865. Diets. One rigid polyethylene shellfish culture bag was stocked with clams and placed on the sandy pond bottom for comparison.9mm in 320 days. Article Taxonomic Terms: Glycera. were divided and sealed in two rigid polyethylene shellfish culture bags. Nauplii. Spawning. By the spring of 1995 the low and inconsistent production along with a . feed becomes as a significant nutrient source causing dense algal blooms. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. at a rate of 1.000/ha. and oysters. by a piping system that was designed to recirculate water among the three ponds. The commercial bivalve production pond demonstration is still ongoing and will be harvested in the fall of 1997. The two shrimp ponds were connected to a third pond.) are commonly used in the maturation of marine shrimp. Crassotera virginica. 528. In testing potential substitutes a number of system problems were discovered at the Kahuku Shrimp Company. The oysters placed on the pond bottom increased in size by 26.000 post larvae weekly to support the production of 2000 to 3000 pounds of 100-200 count shrimp per week. . 12-15mm. Because of the poor growth performance in the bag. therefore. Few dead shell have been found during sampling.3mm during the same period. Garvey. The clams.45ha in size. p.5 mm. Sexual maturity. Water recirculation rates through the shellfish pond was adjusted according to phytoplankton density in the pond. It often represents the highest cost feed item of a commercial hatchery.41ha in size. Kawahigashi. Brood stocks. survival rates are expected to be high. Feeding experiments. Record 212 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Impact of a bloodworm substitute on maturation. Sustainable aquaculture may also help growers avoid specific permit restrictions regarding farm effluent. were planted directly on the sandy pond bottom. This paper describes trials that were conducted to evaluate enriched adult brine shrimp as a bloodworm substitute and problems encountered in the production of broodstock in a greenhouse system. Two ponds. Mercenaria mercenaria. The third pond was stocked with hard clams. 25mm singles.000 post larvae per week with occasional spikes exceeding 400. this practice was discontinued and the bag clams bottom planted. were stocked with marine shrimp. Sato. spawning and nauplius production of Penaeus vannamei AU: Author Sylvester. the clams average 34. CB SO: Source Aquaculture '98 Book of Abstracts.200/ha.000. The Kahuku Shrimp Company requires approximately 400. VT. J. The oysters. One bag was placed on the pond bottom and the other suspended in mid water.

435 to 0. Results from Trial #1: Trial #1 data suggests that the 50:50 diet results in production similar to the 100% bloodworm diet. fertilization rate and to determine stocking into larval rearing tanks. Broodstock were maintained according to standard protocols. Algae. The Shannon's diversity index of phytoplankton range from 0. water depth and total phosphorus were significantly different at p<0. phytoplankton could be divided into six main clusters. 547. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture.131 to 1. Most of water quality parameters was increased along the culture period progression.need to reduce operating costs led to trials testing the standard diet with bloodworms against two levels of substitution with enriched Artemia. Phytoplankton.84 ha were stocked with shrimp fry (PL15) 49. . Only alkalinity. Record 213 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The relationship between water quality and phytoplankton in intensive marine shrimp ponds. #65129).899 in pond A4. stylirostris and P. transparency. p. vannamei. This phenomenon was observed in previous and subsequent maturation efforts with P. The culture period was 162. Nauplii were counted to determine fecundity. squid and maturation pellets.233 to 1. P. Intensive culture. 0. In pond A3.6 days with food conversion ratio of 1. The results from cluster analysis of sampling data shown the Bray-curtis similarity of phytoplankton communities at the level 36%. The linkage of water quality data of phytoplankton communities structure data indicated that the variation of phytoplankton communities were correlated with the variation of salinity were correlated with the variation of salinity. at the level 50%.692 in pond A1. total ammonia and total nitrogen at the maximum harmonic rank correlation (HRC) of 0. 0. Broodstock in Trial #2 were produced at the Kahuku Shrimp Company.466 to 1.128 in pond C2. Pond culture. Broodstock in Trial #1 were obtained from commercial suppliers. at the level 46%. 1998. Normal feeding (100% Bloodworm) consisted of bloodworms. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW.7 PL/m super(2).70. S SO: Source Aquaculture '98 Book of Abstracts. 0. phytoplankton could be divided into six main clusters.335 in pond A3. setiferus. Article Taxonomic Terms: Decapoda. phytoplankton in pond A1 could be devided into eight main clusters. phytoplankton could be divided into six main clusters. Duplicate maturation trials using in-house broodstock were terminated within seven weeks because of low production. at the level 50%. Test diets consisted of 50% and 100% replacement of bloodworms with enriched Artemia (San Francisco Bay Brand Omega Enriched Brine Shrimp. A 100% substitution with enriched Artemia resulted in drastically reduced production.665 to 1. Chanthaburi.039 in pond B1 and 0. The 50:50 diet produced fewer spawns but more nauplii on a per spawn basis.174. eastern Thailand AU: Author Tookwinas. depth.05. In pond B1. This suggests that the growout environment can have detrimental effects on the reproductive performance of shrimp and that broodstock source and history can be important factors in evaluating broodstock performance and changes in management protocols. Mated females were placed in individual spawning tanks. In pond C2. Thailand AB: Abstract Five experimented ponds of average area 0.

05.e. a 0. a protein skimmer.1. salinity (HRC = 0. a 2. Recirculating systems. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. AL. The latter is more difficult to accomplish because of possible sources of contamination from influent sea water.082).105). the nitrite peak required over 60 d to disappear and denitrification required a preconditioning period of >150 d. recirculating marine shrimp culture system AU: Author Turk. p. DE: Descriptors . Lee. a 1 m super(3) bead filter. PE. As a result. The tanks and filters were sterilized before construction and freshly prepared artificial sea water was used. closed. shared facilities and shared personnel. Lawrence.05 m super(3) activated carbon filter. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus vannamei AB: Abstract Production losses from disease (i. raw squid and bloodworms.600 L system has been constructed and operated for 15 months. After acclimation. 571. viruses) have had a serious negative economic impact on marine shrimp farming world-wide. Record 215 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Behavioral (feeding) responses of the crayfish. ultraviolet sterilizers and a denitrifying bioreactor. ammonia-nitrogen. environmentally isolated broodstock also necessitates the use of totally. the individual parameters are considered able to explain variation of phytoplankton was total nitrogen (HRC = 0. SA SO: Source Aquaculture '98 Book of Abstracts. and transparency (HRC = 0. The system is composed of 2-1. Record 214 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title An environmentally isolated. closed recirculating water filtration systems to contain the costs of water replacement due to declining pH and nitrate accumulation. 1998.However. 0. to natural dietary items and common components of formulated crustacean feeds AU: Author Kreider. Watts.900 L shrimp culture tanks. nitrite-nitrogen and nitrate-nitrogen concentrations remained below the intended limits. A prototype 5. The establishment of commercial. Two populations of the marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei were reared to adulthood in the system. 552. C.7 m super(3) submerged oyster shell biofilter. p. 1998. The need for specific-pathogen-free (SPF) broodstock that are either geographically or environmentally isolated from common diseases has become a priority. Zuercher. PG SO: Source Aquaculture '98 Book of Abstracts. Biofilter acclimation was extremely slow because the initial stocking of 200 g of shrimp postlarvae supplied all of the bacteria introduced into the system. Aquaculture systems. 0. Procambarus clarkii. using a combination of commercial and research pelleted feeds as well as thawed.052). and 15 ppm. JL. respectively.

live fishes and fish eggs.000 d) was the most stimulatory of the common feed components and more stimulatory than the C18 water fraction of zooplankton. supplemental and formulated feeds have been suggested to intensify the crayfish aquaculture industry. and size fractions of bathwater containing either molecules less than or equal to 10. Feed. . little is known about the dietary and nutritional requirements of crayfish. the ability to detect and locate food.e. and the semi-terrestrial fiddler crab Uca pugilator. and volunteer terrestrial and semi-aquatic plants such as alligator weed and other detritus to provide food. have been observed to alter the level of feeding responses shown by crustaceans in a number of chemoreception studies. Chemical stimuli have been shown to elicit feeding responses in crustaceans such as the marine lobsters Homarus americanus and H. 4% soluble protein and 45% unknown (assumed to be insoluble carbohydrates. Moreover. 51% soluble carbohydrate. i. Article Taxonomic Terms: Procambarus clarkii AB: Abstract Crayfish are primarily raised in earthen ponds with a forage-based feeding system that relies on the growth of cultivated crops such as rice. insoluble proteins and ash). Carr and Derby observed that two stimulatory chemicals presented in a single solution evoke a much stronger response than that predicted by additive effect calculations based on the individual stimulatory activity of the two chemicals. In recent investigations. including feeding. whole-animal bioassay that included the following behaviors: (1) movement of the maxillipeds for longer than three seconds.000 d. Similarly. Proximate analysis indicated that the compounds present in this soybean fraction were ca. (3) movement of walking legs to the mouth. (2) increased movement of the walking legs with dactyl "probing". We hypothesize that the primary compounds in soybean meal responsible for eliciting a feeding response in P. which can be either synergistic or suppressive. corn meal. alfalfa meal and vitamin C). alfalfa meal and corn. Their variable diets include nearly all taxonomic groups within the plant and animal kingdoms. in aquatic animals. Peptides have also been well documented in stimulating important behavioral activities. Numerous studies have indicated that amino acids are the most stimulatory chemicals for eliciting feeding behavior in crustaceans considered to be largely carnivorous. dead fishes. Feed composition. The feeding response by P. fish meal. gammarus. We have examined the behavioral (feeding) response of Procambarus clarkii to natural dietary items (zooplankton. followed by fish meal. Feeding behaviour. The C sub(18) water fraction of the soybean meal bathwater before size fractionation (containing molecules both < and >10. and that sugars are the most stimulatory chemicals for eliciting feeding behavior in crustaceans considered to be largely herbivorous. Zooplankton was the most stimulatory of the natural dietary items tested. Despite the potential for the use of formulated feeds in crayfish culture. little is known about crayfish feeding behavior.000 d or molecules >10. bathwater containing aqueous leachates from intact items. clarkii was determined using an ordinally ranked. the marine shrimp Palaemonetes pugio. and (4) orientation of the entire body towards the odor source.. water and methanol fractions of bathwater eluted through a C sub(18) resin flash chromatography column. Soymeal was the most stimulatory of the feed components. Feeding behavior was determined in response to intact items. live fishes. All fractions tested were significantly stimulatory. mixture interactions. followed by fresh-killed fishes.Article Subject Terms: Diets. and fish eggs) and common components of formulated feeds used in the aquaculture industry (soybean meal. Crayfish culture.

CL SO: Source Aquaculture '98 Book of Abstracts. Hopkins. Based on these observations. However. Browdy. p. 1998. Water exchange practices are usually not based on nutrient monitoring. (1993). mineralize and deposit much of the nutrient mass to pond sediments or release it as gas. JR II. ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus during the drain harvesting process than did the ponds with routine water exchange. Shrimp culture. Comparative studies. Water quality parameters were monitored throughout the season and most parameters measured were similar between treatments. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus AB: Abstract A research focus of the Waddell Mariculture Center. 247. has been the development of production systems which discharge little or no water and recycle waste material. Recirculating systems. Richardson. the objective for the 1997 production season was to intensively culture shrimp in recycled water retained from the 1996 production season and compare this to intensive shrimp culture in ponds with new.C. Sea Grant Consortium. the total load of nutrients discharged through the whole production process is higher when routine water exchange is utilized. Waste utilization. the ponds with water exchange released more total suspended solids and as reported by Hopkins et al. first season water. while the first season water treatment had no sludge removal or water recirculation. These results indicate that marine shrimp can be produced intensively with no water exchange from the estuary. while total suspended solids and salinity were higher in ponds with first season water. There was a trend towards larger harvest size in the ponds with recycled water but the total production and survival were similar for both treatments. Water quality control. Intensive culture. Production characteristics were similar for both treatments. Sludge removal and partial water recirculation with a "filter" pond was utilized in the recycled water treatment.clarkii are soluble carbohydrates and/or glycoproteins. JS. However. dissolved oxygen was higher in ponds with recycled water. Without routine water exchange with the estuary. with support and funding from the S. Record 217 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The economic feasibility of environmentally-friendly shrimp aquaculture waste management techniques . Record 216 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Results of a no-water exchange management strategy utilizing new and recycled water for the intensive culture of marine shrimp AU: Author Holloway. Production methods were similar to those used in 1996. (1996). Pond culture. digest. According to Hopkins et al. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine aquaculture. but on fluctuating environmental conditions or a set schedule. and produced intensively in water retained from the previous growout season with no major water quality differences. Physicochemical properties. the pond system should be able to assimilate. JD. ponds with a no-exchange management strategy discharged more BOD.

Embryos. Res. Pond culture. pp. RJ. 28. Economic feasibility. Larvae. mainly Mercenaria mercenaria. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture techniques. In response. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus semisulcatus AB: Abstract Although sperm cryopreservation has been carried out successfully in a number of commercially important aquatic species. particularly in some teleost fish and also shellfish. an economic feasibility analysis study was conducted to estimate the incremental private costs and benefits of using a treatment pond with bivalves. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. the technology is still not at the . Whetstone. K SO: Source Aquaculture Research [Aquacult. Projected costs include bivalve depuration expenses and a substantial increase in labor costs. Kandasami. Cryopreservation. for waste management of shrimp pond effluent from the farm's grow-out ponds. Freezing storage. applied research has been conducted in SC to develop commercial techniques that minimize potential negative environmental impacts of marine shrimp farming. The feasibility analysis also includes the comparison of the projected net present value (NPV) of an environmentally-friendly waste treatment system of this marine shrimp farm compared to the NPV for such a commercial farm without a treatment system. Projected revenue sources include the sale of bivalves and pond sludge. Wastewater disposal. 436-437. Shrimp culture. AD. Storage effects.]. Dec 1997. AD. Mercenaria mercenaria. a technique discouraged by SC aquaculture permitting policies. Nauplii. Penaeus semisulcatus de Haan AU: Author Diwan. Shrimp culture. JM SO: Source Aquaculture '98 Book of Abstracts. Stokes. Developmental stages. Based upon data from a demonstration project at a SC commercial shrimp farm. South Carolina. Clam culture. the generation of revenue from waste treatment by-products will be critical in offsetting the fixed and variable costs of effluent treatment techniques and perhaps in maintaining the long run financial viability of South Carolina's small shrimp farming industry. USA. 12. Waste disposal. 1998. Vol. Aquaculture. If government regulations mandate that marine shrimp farms not produce any significant pond discharge. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Wastewater aquaculture. intensification has been accompanied by increases in water use for pond flushing into adjacent receiving streams. Article Geographic Terms: ANW. USA. While intensive shrimp aquaculture techniques can minimize land costs. Intensive culture. 947-950. Crustaceans (Decapod) (Shrimps and prawns). no. Economics. South Carolina AB: Abstract High coastal land costs and a short grow-out season have stimulated the development of intensive production techniques for marine shrimp in South Carolina (SC). Waste management.AU: Author Rhodes. Record 218 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Freezing of viable embryos and larvae of marine shrimp. pp.

Vol. Pond construction. Later Zell (1978) and Erdahl & Graham (1980) have reported preliminary attempts to freeze the eggs of rainbow trout. is a virgin field in cryobiology and has not yet received any appreciable amount of attention. overstocking. Hydrology. 4. From a review of the literature it appears that studies on the cryopreservation of embryos and larvae of fish and shellfish is still in a rudimentary phase and much remains to be done. Nature conservation. Oct-Dec 1997. Production in many regions has proved to be unsustainable. Ponds. The first successful attempt at the cryopreservation of embryos of sea urchin was reported.]. Habitat improvement. Environmental impact. Shrimp culture. Aquaculture. is strong. Consideration must be given to the causes of production failure. Cryopreservation of eggs and embryos. The case for restoration. using the experimental protocol now described. and disease. Coastal zone management. and the flora and fauna composition of the pond area. Shrimp. Record 219 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Disused shrimp ponds: Options for redevelopment of mangroves AU: Author Stevenson. In recent years some attempts have also been made to cryopreserve the embryos and nauplii of shrimp Penaeus indicus H Milne Edwards. poor environmental conditions. Accurate assessments of pond disuse are difficult to obtain. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Pond culture. A number of shrimp ponds consequently are unproductive and lie idle. 425-435. unofficial estimates have suggested that as many as 70% of ponds may be disused after a period in production. the needs and preferences of pond owners and coastal managers. of aquatic animals however. and technical constraints. Mangrove swamps. Diseases. 25. Record 220 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Genetic susceptibility of cultured shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) to infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus and Baculovirus . hydrological conditions. however. largely due to inappropriate construction methods. Studies have been carried out to cryopreserve the embryos of Japanese medaka Oryzias letipes Schlegel. and pond disuse lead to alterations to the physical and chemical properties of soil. the environmental conditions remaining following disuse. rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum and zebra fish Brachydanio rerio Weber & de Beaufort. The present study was carried out with a view to developing a method for the successful freezing of viable embryos and larvae of marine shrimp. pp.stage of advanced commercial application that is seen in domestic mammals. Manage. Construction. Management Planning AB: Abstract Associated with the rapid increase in the production of cultured marine shrimp has been large-scale conversion of mangroves to shrimp ponds. no. NJ SO: Source Coastal Management [Coast. shrimp culture. or rehabilitation to a sustainable use.

The prevalence of IHHNV infection was highest in cross I and lowest in cross III. had the lowest (68%) prevalence at Day 4 postexposure. 3. Penaeus vannamei. Mitochondrial DNA. Gene regulation. and 51%. Though the mtDNA haplotypes in offspring from the different crosses were the same. RM. which was developed using a female from the low-growth family 1. it was concluded that the susceptibility to BP in penaeid shrimp is governed by the genetic background of the parental crosses. 190-197. The possible relationship among disease susceptibility.and low-growth families were challenged with infectious hypodermal and hematopoetic necrosis virus (IHHNV) and Baculovirus penaei (BP) to compare their susceptibility to these viral agents and examine the genetic component involved in disease resistance or susceptibility. Overstreet. On the other hand. JM Source Journal of Invertebrate Pathology [J. Infectious diseases. AK. II. pp. Record 221 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Effect of host size on virulence of Taura Virus to the marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei (Crustacea: Penaeidae) AU: Author . crosses I and III (with 88 and 68% prevalence at Day 4.S.6. J. II. respectively. A. and IV. The prevalence of BP infection at Day 4 was highest (100%) in cross IV. Invertebr. animals from this cross and cross II exhibited high survival by Day 18 (85 and 77%). Lotz. Both crosses I and II had 88% prevalence of infection at Day 4.AU: SO: DE: AB: penaei: Possible relationship with growth status and metabolic gene expression Author Alcivar-Warren. Astrofsky. Nov 1997. Viral diseases. Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Gene expression. III. Infectious hypodermal and hematopoetic virus. Fish diseases.5. Bacterial diseases. Shrimp culture. DNA. Sweeney. Pathol. Disease resistance. cross III. no. Disease control. growth status. The random amplified polymorphic DNA polymorphisms for crosses I. respectively) showed low survival at Day 18 (19 and 24%). III.3 and a male from the low-growth family 1. 53.4 and a male from the high-growth family 1. 45. K. Cross I was developed using male and female broodstock from the low-growth family 1. and IV) of Penaeus vannamei from known high. 70. and expression of mitochondrial 12s rRNA is discussed in the context of a complex nuclear-cytoplasmic genetic system involved in the regulation of gene expression. Article Taxonomic Terms: Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus. Carr.6. and cross III was developed using a female from the high-growth family 1.]. Vol. major differences were observed in both steady-state levels and patterns of expression of the mitochondrial 12s rRNA in offspring obtained at various early developmental stages from each of the four crosses. WH. Marine Shrimp Farming Program. The reciprocal cross. Despite 100% prevalence of BP infection in cross IV at 4 days. Family crosses were made using broodstock from five families developed by the U. were 43. On the basis of prevalence of infection and mortality rates. Baculovirus penaei Abstract Offspring of four crosses (I. Dhar. showing no clear relationship between IHHNV and BP prevalence of infection and levels of nuclear genetic diversity. Baculovirus.

Vol. This study consisted of 4 experiments designed to test the hypothesis that P. the effect was only statistically significant in 2 of the 4 experiments. Black gills may . 30. aquaculture. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. viral diseases. pond culture. mortality. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. mortality causes. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. husbandry. Marianas. The Taura Virus in all experiments originated from infected farm-reared shrimp collected during a 1995 Taura Virus outbreak in Texas. vannamei increases its tolerance to Taura Virus as it increases in size from 1 to 30 g. Fouling organisms. The second type of black gill occurs in shrimp after harvest. I. USA. The fouling organisms may become numerous and problematic when shrimp are weak and environmental conditions not good. 126. Fouling organisms. One possible tactic to offset Taura Virus-induced mortalities is for culturists to use larger shrimp for stocking ponds. 2 pp. This makes shrimp look unattractive to buyers and lowers product value. Gill fouling causes slow growth and lowered survival of shrimp. Jul 1997. caused by Taura Virus (Taura Syndrome Virus). no. Brock. Gills. The results of the experiments tailed to support the hypothesis that P. Pacific. Jul 1997. host-pathogen interactions. protozoa and bacteria settle on gill surfaces and cause inflammation of tissues which then turn black. husbandry diseases. disease resistance. Mortality causes. Experiments were done in either 100 1 glass aquaria or 4000 1 cylindrical fiberglass tanks. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. All shrimp used in experiments were Specific-Pathogen-Free Penaeus vannamei derived from the United States Marine Shrimp Farming Program Population 1. Pathogenic bacteria. Lankamer. is the most important disease of the farmed penaeid shrimp Penaeus vannamei in the Western Hemisphere. Guam AB: Abstract Recent studies in Guam indicate two types of black gill disease may occur in marine shrimp ponds. no. D SO: Source Center for Tropical and Subtropical Aquaculture. Fungal diseases. 45-51. Experimental shrimp were inoculated with virus either per os by allowing shrimp to feed on triturated infected shrimp tissue or intramuscularly by injection of a cell-free suspension of infected shrimp tissue into the abdominal musculature. Article Taxonomic Terms: taura syndrome virus AB: Abstract Taura Disease (Taura Syndrome). JM SO: Source Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. J. 1. however. pp. ponds. vannamei becomes more tolerant of Taura Virus infections as it becomes larger. Record 222 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Aquafarmer Information Sheet: Prevention of Black Gill Disease in Marine Shrimp AU: Author Silva-Krott. Analysis of each of the 4 experiments by logistic regression revealed a consistent trend for larger shrimp to be more likely to succumb to infection.Lotz. The first type occurs during grow-out phase of shrimp culture. In the 4 experiments 9 to 14 d survival ranged from 0 to nearly 60%.

Vol. Article Geographic Terms: Iran AB: Abstract Shilat. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus semisulcatus. no. Construction began in 1991 on a national shrimp culture development centre in Kolahi. has financially encouraged development of marine shrimp farming using Asian technologies adapted by the Institute of Fisheries Research (IFRTO). C DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. vannamei becomes more tolerant of TSV infections as they become larger. near Bandar Abbas. One possible tactic to offset Taura Syndrome Virus-induced mortalities is for culturists to use larger shrimp for stocking ponds. Penaeus indicus. Iran is a late entrant into marine shrimp farming. 1. body size. It included a five-million post-larvae (PI) capacity shrimp hatchery. Experimental shrimp were inoculated with virus . is the most important disease of the farmed penaeid shrimp Penaeus vannamei in the Western Hemisphere. viruses. The study consisted of 4 experiments designed to test the hypothesis that P. All shrimp used in experiments were Specific-Pathogen-Free Penaeus vannamei derived from United States Shrimp Farming Program Population 1. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: disease resistance. 6ha of grow-out ponds. Record 223 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Iran aims to be big in shrimp AU: Author Nash. Record 224 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The effect of host size on virulence of Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) to the marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei (Crustacea: Penaeidae) AU: Author Lotz. Penaeus monodon. Experiments were done in either 100-L glass aquaria or 4000-L cylindrical fiberglass tanks. the government administration responsible for fisheries in Iran. Viral diseases. aquaculture development.000 hectares of low-quality agricultural land have been allocated for shrimp farming in the southern provinces. 320. shrimp culture. and was carried out with the help of Asian experts contracted through the UN Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO). pp. The TSV in all experiments originated from infected farm-reared shrimp collected during a 1995 TS outbreak in Texas. a laboratory. in 1989. More than 200. The first feasibility study and development project. JM SO: Source Journal of Shellfish Research. USA. plus a programme for manpower training. this problem can be solved by proper handling of shrimp during and after harvesting. 16. Jun 1997. In most cases. Aquaculture.be caused by unhealthy animals at harvest time and poor post-harvest handling. was funded jointly by United Nations Development Programme and Shilat. Article Taxonomic Terms: taura syndrome virus AB: Abstract Taura Syndrome (TS).

2 % by weight in 1994) of the global output and therefore skews the picture for the rest of the world. not only in its official documents but also in its newsletter. It is now standard practice for the FAO Fisheries Department to introduce its own annual aquaculture and fisheries statistical tables with graphic summaries. I simply want to highlight the differences between the situation in 1985 and in 1994. was one of the first attempts to predict the global requirements for aquaculture production up to the year 2025. vannamei increases its tolerance to TSV as it increases in size between 1 g and 30 g. Record 226 of 500 . pp. I will be excluding the production of aquatic plants and concentrating on the production of commodities for direct human consumption. the rise and fall in marine shrimp production in China) will need to look at FAO data in more detail. In the four experiments 9-14 d survival ranged from 0% to nearly 60%. the effect was only statistically significant in 2 of the 4 experiments. In discussing global aquaculture output and comparing it to capture fisheries production I have chosen to concentrate on the differences between 1985 and 1994 (the most recent year for which detailed FAO statistics are currently available). Those who want to examine the trials and tribulations which occurred between 1985 and 1994 (for example. entitled "Turn of the millennium aquaculture: navigating troubled waters or riding the crest of the wave?".Balancing the scales AU: Author New. 2. economics AB: Abstract Six years ago I gave the keynote address at World Aquaculture '91. 11-30. The results of the experiments failed to support the hypothesis that P. I will also attempt to project the requirements for aquaculture production into the early part of the next century and mention some of the issues which we must face to meet the challenges. Vol. the annual meeting of the World Aquaculture Society. Since the aquaculture production of China forms such a large proportion (57. Analysis of each of the 4 experiments by logistic regression revealed a consistent trend for larger shrimp to be more likely to succumb to infection. fishery statistics. Record 225 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Aquaculture and the capture fisheries . held in Puerto Rico. capture fishery economics. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: aquaculture economics.either per os by allowing shrimp to feed on macerated infected shrimp tissue or intramuscularly by injection of a viral suspension into the abdominal musculature.]. A helpful development is that FAO has also started to publish its own analyses of production trends. aquaculture statistics. Except where specifically mentioned. commercial species. It also was a pioneering attempt to analyse FAO aquaculture production data in graphic form. Since then there have been many similar analyses and prognoses. for popular consumption. I will also present some data with and without China. Jun 1997. however. 28. no. MB SO: Source World Aquaculture [WORLD AQUACULT. That paper.

The uncontrolled rapid expansion in the number and size of the farms. shrimp culture. 3.56. pp.84.4% of the diet or 3. Record 227 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Threonine requirement of juvenile marine shrimp Penaeus monodon AU: Author Millamena.3% of dietary protein. This requirement for growth conforms with the threonine level in the shrimp muscle. amino acids. Vol. Results showed that the quantitative threonine requirement for growth is 1.6. A SO: Source Aquaculture. 9-14. no. 10.in rearing facilities that can also withstand the rigours of seasonal monsoons. Record 228 of 500 DN: Database Name . Penaeus monodon postlarvae.12 g per 100 g diet or 1. 1-4. no. OS. The configuration of Taiwan's coastline does not offer many sites for traditional cage farming.5% of dietary protein. May 1997. 1. OM. 3. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon AB: Abstract The threonine requirement was determined for juvenile marine shrimp. resulting in the collapse of this industry. D SO: Source Fish Farming International.2. MN. cage culture. 2. however. and 5. 4. Relationship of weight gain with dietary threonine level was analyzed by the quadratic regression method to derive the threonine requirement. and any appreciable production can take place only in the open sea environment .72. 1. threonine. 1. Reyes. Kanazawa. and 2. Bautista.0. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: fish culture.9. pp. They were fed amino acid test diets (40% protein) with casein-gelatin as natural protein sources and supplemented with crystalline L-amino acids to simulate the amino acid profile of shrimp muscle except for threonine. Article Geographic Terms: Taiwan AB: Abstract Taiwan was a forerunner in intensive marine shrimp farming in Asia and the major producer in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Government fisheries agencies have since devoted much time and resources to developing alternative sustainable marine aquaculture practices. May 1997. PL20. causing self-pollution and disease.DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Tension leg tested in Taiwan AU: Author Lisac. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: nutritional requirements. Vol.5.28. The establishment of modern offshore fish farming technology is a top priority in the national aquaculture plan. aquaculture development. 151. diets. soon led to a degradation of the coastal zone. 24.8. Graded levels of threonine were incorporated to obtain 0. 5. were stocked in 30-l fiberglass tanks at ten shrimp per tank arranged in a completely randomized design with six replicates per treatment. 1.

AJP. Mar 1997. it thrived and grew on large investment projects of international banks and of governments eager to benefit from export earnings resulting from new farming technologies. 149. p. Vol. Article Geographic Terms: France AB: Abstract France-Aquaculture. 1-2. 5. the US Marine Shrimp Farming Program (USMSFP) is addressing this challenge by developing reliable sources of quality seed stock through its high health shrimp systems. Record 230 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Food ingestion and assimilation by the southern brown shrimp Penaeus subtilis under semi-intensive culture in NE Brazil AU: Author Nunes. However. viral diseases.ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Steps to keeping shrimp healthy AU: Author Getchell. shrimp culture. Part of the reason is that the industry is based on wild-caught broodstock. aquaculture development.]. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: feeding experiments. feeding behaviour. seed (aquaculture). R SO: Source Fish Farming News [FISH FARM. 5. no. Article Taxonomic Terms: . Vol. no. brood stocks. no. Record 229 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Decline of the big consultancies marks new era AU: Author Anon. NEWS]. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: fish diseases. 5 p. TCV. whose disease status is unpredictable and therefore difficult to sustain for the long-term. pp. Goddard. 121-136. INT. Gesteira. 3. nutritional requirements. S SO: Source Aquaculture. has all but disappeared.The world's shrimp farmers have been caught in a game of "Twister" trying to keep one step ahead of shrimp diseases like white spot. hatcheries AB: Abstract ITHACA. Mar 1997. NY . KCM International and Fisheries Development Ltd. such as Aquatic Farms. shrimp culture. breeding. 24. yellow head. Apr 1997. and Taura syndrome. the French company responsible for much global expansion of marine shrimp farming and aquaculture through the 1980s. aquaculture economics. Like a handful of big companies dominating the consulting field a decade ago. Today France Aquaculture is little more than a portfolio of old projects and misty memories. Vol. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: fish culture. shrimp culture. SO: Source Fish Farming International [FISH FARM. marketing.

S. accounting for 24.166 tonnes in 1983 to 120.91% of the carbon growth.83% of all prey ingested (32.61% of the stomach contents (5. Its fishery has been reported in Senegal. 1857) in some lentic and lotic environments in Nigeria AU: Author Bello-Olusoji. consisting of rivers. 1991). A twelve month survey was carried out.000 tonnes in 1990 (Chamberlain. French Guinea. 1980). subtilis displayed pronounced detritivorous feeding behaviour. ECOL. vollenhovenii showing the highest occurrence in eighteen (72%) fresh water bodies made up of seven rivers (39%). stock assessment. no. has commercial potential (Ajuzie & Fagade. revealing a more carnivorous habit. They were grouped into two forms. streams. Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium vollenhovenii. Record 231 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Assessment of the African river prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (Herklots. length-weight relationships. Article Geographic Terms: Nigeria AB: Abstract Macrobrachium vollenhovenii is a tropical crustacean endemic to the eastern Atlantic. pp. rosenbergii that is now being cultured commercially in SE Asia and in developed countries including the U. 35. The experiment was conducted at a commercial shrimp farm on the NE Brazilian coast. ponds and reservoirs (lakes). Mar 1997. Nairobi [AFR. Article Geographic Terms: Brazil AB: Abstract In recent years in NE Brazil. OA.]. Macrobrachium species were found in 25 with M. MJ SO: Source African journal of ecology. The investigation focused on the analysis of stomach contents and stable carbon isotope ratios. Naturally occurring pond biota was the major food source for P. aquaculture. 1. a close relative of the giant fresh-water prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Liberia. J. Its production in Indonesia is being described as the second most productive industry in the world with an increase in yield from 26. Vol. prey organisms were consumed in greater amounts. which has not been fully developed in the manner of M.09%). Overall. shrimp fisheries. The prawns . freshwater crustaceans. attempts to increase productivity in extensive marine shrimp farms has focused attention on semi-intensive cultivation methods with native species.55% of the total food consumed). In the initial growth stages. 1992). on 42 freshwater bodies. representing 80.Penaeus subtilis. subtilis observed throughout the study. three reservoirs (17%) and four streams (22%). Formulated food constituted 15. Gabon and Congo (Zaire) (Holthius. Macrobrachium vollenhovenii. As the shrimp grew. lentic or standing (ponds and reservoirs) water and lotic or running water (rivers and streams). with the remainder attributed to natural food (average 75. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: freshwater environments. Polychaetes were the most important food type.99% of stomach volume). Somers. The present decline in the marine shrimp production as reported by Adetayo (1982) gives room for alternative ways of increasing shrimp production to reduce the overfished marine species. 80-81. The present study was initiated to investigate the diet of Penaeus subtilis under semi-intensive conditions over a complete growth cycle.A. a benthic omnivorous opportunist feeding behaviour was observed. four constructed fish ponds (22%). P. Ivory Coast.

survival and nutritional condition when reared at 35 ppt S and when fed on Kelko-enriched Artemia but the differences with postlarvae from other treatments were very poorly marked. The interaction of dietary DHA and culture salinity was not significant for total length and survival but was significant for both condition indices used. no. In ponds. Survival. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus kerathurus. The weight (g). These were separated according to their sizes. Biol. Carbohydrates.0 cm (135 g) and 14. Fatty acids. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans. On each trip M. Salinity effects.were caught using traps and nets set by fishermen on the relevant rivers and streams. 1997. Proteins. 128. Shrimp were reared from 1. Vol. Lipids. Artemia AB: Abstract A two-way ANOVA experiment was designed to study the effects of salinity and dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. they were collected after draining the pond or caught alongside fin-fishes during harvesting. P. Dietary DHA content did not affect either total length or survival but influenced the nutritional status represented by condition indices (triacylglycerol/total polar lipid and triacylglycerol/free cholesterol) of 8-d-old postlarvae at the end of the experiment. general performance and disease resistance.0 mu g (n-3) HUFA/mg dry weight. Body size. vollenhovenii. 9. Holithus (1980) reported maximum length of 18.to 8-d-old postlarvae at 35 and 25 ppt S with Kelko-enriched Artemia [20. In the Laboratory samples were grouped into those from lotic environments and those from lentic environments.3 mu g DHA/mg dry weight]. G. 289-298. A SO: Source Marine Biology [Mar. Record 232 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Effects of salinity and dietary DHA (22:6n-3) content on lipid composition and performance of Penaeus kerathurus postlarvae AU: Author Mourente. pp. Rearing.].1 mu g DHA/mg dry weight] and nonen. 0. kerathurus 8-d-old postlarvae showed better growth.2 cm for M.2 mu g (n-3) HUFA/mg dry weight. body length (cm) and pincer length (cm) were measured. The results demonstrate that 8-d-old postlarvae may have sufficiently developed osmoregulatory capabilities to resist 25 ppt S under good conditions. Record 233 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts . The maximum total length and weight recorded was 16. Rodriguez. vollenhovenii was randomly sampled from the total catch. Nutritional requirements. Twenty samples were picked randomly from each environment as shown in Table 1. Crustacean larvae. 22:6n-3) on lipid composition and performance of postlarvae from the marine shrimp Penaeus kerathurus. 13 females and 7 males.0 cm (125 g) for the lotic and lentic groups. 2. Cultured organisms. Ash content. Culture salinity affected final total length and condition indices but did not show any effect on survival in the different experimental treatments.riched Artemia [14. although (n-3) HUFA-enriched diets may also enhance osmotic stress resistance. Dry weight.

the obtention of good quality seed. Record 234 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Histopathological effects produced by Vibrio sp. Aquaculture economics. 3-4. 135-149.01) due to different bacterial cultures or postlarval stages. It was noted that this activity gradually rises its production reaching a total of 185.Original Abstract: Se describen los efectos histopatologicos producidos por cepas de Vibrio sp. H.000 metric tons in 1996. economic and social aspects. no. cultures and a control. Vol. 23-25. (Maracaibo)]. Bacterial diseases. cut into 5 mu sections. The assays consisted of 12 randomly chosen Vibrio sp. Thus.] AU: Author Berger. and presence of bacilli in infected tissue of the hepatopancreas were observed. Some of the main problems ocurring are the disease prevention. and problematics of the marine shrimp culture in Latin America are reviewed. The histological effects seen by us in this study are similar to those of other investigators. Vol. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Conroy. Para el ensayo se utilizo un blanco y 12 cepas de Vibrio sp. Las muestras de tejido de las postlarvas se tomaron a las 24 horas de iniciado el ensayo. Biol. Aquaculture. Invest. in postlarvae of the marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei. marked vacuolization. Infected specimens did not present any significant histopathological differences (P < 0. Article Geographic Terms: Latin America AB: Abstract The actual state. Developmental stages. en postlarvas de Penaeus vannamei. Cent. perspectives. in postlarvae of Penaeus vannamei AU: Author Urdaneta. and three replicas of postlarvae in stages 3-12 with a density of 60 postlarvae/L. La prueba se realizo por triplicado con postlarvas entre los estadios 3 y 12. pp. is present within the shrimp as well as in the sea water samples of the culture station. and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (Mayer's modified method). infiltration of hemocytes. 2. Article Taxonomic Terms: Vibrio. Penaeus vannamei AB: Abstract The present work describes the histopathological effects produced by cultures of Vibrio sp. D SO: Source Boletin del Centro del Investigaciones Biologicas [Bol. La densidad poblacional fue de 60 postlarvas/L. 1997. tissue samples of both infected and uninfected postlarvae were preserved in Davidson's fixative. reduction of production costs and improvement of marketing practices. Philippi. no. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Pathogens. After 48 hours. embedded in paraffin. 31. Degeneration and presence of bacilli in infected abdominal muscle tissue. Vibrio sp. tomadas al azar.TI: Title [A summary on the marine shrimp culture in Latin America. Histopathology. marine pollution. 64. A. culture techniques. Marine organisms. as well as degeneration in the walls of the tubules. Shrimp culture. C SO: Source Pesca. Inoculations were made with diluted bacterial suspensions. pp. Fishery development. Mar 1997. se fijaron . inoculados con suspensiones bacterianas diluidas.

se realizaron cortes y se tineron co el metodo modificado de hematoxilina y eosina de Mayer. and 7 kg mussel per ton effluent. The experiment was repeated three times. Indonesia conducted at IPB.9-8. orthophosphate. se incluyeron en parafina. . nitrite-nitrogen. 31-33 ppt and 7. Part 1. Biol. Perna viridis AB: Abstract Green mussel Perna viridis were exposed 10 days to effluents from an intensive marine shrimp farm (0. no. [Spec. 5. Pollution control. ammonia-nitrogen. Densities of green mussel were 1. 1.en solucion Davidson.55 ha. LIPI. Asimismo.01) al considerar tanto las cepas bacterianas como los estadios de las postlarvas. indicando la existencia de cepas de Vibrio sp.. Aquaculture systems. and 1 month old) for biological treatment of the water. One control without mussels was included. alta vacuolizacion y presencia de bacilos. Thiraksapan. Record 235 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Application of green mussel (Perna viridis) in biological treatment of effluents from an intensive marine shrimp farm AU: Author Tookwinas. Wastewater aquaculture. Publ. and total suspended solids before and after each experiment. infiltracion de hemocitos. Vol. Los cambios histologicos manifestados en los especimenes infectados no presentaron diferencias significativas (P < 0. a nivel del tejido de hepatopancreas infectado se aprecio degradacion de las paredes de los tubulos. 17. Average temperature. Article Taxonomic Terms: Mytilidae. Los resultados obtenidos fueron similares a los observados por otros investigadores. Stocking density. It is concluded that 1 kg green mussel is a suitable stocking density for the treatment of 1 ton of stagnant waste water per 10 days. 141-144. CA: Corporate Author Phuket Marine Biological Cent. Phuket Mar. Cent. pp. 3. tanto en el interior de los camarones como en el agua de mar de la estacion de cultivo donde se tomaron las muestras. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Mussel culture. Effluents were monitored for chlorophyll alpha . Thailand Record 236 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Court ruling threatens future of Indian shrimp farming AU: Author Anon.7 respectively. Los analisis histopatologicos permitieron observar degradacion y presencia de bacilos en el tejido muscular abdominal infectado. T SO: Source Proceedings of the seventh Workshop of the Tropical Marine Mollusc Programme (TMMP) on Central and West Java. Survival was not significantly different among the experiments. but there was a tendency toward increased mortality at higher stocking densities. 11-22 November 1996. Shrimp culture. S. Aquaculture effluents. stocking density 34 shrimp m super(-2). salinity. and pH were 26-29 degree C. 1997. UNDIP. Wastewater treatment.]..

resulting in four parallel pairs of blastomeres which lay in a common plane that was parallel to the substratum. WH Jr* SO: Source Development. the Supreme Court of India handed down its 111-page judgement for the future of the marine shrimp farming industry along the country's coastal margins. Vol. 124. subsequent spindle orientations were not like those observed for intact 8-cell linear embryos. spindle orientation is parallel to the cleavage plane that formed the blastomere. but rather regressed to the orientation seen in 4-cell linear embryos.DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shellfish culture. Article Taxonomic Terms: Sicyonia ingentis AB: Abstract During early cleavages of Sicyonia ingentis embryos. Article Geographic Terms: India AB: Abstract After almost two years of deliberation. To determine if specific spindle orientations were intrinsic properties of individual blastomeres. we altered blastomere associations and asked how mitotic spindle orientation was affected in successive cleavages using laser scanning confocal microscopy. legal aspects. the industry is already fighting back. ingentis is neither an intrinsic property nor age dependent. spindles oriented at a 45 degree angle (not parallel as in normal development) with respect to the previous cleavage plane. no. spindles orient at a 90 degree angle with respect to the spindle of the parent blastomere. Griffin. marine crustaceans. 4. The surprising decision. But. aquaculture development. pp. SW. FJ. but rather is cell contact related. Thus. shrimp culture. 773-780. aquaculture economics. aquaculture regulations. backed by intervention petitions and appeals by the Ministries of Commerce and of Agriculture. embryonic development. Feb 1997. When 8-cell linear embryos were separated into linear half-embryos. Then. We suggest that the reorientation of mitotic spindles during early cleavage of S. The 4 super(th) cleavage produced a linear embryo with the 16 blastomeres arranged in four parallel quartets. Further. cell differentiation. spindles. will hit corporate investors hard. mitotic spindle orientations differ between blastomeres and change in a predictable manner with each successive mitosis. Clark. by Justices Kuldip Singh and Saghir Ahmad on December 11. which will be popular among India's small farmers and environmentalists. these results in conjunction with observations of non-manipulated embryos suggest that spindle poles . The ensuing cleavage (3 super(rd) embryonic cleavage) of these linear embryos was parallel to the long axis of the embryo. in preparation for 5 super(th) cleavage. and the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD). From 2 super(nd) through 7 super(th) cleavages. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: cell cycle. several state governments. environmental impact. Linear embryos were constructed by dissociating 4-cell embryos and recombining the blastomeres in a linear array. Record 237 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Cell-cell association directed mitotic spindle orientation in the early development of the marine shrimp Sicyonia ingentis AU: Author Wang. pollution control.

(centrosomes) avoid cytoplasmic regions adjacent to where there is cell-cell contact during early development. Record 238 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title A novel satellite/microsatellite combination in the genome of the marine shrimp, Penaeus vannamei AU: Author Bagshaw, JC; Buckholt, MA SO: Source Gene. Vol. 184, no. 2, pp. 211-214. Jan 1997. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: microsatellites; DNA; genetics; marine crustaceans AB: Abstract In our studies of repeated sequences in the genome of the marine shrimp, Penaeus vannamei (Pv), we have discovered a novel combination of sequence elements. We inserted restriction fragments of genomic DNA into a plasmid vector and screened for recombinant plasmids containing repeated sequences. Ten of the resulting isolates contained representatives of the same repeated element, a satellite sequence present in one or more blocks of tandemly repeated units. The cloned repeat units range in size from 139 to 188 bp. Embedded within each cloned repeat unit are 6-15 copies of a tandemly repeated pentanucleotide microsatellite. The genome of Pv contains approx. 1000000 copies of this satellite/microsatellite unit. Sequences that cross-hybridize strongly with this structure were found in the genomes of lobster and crayfish, but not in other species of the genus Penaeus. Record 239 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Need for professional manpower development to augment Indian marine shrimp aquaculture industry AU: Author Diwan, AD; Suseelan, C; Thakur, NK; Biradar, RS; Sontakki, BSrho eds SO: Source CENTRAL INSTITUTE OF FISHERIES EDUCATION, VERSOVA, MUMBAI (INDIA). 1997. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: aquaculture enterprises; shrimp culture; aquaculturists; Article Geographic Terms: ISW, India AB: Abstract India passing through a stage of rapid development of shrimp aquaculture industry. With a long coastline of about 7500 kms and an estimated brackishwater area of 2.6 million hectares, it has been identified that 1.2 million heactares are available immediately for mariculture. However only a small fraction of this is being used at present. Hence there is a vast scope for further development. In order to a develop this activity, the anticipated requirement of manpower is estimated in the present paper. Record 240 of 500

DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The global emergence of tropical aquaculture AU: Author New, MB SO: Source Aquacult. Eur. Vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 41-49. 1997. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Tropical environment; Aquaculture development; Fish culture; Shrimp culture; Aquaculture statistics AB: Abstract Following a brief historical account of tropical aquaculture, an examination is made of the current status of aquaculture production in tropical countries. Cyprinids form the largest proportion of all species groups cultured in tropical countries, with milkfish and tilapias being the next most important groups. In contrast to finfish, the production of crustaceans in tropical countries expanded very much faster than average. The explosive expansion of marine shrimp farming is discussed in detail. Record 241 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Chromosome studies on the marine shrimps Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus californiensis (Decapoda) AU: Author Campos-Ramos, R SO: Source J. Crust. Biol. Vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 666-673. 1997. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans; Chromosomes; Karyology; Eggs; Analytical techniques; Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus californiensis; Penaeus vannamei; Article Geographic Terms: ISE, Mexico AB: Abstract Chromosome numbers were obtained from eggs of Penaeus californiensis. They had 2n=88 chromosomes. This was confirmed by the haploid chromosome number of n=44 in testes. No evident karyological difference was observed between these species, in which 4 metacentric, 10 subtelocentric, and 18 acrocentric chromosomes were observed. To obtain mitotic metaphase chromosomes from marine shrimp eggs, 2 methods are described. The effect of colchicine incubation for chromosome condensation was investigated. Record 242 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Aquaculture feed and fertilizer resource atlas of the Philippines AU: Author Cruz, PS SO: Source FAO fisheries technical paper. Rome [FAO Fish. Tech. Pap.]. no. 366, 259 pp. 1997. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture development; Feed; Fertilizers;

Directories; Aquaculture enterprises; Feed preparation; Article Geographic Terms: Philippines AB: Abstract The paper is based on a comprehensive survey conducted by the author in 1995/1996 concerning the feed and fertilizer resources of the Philippines and their availability and use by the resident aquaculture sector. Presented in the form of an illustrated atlas, the report compiles information on the fertilizer and feed resources of the Philippines, where they are geographically located, how much is available and when, who is currently using this resource and how, the composition and cost of this resource at source and with transportation, together with an assessment of the status of the existing animal feed manufacturing industry and its regulations, together with information on the feeding strategies employed by the aquaculture sector. It was estimated that approximately 45-75% and 85-95% of the feed ingredients currently used within commercial aquafeeds for fish (i.e. mainly tilapia and milkfish) and marine shrimp were composed of imported feed ingredients, respectively, as compared with only 20-30% for livestock and poultry feeds. CA: Corporate Author FAO, Rome (Italy) Record 243 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Spawning and larval culture of three ornamental marine shrimp, Stenopus hispidus, Stenopus scutellatus, and Lysmata wurdemanni. AU: Author Zhang, D DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Spawning; Rearing; Larval development; Crustacean larvae; Aquarium culture; Shrimp culture; Aquaria; Coral reefs; Article Taxonomic Terms: Stenopus scutellatus; Lysmata wurdemanni; Stenopus hispidus CA: Corporate Author Florida Sea Grant Record 244 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Enteroviruses in shrimp harvested from contaminated marine waters AU: Author Botero, L; Montiel, M; Porto, L SO: Source International Journal of Environmental Health Research. Vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 103-108. Jun 1996. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: marine organisms; seafood; food contamination; viruses; wastewater discharges; water pollution; sewage; contamination; pathogens; sewage disposal; pollution effects; public health; food-borne diseases; wastewater pollution; shrimp; enteroviruses; human diseases; shrimp fisheries; viral diseases; Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus schmitti; enterovirus; poliovirus 1; echovirus; Article Geographic Terms: ASW, Venezuela, Zulia, Maracaibo L. AB: Abstract

Marine shrimp (genus Penaeus) live primarily in tropical and subtropical coastal locations, sometimes contaminated by domestic sewage. However, sanitary quality and importance of shrimp as a potential vehicle for enteric disease transmission have not been reported previously. The shrimp Penaeus schmitti were either collected directly from Lake Maracaibo, in western Venezuela, or obtained from local seafood outlets. Of a total of 33 pooled samples, 16 (49%) yielded virus. Six types of enteroviruses were isolated during this study: polioviruses 1 and 2, and echovirus types 20, 21, 27, and 29. Viruses not typeable with the pools of specific antiserum used during this study were isolated from seven samples. Analysis of the results indicate that enteroviruses may be present in shrimp populations present in sewage-contaminated marine and estuarine waters. Record 245 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Shrimp diseases AU: Author Anon. SO: Source Center for Tropical and Subtropical Aquaculture. no. 121, 2 pp. May 1996. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture; Mortality causes; Disease control; Brood stocks; Epidemiology; Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei; Penaeus stylirostris; Article Geographic Terms: ISE, USA, Hawaii AB: Abstract In May 1994, an outbreak of a relatively new and serious shrimp disease killed more than 95% of the Penaeus vannamei at an aquaculture farm in Kahuku, Hawaii. The malady that ravaged this farm and decimated its shrimp stocks was Taura Syndrome, an illness that previously caused more than $100 million worth of damage to shrimp farms in South America but had not previously attacked shrimp farms in Hawaii. While the severity of this bout of Taura Syndrome is somewhat atypical, the shrimp farmer's experiences in coping with the disease underscore the devastating impact that illness can have on the larval and growout production of marine shrimp, and the need for practical, cost-effective tools for disease management. Scientists working at the University of Hawaii, The Oceanic Institute, and the State of Hawaii's Aquaculture Development Program are seeking to learn more about Taura Syndrome and the Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis (IHHN), two major diseases that endanger the growout and broodstock production of Penaeus vannamei and P. stylirostris in Hawaii. While some important strides have been made in developing new preventative methods to combat these illnesses, additional research needs to be done, especially on methods to control the disease. CA: Corporate Author Aquaculture Development Program; University of Hawaii Sea Grant Extension Service Record 246 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Aquaculture in the Philippines

AU: Author Guerrero, RD III SO: Source World Aquaculture. Vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 7-13. Mar 1996. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: brackishwater aquaculture; marine aquaculture; fish culture; aquaculture development; Article Geographic Terms: Philippines AB: Abstract In 1993, the Philippines produced 772 082 tonnes of aquaculture products - roughly 26% of total fisheries production. Sea-weeds are farmed in open coastal waters. Milkfish are produced in brackishwater ponds and freshwater pens. Nile tilapia are grown in freshwater ponds and cages. Marine shrimp are being cultured both extensively and intensively in brackish water ponds while mussels and oyster are cultured in marine bays. The future for additional development in the Philippines is brighter for aquaculture than for the marine capture fisheries. Sustainable growth of the aquaculture industry, however, will need additional appropriate support for farmers. In addition, research and the development of regulations are needed to address the problems of inadequate fingerling supplies, diseases, and adverse environmental impacts from aquaculture. Record 247 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title (Monitoring culture ponds wastes of the IFREMER aquaculture station of Saint-Vincent (New Caledonia)) AU: Author Lemonnier, H; Bonnet, S SO: Source Conv. Sci. Mer Biol. Mar. Cent. Noumea ORSTOM. no. 8, 27 pp. 1996. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture; Intensive culture; Stocking density; Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus stylirostris; Article Geographic Terms: ISEW, New Caledonia AB: Abstract In New Caledonia culture of the marine shrimp species Penaeus stylirostris is highly developed. Yields of 878 tons for 358 ha was reached in 1995. It is a semi-intensive culture which needs food supply to complete natural production which, on itself, cannot entirely satisfy animals trophic needs. This food supply leads to an enrichment of water and sediment in organic and mineral matters which are partly dragged along outside while water exchange. The influence of stocking densities on waste production and on shrimp yields are partly known. Results of chemical analysis are presented. Record 248 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Brazil develops its marine shrimp farming industry AU: Author Goddard, S; Campos, AA SO: Source Fish Farming International [FISH FARM. INT.]. Vol. 23, no. 1, vp. 1996.

Brazil AB: Abstract Shrimp farming in Brazil is in the early stages of development. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon. pp. Satisfying this objective requires experience and knowledge of shrimp behavior and feedings habits and a continuous pond sampling program that provides accurate and timely data on pond environmental parameters. 1. 97-106. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. While in the past emphasis has been on the culture of freshwater prawns. The first commercial attempts to farm marine shrimp in Brazil were conducted in the early 1970s with introduced species. trade. 3. Record 250 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine shrimp farming in the Kingdom of Thailand: Part 1 AU: Author Jory. handling and storage. Vol. Article Geographic Terms: Thailand . no. Compared with other South American countries. size distribution and individual mean size. growth of the industry has been slow even though Brazil has an 8000 km coastline and vast natural resources. marine aquaculture. aquaculture development. only as strong as it weakest link. The importance of proper feed management can not be emphasized enough: the best artificial feed will be worthless if not stored. japonicus). feeding regimes. no. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon. feed AB: Abstract The objective of feed management at the farm level is to make available to the animals the best quality artificial feed. It includes feed selection.]. 1996. Record 249 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Management of commercial and farm-made feeds in marine shrimp ponds AU: Author Jory. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: marine aquaculture. and adjustments to feeding rates. feed application methods. Penaeus japonicus. Vol. handled and used properly. the giant tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).]. aquaculture economics. pp. MAG. Article Geographic Terms: ASW. 1996. in the required amounts and at the right times and places. 22. and the highly-valued kuruma (P. 22. shrimp culture. DE SO: Source Aquaculture Magazine [AQUACULT. and shrimp biomass. notably Ecuador. MAG. 86-97. Management of artificial feeds is a sequential process. DE SO: Source Aquaculture Magazine [AQUACULT. marine shrimp farms have now been established in states extending from Para in the north to Santa Catarina in the south and considerable expansion is forecast.DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture.

water quality. No statistical differences were detected in growth or survival among treatments. Record 251 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine shrimp farming in the Kingdom of Thailand: Part 2 AU: Author Jory. the continuous discharge from the ponds operated with water exchange probably resulted in a much larger total . JS. Holloway. The ponds operated without water exchange had higher nutrients and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) at the end of the study and. aquaculture techniques. MAG. The ponds operated with and without routine water exchange had average production of 5. 71-78. Marine shrimp comprise approximately 32% of the total value of Thai seafood exports.888 and 5. pp. Vol. environmental effects. Record 252 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Comparison of exchange and no-exchange water management strategies for the intensive pond culture of marine shrimp AU: Author Hopkins. 2. Part II continues with the pond management discussion. Sandifer.444 kg/ha per crop. DE SO: Source Aquaculture Magazine [AQUACULT. water exchange. 22. thus. pond culture. Jory's column. pond culture. no. aquaculture development. 1996. Vol. JD SO: Source Journal of Shellfish Research. Thailand is now the seventh largest seafood producer and the top seafood exporter in the world. intensive culture. 4. This study compared shrimp production and water quality in triplicate ponds operated with and without water exchange. pp. including being the largest exporter of both marine shrimp and canned tuna. 1996. Browdy. CL. The paramount aquaculture activity in Thailand is the production of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. discharged more nutrients and BOD in the drain harvesting process.]. survival. respectively. PA. However. "Marine Shrimp Farming in the Kingdom of Thailand. Article Geographic Terms: Thailand AB: Abstract In Part I of Dr.AB: Abstract Seafood production is an integral and important component of Thailand's economy. no." the development of shrimp farming in Thailand was addressed and pond management was introduced. biological production. 441-445. 15. Differences in harvest size and survival also influenced food conversion efficiency. although there was a trend towards slightly smaller mean size at harvest and lower survival in the ponds operated without water exchange. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae AB: Abstract Most of the potential and realized adverse environmental effects of shrimp farming are associated with routine water exchange. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture.

Reproductive performance of P. Broodstock were fed a standard maturation diet up to satiation (Rangen maturation pellets:squid:polychaete ratio. water quality AB: Abstract The increasing environmental regulations on the use of coastal land and seawater resources for aquaculture are bringing about the need to develop alternative technologies based on closed systems.05 ppm. WD. Closed maturation systems may represent an asset for the commercial reproduction of P.68% for females and 94% for males. Two maturation tanks were initially stocked with 50 broodstock each (female:male ratio. Immature females were unilaterally ablated after 15 days of acclimation to the diet. marine aquaculture. Activated carbon was included in the biofilters. generally rely on open systems with substantial seawater requirements. hatching rate from fertile eggs 89.6-8. No males presented melanized spermatophores. vannamei reproduction. and nitrate-N increased up to 68 ppm. Lotz. Energy costs were 31. All the females were able to mature and were mated at least once. JT DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. Average mating rate/night was 12. Flow rate through the maturation tanks and the biofilters was 9 gpm. and average naupliar production per spawn 41.858. This document reports that P. Youngs. 1:1:1). Temperature. vannamei has been examined at the Gulf Coast Research Laboratory shrimp maturation closed facilities. Average ammonia-N was below 0. Advantages of working with recirculating systems include: location versatility. Commercial maturation facilities for Penaeus vannamei. and a photoperiod of 14 h. among others. spawn size 118. Results show that this recirculating system was able to maintain an adequate water quality for P. recirculating systems. light was maintained during all the study. reduced seawater requirements and controlled waste water treatment.5%. vannamei were within considered acceptable levels in shrimp maturation facilities.1 ppm. while representing an environmentally sustainable form of aquaculture. Ogle. salinity and pH were controlled between 27-30C. Record 254 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title . Sixty days after ablation survival was 90. Females were checked for spermatophore presence 3 times /week (alternate days) and mated females were transfer to spawning tanks. MC. spawns/females/night 0. 1:1).69%.1271. and 7. and 30-31 ppt. vannamei can be successfully reproduced in a complete recirculating system. Record 253 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Reproduction of the marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei in closed systems AU: Author Tirado. Heavy precipitation resulted in higher turbidity and total suspended solids in ponds with water exchange near the end of the study. fertilization rate 34%. No water was replaced.5% higher for the ponds operated with water exchange than for the no-exchange ponds. The overall reproductive parameters of P. vannamei in sites where seawater resources are limited. average nitrite-N below 0.710.2 respectively.nutrient and BOD load to the adjacent estuary. JM.

and this paper describes the current health management strategies that are being practiced in Chinese aquaculture. A recommendation is made for the establishment of a prawn hatchery within. PAP. In order to find an effective solution to prevent disease outbreaks. site selection. disease control.4% to the total world aquaculture production. Article Geographic Terms: Pakistan Abstract The results are presented of a consultancy conducted during the period November 1995-January 1996 to determine the feasibility of establishing freshwater prawn farming in lower Sindh province of Pakistan. The conversion of existing carp ponds to prawn monoculture would be more profitable than the establishment of new ponds. Yulin SO: Source FAO fisheries technical paper. Article Geographic Terms: China. Although freshwater and marine fish production increased rapidly over the past decade. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: fish culture. Various options for siting government hatchery and demonstration facilities for prawn farming are provided. Technical report: feasibility of freshwater prawn hatcheries in Sindh Province Author New. aquaculture development.AU: SO: DE: AB: CA: Feasibility study on establishing freshwater prawn hatchery.]. It has been said that these outbreaks of virus disease are partly management oriented. fish diseases. Descriptors Article Subject Terms: prawn culture. marine shrimp culture suffered serious losses due to disease outbreaks. Rome [Italy] Record 255 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title A review of traditional and innovative aquaculture health management in the People's Republic of China AU: Author Jiang. People's Rep. it was concluded that prawn farming would be viable in Sindh. AB: Abstract In 1994. Rome [FAO FISH. the concept of "putting prevention first" has now been introduced. or adjacent to. Major constraints are lack of seed and technological demonstration. China contributed 60. Based on the use of a monoculture system for Macrobrachium rosenbergii in a single 1-ha pond and on the cost data collected during the consultancy.. aquaculture development. CA: Corporate Author FAO Fisheries Dep. M Source FAO. husbandry diseases. TECH. Rome [Italy] Record 256 of 500 . shrimp culture. Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Preliminary descriptive designs and a technology package for government facilities are included. ROME (ITALY). 1996. Programme. aquaculture economics. the Marine Fisheries Department marine shrimp and finfish hatchery site at Hawkes Bay. Corporate Author FAO Technical Coop. hatcheries. Pakistan. 1996.

DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Use of chemicals in aquaculture AU: Author Tonguthai. Chemical control. pp. Asia. The chemicals are used mainly to treat diseased animals and to a lesser degree improve water quality. although some sites have devoted attention to marine shrimp and other locally significant species. Vol. and subsequently in the Philippines. 42-45. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Fish culture. The cost of chemical use in 1995 is considered briefly and an examination made of hazard and adverse impacts. Circa. Honduras. Record 257 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title A global experiment on tilapia aquaculture: impacts of the Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP in Rwanda. 1996. Honduras. the US and. . Lovshin. chemical use is becoming increasingly a part of management. The research network's global experiment has focused on tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Hanson. At all the sites. 1. TR. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Fish culture. Disease control. pp. LL. Freshwater aquaculture. Shrimp culture. Impact of the network's investigations with tilapia is examined in this article. the Philippines and Thailand AU: Author Molnar. 12-17. especially for marine shrimp. Environmental impact. the CRSP focuses on improving the efficiency of aquaculture systems. and to design responses that are environmentally and culturally appropriate. chemical usage can be cost-efficient and would contribute to higher profitability without adverse impacts on product quality and the environment. Article Geographic Terms: Philippines. National regulations on the use of chemicals in aquaculture are detailed and various recommendations to limit the use of chemical and their adverse effects are included. 19. 1996. in Thailand. until recently. Thailand AB: Abstract The Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture Collaborative Research Support Program (PDA/CRSP) is a global research network to generate basic science that may be used to advance aquaculture development. Rwanda. A list is given of some of the commercial chemical products available in the Thai market. 1. One of a family of research programs funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). Vol. Aquaculture techniques. The PDA/CRSP began work in 1982 in Thailand. Rwanda. the goal is the same: to identify constraints to aquaculture production. 2. Pond culture. K SO: Source Aquac. no. Article Geographic Terms: Thailand AB: Abstract As a consequence of the expansion of aquaculture. AV SO: Source Naga [Naga]. Good farm management can help avoid abuse and overuse of chemicals. Aquaculture development. Aquaculture regulations. JJ. no. Honduras. Article Taxonomic Terms: Oreochromis niloticus. Integrated into a good management practice.

Successful artificial insemination was observed after thawing of spermatozoa preserved in liquid nitrogen (LN sub(2)) for 94-138 days. Invest. Yafu. Fernandez. no. Caribbean Sea.Record 258 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Cryopreservation of spermatozoa from the marine shrimp Penaeus chinensis AU: Author Ke. Stocking (organisms). 20. Cuba AB: Abstract The nursery growth of the species Penaeus notialis in pens during 1992 (January-August) and results are analyzed. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Sperm. Freezing storage. Postlarvae (12-29) were held in these structures for a period of about 30 days where they reached some 32 mm Cuban length and 308 mg of weight which is considered suitable for restocking purposes. Vol. Growth rate. In cryopreservation of spermatozoa from thelycum. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus chinensis AB: Abstract Cryopreservation (-196 degree C) of spermatozoa from the marine shrimp Peneus chinensis was studied from 1991 to 1993. Naner SO: Source Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica/Haiyang Yu Huzhao [Oceanol. 187-193.43-1.Original Abstract: Se analizan los resultados de la precria en corrales de Penaeus notialis durante 1992 (enero-agosto). pp. AU: Author Paez.9 mm/day is within the interval found by other authors. Possible relationships between age. Las postlarvas (12-29) fueron mantenidas . Font. acrosome breaking off. Cage culture. breaking at the nuclear body. Pesq. J. 1967) with restocking purposes in Cuba. 15-17. Cai. 27.39 mm/day) between the two working stages under analysis is discussed. 3. The freezing injuries prevent acrosome filament formation. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus notialis. K super(+) are necessary for cryopreservation of Chinese shrimp spermatozoa. stock density. L SO: Source Rev. Vol. scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed several types of cryopreservation freezing injury such as snapping of "spike". Preliminary length-weight and total length-Cuban length relationships are presented. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Crustacean larvae. pp. The growth rate of 0. 1996. Induced breeding. Ca super(2+). 1996. Limnol. Shrimp culture. The highest fertility rate of the spermatozoa from thelycum is 59%. The wide range of value (0. no. Mg super(2+)./Haiyang Yu Huzhao]. L. and growth are evaluated. Observation with optical microscope. 1. it is best that artificial or natural seawater is diluted with 10% DMSO and 5%-10% Glycerol. Record 259 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Larval growth of marine shrimp (Penaeus notialis Perez Farfante. Cub. Sin. size. Greater Antilles. Article Geographic Terms: ASW.

Craig L. Se evaluan posibles relaciones entre edad. 187-199. Tzachi M SO: Source Technical report. Samocha. 1995. Holloway. fatty acids.]. talla y densidad de siembra y la tasa de crecimiento. Browdy. Rodriguez. no encontrandose relacion entre el largo y la edad de siembra. aunque si entre el peso y esa edad.en estas estructuras por un periodo aproximado 30 dias. Artemia AB: Abstract Lipid class and fatty acid contents. John D Jr. South Carolina Marine Resources Center [Tech. Article Geographic Terms: ANW.C. Cent. G. Nursery grounds.9 mm/dia esta dentro del intervalo encontrado por otros autores. This is considerably less than in the Latin American and Southeast Asian countries where two or more crops are grown each year. 130. 3. biochemical composition. Gonzalez. Vol. lo que se considera apropiado a los efectos de la repoblacion. feed composition. Mar. Raymond J. Aquaculture development. S. Record 260 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Production Effects of a Greenhouse Enclosed Nursery System on the Projected Financial Performance of a South Carolina Marine Shrimp Farm AU: Author Rhodes. 1995. Resour.43-1. animal nutrition. 85. Carol. S. [np]. A. South Carolina AB: Abstract South Carolina's climate restricts marine shrimp growing to one season of five to seven months. Production cost. which is only long enough to produce one crop per year. Se discute el gran recorrido de los valores (0. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shellfish culture. Sureshwaran. S. Growth. pp. Rep. Financing. no. For South Carolina shrimp producers to be competitive and recover capital cost. Brachionus plicatilis. Marine crustaceans. marine invertebrates. survival and nutritional status .39 mm/dia) entre las dos etapas de trabajo analizadas. Se presentan relaciones preliminares largo-peso y largo total-largo cubano. Marine aquaculture. Record 261 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Variations in lipid content and nutritional status during larval development of the marine shrimp Penaeus kerathurus AU: Author Mourente. no. La tasa de crecimiento de 0. tampoco se encontro relacion entre la tasa de crecimiento (durante la precria en corrales) y el largo o la edad de siembra. larval development. Medina. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. USA. they must maximize production during this limited growing season. algae. Economic benefits. en las que alcanzaron unos 32 mm de largo cubano y 308 mg de peso. 2. Isochrysis galbana. Greene. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus kerathurus. Tetraselmis chui. A SO: Source Aquaculture.

intensive culture. shrimp. P < 0. The content of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) remained constant during the mysis and first postlarval stage and a low bioconversion rate from its precursor. commercial species. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: environmental degradation. 1995. shrimp culture. or megatrends that currently characterize the industry and which will shape the development and determine the immediate future of shrimp farming.].05) during development. Relevant research as well as major trends and developments will be topics discussed in more detail in subsequent contributions to this column. Thailand . aquaculture. 1. 1995.W. 74-83. the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and Artemia (parthenogenetic strain from Cadiz. 21. Article Geographic Terms: Thailand. S. marine pollution. Thailand. no. environmental quality. Record 263 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine shrimp aquaculture and natural resource degradation in Thailand AU: Author Flaherty. marine environment. pollution effects. Record 262 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Global situation and current megatrends in marine shrimp farming AU: Author Jory. Spain). aquaculture effluents.]. reared on a a mixture of the marine microalgae Tetraselmis chuii and Isochrysis galbana (clone T-ISO). environmental impact.). Vol. 19. marine aquaculture. Fatty acid contents at different larval stages reflected fatty acid content of foods. there is considerable recent and ongoing research in many parts of the world on several subjects that pertain to shrimp farming. no. pp. Karnjanakesorn.91. Dry weight and free sterol contents increased and correlated positively (r = 0. were studied throughout development. environmental effects. C SO: Source Environmental Management [ENVIRON. whereas the ratio of triacylglycerol/free sterol (an indicator of the nutritional status of the larvae) decreased as did survival.of Penaeus kerathurus larvae. aquaculture development. aquaculture development. DE SO: Source Aquaculture Magazine [AQUACULT. 4. MAG. ISW. Vol. MANAGE. pp. world. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus AB: Abstract It is appropriate that the first column in this series is a short and quick overview of the global state of marine shrimp farming (genus Penaeus spp. 27-37. In addition. and an introduction to some of the major trends. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. M. eicosapentenoic acid (20:5n-3) (very abundant in Artemia food) was observed. Article Taxonomic Terms: Decapoda. aquaculture statistics. ISEW.

heavy metals. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: bioaccumulation. bacteriology. Mn. however. no. Mexico AB: Abstract Trace metal concentrations (Fe. The conversion of near-shore areas to shrimp culture. estuaries. Size-dependent relationships were observed and differed among the elements examined. Record 265 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Microbiology of cultured shrimps in India AU: Author Nayyarahamed. C SO: Source Estuarine. no. marine shrimp aquaculture is now an important earner of foreign exchange. Mexico. Rome [FAO FISH. Co. These findings may be due to two factors: (1) that P. Penaeus stylirostris. stylirostris spends part of its life-cycle in estuarine/lagoon environments where it is more likely to be exposed to higher levels of bioavailable trace metals (natural and anthropogenic contributions) and/or (2) different metabolic requirements of young and older specimens. marine crustaceans. crustaceans. COAST. Record 264 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Comparative bioaccumulation of trace metals in Penaeus stylirostris in estuarine and coastal environments AU: Author Paez-Osuna. A negative slope was found for Co. The growth in production has been achieved through the expansion of the culture area and the adoption of intensive production methods. 1995. 1995. Ni. trace metals. This paper reviews the development of Thailand's marine shrimp culture industry and examines the nature of the environmental impacts these have for rural poor and the long-term viability of the culture industry. trace elements. Estuarine individuals (juveniles) had higher concentrations of Fe and Mn than marine individuals (adults). 514. stylirostris collected in the Pacific coast of Mexico. Cu.. pp. Karunasagar. In marine adults a positive slope was observed for Cd. brackish water. is proving to have many consequences that impinge on the environmental integrity of coastal areas. pathogenic . coastal waters. life cycle. Cd. Cr and Cu. F. Vol. which is especially applicable to copper. while for Cu the opposite tendency occurred. Article Taxonomic Terms: Decapoda. SHELF SCI. Suppl. Cr and Zn) have been measured in estuarine and marine shrimp P. body size. Ruiz-Fernandez. Fe. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. 40. REP. Co. Mn and Ni in estuarine juvenile shrimps. particularly in South America and South Asia. I SO: Source FAO fisheries report. 35-44. Coastal and Shelf Science [ESTUAR.]. 1.]. Article Geographic Terms: ISE.AB: Abstract Rising demand for shrimp in the developed rations has helped to foster a dramatic growth in marine shrimp aquaculture. I. In Thailand.

Salmonella. sperm. 261-271. Results suggest that potentially pathogenic vibrios could be normal inhabitants of the gut of cultured shrimp. Thailand AB: Abstract With an estimated current annual shrimp production of thousands of metric tonnes.parahaemolyticus. Vol. bioassays. V. 3. nutritional requirements AB: Abstract Reproductive performance was evaluated for sexually mature male Penaeus vannamei fed one of four diets: 1) commercial 40% protein shrimp growout diet. no. quality control. CQ. Jiang. 1995. Salmonella could be isolated from the gut of marine shrimp in the region suggesting that Salmonella species could survive in coastal sediments and could be present in shrimp before any preprocess handling. Browdy.]. pp. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon. 3) 50% squid. SOC. Salmonella. WORLD AQUACULT. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. 13-23. Analysis was made for potential pathogens like Vibrio cholerae. intensive culture. Thailand has become a world leader in intensive shrimp farming. LA (USA). and . The dramatic increase in production of Penaeus monodon within a brief six-year period has been attributed to improvements in the production and management technologies and the efficiency of small scale farms. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. V.vulnificus. M. C SO: Source WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY. sediment and cultured shrimp (Penaeus monodon) was studied.bacteria. Article Geographic Terms: India AB: Abstract The microbial load of water. Listeria. 26. BATON ROUGE. Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Record 267 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Egg water induced reaction and biostain assay of sperm from marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei: Dietary effects on sperm quality AU: Author Wang. 2) 100% squid. Qingyin. CA: Corporate Author FAO Indo-Pacific Fishery Comm. diets. Article Taxonomic Terms: Vibrio cholerae. 25% bloodworms.. Salmonella paratyphi could be isolated from the sediment of a shrimp culture pond even when faecal coliform count in the water and sediment were low. pp. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. Penaeus monodon. Vibrio vulnificus. CL* SO: Source Journal of the World Aquaculture Society [J. 1995. Listeria and for indicator organisms on shrimp surface and in shrimp gut. Misamore. aquaculture products. Bangkok (Thailand) Record 266 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Progression of intensive marine shrimp culture in Thailand AU: Author Kwei Lin.

Fujinaga generously shared his findings and published papers in 1935. Ferrao Santos.01). ponds and tanks. WORLD SHRIMP FARM. SO: Source Annual Report on World Shrimp Farming [ANN. Vol.25% Artemia. Tec. The best correlation was found between GM and AO (r super(2) = 0. Spermatophores were ejaculated manually from tagged males at stocking and every 12 d thereafter. Little correlation was found between spermatophore weight and sperm count. diets. For most of the spermatophores evaluated. and 4) starvation. SO: Source Bol. REP. Brazil] AU: Author Alves Coelho. Record 268 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title About shrimp farming AU: Author Anon. The analysis of dietary effects on spermatophore quality were equivocal. costs. over 80% of the sperm were morphologically normal. 3. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus japonicus AB: Abstract Shrimp farming. the production of marine shrimp in impoundments. Many morphologically abnormal sperm did not stain with TB. succeeded in spawning the kuruma shrimp (Penaeus japonicus). P. For each half of the compound spermatophore. P < 0. animal diseases. The reaction induced when P. Cient. hatcheries. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. Although a significant decline in body weight. Record 269 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title [Results of biological samplings in the marine shrimp fishery of Ilheus. vannamei sperm are exposed to conspecific egg water is grossly similar to that observed in vivo at the surface of the freshly spawned eggs from naturally mated females. 1995.859. 1941. When exposed to egg water. and 4) egg water induced reaction (EW). BA. . 3) acridine orange stain (AO). 1942 and 1967 which contributed greatly to the development of the industry.]. 109-120. life cycle. no. a graduate of Tokyo University. traces its origins to Southeast Asia where for centuries farmers raised incidental crops of wild shrimp in tidal fish ponds. pp. no significant differences were observed in any of the sperm quality assays. He cultured larvae through to marketable size in the laboratory. weight and sperm count were determined. spermatophore weight. and sperm count were observed in the starvation treatment as compared to maturation and squid diets. 2) trypan blue stain (TB). Modern shrimp farming was born in the 1930s when Motosaku Fujinaga. and were immediately fluorescing light green when stained with AO. CEPENE. were unstained with TB. Four methods were used to assay the sperm quality: 1) gross morphology (GM). 1995. historical account. 1. sperm from these apparently good quality spermatophores yielded mixed results. M. aquaculture techniques. and he succeeded in mass producing them on a commercial scale.

Sao Francisco Estuary AB: Abstract The shrimp fisheries off the mouth of the Sao Francisco River. are presented. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Artisanal fishing. Santos. Xiphopenaeus kroyeri. Vol. Tamandare AB: Abstract The shrimps caught by the artisanal fisheries at Tamandare. Penaeus subtilis. Penaeus schmitti. and biological data were collected from the shrimps captured by one randomly chosen fishing boat at Pontal do Peba. Vol. 149-161. Size distribution.000 individuals were analyzed. PE. Bahia. 1. Alves Coelho. Pernambuco. Brazil. Species. Record 271 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine shrimp fisheries off Sao Francisco's river mouth AU: Author Coelho. Shrimp fisheries. Bahia AB: Abstract Monthly data collected from May 1988 to December 1993 in the shrimp fishery operating at Ilheus. 3. AL. a total of 30. 1995. Biological data. MCF SO: Source Trabalhos oceanograficos da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. Brazil. Under the "large" category were the shrimps Penaeus schmitti and adults of Penaeus subtilis. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus subtilis. Recife [Trab. Catch composition. and Xiphopenaeus kroyeri were identified. 141-148. PA. subtilis. Species catch. Xiphopenaeus kroyeri. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus schmitti. Tec. 1995. Recife. Pernambuco. Record 270 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title [Catch composition of the marine shrimp artisanal fishery at Tamandare. By means of a research program established by the CEPENE-IBAMA in May 1986. The mean sex ratio was 1:1 for the three species. no. Brazil. was studied. Sex ratio. Pernambuco]. Brazil. Article Geographic Terms: ASW. Pernambuco. pp. MC. fishing effort and . Coastal fisheries. CEPENE. are classified by size in two categories: small and large. SE and Pontal do Peba. The total catch of all fishing boats was recorded at Pirambu. Cient. Fed. P. Fishing effort. But the mean anual length for females was smaller than for males. Marine crustaceans. Under the "small" category were the shrimps Xiphopenaeus kroyeri and juveniles of Penaeus subtilis.DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp fisheries. Article Geographic Terms: ASW. pp. Oceanogr. Article Geographic Terms: ASW. Univ. Brazil] AU: Author Ferrao Santos. Estuarine fisheries. sex and size were determined. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp fisheries. Catch composition. Brazil. P SO: Source Bol. 23. The species Penaeus schmitti.

RNA. 3. DK. 6. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture development.and thirdgeneration crosses of Population I families. Article Geographic Terms: ISE.production were presented.8 kb COI mRNA transcript in secondand third-generation developmental stages. Carr. Total RNA was extracted from SPF shrimp developed and maintained by the us Marine Shrimp Farming Program. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei. During the past 10 years more than 11. Record 273 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The Expression of the Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) mRNA Varies During Development of Penaeus vannamei Shrimp AU: Author Alcivar-Warren. Mutations. ISE. 1995. JN SO: Source Aquaculture a95 u Book of Abstracts. 8. Genes. vp. W. Record 272 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine shrimp culture development in southern Honduras AU: Author Meyer. Sweeney. USA AB: Abstract Our long-term objective is to correlate the expression of metabolically important genes with shrimp performance. Shrimp culture. Brood stocks. (Cracow)]. are discussed along with the present situation of marine shrimp culture in Honduras. Garcia. Central America. 111-120. and postlarvae (PL) stages I. Population structure. 0 Jan 1995. Honduras AB: Abstract Marine shrimp culture has developed rapidly on the saltflats bordering the estuaries that flow into the Gulf of Fonseca. and c) somatic and germinal cell tissues from broodstocks of Population I. 4. b) tail muscle of twelve third-generation individuals each from five families of Population I and from twelve individuals of Population 2. Shrimp culture. Limiting factors. DE SO: Source Acta Hydrobiologica (Cracow) [Acta Hydrobiol. Vol. Population number. 2. and 10 obtained from second.000 ha of ponds have been built on land that previously had no commercial value. Estuaries. Article Geographic Terms: ANW. Several factors that could potentially limit the future growth of this industry. which has annual sales of 100 million USD. protozoea stages I and 3. Biological development. pp. Preliminary results showed differential expression of a ~61. tail muscle . Fonseca Gulf. 37. mysis stages I and 3. Tissues. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. 5. The specific objectives of this study were to examine in SPF Penaeus vannamei the levels of expression of the COI mRNA gene in: a) nauplii stages 3 and 4. tail muscle from secondand third-generation crosses of Population I families. COI mRNA expression was examined by Northern blotting after hybridization with either a PCR-amplified or a cloned COI probe specific for Penaeus vannamei. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Cytochromes. A. Shrimp fisheries.

. average percent fertilization.S. Two-way ANOVA test showed there were no differences in average percent females mating per night. Data. Broodstock were sourced four nights per week for two months. and average number of nauplii harvested per spawn between the three stocks (P>0.. Texas AB: Abstract In 1989.05): Data was also collected from two Texas hatcheries. the levels of COI mRNA expression differ during growth and development and also between and within tail muscle of individuals from the SPF populations. Significant differences were found in the average spawn size. Pathogens. An additional transcript of ~60. All broodstock were tagged for identification. Tagging.05). vp. ME. (USA) Record 274 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Comparisons of Reproductive Performance Between Specific Pathogen Free Penaeus vannamei Stocks AU: Author McGovern-Hopkins. Baton Rouge. Data reporting average percent females mating per night. MD (USA).. At these facilities SPF broodstock were similarly shipped in and used for 1994 springtime hatchery production. average spawn size. Fish Culture Sect. K. Brood stocks. Industry. National Shellfisheries Assoc. F SO: Source Aquaculture a95 u Book of Abstracts. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei. or in tank survival between the three stocks (P>0. Article Geographic Terms: USA. Comparisons of reproductive performance of the different stocks have been made between all three facilities.from individuals of Population 2. average nauplii per female and survival are compared between facilities. Group 3) Ecuadorian stock raised at the Oceanic Institute multiplication facility in Hawaii. hatchery season at the Waddell Mariculture Center (WMC). Harlingen Shrimp Farm Hatchery and South Texas Hatchery. 1995. Spawning. Breeding. Sexual maturity. hatcheries. World Aquaculture Soc. In summary. CA: Corporate Author American Fisheries Soc. U. three stocks of SPF Penaeus vannamei were compared in the WMC maturation system: Group 1) Mexican stock raised from SPF post-Larvae at the Waddell Multiplication Facility. number of nauplii per spawn. Jaenike. CL. Furthermore.. Yates. and broodstock tissues. We are currently examining the possibility that differences in the expression of mitochondrial genes are related with shrimp performance. the US Marine shrimp Farming Program initiated a project to develop reliable supplies of specific Pathogen Free (SPF) Penaeus vannamei for the U.S. the levels of COI mRNA expression varied throughout development according to the genetic background of the parental crosses. Data indicated a high degree of variation in stock performance between facilities as well as variations between maturation tanks within the . Four maturation tanks were stocked. Hatcheries.8 kb was detected at various levels in samples of third-generation developmental stages and tail muscle. Stocks. Group 2) Mexican stock raised at the Oceanic Institute Nuclear Breeding Facility in Hawaii. Browdy. Each tank was stocked with 13 females and 16 males from each of the three groups. Part of this program has supplied broodstock for maturation production at U. Bethesda. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Reproductive behaviour. LA (USA).S.

. MD (USA). (USA) Record 275 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Cloning. A unique population-specific DNA marker (~61200 base pairs) was found in population 2 using a ten base pair primer (820).5 and ~62.0 kb. We examined the steady state levels of expression of the 820 mRNAs throughout development of Penaeus vannamei shrimp. Preliminary sequence information from 600 base pairs revealed a 154 base pair embedded microsatellite with significant homology to microsatellites found in human chromosomes.. PL1. World Aquaculture Soc. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract The random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to evaluate the genetic diversity of two specific pathogen free (SPF) populations (1 from Mexico and 2 from Ecuador) and one candidate SPF population (4 from Mexico) of Penaeus vannamei developed and maintained by the U.same facility. A SO: Source Aquaculture a95 u Book of Abstracts. LA (USA). Population structure. (USA) Record 276 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts . Baton Rouge.. Juveniles. DNA. Bethesda.. A total of 60 individuals from population 1. The expression levels of B20 mRNA transcripts varied significantly between and within individuals from 10 families of population 1. Population density... Marine Shrimp Farming Program.S. National Shellfisheries Assoc. MD (USA). vp. Bethesda. This 820 clone was used as a probe for Northern blot hybridization analysis and the results confirmed the presence of two mRNA transcripts of ~61. Baton Rouge. but were undetected in M3. World Aquaculture Soc. PL3. DK. CA: Corporate Author American Fisheries Soc. The two B20 mRNA transcripts were present in PL9 and PLI0. PL2. LA (USA). 1995. and 24 from population 4 were examined. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Cloning. National Shellfisheries Assoc. Pathogens. PL4 and PL5 stages of development. RNA. We are currently examining the possibility that the function of the B20 genes relates to Penaeus vannamei shrimp performance. Alcivar-Warren. Shrimp culture. This 820 marker was then cloned into pCR Script and sequenced using the fmol sequencing kit. Fish Culture Sect. Variable levels of expression was also found between populations 1 and 2. respectively. The sequence data also indicated that there are two genes amplified by this primer. Shrimp fisheries. Genes. The levels of expression in PLI0 samples were similar to those found in tail muscle of juveniles. Fish Culture Sect.. CA: Corporate Author American Fisheries Soc. 30 from population 2. from mysis stage 3 to postlarvae stage 10 (PL10). Sequencing and Expression of a Unique Population Specific Marker for Specific Pathogen Free Penaeus vannamei AU: Author Garcia.. Further research needs to explore these performance variations both within stocks and between facilities to maximize production potentials.

Further experiment showed that survival of shrimp was indeed increased when packed in oxygen rather than in an air atmosphere (29. Marine fish.4% to 77. 3~64 and 5~66 degree C/hour) from 86. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Intensive culture. Industrial production. CA: Corporate Author American Fisheries Soc. Higher survival rates achieved at low shipping temperature in an oxygen atmosphere may be related to lower metabolic rates. Penaeus vannamei Without Water AU: Author Jiang. shrimp internal acidosis was reduced. National Shellfisheries Assoc. Baton Rouge. Marine fish. World Aquaculture Soc. shipment temperatures and use of oxygen were studied.05). To develop practical techniques for dry shipment. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract Significant quantities of crustacean products are marketed live in the US each year.05). Water. Deltas. acclimation rates.. CK SO: Source Aquaculture a95 u Book of Abstracts. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW.. Oxygen also increased resistance of the shrimp to lower temperature. shrimp reacted well when reacclimated from 14 degree C to 27 degree C at a rate of 3~64 degree C/hour (up to 96% survival). LA (USA). DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shipping. Mangrove swamps. Following acclimation from 27 degree C to 14 degree C.6%. respectively (P<0. To define the blood acid-base status during shipment in air or oxygen atmosphere at different temperature. An initial increase or decreases in temperature of up to 7 degree C for acclimation had no negative effect on survival (P>0. Live shrimp markets could offer a more profitable outlet for some domestic farm production. The present study explores techniques for practical dry live shipment of P.0%. increased total CO sub(2) and increased lactic acid levels (P<0. Shrimp culture. Thailand . Burnett. 12~614 degree C and 16~618 degree C. C. Marketing. Shipment in air and/or shipment at higher temperatures resulted in declined blood pH. At lower temperatures in an oxygen atmosphere. Browdy. Shrimp fisheries. Resource management. 1995. 1995.6% to 56. P<0. Fish Culture Sect. MD (USA). reduced respiration and decreased handling. (USA) Record 277 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Progression of Intensive Marine Shrimp Culture in Thailand AU: Author Lin. Shrimps were packed in boxes with absorbent paper and kept in refrigerated chamber.6% to 93. post-shipment survival was inversely related to the rate of chilling (1~62. L SO: Source Aquaculture a95 u Book of Abstracts. 12. Swamps. Acclimation. vannamei. Bethesda. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon. and 24 hours' shipments at 8~610 degree C. blood samples were collected from the pericardial sinus following 3. vp.. packing and shipping stresses. Water quality..TI: Title Live Shipment of the Marine Shrimp. Shrimp culture.05). After shipment terminated. CQ. Crustacean culture.05). Crustacean fisheries. vp.

Shrimp fisheries. Breeding. vp. Thailand has been a forerunner of intensive marine shrimp farming in the world. Produced Shrimp Broodstock and Seed AU: Author Lotz. The carry capacity and management strategies of the shrimp farming also vary under those environmental conditions. LA (USA). Seed (aquaculture). Founder populations are generated by an extensive quarantine protocol that result in an SPF F1 generation derived from wild parents. Shrimp farming areas in Thailand are distributed among various physiographic settings. the SPF stream. Deterioration of coastal water quality and out-breaks of viral disease known as 'yellow head' have recently threatened the shrimp farming industry. reclaimed mangrove swamps to open sandy beaches.. and HHS larval rearing stations. advancing in-pond water treatment methods and adopting recycle systems. There are three production stations in the HHs stream: HHs broodstock multiplication stations. Population structure. 1995. Adverse environmental conditions have prompted farmers to minimize water exchanges. The dramatic increase in production of predominantly Penaeus monodon within brief six years (1988-1994) has been attributed mainly to proliferation in small scale farms. ranging from the shallow muddy delta. JM SO: Source Aquaculture a95 u Book of Abstracts. Fish Culture Sect. The HHS stream is composed of stations that produce seed for commodity shrimp growout. National Shellfisheries Assoc. Article Geographic Terms: ANW. MD (USA). and the surveillance intensity is more restricted than for the SPF stream. The HHS stream consists of a large number of operations and facilities and a much larger flow of animals. Baton Rouge. To make shrimp culture more environmentally friendly and sustainable the private and public sectors have made efforts to mitigate the pollution loads of pond effluents through public awareness and governmental legislation. The SPF stream consists of Nucleus Breeding Centers (NBCs) and founder population development.S. USA AB: Abstract The Pathogen Surveillance Project of the US Marine Shrimp Farming Program is designed to monitor the pathogen status of components of the SPF (Specific Pathogen Free) .. (USA) Record 278 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The US MSFP's Pathogen Surveillance Project: Toward Assuring the Pathogen Status of U. and the Commodity Production stream.. There are a smaller number of organisms on the HHS list of pathogens. An SPF-based shrimp culture industry is composed of three streams. . shrimp culture industry. Bethesda.000 tons. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Pathogens. World Aquaculture Soc.. There are a large number of potential pathogens on the SPF-list of pathogens and the pathogen status of the SPF stream is assured by intensive surveillance of NBCs combined with strict founder population development protocols. The Commodity Production Stream is the growout component of the industry and is excluded from coverage by the Surveillance Project.based U. CA: Corporate Author American Fisheries Soc. the HHS (High Health Status) stream.AB: Abstract With an estimated current annual shrimp production of 150. HHS maturation stations. Shrimp culture. Brood stocks. Surveillance and enforcement.S.

Baton Rouge. quantitative diagnostics are needed.CA: Corporate Author American Fisheries Soc.e. Fish Culture Sect. National Shellfisheries Assoc. SR.. or only a minimum. able to detect minute quantities of intact pathogenic organisms. D SO: Source Aquaculture a95 u Book of Abstracts. CA: Corporate Author American Fisheries Soc. their nucleic acids and antigens regardless of whether the quantities of this material are sufficient to warrant the hatchery under test to be referred to as 'positive' for the pathogen let along cause a 'disease'. quarantine-based programs generally result in 'clean'. MD (USA). grow-out populations. The Consortium's effort is based on strict quarantine and very sensitive. the current state-of-the-art ease detection technology may well be far ahead of ability of commercial hatcheries to remain 100% 'free' of all disease pathogens.. vp. World ... However. a marketing nightmare for commercial hatcheries. LA (USA). USA AB: Abstract The widespread occurrence of the IHHN virus in cultured stocks of Penaeus vannamei has caused major problems for the marine shrimp aquaculture industry in the United States over the last several years and stimulated the identification. Bethesda. may legally restrict the sale of product into certain market areas and could be unwarranted. Pollution legislation. When followed correctly. The 'positive' moniker. biotechnological-based. Fish Culture Sect. Indeed. Shrimp fisheries. 1995. Article Geographic Terms: ANW. the detection techno will soon be. Brood stocks. diagnostic procedures to detect pathogens. Sandifer. Ultimately the best solution to these issues will be the development of stocks that are Specific Pathogen Resistant (SPR) as well as SPF. impact on commercial production especially if the animals are being farmed it an area where the specific disease is already present. Indeed. isolation.. Population structure. PA. vannamei by the USDA-funded US Marine shrimp Farming Program (Gulf Coast Research Laboratory Consortium). Bethesda. if it is not already. but not entirely. 'free' of disease virions which have no. Hedgecock. testing and distribution of 'specific pathogen-free' ('SPF' also termed 'high health') stocks of P. To help overcome the ever increasing disparity between the ultra sensitive 'high tech' diagnostics and the rather 'low tech' quarantine programs. populations are judged 'free' of a particular pathogen such as IHHN virus). populations (i. Shrimp culture. MD (USA). This paper reviews the genetic principles and other issues surrounding the development of SPR/SPF stocks and makes recommendations for future private and public sector R and D programs. (USA) Record 279 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Issues Regarding the Genetic Improvement of High Health Marine Shrimp: Specific Disease Resistance (SPR) AU: Author Malecha. compliance levels and assessment procedures must be developed and implemented. reproduction. World Aquaculture Soc. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei.. derived from 'positive' hatchery populations could be essentially. In addition. industry-wide standards. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Genetics.

are not widely used in commercial marine shrimp hatcheries for genetic improvement of grow-out stocks and maintenance of genetically healthy broodstock.. Resource management AB: Abstract Traditional genetic breeding designs and techniques. CL. Shrimp fisheries. and methods to correct the situation. Knowledge of the gene action is essential for deciding among breeding programs such as family selection. LA (USA). cross breeding. (USA) Record 281 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title High Health Shrimp System Seed Supply: Theory and Practice AU: Author Pruder. vp.. GD. line breeding and other programs because each program requires different resources and effort. Sweeney. National Shellfisheries Assoc. are varied but include difficulty in isolating specific pathogenfree (SPF) stocks. Hawaii AquaSeed. Marine fish. National Shellfisheries Assoc. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Breeding. Genetics. WA SO: Source Aquaculture a95 u Book of Abstracts. the complex life cycle of the organism. Recommendations are made for genetic improvement and management programs in commercial marine shrimp culture.. Genetic principles and respective breeding programs as well as some common misconceptions regarding the genetic control and management of important traits in marine shrimp culture are discussed. World Aquaculture Soc. Seed . 1995. Brood stocks. are presented along with theoretical considerations.. D SO: Source Aquaculture a95 u Book of Abstracts.Aquaculture Soc. Principles underlying genetic improvement programs include avoidance of genetic deterioration because of small effective population size.. (USA) Record 280 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Breeding Designs for Genetic Improvement and Broodstock Management in Marine Shrimp Hatcheries AU: Author Malecha. Baton Rouge. vp. Shrimp fisheries. Carr. Bethesda. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. the relative contribution of additive and non additive gene action as well as the roles of genetic and environmental control of variation in important production traits. Reasons for this. Hatcheries. Brown. Design. JN.. Shrimp culture. CA: Corporate Author American Fisheries Soc. Baton Rouge. Population structure. individual selection. Hedgecock. incomplete understanding of shrimp genetics and other factors. has instituted a program to manage and improve SPF broodstock. Examples of actual cases. LA (USA). MD (USA). as well as state-of-the-art (biotechnological-based) procedures. from marine shrimp and other species. 1995. Fish Culture Sect. a commercial penaeid hatchery. SR.

very often in deteriorating coastal environments. advanced shrimp production technologies have been under development by the US Marine Shrimp Farming Program (USMSFP). Allelles. Niches. Ponds. led downward by major shrimp producing countries (China. the parallels between historical agricultural development and the development of emerging aquaculture high health systems and seed supply principles of disease exclusion. it now appears that long-term sustainability has been sacrificed for short-term profits. Ecuador. advanced disease diagnostic. Breeding.30 during 1989-93 period. $2. Article Geographic Terms: ANW. Production platforms. and preliminary data on the performance of high health seed. Environmental protection.S. vp. products and services for these industries are readily available in the marketplace and are applied rigorously as best management practices.71 and U. The primitive technologies that worked in the past are not working today. the USMSFP has established captive populations of high health and genetically improved shrimp. disease monitoring and clean-up. world marine shrimp farming to date is primitive. Although sales are generally dominated by a large (65-ha) farm. The vast majority of production is dependent on the capture of wild animals. USA AB: Abstract Average ex-pond prices for whole (heads-on) produced by South Carolina (SC) commercial shrimp farms have ranged between U. rice. tomatoes. Bethesda. Stokes. Baton Rouge. A SO: Source Aquaculture a95 u Book of Abstracts. pig. Average .. sophisticated disease prevention and treatment procedures. limited disease control programs and common property water use. For the past several years. This paper describes the principle of high health shrimp systems. Fish Culture Sect.). In addition.: What Have We Learned About Marketing U. Farmed Shrimp? AU: Author Rhodes. Coastal zone. unsophisticated and counterproductive breeding practices.S. etc. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marketing.. LA (USA). potatoes. Potential yield.S. Population structure.. (USA) Record 282 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Made in the U. The world shrimp farming industry is in decline. Shrimp culture. 1995. The primitive technology underpinned development of a highly profitable $4 billion industry. Patterning itself on other successful food production industries. prevention and treatment technologies are now integrated with environmental control and progressive pond management strategies.. However. In stark contrast. RJ. a high degree of environmental control and advanced culture methods. etc.A. Resource management AB: Abstract Sustainable and profitable modern food production industries (dairy. Browdy. CL.(aquaculture).S. several market trends are apparent. under the umbrella term 'High Health Shrimp Systems'.) are wholly dependent on high health and genetically improved (domesticated) seedstocks. World Aquaculture Soc. salmon. poultry. MD (USA). Costs. Shrimp fisheries. Required technologies. Indonesia. National Shellfisheries Assoc. $2. CA: Corporate Author American Fisheries Soc.

not just local supplies. Mercenaria mercenaria. (USA) Record 283 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Thalassiosira weissflogii .3 doubl. Fish Culture Sect. Penaeus monodon. Litopenaeus vannamei. Nutrient cycles. during first day./day./day./day) . rapid growth of T..S. a high growth rate (> 1.0 doubl. weissflogii becomes quickly limited by reduced silicate concentrations.4 doubl. in batch cultures. weissflogii. Shrimp fisheries. CA: Corporate Author American Fisheries Soc. JR SO: Source Aquaculture a95 u Book of Abstracts. ammonium and urea) are suitable for T. Batch cultures were grown in 20 I carboys indoors and in 200 I fiberglass tubes.0 doubl. Potential yield. four different commercial agricultural fertilizers with differing N:P:K ratios (16:4:8..ex-pond prices are generally influenced by regional wholesale prices. LA (USA). So it is no surprise that SC producers are price-takers. Also. Bethesda.35 mg N/I as in F/2 media). The silicate concentration in F/2 medium (30 mg/l Na sub(2)Si sub(2)O sub(3)) provided the following growth dynamic: the highest growth rate was 2.. In general. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Diatoms. Petri. Growth rate. MS. Shrimp culture. Article Taxonomic Terms: Thalassiosira weiflogii. however growth rates in these treatments were 20-28% higher than control treatments with F/2 media. with emphasis on nutrient conditions. growth rates and growth dynamics varied little between treatments./day the second day.a. Thalassiosira weissflogii. Oyster fisheries. decreasing to 0. by increasing the initial silicate concentration to 120 mg/l. LV. Growth. National Shellfisheries Assoc. Again. cost-effective production techniques coupled with niche marketing tactics of high quality shrimp will remain the best strategy for sc farms to survive financially. Baton Rouge. of the centric marine diatom. but may also be attributable to efforts by farmers to diversify their market outlets. 8:4:8. but harvesting costs are significant and shipping logistics can be frustrating at best.8-3. vp. there was no significant difference between growth rates of each fertilizer treatment. 12:6:8.9-1.a Subtropical Diatom with Mariculture Potential AU: Author Spektorova. MD (USA). it is apparent that 'poor' yields and quality can not be mitigated in the U. Nutrient experiments were conducted indoors using a consistent level of nitrogen (12. Biochemical composition. In addition pond price variability between SC farms is not only due to harvested shrimp size differences. Crassostrea virginica AB: Abstract Experiments were conducted to characterize the culture performance.. 20:20:20) were tested. 'live haulers') yields the highest price. 1995. All three nitrogen forms (nitrate. Biochemical cycles. Juveniles. Clark. marketplace.3-0. An additional 30 mg/l silicate added to 1-2 day old cultures increased the growth rate to 0. Marine aquaculture. World Aquaculture Soc. Additional experiments revealed that. Similarly.k. 1 m super(3) and 4 m super(3) tanks in the greenhouse. as a live feed for marine shrimp and bivalves. The selling of live marine shrimp to Asian restaurant distributors (a. Regardless of the marketing strategy.

T. In the third experiment. Experiments indicate that T. At that time. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Symbiosis. nitrogen) limited growth. Infectious diseases.8-1. weissflogii has a high growth rate (up to 3 doubl. Postlarvae were separated into two groups. Samples from both groups were periodically collected and analyzed for triacylglycerol (TAG) content. Additionally.8 and 0.. In the second experiment.could be sustained over three days.. TAG concentrations were significantly lower (p=. weissflogii on the pilot scale.. After 6 days of starvation. and it is able to utilize all nitrogen sources. LA (USA). Article Taxonomic Terms: Baculovirus penaei. MD (USA). growth rates of mass cultures decreased with increasing culture volume: 1.0x10 super(6) cell/ml. factors other than silicate concentration (light. Energy resources. samples were collected for TAG analysis. Shrimp used in all experiments were from US Marine Shrimp Farming Program Population 1. RM SO: Source Aquaculture a95 u Book of Abstracts. Population structure. monodon). Replicated groups of BP-infected and uninfected shrimp were deprived of food for a total of 12 days. CA: Corporate Author American Fisheries Soc. Shrimp culture. 1995. shrimp deprived of food had a TAG concentration of 0. By the time of exposure to BP. National Shellfisheries Assoc. a group of postlarvae was exposed to BP and a second group which served as a control was not exposed. Overstreet. served as negative control. and a biochemical composition that is nutritionally valuable for several marine species. (USA) Record 284 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Relationship Between Energy Reserves in Posclarval Pacific White Shrimp and Pathogenicity of Baculovirus penaei AU: Author Stuck. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate that relationship. World Aquaculture Soc. Baton Rouge. the relationship between energy reserves and susceptibility to infection was investigated. Stuck./day in 200 I tubes and 0./day). Article Geographic Terms: IE. one replicate out of each group was administered BP and another. Fish Culture Sect.5 doubl. no lag-phase. as a food for larval penaeid shrimp (Penaeus vannamei and P. KC. LM. weissflogii has an appropriate cell size (10-14 microns). survival of the uninfected group was 91% compared to 26% in the infected group.7 respectively in 1m super(3) and 4 m super(3) tanks. Successful use of T. In the first experiment. Larval development. Pacific AB: Abstract There is a relationship between nutritional status of post-larval Pacific white shrimp and the response of the shrimp to infection by Baculovirus penaei (BP). Bethesda.. Nutrition. Pathogens. and larval and juvenile bivalves (Mercenaria mercenaria and Crassostrea virginica) suggests the potential for its widespread use in commercial mariculture. Shrimp fisheries. When cell densities reached 0. a tolerance for high temperature (up to 42 degree C). After 48 hours.05)in BP-infected compared to uninfected postlarvae 3 to 7 days after initial exposure to the virus.7 mu g/mg dry . each consisting of two replicates: one group fed ad libitum and another deprived of food. the relationship between energy reserves and BP under conditions of nutritional stress was investigated. In the greenhouse. vp.

water) using the well known' green-water' technique for prawn larvae culture. a commercial marine shrimp (Penaeus sp. Post Larvae Using the "Green-water" Larvae Culture Technique AU: Author Zacarias. 1995. Baton Rouge. World Aquaculture Soc. algae-rich.. DT. and successes relating to the design and operation of a commercial high health hatchery for both penaeids and freshwater prawns. Fish Culture Sect. Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium rosenbergii. including a state-of-the-art.. This study corroborates histological evidence that lipids are utilized during BP replication. firstly. LA (USA). Results from both penaeid and prawn larvae rearing cycles are reported in this paper which describes the multiple-use algae cultures system and includes a discussion of certain issues. Larvae. Initially we planned for outdoor reservoirs for the culture of the 'green-water' (ie.. Algal culture. CA: Corporate Author American Fisheries Soc. Viral polyhedra characteristic of a BP infection appeared in shrimp with high TAG levels at 18 hours post-exposure compared to 30 hours in the group with 10 TAG levels. but not axenic. From experience we soon successfully used the penaeid algae culture physical plant for the axenic culture of the preferred dominate algal species in the 'green-water' culture system... MD (USA). Article Geographic Terms: ASW. LA (USA). fully enclosed. Macrobrachium rosenbergii. National Shellfisheries Assoc. the penaeid life cycle. contemporaneously (side-by-side) or contiguously (one after another). Bethesda. MD (USA). Because of the differences in the complexity of the larvae life cycles of the two species. Biological production. CA: Corporate Author American Fisheries Soc. USA. Freshwater fish.weight compared with 14. axenic algae culture system.. Malecha. Shrimp fisheries. Fish Culture Sect. Hawaii Aquaseed's physical plant design had to accommodate.. World Aquaculture Soc. detached.6 mu g/mg in fed shrimp. National Shellfisheries Assoc. vp. (USA) Record 285 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Use of an Axenic Penaeid Shrimp Hatchery Algae Culture System in the Production of Freshwater Prawn. Bethesda. Hatcheries. Baton Rouge. (USA) Record 286 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title .. 'culture cycles' of approximately 5 million marine shrimp and 2 million prawn high health post larvae (Pls) per month for Hawaii AquaSeed's parent company's marine shrimp and freshwater prawn farm as well as out-side sales. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Axenic culture.) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) hatchery has a physical plant designed to raise. Bigger. problems. SR. DM SO: Source Aquaculture a95 u Book of Abstracts. Hawaii AB: Abstract Hawaii AquaSeed.

hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis sp. under the criterion that the frequency of the most common allele was less than 0. 1994.AU: SO: DE: AB: Report on the Characteristics and Potential of Echo Bay for Aquaculture Author Brotman. Vol. Litopenaeus vannamei. restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). family 1. population genetics. The allozymic variation at 30 loci showed no fixed differences in isozyme genotypes between families 1. A total of 114 individuals were tested. and 77% for population 4. random amplified polymorphic DNA. DNA. Marine Shrimp Farming Program. DK. with family 1.95 in each population.]. The area would also be a good location for demonstration and hatchery facilities. 11 pp. Chanos chanos. suggesting that population 4 is the most polymorphic of all three populations.33% and 16. was 6. and 24 from population 4.6 showing type B. no. Wyban. Article Taxonomic Terms: Siganus. MA. Fish culture. random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). BIOL. The northern end of Echo Bay would be appropriate for aquaculture of rabbitfish (Siganus sp. MJ Source DFW Technical Report. Site selection.023 . Oreochromis. Record 287 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Genetic diversity of cultured Penaeus vannamei shrimp using three molecular genetic techniques AU: Author Garcia. After scoring 73 bands obtained with six different RAPD primers. 94-05. if DFW offices will be moved to the immediate vicinity. and population 2.S. Hatcheries.5 and population 2 showing type A and family 1. Sweeney. and allozyme variability. Aquaculture facilities.6 of population 1. Alcivar-Warren. 48% for population 2. KM SO: Source Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology [MOL.5 and 1. 3. the percentage of polymorphic bands was: 55% for families 1. selective breeding AB: Abstract Three molecular genetic techniques.5 and 1. Rhoades.). Aug 1994. no. BIOTECHNOL. 5.5 and 1.67%. Carr. Shrimp culture. L. JA. shrimp culture. JN. MAR. AA*. WH. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: genetic diversity. which included 30 each from families 1.6 of population 1. 270-280. milkfish (Chanos chanos) and possibly marine shrimp (Penaeus vannamei). restriction fragment length polymorphism.5 of population 1. Ebert. genotypes. Mean heterozygosities ( plus or minus SE) were 0. were used to evaluate the genetic diversity of two specific-pathogen-free (SPF) populations (numbers 1 and 2) and one candidate SPF population (number 4) of Penaeus vannamei developed and maintained by the U. respectively. 3.). The percentage of polymorphic loci. Two HhaI mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms (A and B) were found in all the animals examined.67% for family 1.6. Faggart.6 of population 1 and from population 2. Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture development. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW Abstract The southern portion of Echo Bay would not make a good aquaculture site due to the heavy sediment loads and an adjacent freshwater outlet. pp.

Indian white shrimp (P.052 shrimp farms covering an area of 7. respectively. aquaculture products. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans.064 plus or minus 0. 1994. AU: Author Thuoc. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. for Marine Fishery. cultured . During the 1970s production techniques and volume of annual production did not change significantly. Dang. Resource conservation. in 1969. aquaculture techniques. ensis). 12-14.017. Kien Giang Prov. no. (DBO) Record 289 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The history of shrimp farming in Thailand AU: Author Csavas.016. In 1980. There yields fluctuated widely between 250 and 900 kilograms per hectare per year (kg/ha/yr). Shrimp fisheries. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. and 0. 0. Record 288 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Resource of marine shrimp of family Penaeidae in coastal sea waters of Kien Giang province in Viet Nam (in December 1993. vannamei stocks. and M. monodon). P.825 hectares and yielding some 3. 1994.].440 tons of shrimp. Article Geographic Terms: Thailand AB: Abstract "Shrimp culture started in Thailand in extensive trapping/growing ponds. depending on the success in trapping wild seed. 19. indicus) and some black tiger shrimp (P. The low levels of allozyme polymorphisms indicate that mitochondrial DNA and nuclear DNA techniques are more useful for examining genetic diversity in order to follow individual stocks within a breeding program and to correlate genotypes with desirable growth and reproductive performance of SPF P. 7. Geographical distribution.026. shrimp culture. There are no records from the early years. there were already 1. school shrimps (Metapenaeus monoceros. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: historical account. Main shrimp species produced at that time were banana shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis).January 1994) and resource protection measures. Metapenaeus. pp. 9 pp. Many of these farms were converted salt ponds. Hai Phong (Viet Nam). Distribution. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus. Coastal waters. Vol. which yielded a mix of fish and crustacean species.plus or minus 0.018 plus or minus 0. however. PN SO: Source Research Inst. I SO: Source Shrimp News International [SHRIMP NEWS INT. The research deal with composition strains and species. Vietnam. distribution characteristics and output distribution of Penaeidae shrimp. AB: Abstract The authors presented methods and results of the research of Penaeidae resources in coastal sea waters of Kien Giang province of Viet Nam and maesures to protect these resources.

the potential of prawn culture on Guam remains high. no. Vol. Suspecting that the problem might have to do with the hardness (particularly the calcium and magnesium) of the fresh water supplies on Guam. did not require the continuous addition of new water. Improved water supply made a considerable increase in stocking densities feasible. MAG. however. GADTC biologists designed a closed recirculating biofilter system using rainwater as a component of the brackish water system for larval rearing.crustacean production was still not more than 8 thousand metric tons. shrimp production increased rapidly and by 1991. pp. The lack of quality seedstock on Guam was a key factor that led to the creation of the Guam Aquaculture Development and Training Center (GADTC). Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium rosenbergii AB: Abstract Culture methods that have been developed for the giant Malaysian prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) are well suited to the climate. When established clearwater and greenwater methods were tried on Guam. but re-used the same water in the system again and again. resources and markets on Guam. recirculating systems. aquaculture development." Record 290 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Aquaculture on Guam: The potential for freshwater prawn production AU: Author Landkamer. indigenous technology. For some reason. rosenbergii postlarvae were first developed by aquaculture researchers in the 60's and 70's. however. Thailand has never relied upon wild seed. Thailand became the world's leading producer of cultured marine shrimp with 162 thousand tons of production. water quality.1. 1. seed production improved rapidly in the second half of the decade. To this end. extensive farms began to increase the intensity of shrimp culture with the use of simple and cheap push-pumps [16. the GADTC currently produces seedstock of freshwater prawns. catfish. in contrast to a flow-through system.]. The hatchery methods for producing M. The first large-scale hatcheries with imported technology started to produce postlarvae in the early 1980s. Record 291 of 500 . 20. too.4]. seed production. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: prawn culture. but local commercialization of this species has traveled a rocky road. The closed recirculating system. the demand for shrimp seed expanded rapidly. Although scarcity of seed hindered the expansion of shrimp culture in the half of the 1980s. In the early 1980s. and have been practiced and perfected in many facilities around the world since then. Under the right circumstances. however. striped mullet. As domestic production of shrimp feed increased simultaneously and processing capacity expanded. they were not initially successful. Yields started to surpass those of other Southeast Asia countries using the same extensive trapping/growing techniques. and other species. 60-63. the larval prawns were dying before they reached the postlarval stage. which has seedstock production as a primary goal. Consequently. 1994. but the real breakthrough was brought about by the proliferation of small and medium-scale hatcheries that used a simplified. marine shrimp. D SO: Source Aquaculture Magazine [AQUACULT.

aquaculture development. emphasizing the importance of the correct removal and disposal of sediments between crops. A major portion of the nitrogen (31%) and most of the phosphorus (84%) was retained in the sediments. such as China. Of the N and P exported in this effluent. 8. Vol. 63-67% occurred during routine water exchange and the remainder during drainage on harvest. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus. pp. no. But local demand for fresh aquaculture products has provided Guam producers with a mosaic of strong. Ninety-five per cent of the nitrogen and 71% of the phosphorus applied to the ponds was in the form of feed and fertilizers. MRP. 1994. whilst the remainder was retained in the pond and ultimately exported to the surrounding environment. Funge-Smith. 3. no. 20. 25. pond culture. the Philippines. nutrient cycles. The results derived from the nutrient budget provide data which may help define effective management techniques for reducing potentially harmful nutrient levels within intensive shrimp ponds. pp. DJ SO: Source Aquaculture Magazine [AQUACULT. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture.DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Aquaculture on Guam: The success of marine shrimp AU: Author Landkamer. local niche markets. a small but vibrant aquaculture industry has recently developed in the shadows of Asia aquaculture giants. aquaculture effluents. 32-38. Japan. Vol. 789-811. shrimp culture AB: Abstract On the island of Guam. but not their relative proportions. Of the feed input (at a food conversion ratio of 2) only 24% of the nitrogen and 13% of the phosphorus was incorporated into the shrimp harvested. 1994.]. at the southern terminus of the Marianas chain in the Western Pacific. and future product expansion looks promising. Record 292 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title A nutrient budget of some intensive marine shrimp ponds in Thailand AU: Author Briggs. nutrients (mineral). and . Pond age (between two and six production cycles) did not markedly affect nutrient flows. Article Geographic Terms: Thailand AB: Abstract A mass balance was constructed for nutrient flow through intensive marine shrimp ponds in which budgets for nitrogen and phosphorus were determined for a series of ponds in southern Thailand over two or three culture cycles. and Taiwan. MANAGE. nitrogen. whilst increasing stocking density increased the quantity of nutrients. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: marine aquaculture. environmental impact. SJ SO: Source Aquaculture Research [AQUACULT. The effluent water contained 35% of the nitrogen and 10% of the phosphorus discharged.]. phosphorus. FISH. MAG.

the thiamin requirement estimated by the TPP effect of the muscle (13. PHYSIOL. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. vitamin deficiencies. H-Y. BIOCHEM. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon AB: Abstract Muscle. A]. 2-3. Record 295 of 500 . the hemolymph TPP effect was the most sensitive and specific indicator of thiamin status.for reducing the discharge of nutrients to the local environment. Shu-Ying SO: Source Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology.]. Record 294 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The United States marine shrimp farming program AU: Author Anon. vitamins. hemolymph and hepatopancreas transketolase activities and their thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) effects were assessed for their potential to determine the thiamin status of juvenile Penaeus monodon after a 9-week feeding trial. 1. disease control. pp. SO: Source Shrimp News International [SHRIMP NEWS INT. while TPP effects decreased with increasing dietary thiamin levels. The data may also assist in determining the carrying capacity of an area for shrimp farming.9 mg/km). Transketolase activity increased in response to increasing thiamin supplementation. 109A. Tang. Record 293 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Sensitivity of transketolase to the thiamin status of juvenile marine shrimp (Penaeus monodon) AU: Author Chen. 655-659. 1994. These data suggest that. A [COMP. no. Vol.3 mg/kg) was similar to that of the growth results (12. Thiamin requirement assessed by TPP effect as the criterion was lower than that by transketolase activity. like vertebrates. analytical techniques. 1994. shrimp culture. Feng-Cheng. Wu. and the potential impact of its development on the environment. 3. animal nutrition. aquaculture statistics.3 mg/kg) and hemolymph (18. no. Article Geographic Terms: USA AB: Abstract The Oceanic Institute in Hawaii submitted this article on the United States Marine Shrimp Farming Program. Vol. 19. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: vitamin B. The TPP effect showed a significant increment when the dietary thiamin was reduced from 20 mg/kg diet to no supplement. pp. measurement of the TPP effect in the tissues of the marine crustacean is a more sensitive indicator of thiamin status than measurement of transketolase activity.. Among all criteria examined.

and secondarily bind to a surface coat that is closely associated with the oolemma.DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Pre-fusion events of sperm-oocyte interaction in the marine shrimp. 1994. Vol. enterotoxins. WH Jr. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: microbial contamination. TECHNOL. fresh water molluscs. coli isolated. FJ. Wikramanayake. biological fertilization. Griffin. FOOD SCI. Record 296 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Incidence of Escherichia coli in fishes and seafoods: Isolation. 7 were positive for enterotoxigenicity with the latex agglutination. 225-231. biological pollutants. however. fish pakoda (20) and fish egg (6) samples have been screened for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli serotypes. marine shrimp. microbiological analysis. SB SO: Source Journal of Food Science and Technology (Mysore) [J. Once bound to the VE. pp. penetrate the VE. Article Taxonomic Terms: Sicyonia ingentis AB: Abstract The non-motile sperm of Sicyonia ingentis. acrosome reacted sperm do bind to surface coats via an externalized acrosomal granule. mouse foot pad and vasopermeability factor tests. A total of 17 E. AH SO: Source Seminars in Developmental Biology. Acrosome intact sperm will not bind to surface coats. Histopathological examination of mouse foot pad test revealed massive . 31. serotyping. These were present in fresh water fishes. sexual reproduction. as demonstrated with anti-VE polyclonal antibodies. pp. coli isolates could be biotyped into 7 biogroups. sperm undergo exocytosis of the acrosomal vesicle. coli strains were isolated. sexual cells. The ligand responsible for this binding is a carbohydrate moiety in the VE. Kulshrestha. (MYSORE)]. no. mixed with eggs by a spawning female. 5. fish eggs and marine fish samples. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: sperm. All the 17 E. marine shrimp (13). Article Geographic Terms: India AB: Abstract Fresh water fish (97) marine fish (37). Pisces. seafood. fishery products. Out of 17 E. Unreacted sperm preincubated with solubilized VE components exhibit diminished binding to VEs in a concentration dependent manner. marine crustaceans. public health. BR. human food. fresh water prawn (12). no. Article Taxonomic Terms: Escherichia coli. biotyping and enterotoxigenicity evaluation AU: Author Singh. Out of these. 11 isolates belonging to biotype I and the other six isolates to 6 different biotypes. Vol. dried prawn (5). Sicyonia ingentis AU: Author Clark. undergo a primary binding to the vitelline envelope (VE) of the oocyte. 324-326. 1994. food contamination. coagglutination. 13 were typed as O:87 (seven). O:20 and 0:3 serotypes (four isolates remained untyped). The ligand preferentially binds to the anterior tip of unreacted sperm. 4. molluscs (26) dried fish (19). 4. O:128 (three) and one isolate each of O:2.

DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. pp. food conversion. In October 1993. A case study in marine shrimp pond management AU: Author Clifford. protozoans and parasites. For practical purposes. ponds. GD SO: Source World Aquaculture [WORLD AQUACULT. Record 298 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title High health shrimp stocks: An advance. commercial shrimp growers can improve production by identifying and recreating conditions that contributed to elevated production in their own ponds. 25. pathogens.5-g Penaeus vannamei in 85 days from a 10. Article Geographic Terms: ASW. 6-13. Marine Shrimp Farming Program (USMSFP) to replace the term "specific pathogen free" (SPF) to describe shrimp stocks judged. Vol. no. disease control. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture.52 g/week. an opportunity .363 kg/ha of 18. on a best-professional-efforts basis.S. 1994. 3.1-ha. However. induced by cell-free culture filtrate of enterotoxigenic E. 3. Vol. 26-28. coli. Record 297 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Semi-intensive sensation. pp. aquaculture systems. aquaculture techniques. This article examines the methods and environmental conditions involved in that outstanding production cycle and discusses them in the context of conventional semi-intensive shrimp pond management.infiltration of polymorphs in dermis with moderate oedema in epidermis and dermis layers of skin. 1994. no. a Venezuelan shrimp farm produced a sensational harvest of 2. captive populations of selected shrimp maintained in the Oceanic Institute's nucleus breeding center are referred to as SPF. to be free of certain viruses.].59 and an average growth rate of 1.but not a panacea AU: Author Pruder. 25. intensive culture. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus AB: Abstract The term "high health" has been adopted by members of the U. all animals derived from those SPF populations that have been appropriately protected from disease and found negative in periodic screening are referred to as high health. coli isolates deserve serious attention. HC III SO: Source World Aquaculture. Venezuela AB: Abstract In the absence of research facilities and controlled experimentation. Record 299 of 500 . semi-intensive pond with a food conversion ratio of 0. The antibiotic resistance and public health significance of these E.

30-40.64*NO sub(2) . shrimp culture. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. aquaculture. effluents. environmental effects. biochemical oxygen demand.4 tons/crop).68 tons/crop (range: 2.02 mg/l. The average shrimp production from 20 intensive cultured ponds was 4.20 mg/l).33*DO + 2.47 + 0. Vol.18*Salinity 4. marine aquaculture.09*Visibility (r super(2) = 0. wastewater. nutritive value AB: Abstract Polyamino acids (PAA) prepared by thermal condensation were substituted for a crystalline amino acid mix (CAA) in shrimp feeds.4-13.118 kg/ha/crop. The objective was to determine whether PAA could minimize leaching of amino acids and also enhance the nutritional value of the feeds. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: amino acids.03 ppt.0. feed composition.0. 363-366. pp. 1994.56). eastern Thailand AU: Author Tookwinas. S.19 mg/l.59*SiO sub(2) . pp. BANGKOK (THAILAND). F. Record 301 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title . intensive culture. aquaculture effluents. 314. Malem. Songsangjinda.30-21.697. BOD was 8. No reduction in leaching of amino acids and no significant improvement in growth rate were observed in shrimp fed the PAA diet when compared with the CAA treatment. wastewater discharges. BOD had a significant relationship with other parameters as BOD sub(5) super(20) = 16.. Chanthaburi Province. S SO: Source Aquaculture. feeding behaviour. NH sub(3)-N was 0. no. The average salinity was 35. BOD sub(5) super(20) loading was 5. nitrogen compounds.40). environmental impact. 128. BOD sub(5) super(20) value was also directly varied with the shrimp feeding rate (r super(2) = 0. 1994. water quality. pond culture.47 mg/l (range: 0.5 tons/pond. waste water. This study indicates that substitution of PAA for CAA in shrimp feeds does not appear to provide any additional advantage. NO sub(2)-N was 0. Article Geographic Terms: Thailand AB: Abstract The study of 20 shrimp ponds in Khung Krabaen Bay during the first crop of 1992 showed that the average water drainage was 16. Record 300 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Quality and quantity of discharged water from intensive marine shrimp farms at Khung Krabaen Bay. the average soil organic matter was 7.23%.DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title An evaluation of polyamino acids as an improved amino acid source in marine shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) feeds AU: Author Divakaran. P SO: Source CHULALONGKORN UNIV.

. Bauerlein. ingentis VEs were used to characterize primary sperm binding activity. Fitzgerald. However. Soluble fractions of isolated VEs inhibited primary sperm binding in a concentration dependent manner. shrimp culture. enzymatic activity. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: marine crustaceans. biological fertilization. Sperm bind to a thin vitelline envelope (VE) via their anterior appendage and within seconds are induced to undergo acrosomal exocytosis. DJ. WA. AH. The sperm penetrate the VE and become secondarily bound to the surface coat (SC). Article Taxonomic Terms: Sicyonia ingentis AB: Abstract During spawning. In this study. Vol.Final report. AU: Author Bray. M DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: product development. Extensive Pronase digestion of VE components did not affect sperm binding activity of solubilized VE components. female Sicyonia ingentis simultaneously release ova and stored nonmotile sperm and mix them externally to initiate gamete interaction. Dept.e. Isolated VEs mediated only primary sperm binding (i. pp. while complete deglycosylation with trifluoromethanesulfonic acid destroyed sperm binding activity. sperm. no. and immunolocalization of VE components demonstrated highly localized VE binding sites at the tip of the sperm anterior appendage by which sperm bind eggs. WJ Jr. while the isolated SCs mediated only secondary sperm binding (i. neither alkaline treatment nor enzyme digestion using glycosidases specific for asparagine and serine/threonine linked oligosaccharides affected sperm binding activity. marketing CA: Corporate Author Government of Guam. both extracellular matrices were isolated from S. 36. Isolated S. Tamunina (Guam).. a glycocalyx on the oocyte surface. ingentis oocytes. reproductive cycle.e. Record 303 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The effect of four substrates on growth and survival of Penaeus vannamei at two salinities. WH Jr SO: Source Development Growth & Differentiation. before the acrosome reaction). The two extracellular matrices differ morphologically and possess different polypeptide profiles. AL . Clark. 89-101. after acrosomal exocytosis). pacific aquaculture association: Market promotion for the development of culture marine shrimp on Guam AU: Author Landkamer. 1. 1994. Lawrence. of Commerce Record 302 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Two extracellular matrices from oocytes of the marine shrimp Sicyonia ingentis that independently mediate only primary or secondary sperm binding AU: Author Wikramanayake.

Significantly higher final weights were observed with impermeable substrate than with any soil substrate at both salinities tested (15. dependable long-term maturation systems must be developed. although the difference was not statistically significant in the higher salinity group. coarse sand and clay) and an impermeable substrate (bare fiberglass tank bottoms). pp. sexual reproduction. Juveniles of 0. was cultured on four substrates at two salinities for 56 days. the complete gonad maturation of both sexes was achieved resulting in numerous matings and spawnings. PONTEVEDRA (SPAIN). aquaculture techniques. two basic problems remain to be understood and solved in order to improve the performance of these long-term maturation systems.94 g mean weight were stocked at 15/m super(2) in 1. The achievement of maturation/reproduction in unablated shrimps under long-term captivity (26 months) was possible through the control of only a few exogenous factors. juveniles. outdoor tanks. However. clearing the way to its domestication. Vol. recirculating systems. On a continuous basis and along more than a one year period. salinity effects. Shrimp cultured on sand substrates had higher final weights than shrimp cultured on clay. 2.]. 251-256. Record 304 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Maturation and spawning of the marine shrimp Penaeus kerathurus: Performance under long-term captivity AU: Author Luis. growth. 1993. Test salinities were 45 ppt and 27 ppt. no. 229-244.54 g/week in the 45 ppt treatments. Results obtained in the present work showed that the marine shrimp Penaeus kerathurus can easily be adapted to long-term captivity conditions in enclosed recirculated sea water systems. Results indicated that P. Test substrates included three soils (fine sand.33 to 1.2 g at 45 ppt). Penaeus vannamei Boone. such as water temperature and diet. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. MAR.77 g/week in the 27 ppt treatments and from 1.1 g at 27 ppt. OJ SO: Source CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIONES MARINAS. spawning.55 to 1. The first is the high specific mortality of maturing females during exuviation and the second the daily spawned eggs which were laid in low numbers (maximum of 20 000 eggs collected/day) and with a very low fertility rate most probably caused by low quality sperm of captive males. pp.2 m diameter. genetics. fecundity. Ensenada [CIENC. substrate preferences. 1993.SO: Source Ciencias marinas. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus kerathurus AB: Abstract With increasing interest in genetic improvement programs of cultured marine species. . Average weight gain ranged from 1. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. vannamei) has no soil substrate requirement for the 1 to 15 g size category. irrespective of how primitive the husbandry and genetic management of these undomesticated organisms are relative to livestock. 13. 19. water salinity AB: Abstract The marine shrimp. survival.

174-185. Turnover of super(210)Po in shrimp tissues is much slower than for super(210)Pb. no. sperm. a fact which also contributes to the enhanced super(210)Po: super(210)Pb concentration ratios observed in marine crustaceans. adsorption. biological fertilization. 1993. Marine Biological Laboratory. LAB. Lin. Article Taxonomic Terms: Trachypenaeus similis . seticaudata. BIOL.]. osmoregulation. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: bioaccumulation. PROG. Article Taxonomic Terms: Lysmata seticaudata AB: Abstract The experimental accumulation of super(210)Po and super(210)Pb from seawater alone and from seawater and food was studied in the laboratory with the benthic shrimp Lysmata seticaudata. about 5-fold that of super(210)Pb. Record 306 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Spermatophores and plug substance of the marine shrimp Trachypenaeus similis (Crustacea: Decapoda: Penaeidae): Formation in the male reproductive tract and disposition in the inseminated female AU: Author Bauer. was observed in L. When uptake was from water only. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: marine crustaceans. Accumulation in internal tissues also occurred through the intake of seawater for osmotic regulation. RT. animal reproductive organs. 125-133. This difference can account for the enhancement of super(210)Po: super(210)Pb ratios observed in the lower trophic levels of marine food chains. FP. polonium. Jun Min SO: Source Biological Bulletin. SW SO: Source Marine ecology progress series. sea water. 185. no. radioisotopes. food organisms. It is concluded that in shrimp super(210)Po was mainly accumulated from food. 2. Vol. BULL. reaching whole body concentration factors [CF = (Bq/g of shrimp wet wt)/(Bq/ml filtered water)] of 139 plus or minus 28 for super(210)Po and 682 plus or minus 149 for super(210)Pb. Woods Hole [BIOL. 1-2. MAR. controlled conditions. Lead. SER. Fowler. WOODS HOLE]. males. digestion. Vol. sexual reproduction. spermatophores. Shrimp accumulated both radionuclides from water for 21 d. pp. Oldendorf [MAR. Exposure of shrimp to radionuclides dissolved in water and labelled food produced a noticeable accumulation of super(210)Po in internal tissues which was not accompanied by an identical accumulation of super(210)Pb.Record 305 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title An experimental study on the bioaccumulation and turnover of polonium-210 and lead-210 in marine shrimp AU: Author Carvalho. ECOL. pp. 102. A much higher digestive assimilation efficiency for super(210)Po. 1993. trace elements. tissue analyses revealed that radionuclide accumulation was mainly due to external adsorption. whereas super(210)Pb was largely taken up from the fraction dissolved in seawater.

Record 308 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Requirements of marine shrimp. Houng-Yung SO: Source . RJ SO: Source Aquaculture. which serves as an antechamber to the apertures of the internalized seminal receptacles. pp. no. KN. the mass of plug substance (mating plug) may act as a paternity assurance device that prevents subsequent inseminations by other males. The most effective stimulus tested was shrimp-head offal extract. where sperm from ruptured spermatophores are stored. food preferences AB: Abstract A feeding bioassay which uses agar discs was developed for evaluating chemosensory stimuli influencing ingestive behavior in Penaeus vannamei . 109. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: palatability.AB: Abstract Sperm are packaged into many small spermatophores of variable size in the median vas deferens (MVD) of the male. shrimp culture. Greatest biological activity was in the < 1000 M. In addition to its hypothesized roles during insemination and sperm release. A substance is intermixed with sperm in the proximal coils of the MVD. Borski. separating groups of sperm that will be ejaculated as spermatophores. bioassays. 153-164. AU: Author Chen. juveniles for phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol. 1993. was suitable for rapid screening of a wide variety of compounds. Penaeus monodon . and an anterior exit for sperm release during spawning. fractions of the extracts. The palatability assay required only small amounts of stimuli. a closed mid-section. This latter material fills and stoppers a space on the female. Agar disc hardness and preventing the shrimp from placing their mouthparts directly onto the stimulus discs were important aspects of the bioassay design. stoppered by plug substance after insemination." When males are artificially ejaculated. the median pocket. indicating the best use of this material may be as a flavorant rather than as a source of nutrients. Vol. followed by plug substance that quickly solidifies. AU: Author Holland.W. The slit-like openings to the receptacles are functionally divided into a posterior aperture. spermatophores are emitted. Direct insemination by an everted male gonopore is considered more likely than transmission of spermatophores and plug substance via the male gonopod (petasma). feed composition. and was independent of factors such as texture or size of feed pellets. 2. Record 307 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title A palatability bioassay for determining ingestive stimuli in the marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei . Most of the ejaculatory duct is occupied by a chamber filled with a transparent. viscous fluid termed the "plug substance.

4. world AB: Abstract In western countries.Aquaculture. The aquaculture production of prawns mainly based on wild-caught juveniles increased in South-East Asia and Central America . Record 309 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine crustacean farming: Present status and perspectives AU: Author Laubier. Contents on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the muscle seemed to decrease with increased phosphatidylcholine supplement. advances of marine biology and fast increase of marine fisheries enabled the development of large-scale production and release of larval stages of American and European lobsters in a fruitless attempt to restock natural populations. no. 1993. lobster culture. 0. prawn culture. were tested in combination with four levels (0. pp. 165-176. respectively. crab culture. 319-329. diets.14 g) were examined using purified soy phosphatidylcholine (80% purity) as the phospholipid. no. monodon juveniles were estimated to be 0. After the Second World War. marketing. food composition. The effectiveness of cholesterol was not affected by the dietary inclusion of phosphatidylcholine and the inverse was also true.5 and 5%) of phosphatidylcholine.].25. nutritional requirements.5% and 1. LIVING RESOUR. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. A major breakthrough was achieved with the development of hatchery technologies for the penaeid prawn Penaeus japonicus and the caridean prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. survival and body lipid compositions of juvenile Penaeus monodon (initial mean weight 0. 2./RESSOUR. Vol. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: juveniles. 109. A. Laubier. diseases. cholesterol. the increasing demand for crustaceans in United States and Japan was satisfied by opening new prawn fisheries all over the world. Three levels of supplemental cholesterol. 1. which occurred during the first decades of the second half of this century.45 plus or minus 0. The results of the 4-week growth experiment indicated that dietary supplementation of phosphatidylcholine or cholesterol significantly improved shrimp weight gain but not survival. Vol. while in response to increased dietary phosphatidylcholine supplement. Nantes [AQUAT. 6. 1993. since the turn of the century. Increased supplementation of cholesterol resulted in increased total lipid content of muscle. The optimum supplemental levels of cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine for P. VIVANTES AQUAT. shrimp culture. this led to a considerable interest of both public agencies and private investors in marine shrimp and prawn culture. 2. pp.25%. 0.5 and 1%. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon AB: Abstract The effects of dietary phospholipids and cholesterol on the growth. shrimp showed decreased phosphatidylcholine and increased free fatty acid levels in their muscle. environmental factors. L SO: Source Aquatic living resources/Ressources vivantes aquatiques. Total lipid content and lipid class compositions of the hepatopancreas were not influenced by the dietary supplementation of phosphatidylcholine or cholesterol. Together with the increasing market demand in developed countries for sea food.

DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: experimental culture.000 tons from penaeid prawn culture. 3. the major part of the world production of marine crustaceans relies on penaeid prawns and. This overall positive trend should not hide important failures which occurred at a local scale. The economic aspects of marine crustacean aquaculture should be considered together with those of the fishing industry. Record 310 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Growth trial with the American oyster Crassostrea virginica using shrimp pond water as feed AU: Author Jakob. 1993. By far. the major scientific achievements were related to food requirements and formulation of compound diets for larvae. SOC. For both tanks. Pruder. in turn. mean oyster growth rate (2 g/wk) and survival (79%) from seed (0. Data are provided to estimate optimum pond water flow rate and oyster biomass relationships. WORLD AQUACULT. Such problems contributed to the failure of previous attempts to commercialize oyster culture. such as the Taiwanese crisis of 1988 due principally to environmental degradation. Additional new technological advances have emerged from recent research in the fields of physiology (endocrinology) and genetics. crustacean aquaculture has increased tremendously in both Asia and America: the world production for 1991 approximated 700. oyster culture. growth. pp.during the 1980s. aquaculture effluents. juveniles and adults and to a better knowledge of diseases caused by bacteria and several viruses which have been identified from hatcheries and intensive farming ponds. wastewater aquaculture. 24. with more than 600. JK SO: Source Journal of the World Aquaculture Society [J. on Macrobrachium species. During a 65 d controlled monitoring period mean oyster growth rates of 3. It was envisioned that this biculture could avoid cost and reliability problems associated with the mass production of algae as oyster feed. establishes the success of prawn farming. The balance between market demand and production is an important constraint which. Vol.0 g) compared favorably with previous reports and for the first time approximated the growth projected in a 1968 engineering study by American Cyanamid. However. polyculture AB: Abstract This study was conducted to quantify the potential of Crassostrea virginica biculture using marine shrimp pond water.04 g) to market size (55. Oyster growth within and between tanks indicated a relationship between biomass and exchange rates. to a lesser extent. Wang. GD*. In each tank. Since the early 1980s. Record 311 of 500 . pond water was delivered to the upper trays and flowed downward through each of two seven tray stacks. Following the early period of hatchery technology development. aquaculture techniques. shrimp culture.7 g/wk were achieved in upper trays of both tanks. The prospects for shrimp and bivalve co-culture appear promising.000 tons. pond culture. no. Oysters were reared in each of two flow through 310 L tanks receiving shrimp pond water from selected commercial semi-intensive shrimp ponds. some other species of marine crustaceans have potential for aquaculture.]. 344-351. GS.

Record 312 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Live food organisms used in Malaysia for mass propagation of marine shrimp larvae. feeding experiments. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon AB: Abstract The food organisms commonly used in the Malaysian mariculture of penaeid shrimp Penaeus monodon. intensive culture. European Aquaculture Society [SPEC. Browdy. South Carolina commercial shrimp growers have rapidly assimilated research findings into their business operations. standing crop biomass at havest increased directly with stocking density up to 200 shrimp/m super(2). with major mortalities that appeared unrelated to dissolved oxygen levels. having high health animals is the most important ingredient for successful intensive pond culture. with the result that stocking densities and yields have increased steadily since 1985. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. L. SOC. USA. By 1992 there were 91. AQUACULT. PA. AQUACULT. yield. European Aquaculture Society [SPEC. EUR. Article Geographic Terms: ANW. survival. The algae were fed to the . AD.4 ha of ponds in production in the state. SOC. Penaeus monodon AU: Author Shamsudin. body size. EUR. Major findings of these studies are as follows: mean size of shrimp at harvest is affected relatively little by stocking density within the range of 20 to at least 200 shrimp/m super(2). South Carolina AB: Abstract Experiments on the intensive pond culture of Penaeus vannamei were initiated in 1985 and have continued through 1992. stocking density. survival. Stocking densities in various experiments have ranged from 12 to 400 postlarvae/m super(2). 1993.]. biochemical composition. lipids. mean size. CR SO: Source Special Publication. PUBL. JS. PUBL.. CL SO: Source Special Publication. food organisms. Saad. prymnesiophyte Isochrysis galbana) and zooplankton species (rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. Stokes. survival. polyunsaturated fatty acids. with an average stocking density of 56 shrimp/m super(2). DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. runt deformity syndrome.]. Hopkins.g. pond culture. growth. black spot disease) are directly related to the initial health status of the stocks and the pond management regime. and occurrence of disfigurements (e. consist of algae (diatom Chaetoceros calcitrans. 1993. Commercial harvests exceeded 13. diets.DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Development of intensive pond culture of marine shrimp in South Carolina: From research to commercial reality AU: Author Sandifer. local copepod species (mostly Oithona nana) and brine shrimp (Artemia salina). At 400 animals/m super(2) the system essentially collapsed.000 kg/ha in some ponds and averaged about kg/ha overall for the state.

MdS. MdZA SO: Source BOBP. MdSA. Laboratory algal cultures were axenic and cultured in f-2 medium while outdoor cultures were grown in a commercial medium designed for optimum nutrition in tropical outdoor aquaculture operations. copepod species and brine shrimp species under investigation contained high amounts of 18:2w6. European Aquaculture Society [SPEC.]. Improving culture technology seems not to guarantee a successful culture business..early stages of the penaeid larvae (Z(1)-Z(2)) while the later stages (M(1)-PL(3)) were given rotifer. catch composition. production. MdG. artisanal fishing. polyculture. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. T SO: Source Special Publication. Record 313 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Notes on socio-cultural factors which affected to intensive shrimp culture continuity: A case study at Serang. Marine shrimp culture since 1980 has been modified from traditional extensive management using natural feeding into intensive culture with nutrition and artificial feeding. SOC. fishery economics. has been developed and is well known to most coastal inhabitants in Indonesia. 65-78. shrimp polyculture includes marine coastal fishes such as Siganus spp. species composition and size ranges of the predominant species caught were determined. The survival rate of the penaeid shrimp larvae was 30-38% for larval stage Z(1)-Z(2) and 40-45% for stage Z(1)-M(3). 1993. 18:3w3 and 20:5w3 acids. Lates carcarifer and Chanos chanos or milkfish for live bait fish. Chowdhury. especially polyculture systems. pp. West Java. 1 sergestid . Record 314 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The marine set bagnet fishery AU: Author Quayum. TAMIL NADU (INDIA). Islam. sociological aspects AB: Abstract Aquaculture. Some 39 species/groups were identified in the catches: 5 marine shrimp. small scale aquaculture. intensive culture. 2 freshwater prawns. gillnets. All the food organisms under investigation contained the necessary w-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid series necessary for the growth and survival rate of the penaeid larvae. AQUACULT. MdU. Khan. Article Geographic Terms: ISW. The catch rates. MADRAS. The lipid and fatty acids of the various food organisms used in tropical Malaysian penaeid mariculture were also studied. EUR. because parts of owners behaviour is still highly oriented to social prestige. Sada. Recently. The rotifer. developing countries. Indonesia AU: Author Susilowati. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: marine fisheries. PUBL. 1993. fishery data. copepod species and Artemia salina. Bangladesh AB: Abstract The findings are presented of a study conducted to assess the level of exploitation of marine set bagnets in Bangladesh.

Penaeus chinensis. 1993. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. A wide range of viewpoints were presented by the participants. 1993. Those themes included: concern about the spread of . prawn culture. fish culture. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus. several common themes were discussed throughout the workshop. SOC. artificial feeding. Artemia fattening feeds and grow-out feeds for Macrobrachium and Penaeus. feed.shrimp. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon.000 people are directly engaged in these activities. M. prevention. a total of 3852 units of gear are operated as approximately 250 operational units including fishing. disease control. Such aquafeeds include larval feeds. FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC. infectious diseases. and 30 finfish. New. Artemia. European Aquaculture Society [SPEC. diagnosis and treatment of penaeid shrimp diseases during a four-day workshop in Hawaii. The results were compiled and published later that year. MB SO: Source FAO REGIONAL OFF. disease transmission. PUBL. In 1992 experts from Asia and the United States examined the occurrence. EUR. Penaeus AB: Abstract Infectious and non-infectious diseases have had a significant impact on the production of cultured penaeid shrimp in recent years. W SO: Source Special Publication. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. literature reviews. BANGKOK (THAILAND). An economic assessment was also made of the fishery. Madras (India). Small-Scale Fisherfolk Communities in the Bay of Bengal Record 315 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title On-farm feed preparation and feeding strategies for marine shrimp and freshwater prawns AU: Author Boonyaratpalin. Fulks. It is estimated that some 10. Macrobrachium. Penaeus japonicus. AQUACULT. 1 solinoceran shrimp. The systems described may be used. Article Geographic Terms: Thailand AB: Abstract A description is given of some examples of farm-made aquafeeds for marine shrimp and freshwater prawns currently in use in Thailand and methods of their manufacture. processing and marketing of the catch. KL. pp. however. for producing farm-made fish feeds.]. feed preparation. 120-134. industrial production. husbandry diseases. CA: Corporate Author Bay of Bengal Programme for Fisheries Development. with minor adaptations. Record 316 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Current issues in diseases of cultured penaeid shrimp: Results of an Asia/United States workshop AU: Author Main.

The future of marine shrimp has eclipsed all other crustacean culture and is the primary focus of this volume. Therefore. and Section V: Lobster Culture. and better environmental awareness. BOCA RATON. FL (USA). Section III: Marine Shrimp Growout Systems. lobster culture. Article Geographic Terms: Japan AB: Abstract About a quarter of a century ago. Hatchery Production and Juvenile Maintenance. manuals. Very little new research is being done on freshwater prawns. Ultraintensive culture was adopted by the establishment of high-quality pelleted diets. The results as well as the diseases that affect three species of marine shrimp (Penaeus monodon. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus japonicus. Section II: Marine Shrimp Maturation. intensive culture. the need for standardized diagnostic techniques. crustacean culture. food organisms. feeding. Section IV: Crustacean Diseases. spawn. JP SO: Source CRC PRESS. the need for improved husbandry techniques. brood stocks. 289-313. Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium rosenbergii AB: Abstract This handbook is a follow-up and companion volume to the first crustacean handbook that came out in 1983. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: marine aquaculture. ultraintensive culture of penaeid shrimp was first created in Japan. The experts that have contributed to this volume have been asked to be as specific as possible about the techniques that they are presently using in their own facilities around the world. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. Volume 1. chinensis and P. 1993. books. pp. mass fry . sexual maturity. I SO: Source CRC PRESS. we recommend the reader to the first volume for details on freshwater shrimp culture. Record 318 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Ultraintensive culture and maturation in captivity of penaeid shrimp AU: Author Yano. aquaculture techniques. However. japonicus) will be presented. P. mature. fish diseases. BOCA RATON. Record 317 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title CRC handbook of mariculture 2nd edition. rearing. This handbook has five sections: Section I: Crustacean Larval Food Production. Crustacean aquaculture AU: Author McVey. The Table of Contents is organized so that papers are presented in a logical progression on the production of larval foods or the sequence of events that are required to obtain. shrimp culture. FL (USA). 1993. prawn culture.pathogens by uncontrolled movement of shrimp stocks. aquaculture techniques. this volume does contain an update on freshwater prawn diseases and overall health requirements. and rear the crustaceans.

Therefore. and production goals. japnicus do not mature easily in captivity. The greenhouse covers retained heat and the seawater wells provided a source of clean water which had some of the extremes of temperature reduced by the tempering effect of the ground. management requirements. and help in developing selective breeding programs. raceway culture. providing a reliable year-round supply of fry. On the other hand. Emphasis was placed on development of an ultra-high-density controlled environment production system. which would be of general usefulness in obtaining disease-free spawners. it was important to maximize production. Controlling maturation in captivity could help supply enough spawners for mass fry production. wild spawners caught in the sea are not readily available for the blooming shrimp aquaculture industry. FL (USA). P. controlled conditions.production of the popular marine shrimp Penaeus japonicus (kuruma prawn). maturation in captivity is a major problem in the development of the commercial aquaculture of penaeid shrimp. Seawater was taken from wells located just behind the beach. A high production yield (3 kg/m super(2)/year) for kuruma prawn by ultraintensive culture in Japan has stimulated the marine shrimp culture over the past several decades around the world. shrimp were grown in raceways which were enclosed in air-inflated greenhouses. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae AB: Abstract The Environmental Research Laboratory (ERL) of the University of Arizona began work in shrimp culture research in the early 1970s. it was necessary to prevent excessive heat loss in the winter. a number of innovations were added to the system. vannamei. The technology was first implemented in Mexico on the northern coast of the Gulf of California. intensive culture. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. To do this. aquaculture techniques. which are essential for further development of penaeid shrimp aquaculture. and P. P. Due to the relatively high capital cost of the greenhouse-enclosed raceways. female P. Record 319 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The culture of marine shrimp in controlled environment superintensive systems AU: Author Moore. To accomplish this. At present. 315-348. monodon. Brand. In order to allow year-round production of shrimp in this climate. 1993. The parent spawner (broodstock) is essential for fry production in penaeid shrimp culture. Various investigations are underway to develop techniques which may lead to captive maturation. and tank design for ultraintensive culture. BOCA RATON. The system was designed to respond to a specific set of environmental constraints. A degree of environmental control was necessary because the facility was located in a desert environment with its associated wide swings in diurnal and seasonal temperatures. CW SO: Source CRC PRESS. DW. Record 320 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title . semisulcatus. pp.

]. AB: Abstract Both sexes of Pseudonicothoe branchialis (Siphonostomatoida: Nicothoidae). 24. Vol. the male for the first time. no. reducing crop values. Swingle. In 1989 the U. WASH. industry. Both sexes have hyaline flaps (suckers?) on the exopods of legs 1-3. In Taiwan. the 1987 production of 95 000 tonnes plummeted to only 30 000 tonnes the following year because of mass mortalities. parasites. pp. Serious disease problems have plagued world shrimp farmers in recent years. 2. Production data for these shrimp indicated improved survival. deformed and unmarketable Penaeus monodon are increasingly common. 1993. aquaculture techniques. genetics. 315-324. brood stocks.Specific pathogen free Penaeus vannamei AU: Author Wyban. Article Taxonomic Terms: Heterocarpus sibogae. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: taxonomy. improvements that translate into increased crop value and profitability for the shrimp industry. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW.S. In 1991 more than 200 million high health nauplii and 75 million high health postlarvae were stocked into commercial production systems in the three regions of the United States where shrimp culture is practiced. In the Philippines. 1993. Sweeney. living on the pandalid shrimp Heterocarpus sibogae off northwestern Australia AU: Author Humes. breeding. runt-deformity syndrome (RDS) is widespread. aquaculture products. JS. pp.S. Pseudonicothoe is recognized as a valid genus. SOC. In Ecuador.]. are described. Marine Shrimp Farming Program began developing Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) Penaeus vannamei for distribution to the U. 39-45. Many of these disease problems are due to shrimp viruses. AG. BIOL. The innermost element on the free segment of leg 5 is sexually dimorphic. enhanced production and increased feed conversion efficiency plus more uniform size distribution at harvest. Boxshall. Vol. GA SO: Source Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington [PROC. to which Paranicothoe procircularis (Carton) is transferred as a new combination. Pruder. living on the marine shrimp Heterocarpus sibogae off the coast of northwestern Australia. GD SO: Source World Aquaculture [WORLD AQUACULT. 106. Record 321 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Pseudonicothoe branchialis (Crustacea: Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Nicothoidae). Northern Terr. JA. JN. Record 322 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts . cultured organisms AB: Abstract Commercial trials indicate the progeny of SPF shrimp can dramatically outperform the progeny of wild shrimp in culture systems. Australia.

input levels of water. outlining all the major production systems. and scallops.000 MT. freshwater prawns. with important volumes also exported to France and Spain. and also outlines the various methods of farming. Further development of the industry will continue having positive social consequences in terms of employment and generation of hard currency. DE DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. the white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) makes up over 90% of the production from farms. and yields increase rapidly from the artisanal to intensive method. aquaculture techniques. nutrition and health. Caribbean Island nations contribute less than 1%. Most of marine shrimp production from Latin American and Caribbean farms is marketed in the U. aquaculture systems. South American nations produce about 85%. catfish. P. could become important as more research is conducted. The third part deals specifically in more detail with the farming of salmonids. turbot. feed and fertilizers. eels. small scale aquaculture. reset and updated to reflect the new developments that have occurred worldwide. and will probably constitute over 50% of the production by the mid-1990's. The second part explains the husbandry of farmed aquatic animals. There are 4 growout methods: artisanal. But other species. 1993. Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) . DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: aquaculture. Second edition AU: Author Swift. milkfish. carp. crustaceans and molluscs that are commonly farmed. This second edition has been reorganized. oysters. mussels. aquaculture systems. Production will likely double within 10 years to around 250. Extensive and semi-intensive methods predominate. intensive culture. The first part covers the basic biology of those fish. native and non-indigenous. OXFORD (UK). CA: Corporate Author Ministry of Agriculture and Water. enlarged.TI: Title Aquaculture training manual. mullet. their growth. semi-intensive and intensive. vannamei will continue to dominate production in farms.S. (about 70%). manuals. Construction and production costs. fish culture. marine aquaculture. extensive culture. marine shrimp. Article Geographic Terms: Latin America AB: Abstract Latin American and Caribbean Island nations produce about 98 percent of marine shrimp production farmed in the Western Hemisphere. Shrimp farmers will continue replacing shrimp fishermen as suppliers to the market. DR SO: Source FISHING NEWS BOOKS. shellfish culture AB: Abstract The manual provides a practical introduction to aquaculture for those who are new to fish farming or have become involved in farming a different species. aquaculture development. Record 323 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title An overview of marine shrimp farming in Latin America and the Caribbean AU: Author Jory. In Latin America and the Caribbean Region. tilapia. extensive.

algal culture. such as aquaculture. The FCR is varied from 1. Hawaii's aquafarmers and researchers are regarded as leaders in the development and application of technologies for culturing a variety of aquatic plants and animals. Central and South America and Africa. Hawaii AB: Abstract The new availability of land and water from the down-sizing of plantation agriculture can create opportunities for innovative resource-based enterprises. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW.5 to 2. Aquaculture Dev. Program Record 326 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Preliminary Financial Feasibility Analysis of an Independent Marine . Article Geographic Terms: USA. Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) Record 325 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Hawaii Aquaculture Advisory Council 1993 report DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: aquaculture development. joined the industry. Hawaii-based consultants continued to be active on the US Mainland. The farm size is around one hectare and 2 meters in depth. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon. intensive culture. The top Hawaii-grown products (by value) included microalgae. annual reports. Scientific knowledge for intensive shrimp farming techniques is discussed in detail. Last year.Record 324 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Intensive marine shrimp farming techniques in Thailand AU: Author Tookwinas. eight new farmers. CA: Corporate Author Ministry of Agriculture and Water. mostly small in scale. Aquaculture revenues are expected to grow in 1993. pond culture. shrimp culture. S DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. marine shrimp. In addition. ogo seaweed and freshwater prawns. seed production. Thailand AB: Abstract Intensive marine shrimp farming on the species of Penaeus monodon has been developed remarkly since 1986 due to success in mass production of shrimp seeds and recent advance in culture technology. pond water circulation and metabolic rate of aquatic biomass in the pond. The initial stock density of shrimp fry can be up to 70 fry/m super(3).0. seaweed culture. aquaculture facilities. The survival rate about 60 to 90%. CA: Corporate Author Dept. of Land and Natural Resources. aquaculture systems. HI (USA). prawn culture. and in Asia. An aeration technique is operated to increase dissolved oxygen supply. The production can be reached up to 15 metric tons per hectare.

average cash cost per PL would be approximately $6. Seafood Wholesale Market Channel with an Emphasis on Whole Farmed Marine Shrimp AU: Author Rhodes. Rep. South Carolina. Divakaran. Culture tanks. feeding experiments.600 for the base case output of 75 million PL per year. no.000 PL for this output. mortality AB: Abstract . Financing. 79. [np]. McGovern-Hopkins. South Carolina AB: Abstract It is anticipated that prospective investors and perhaps lending institutions. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Seafood. Resour. equipping and operating this facility would be nearly $1 million. Total annual projected cash operating costs for a 75 million postlarvae (PL). Costs.].C. USA. Hatcheries.300 ft super(2). toxicity tests. not integrated with a SC shrimp grow-out enterprise) commercial hatchery operating in coastal SC. S. Projected net income after taxes was only $94. Raymond J. Channels.C. Mar. diets. Economic feasibility. prefabricated steel building with on overall area of about 13. Surveys.690. Article Geographic Terms: ANW. Dec 1992. biological poisons. The hypothetical hatchery described in this report includes maturation and larval rearing (LR) systems consisting of ton 12. Kathleen.60/1. Commercial species. glands. Marine aquaculture. Browdy. Resour. Economics. Sexual maturity. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans. Marine resources. Construction. hepatopancreas. Craig L SO: Source Technical report. Article Geographic Terms: ANW.e. antennae. LeaMaster.S. BR DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. histopathology. [np]. S. South Carolina Record 328 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Sensitivity of marine shrimp (Penaeus vannamei ) to aflatoxins. S. Record 327 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Mail Survey of the U. Nov 1992. USA. USA. The total initial investment for constructing. South Carolina Marine Resources Center [Tech. Marine aquaculture. Marine crustaceans. AU: Author Ostrowski-Meissner. Rep. South Carolina Marine Resources Center [Tech. food consumption. J. Grant. The objective of this report is to present a preliminary projection of costs and income generated by an independent (i. Valvy N SO: Source Technical report. The annual. per year output was $496. Shellfish culture. will desire information on the financial feasibility of operating a commercial penaeid shrimp larviculture facility located in South Carolina (SC). Cent.5-ton maturation tanks and 16. Mar. no. 80.8-ton LR tanks housed in one large.Shrimp Hatchery Located in South Carolina AU: Author Rhodes. Cent. HT.]. Shellfish culture.

residues in tissues and excreta. which can not effectively utilize crystalline amino acids. After 7 days of exposure. Mortalities were highest in shrimp receiving 15. and live weight and feed consumption were recorded 7 and 21 days after the exposure of shrimp to their respective dietary AF B sub(1). Vol.1 g/kg diet) of arginine. Y-T. AF-related histopathology was mainly in two organ systems. 3000. Record 329 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Quantification of arginine requirements of juvenile marine shrimp.000 ppb dietary AF B sub(1). 100. BIOL. A preliminary trial was conducted on P.5 and 36. gut. 229-233. growth. or fecal samples tested.000 ppb AF ( mu g AF B sub(1)/kg feed). Examination of the hemolymph 3 h after feeding revealed that the free arginine level in the hemolymph had not increased as a result of increasing levels of the dietary arginine. level. pure arginine was supplemented by L-arginine microencapsulated in cellulose acetate phthalate. was not detected in any of the shrimp tail muscle. vannamei). the quantitative requirement for amino acid has been determined for the first time for a shrimp species. 2. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon AB: Abstract Using microencapsulated L-arginine. nutritive value. AU: Author Chen. Penaeus monodon . 17.].3. H-Y. amino acids. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: nutritional requirements. and 15. Six levels of dietary AF B sub(1). juvenile (Penaeus monodon were fed casein-based purified diets containing one of six levels (13. Berlin.7. Record 330 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Experience in rearing freshwater and marine shrimp AU: Author .9. pp.1. which is easily assimilated. no. 31. There was an abrupt increase of urea in the hemolymph when the arginine requirement of the shrimp had been met. In addition to the protein-bound arginine already present in the casein of the test diets. juveniles. All shrimp which died during the trial. experimental research. were prepared with AF B sub(1). haemolymph. Roelants. were sampled for histopathology and for analysis of aflatoxin B sub(1). 26. AF B sub(1). In an 8 wk feeding trial (199)). above 50 ppb adversely affected shrimp growth and FCR.50 g/kg diet (= 54. using microencapsulated arginine. artificial feeding. 250. 1500. 1992. 22. thorax. body weight. I SO: Source Marine biology. Leu. shrimp culture. the hepatopancreas and the antennal gland.The degree of shrimp (Penaeus vannamei ) sensitivity to dietary aflatoxins (AF) has not been well defined. 114. Heidelberg [MAR.7 g/kg protein). Aquaria were stocked with 15 shrimp. and those remaining at its completion. 50. The arginine level required for optimal growth was determined by broken-line model analysis of weight gain data to be 2. head. standard to produce levels of 0. dietary deficiencies. dietary inclusion of AF B sub(1). proteins.

DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. G SO: Source Russian Journal of Marine Biology/Biologiya Morya [RUSS. AU: Author Matis. mean residence times and other related parameters are estimated from the data for the assumed semi-Markov process model. 3-13. Vol. aquaculture development. prawn culture. MORYA]. BIOL. models. 3.. Further generalizations of this compartmental modeling approach to other semi-Markov process models are also discussed. WE. vol. Grant. The semi-Markov process model provides a better fit for the data with substantial increases in the precision of corresponding parameter estimates. KA. Article Geographic Terms: El Salvador AB: Abstract As part of the technical assistance program provided for aquaculture .]. 167-184. Record 331 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title A semi-Markov process model for migration of marine shrimp. Occupancy probabilities. shrimp culture. pp. and demonstrates the utility of the model by fitting it to data on the migration of a marked population of shrimp. J. TH SO: Source Ecological Modelling [ECOL. no. 3-4. world AB: Abstract Data on the artificial rearing of shrimp in different parts of the world are analyzed and the major trends in development of shrimp aquaculture are described.Zgurovskii. pp. The need for international cooperation and exchange of experiences with the Indochina group of countries is emphasized (DBO). Record 332 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Export market development efforts fo El Salvador aquaculture products. no. Gamma transit time distributions are selected for the model by reason of the qualitative properties of their transfer rate functions. 60. migratory species. SR DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: aquaculture products. trade. Article Taxonomic Terms: Crustacea. MAR. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: migration. marine environment. pp. 1992. JH. These results are compared to those for a corresponding Markov process model which is widely used and was previously fitted to the same data. Miller. The prospects of such works in the USSR are indicated. Vol. BIOL. Fernando. Penaeus AB: Abstract This paper develops a semi-Markov process model for describing ecological data. 17. 1992. MODEL. marketing. shrimp fisheries. 123-129. AU: Author Malecha.

Article Geographic Terms: El Salvador AB: Abstract FUSADES. hatcheries. CL DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. Record 334 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Preliminary financial feasibility analysis of an independent penaeid shrimp hatchery located in South Carolina. developing countries. RJ. participation in restaurant and other trade shows to feature the Salvadoran product and develop "brand" interest and loyalty. South Carolina AB: Abstract South Carolina shrimp farmers have become apprehensive about the future availability and quality of penaeid postlarvae (PL) from other states. shrimp culture. rehabilitation of existing projects. economic feasibility. trouble-shooting. provides a high degree of technical assistance for aquaculture development. Article Geographic Terms: ANW. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. trial shipments and sale of product to specialty export markets.development in El Salvador. extension. McGovern-Hopkins. prawn culture. SR DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: aquaculture development. the private non-profit and non-partisan Salvadoran Foundation for Economic and Social Development. Consequently. training and promotion. state-of-the-art production technology. export marketing. the authors have tried to demonstrate and develop export markets for marine shrimp and freshwater prawns cultured in El Salvador. trouble-shooting of processing and shipping problems. Record 333 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The El Salvador Aquaculture Technical Assistance Program. economic models. AU: Author Malecha. aquaculture economics. technology transfer. prospective SC aquaculturists and investors will desire information on the financial feasibility of operating a commercial penaeid shrimp larviculture facility located in SC. Services are provided by a combination of an experienced in-country team who are full-time in El Salvador and ex-country experts who travel to El Salvador on a regular basis. U. Three companies provide direct. USA. hands-on technical assistance for all phases of development and operation of marine shrimp and freshwater prawn hatcheries and farms. Included in the services are project design and operation assistance. The hypothetical hatchery analyzed in this study was based upon an expandable facility starting with 125 tons of maturation tanks and 128 . K.S. marketing. A high level of technical assistance is thus available to anyone entering the aquaculture industry in El Salvador. AU: Author Rhodes. These have included: design of trade names and logos than emphasize the high quality and desirability of the Salvadoran product. trade. and special promotional activities to market the opportunities for investing in aquaculture development in El Salvador.A. Browdy.

000. The sensitivity analysis of selected variables indicates that the projected IRR and NPV is more sensitive to relative changes in PL market prices than increases in PL production or reduction in feed costs. sedimentation. colloidal and suspended materials associated with the water column. no. pollution control. of marine shrimp (Penaeus spp. pond culture. Vol. 3. Record 336 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Morphological evidence for a single bacterial etiology in Texas necrotizing hepatopancreatitis in Penaeus vannamei (Crustacea: Decapoda). equipping and operating this facility would be nearly $1 million. Since the ten-year internal rate of return (IRR) was less than the after-tax discount rate. AU: Author Pruder. Total annual projected operating costs for 50 million/yr PL output was > $400. for the purposes of this review. 13. GD DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. includes the following categories: dissolved. aquaculture effluents.) farming. water column. RM. and settled bottom solids purposefully flushed or scraped from the pond bottom as part of pond cleaning activities. JR SO: Source Diseases of Aquatic Organisms [DIS. Redman. Pond effluent. even the survival. 235-239. No data were found to document claims of transfer of water borne disease agents between farms. Data are presented which characterize only the effluent in the first category. DV. pp. 1992. AU: Author Lightner. disease control. particulates. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus AB: Abstract Deteriorating stock quality. Bonami. These same receiving waters often serve as intake or influent water for neighboring farms. AQUAT. Problems discussed probably refer to effluent in the third category.tons of larval rearing tanks housed in one large 2 prefabricated steel building with a floor area of over 1220 m super(2).]. Future research on SC shrimp hatcheries should include the financial feasibility of integrating a marine shrimp grow-out operation with a hatchery facility. The discharge of pond effluent is one activity associated with the environmental degradation of receiving waters. the projected ten-year net present value (NPV) was negative. environmental impact. spreading disease and environmental degradation combine to threaten the prosperity. Record 335 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine shrimp pond effluent: Characterization and environmental impact. Where this process of reuse occurs it serves to further degrade the water and could provide the means to spread water borne disease agents from farm to farm. . settled bottom solids resuspended by mixing or shrimp harvest. ORG. The initial investment for constructing.

aquatic bacteria. Mahmoodi. Since first recognized in 1985. diets. one in which regular anchovy fish meal was replaced with low-temperature-processed white fish meal. chemoreception. FCR. feeding experiments. TK. cost analysis. Groves. Morphological evidence is presented in this paper that supports the contention that the 2 morphological types. shrimp farms. AU: Author Stanton. helices. AM. bacterial diseases. USA. AU: Author Duerr. only 3 of the products actually yielded shrimp performance that made their addition to the test feeds cost-effective. and survival on the various diets. In addition. organism morphology. C. morphology. D SO: Source Journal of the Acoustical Society of America [J. Two descriptive papers have been published on the histopathology and ultrastructure of the hepatopancreas of shrimp with TNHP. attracting techniques. and the authors of both papers concluded that at least 2 distinctly different species of intracellular bacteria were present in the infected cells. a rickettsia-like form and a helical form as previously reported. These ten attractant-containing diets were compared with the base formulation containing no attractant. are morphological variants of the same species of bacteria.DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. chemical stimuli AB: Abstract Each of ten commercial attractants was added individually to a base formulation at inclusion levels recommended by the manufacturer.]. attractability was measured by behavioral responses in an attractability table. ACOUST. survival. Texas AB: Abstract Texas necrotizing hepatopancreatitis (TNHP) is an economically significant disease of the marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei cultured in Texas. EO. food additives. and it has inflicted serious crop losses of 20 to 90% nearly every year in farms located in southern Texas. aetiology. the disease has occurred seasonally. . 2: Fluctuations of scattered field. relative to the standard feed containing no attractant. aquaculture. Article Taxonomic Terms: Rickettsia. Chu. and a commercial control diet (Rangen 45). Although 8 of the 10 attractants demonstrated effectiveness on the attractability table. bacteria. growth. Record 337 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title An evaluation of commercial shrimp feed attractants in an attractability table and in growout diets. SOC. V DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. Record 338 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Sound scattering by rough elongated elastic objects. Article Geographic Terms: USA. A 6-week growout trial was conducted with marine shrimp (Penaeus vannamei ) to compare shrimp growth.

in phase with the mean scattered field. AU: Author Rouse. will vary from realization to realization of stochastically rough objects. 1. Record 339 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Enhancement of the fatty acid composition of the nematode Panagrellus redivivus using three different media. cylinders. The study uses both the approximate modal-series.and Sommerfeld-Watson-transformation-based deformed cylinder solutions. This study evaluated the effect of the following 3 media on the fatty acid (FA) profile of nematodes: wheat flour (WF). elasticity. WORLD AQUACULT. Nematodes grown on WFFO medium had similar lipids as Artemia . 92.2%). This study has shown that the nutritional value of nematodes can be influenced by the media on which they are cultured.7%). wheat flour plus yeast (WFY). such as its envelope level. Because of these interferences. roughness. acoustic models. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: food organisms. than nematodes grown on WF (4. IA SO: Source Journal of the World Aquaculture Society [J. Article Taxonomic Terms: Panagrellus redivivus AB: Abstract The free living nematode Panagrellus redivivus has shown promise as a live food for marine shrimp and fish. The total lipid content of nematodes grown on WFFO (14. properties of the echoes. culture media. analytical expressions and numerical examples show that the fluctuation or "incoherent" component of the scattered field is random only in amplitude--its phase approaches a constant value.4%).4%) and 22:6 (n-3) (3. Webster. 1992. applications of the theory developed in this article to backscatter data involving live marine shrimp-like organisms are discussed. no.]. which needed to be taken into account in the formulation. Total daily yield on nematodes was highest on WFY.7%) and WFY (4.9%) was significantly higher than the lipid content of nematodes grown on WF (2. Radwin. pp. In addition. the nature of the fluctuations of the backscattered echo envelope of rough solid elastic elongated objects is investigated. backscatter AB: Abstract Sonar echoes from unresolved features of rough objects tend to interfere with each other. DB. no. 1665-1678. A general formulation is initially presented after which specific formulas are derived and numerically evaluated for straight finite-length cylinders. 1992. pp. Vol.Vol. especially 20. 3. 5 (n-3) (7. There are similarities shown between the fluctuations in the geometric region and those from rough planar interfaces. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: sound scattering. 89-95. and wheat flour plus yeast plus fish oil (WFFO). The lipid of nematodes grown on WFFO also contained a higher percentage of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) (11. In this article. CD.8%) and WFY (5. SOC. Record 340 of 500 DN: Database Name . 23. Finally.3%). fatty acids. especially desirable n-3 HUFA's. biochemical composition.

DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: sexual reproduction. nursery/juvenile pond systems. post larval harvest. Sicyonia ingentis oocytes are activated by seawater Mg super(2+) during spawning. 1992. PL. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae AB: Abstract Professor Fast and co-editor have launched the first in-depth treatise on the husbandry of Penaeid shrimps. Penaeus monodon . Penaeid growout systems (intensive. Record 341 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Extracellular Mg super(2+) induces an intracellular Ca super(2+) wave during oocyte activation in the marine shrimp Sicyonia ingentis . pond harvest techniques. 1. LL. AMSTERDAM (NETHERLANDS). Clark. dissolved chemicals. those in Mg super(2+)-free seawater were polyspermic. marine crustaceans. hatchery design. SO: Source ELSEVIER. Professor Fast sets forth a comprehensive volume covering larviculture (both Gaveston and Taiwanese methods). 94-102. books. crustacean culture. suggesting a role for the Mg super(2+)-induced Ca super(2+) wave in regulating sperm entry into the oocyte. thus an event associated with spawning may be involved. Record 342 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Effective supplementation of arginine in the diets of juvenile marine shrimp. 1992. S. intracellular. no. oocytes. a second Ca super(2+) increase was observed at approximately 15 min postspawning. Subsequent to the initial Mg super(2+)-induced intracellular Ca super(2+) increase. The volume concludes with specific overviews of the key nations and their contributions to the world shrimp aquaculture scenario.ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine shrimp culture: Principles and practices. nutrition. disease. semi-intensive and extensive). bio-economics and marketing considerations. the timing of this second increase appeared to be independent of when the Mg super(2+)-induced wave was initiated. aeration technology. WH Jr SO: Source Developmental Biology. biological fertilization. Vol. . Hertzler. calcium. While oocytes in normal seawater were monospermic. extracellular. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. magnesium. chemical stimuli. AU: Author Lindsay. sea water. pond dynamics (physical and chemical). transport and planting. ingentis oocytes were spawned into Mg super(2+)-free seawater and microinjected with the fluorescent Ca super(2+) indicator Fluo-3 to study the effects of added Mg super(2+) on intracellular Ca super(2+) levels. spawning. 152. pp. Article Taxonomic Terms: Sicyonia ingentis AB: Abstract In contrast to most systems in which oocyte activation is triggered by the fertilizing sperm. aquaculture techniques.

yolk. testosterone and estrogen had no effect. In vitro yolk synthesis was measured in fragments of the ovary of developing shrimp. GM and SAL groups. monodon were fed casein-based purified diets supplemented with different forms of arginine. Record 344 of 500 . biosynthesis. 1992. no. AU: Author Quackenbush. BIOCHEM. 108. The mean final weight of shrimp fed the crystalline-arginine supplemented diet was higher than that of the group fed the unsupplemented diet but the difference was not significant. nutritional requirements. pp. arginine. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. Progesterone and estradiol stimulated yolk synthesis in vitro. The weight gain and feed conversion ratio of the shrimp fed the diets supplemented with cellulose-acetate-phthalate (CAP) microencapsulated L-arginine. 1992. diets. no. Vol. 4. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: sexual reproduction. I SO: Source Aquaculture. 1-2. vitellogenesis. 103A. Houng-Yung. were significantly better than those fed the diet with no supplemental arginine or the diet supplemented with crystalline L-arginine. 711-714. A peptide factor from the eyestalks of crayfish stimulated yolk synthesis in vitro. growth. survival. and possibly other crustaceans and fish. sex hormones. shrimp culture AB: Abstract Current methods in penaeid shrimp culture use eyestalk ablation (removal) to induce yolk production in captive female shrimp. 87-95. PHYSIOL. The eyestalk ablated shrimp will respond to this operation with a rapid and unstoppable gonadal development. LS SO: Source Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. amino acids..]. There was no significant difference in the growth-promoting effects and feed conversion among the CAP. Vol. This operation removes the major neurohormone center in the animal. Juvenile P. A peptide factor from shrimp eyestalks inhibited yolk synthesis in vitro. A. There was no statistical difference in survival between dietary groups. Penaeus vannamei . Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon AB: Abstract Effective dietary supplementation of arginine was demonstrated in juvenile Penaeus monodon which can not effectively utilize crystalline amino acids in their diets. A [COMP. food conversion. feeding experiments. a natural protein high in arginine content. while ecdysterone. Yeong-Tai. Record 343 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Yolk synthesis in the marine shrimp. eyestalk extirpation. pp. crustacean larvae. or glycerol-monostearate (GM) microencapsulated L-arginine or salmine (SAL). and in particular removes the natural source of gonad inhibiting hormone. Penaeus vannamei .AU: Author Chen. Success with CAP and GM microencapsulation of arginine supplementation appears to hold the most promise as a technique for quantifying the amino acid requirements of shrimp. Leu. Roelants.

Record 345 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Integrated culture of green mussel (Perna viridis ) and marine shrimp (Penaeus monodon ). 15. mussel culture. AU: Author Lin. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon. rice field aquaculture. The gross mussel production was approximately 2. Scylla serrata AB: Abstract Some examples are given of integration of crustacean aquaculture into coastal rice farming in Vietnam. prawn culture. aquaculture effluents. 201. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: crustacean culture. respectively. a mussel (Perna viridis ) culture component was integrated with intensive shrimp culture ponds in a pilot-scale recycle system for a 4-month culture cycle. 1992. It is estimated that the mussels removed approximately 2.581 kg in 2 ha of total pond area the financial gain from the mussel harvest was meager. Ruamthaveesub. Record 346 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts . for 1 tonne of fresh shrimp production. but the mussel culture component played an invaluable role in sustaining shrimp-culture in the recycle system. 11. or 0. CK. polyculture. agropisciculture. aquaculture systems. With shrimp production of 17. 1992. To recover resources from and improve water quality of the wastewater. 27-29. Freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii ) and marine shrimp culture integrated with coastal rice farming and crab (Scylla serrata ) culture in backyard ponds and ricefields are described. Vol. 2.DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Integration of crustacean aquaculture with coastal rice farming in Vietnam. P. wastewater treatment. Perna viridis AB: Abstract The wastewater effluents discharged from intensive marine shrimp (Penaeus monodon ) culture ponds contained an average of 1250 and 132 kg of dry organic matter and phytoplankton biomass. P SO: Source Journal of Shellfish Research. Mussels colonized on bamboo poles were suspended in the canals that received wastewater daily from shrimp ponds. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. including 764 kg of phytoplankton biomass. from the effluents. Vol. pp. Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium rosenbergii. 1. AU: Author Hung. Wanuchsoontorn.000 kg with an average weight increased from 7 to 43 g/mussel. crab culture.116 kg of solid organic matter. Le Thanh SO: Source Naga. no. aquaculture systems.32 g/mussel/day. no. pp. however.

The report contains an industry overview and sections on fisheries catch. AU: Author Bauer. 153-160. India has prepared a 22-page report on India's fishing industry in 1991. The Government of India (GOI) is actively promoting aquaculture in light of declining catch and concern about marine shrimp resource overexploitation. no. filling only the receptacle of that side. Record 347 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title SPR 0404: Industry outlook report. Article Taxonomic Terms: Sicyonia dorsalis AB: Abstract Copulation was observed in 18 of 25 mating pairs of Sicyonia dorsalis whose activities were recorded with a time-lapse video system. international agreements and fisheries investment. MD.5 million tons of potential marine fish resources. Male success in inseminating females was determined by examination of female seminal receptacles for the presence of sperm. Washington DC. which may enhance survival of dispersed planktonic larvae that settle in a mosaic or heterogeneous benthic environment. but multiple copulations by the male on each side of the female were often observed. In three pairs. Multiple paternity might increase the genetic diversity of a female's spawns. A male must copulate at least once from each side of the female in order to fill both seminal receptacles. and mating behavior was described. 1992. 12. fishing vessels. exports. Vol. fishery policy. SN. One interpretation of these results is that in nature at least some females may mate with and be inseminated by more than one male. 2. Silver Spring. in several pairs. Catch held steady for the third consecutive year at 2. reproductive behaviour.419 t and 41 percent in value to $314 million. Article Geographic Terms: India AB: Abstract The American Consulate General in Madras.2 million tons. All females collected from the field which had mated previously had sperm in both seminal receptacles. . one of the two female receptacles remained empty in spite of often repeated copulations by the male on the unfilled side. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: sexual reproduction. The report describes the performance of the India fishing industry during 1990-1991 and its prospects for 1992. Zelle.TI: Title Repetitive copulation and variable success of insemination in the marine shrimp Sicyonia dorsalis (Decapoda: Penaeoidea). fishery economics. RT SO: Source Journal of crustacean biology. fishery statistics. However. Sponsored by National Marine Fisheries Service. fleet. fishing industry of India (1991) AU: Author Krishnan.8 percent by quantity to 139. trade. Fishery exports are expected to rise further in value to $529 million in 1991-1992. Exports increased a record 25. The GOI has liberalized regulations to encourage joint ventures in the marine fisheries sector and tap the largely unexplored 4. pp. SW DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: commercial fishing. the male copulated several times only on one side of the female.

KUALA LUMPUR (MALAYSIA). There are 14 processing plants with a combined capacity of about 34 MT per day of shrimp. 18. and appear poised to enter the market once the area under aquatic cultivation increases. especially the giant tiger shrimp. aquaculture economics. 113-117. L. depending on the needs of the particular market segment. 1992. pp. 2. no. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon. 71-75. Shrimp can be processed into several forms. 1992. and IQF (individually quick frozen). Penaeus monodon. Asia is recognised as the most important area for shrimp aquaculture since it produced more than 80% of the cultured shrimp for the world market for the last three years.]. One feed mill in El Salvador currently produces shrimp feed. Among the . The industry. farming of marine shrimp. There is a substantial interest in aquaculture among many segments of the private sector and government. and the commitment by both sides to keep the peace. such as block frozen tails or heads-on animals. A. The recent signing of the peace accords. El Salvador and its people are progressive and optimistic. viral diseases. PUD. El Salvador has an important marine shrimp fishery. its capacity is about 400 MT of feed per month. P & D. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. disease control.000 MT of storage capacity and 154 MT per day of ice production capacity. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: aquaculture development. process plants. Most of the current interest is targeted toward marine shrimp and freshwater prawns.. Record 349 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Coping with diseases in shrimp farming AU: Author Chen. however. infectious diseases. pp. has been facing extinction in many areas as cultured shrimp are being threatened by either diseases or mass mortality in the last 2-3 years. Cotsapas. butterfly. Vol. 3. shrimp culture. Madras (India) Record 348 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Aquaculture in El Salvador: Primed for expansion AU: Author Sandifer. MAG. Article Geographic Terms: Southeast Asia Coasts AB: Abstract During the last decade. SR SO: Source Aquaculture Magazine [AQUACULT. Several other feed mills in the country are interested in producing aquaculture feeds. bacterial diseases. Shiu-Nan SO: Source INFOFISH. prawn culture. Malecha.CA: Corporate Author American Consulate Gen. has brought stability and new opportunities for business development. fishery economics. has expanded tremendously. Article Geographic Terms: El Salvador AB: Abstract Despite 12 years of civil war. which is supported by an established processing industry.

and brood volume. Larval development. Article Taxonomic Terms: Caridea. female weight was the principal determinant of brood weight and volume. In the stenopodideans examined. 193 pp. Record 350 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Components of reproductive effort and delay of larval metamorphosis in tropical marine shrimp (Crustacea:Decapoda: Caridea and Stenopodidea). JW SO: Source DISS. 51. INT. Apr 1991. PT. At the interspecific level.SCI. & ENG. and brood volume versus body length. Lagenidium sp. To cope with bacterial infections antimicrobials including chloramphenicol. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Sexual reproduction. Metamorphosis. It has also been proven that the use of drugs may significantly reduce the quality of larvae. However. female weight explained 71%. Fusarium sp. A greater portion of the variance (63%) in egg number was explained by carapace length.pathogens found in diseased shrimp. Maintenance of water colour is regarded as indicative of successful shrimp culture. Epistylis sp. Industrial and agricultural pollution. and 62% of the variance in egg number. no. In the carideans examined. B . Sirolpidium sp. four caridean families and two stenopodidean families were compared. Parameters of reproductive output were compared using regression analysis of egg number. Egg size had a slight increase with increasing body size. respectively. respectively. chlortetracycline. furazolidone and oxolinic acid were commonly used by shrimp farmers at hacthery and grow-out levels. Leucothrix mucor. ABST. carapace length and weight of the shrimps. 10. Fecundity. Zoothamnium sp. accounting for 59% and 55% of the variance. brood weight. AU: Author Goy. Evolution. oxytetracycline. At the intraspecific level. Vol. Life history. The remedial technologies for coping with disease problems of cultured shrimp are also described. Reproductive cycle. environmental degradation and inferior quality post leavae are also major causes of mass mortality of cultured shrimp which have led to the closure of shrimp farms in some areas. Stenopodidea AB: Abstract Components of reproductive effort were examined in eight species of caridean shrimps and four species of stenopodidean shrimps collected from tropical marine habitats. There was a trade-off between egg size and the number of eggs in an egg mass. The paper attempts to discuss all the factors affecting the health of cultured shrimp. Body size. monodon-type baculovirus (MBV) and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (HHNV) have been identified as the important microorganisms and some of them may initiate mass mortality of the cultured shrimp. Water quality is a major environmental factor in shrimp aquaculture and pond soil is a secondary or generative environment which affects water quality. 61%. the use of drugs in shrimp farms may result not only in pollution and increased bacterial resistance. Vibrio sp. but also in risk to human health from the drug residues. specimens of Stenopus hispidus from the Atlantic were contrasted with specimens . Biogeography. Improper management of shrimp aquaculture may also initiate diseases. brood weight.

16:1n-7. 21-28. biochemical composition. AU: Author Mourente. no. The greatest changes occurred between Maturation Stages III and IV. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: lipids. The lipid content and fatty acids. 3. Ovarian lipids were dominated by polar classes. 3-13. 110. increased during ovarian development. Heidelberg. Fernando.from the Pacific. The total polar lipid content of the midgut was 5. while those from the Pacific had a higher correlation of body size to brood volume. Those from the Atlantic showed a stronger correlation of body size to egg number and brood weight. but declined slightly between Stages III and IV. BIOL. KA. Larvae metamorphosed into the decapodid stage in 34-69 days after XIII-XXV larval instars when provided with adequate food. ovaries. 1. no. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus kerathurus AB: Abstract Changes in total lipids. 1991. Host specificity was demonstrated with host exudates. Berlin. Rodriguez. A SO: Source Marine biology. G SO: Source Biologiya morya/Marine biology. Record 352 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Experience of freshwater and marine shrimp culture. whereas in the midgut gland the major classes were triacylglycerols and sterol esters. Record 351 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Variation in the lipid content of wild-caught females of the marine shrimp Penaeus kerathurus during sexual maturation. pp. G. DE: Descriptors . 18:1n-9. zoogeographical and evolutionary implications for these tropical shrimp (DBO). Examination of reproductive effort and delay of larval metamorphosis allowed inferences to be formulated regarding the capacity of longdistance dispersal and the subsequent ecological. 18:1n-7. 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3) increased with increasing maturity. lipid classes and their fatty acid contents were studied in the ovaries and midgut glands of Penaeus kerathurus females during sexual maturation. AU: Author Zgurovskij. Vladivostok [BIOL. MORYA/MAR. Vol. The amounts of major fatty acids in ovaries (16:0. The length of larval growth in relation to survival ability of shrimp larvae for long periods until metamorphically competent was determined for three species of Lysmata. showing an overall shorter larval duration within fewer larval instars when exposed to exudates of the preferred anemone. The shrimp were captured in the Gulf of Cadiz (southwest Spain) in 1990. pp. Larval duration and total instar number were closely related to the geographical range of each species. in relative terms.]. 1991.7% (by dry weight) and its fatty acid composition remained constant during the whole study period. Three commensal species of Periclimenes were tested to determine if their larvae would metamorphose in the presence of host actinarians or host exudates.

Article Subject Terms: freshwater aquaculture; marine aquaculture; shrimp culture; polyculture; monoculture; aquaculture development; literature reviews; Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae; Caridea AB: Abstract Available literature on the culture of Penaeidea and Caridea in different countries is analyzed and candidates for aquaculture in USSR waters are proposed. Record 353 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title A stochastic compartmental model for migration of marine shrimp. AU: Author Grant, WE; Matis, JH; Miller, TH SO: Source Ecological Modelling. Vol. 54, no. 1-2, pp. 1-15. 1991. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: coastal environments; population dynamics; kinetics; fisheries; marking; models; ecology; simulation; mathematical models; stochastic processes; time series; shrimp fisheries; migrations; Article Geographic Terms: USA, Texas; ASW, USA, Texas, Galveston Bay AB: Abstract This paper demonstrates the application of stochastic compartmental analysis to model migration of a marked population of white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus ) from an estuarine bay along the Texas coast. The authors first develop a stochastic continuous time Markov process model, and fit the model to time series data from a mark-recapture field experiment. The use of mean residence times and other related moments derived from the model in providing additional insight into the kinetics of shrimp migration is illustrated. Finally, the authors suggest extensions to this approach and discuss the general applicability of the approach to other types of ecological questions dealing with animal movement and mortality. Record 354 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Combined effects of dietary phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol on the growth, survival and body lipid composition of marine shrimp, Penaeus penicillatus . AU: Author Chen, Houng-Yung; Jenn, Jan-Shyong SO: Source Aquaculture. Vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 167-178. 1991. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: feeding experiments; diets; food additives; lipids; biochemical composition; growth; Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus penicillatus AB: Abstract A factorial experiment with four dietary phosphatidylcholine and three cholesterol levels was carried out using juvenile Penaeus penicillatus . The results indicated that diets supplemented with either phosphatidylcholine or cholesterol significantly improved shrimp weight gain. Supplementary cholesterol, but not phosphatidylcholine, significantly improved shrimp food conversion and survival. The

dietary cholesterol level to achieve significant shrimp growth was 0.5% or higher, while that for phosphatidylcholine was 1.25% or higher. The shrimp muscle lipid content increased with the increased supplement of cholesterol or phosphatidylcholine. The lipid class composition, however, was not influenced by the two dietary components. Record 355 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The Islamic Republic of Iran. Follow-up consultancy shrimp culture development. Report prepared for the Agricultural Sector Project Formulation Mission. AU: Author Kungvankij, P SO: Source FAO, ROME (ITALY). 1991. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture; aquaculture development; development projects; Article Geographic Terms: Iran AB: Abstract The report describes progress made during activities of the shrimp culture development project in Iran, including work carried out in all the established and suggested facilities and technical measures taken particularly on the breeding and larval rearing of marine shrimp. Recommendations regarding staff development, hatchery operation, grow-out pond, offices and training quarters and support facilities are given. CA: Corporate Author FAO Technical Coop. Programme, Rome (Italy) Record 356 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The ho-hum syndrome. AU: Author Munita Ortiz, C SO: Source Ceres. Rome [CERES.]. no. 131, pp. 32-34. 1991. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: aquaculture development; fish culture; shrimp culture; aquaculture economics; Article Geographic Terms: Chile; Ecuador; Latin America AB: Abstract A discussion is presented on the situation regarding aquaculture in Latin American countries, considering in particular the success shown by Chile and Ecuador regarding salmon and shrimp farming. In Ecuador, climate, topography and biological factors combine to create ideal marine shrimp culture sites - the country is the major Latin American producer. Chile is currently the world's third largest salmon producer and exporter; the country also produces oysters and mussels. The potential of Latin American countries for aquaculture is examined briefly; it is concluded that scholarships and funds are needed for training at both technical and professional levels. The need for an institutional organization capable of planning, assisting and guiding industrial growth is also stressed.

Record 357 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Egg production, release and activation in the marine shrimp, Sicyonia ingentis . AU: Author Clark, WH Jr; Pillai, MC SO: Source Crustacean Issues. 1991. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: sexual reproduction; oogenesis; eggs; biological development; ovaries; spawning seasons; fecundity; Article Taxonomic Terms: Sicyonia ingentis AB: Abstract The decapod Sicyonia ingentis reproduces from the middle of June to the middle of October, during which the females undergo ovarian development and spawning. Multiple spawning without an intervening molt commonly occurs among both field and laboratory held populations. While the details on the vitellogenic stages of oogenesis are largely unknown, post-vitellogenic stages of oocyte development have been characterized. Record 358 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Water quality and microbial dynamics in shrimp ponds receiving bagasse-based feed. AU: Author Visscher, PT; Duerr, EO SO: Source Journal of the World Aquaculture Society [J. WORLD AQUACULT. SOC.]. Vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 65-76. 1991. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture; pond culture; water quality; diets; manure AB: Abstract Pond water quality and associated microbial biomass were studied in relation to the type of feed applied during the culture of the marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei . The feeds tested included conventional feedlot manure as well as 2 feeds based on bagasse, a sugarcane waste product. Physical and chemical parameters were studied during a 100 day trial in 200 m super(2) earthen ponds. Both bagasse-based feeds supported a significantly larger microbial community as measured by specific biomass numbers, ATP content and amount of the particulate organic matter present on pond bottoms. For both bagasse-based treatments, the estimated bacterial cell number in the flocculent layer was 3.11 x 10 super(12)/m super(2), compared to the much lower cell number of 7.53 x 10 super(10)/m super(2) for control ponds. Harvest data suggest that bagasse forms a potential base for feeds when applied to extensive shrimp cultures. Record 359 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts

TI: Title An overview of disease of cultured crustaceans in the Asia Pacific region. AU: Author Brock, JA SO: Source ADB AGRIC. DEP. REP. SER. pp. 347-395. 1991. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: crustacean culture; infectious diseases; disease detection; disease control; Article Geographic Terms: Southeast Asia AB: Abstract The farming of crustaceans, particularly marine shrimp, has gained tremendous popularity in Asia over the past decade. However, disease losses have become a major factor limiting the success of many crustacean farming ventures. Viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nutritional, toxic and management factors have all been identified as problem areas. Diagnostics for crustacean diseases rely at present on standard methodologies. Advanced molecular techniques are, for the most part, in the research stage. Increased research emphasis on all aspects of crustacean diagnostics are needed, particularly in those regions where intensification of farms is anticipated. Specialists in crustacean disease diagnosis and control are in short supply. In the near term, professional staff in applicable sciences working in central laboratory facilities with other types of farm animals could be mobilized to contribute to problem solving in crustacean culture systems. Eventually, existing programs/facilities will need to be enhanced or aquatic animal research and service centers will need to be established to provide the support activities required by the crustacean farming industries. Control methods for crustacean diseases have evolved empirically and been borrowed largely from fish culture. Record 360 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title (Marine shrimp in Peru.). AU: Author Anon. SO: Source Pesca. Lima [PESCA.]. Vol. 54, no. 5-6, pp. 28-29. 1991. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp fisheries; commercial fishing; artisanal fishing; shellfish catch statistics; catch composition; shrimp culture; fishery development; aquaculture development; Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus; Xiphopenaeus; Penaeidae; Article Geographic Terms: Peru AB: Abstract A brief overview of the shrimp fishery industry in Peru is presented. The fishery is based on the following species: Penaeus stylirostris, P. occidentalis, P. californiensis, P. vannamei, P. brevirostris, Xiphopenaeus riveti , and Protachypene precipua . The fishery is operated at both the artisanal and industrial levels. It was noted that the artisanal fishing fishing operates without any control, this makes its evaluation difficult. Some aspects of the development of shrimp culture are analyzed. In Peru only Penaeus vannamei is cultured under a semi-intensive system, a progressive increase in the production was observed from 1983 (593 metric tons) to 1987 (2077 metric tons). Finally, a description of the actions taken towards

increasing the production of cultured shrimp is presented. Record 361 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Chilean shrimp culture. AU: Author Weidner, DM DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture; aquaculture development; aquaculture economics; economic analysis; marketing; Article Geographic Terms: Chile AB: Abstract Chile has not yet developed a shrimp aquaculture industry. A variety of factors suggest that the country has a limited potential to culture shrimp. Indigenous species are untried in pond culture. Climatic factors, especially low seasurface temperatures, as a result of the Humboldt Current, and arid conditions probably preclude the development of a competitive marine shrimp culture industry. Some observers believe intensive operations may be possible, but such assessments are highly speculative at this point. Chilean researchers have conducted considerable research on shrimp culture, especially freshwater species. Chile is developing the most important aquaculture industry in Latin America, based on salmon and other species. This developing industrial base could enable the country to play a role in the development of shrimp culture industries in other Latin American countries. CA: Corporate Author National Marine Fisheries Serv., Silver Spring, MD (USA) Record 362 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Dominican Republic shrimp culture. AU: Author Weidner, DM; Wells, RM DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: prawn culture; aquaculture development; aquaculture economics; economic analysis; marketing AB: Abstract The Dominican Republic has, after Cuba, the second largest shrimp culture industry among the Caribbean island countries. While Cuba has focused on marine species, the Dominican Republic has worked primarily with freshwater shrimp. Growers have thus far had some success at marketing their harvest, mostly to local restaurants and hotels engaged in the growing tourist industry. The Dominican Republic claims to be Latin America's leading producer of cultured freshwater shrimp. Many investors also optimistically predict expanded exports to the United States. At least one Dominican company has also developed a successful marine shrimp culture operation which may eventually eclipse the many small freshwater growers. A key aspect which growers are only beginning to address is the establishment of hatcheries to supply postlarval seedstock. Marine shrimp culture in the Dominican Republic, as with other Atlantic and Caribbean countries, has been hampered by the lack of an indigenous species suitable for pond culture. Major construction projects suggest that important harvest

consumers. of International Affairs Record 364 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Whole marine shrimp usage and preferences in the U. DM DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. FLA. AU: Author Weidner. wholesale market sector.S. aquaculture economics. Off. MD (USA).increases could be achieved in 1991. The future of the industry is currently unclear. although only small quantities are being harvested. South Carolina. but the French Guiana harvest is exported. mainly Penaeus spp. and Martinique. Much of the domestic and imported marine shrimp. Guiana. ASW. and Europe. USA. economic analysis. Silver Spring.. Article Geographic Terms: Lesser Antilles. trade. The French have made considerable technical progress.S. Greene. French. CA: Corporate Author National Marine Fisheries Serv. pp. South Carolina. aquaculture development. VN. etc. Guadeloupe. The Guadeloupe and Martinique harvest is for the domestic market. marketing. MD (USA) Record 363 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Guadeloupe shrimp culture. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus. shrimp culture. Sandifer. PA SO: Source REP. Texas. market channels.S..g. seafood.S. The objective of this research was (a) to describe existing marine shrimp preferences in the wholesale market and (b) to identify critical product attributes in the wholesale market when selling heads-on marine shrimp. entering the wholesale market channels in the U.g.S.. USA. Most growers report marketing problems and difficulty competing with low-cost marine shrimp from Asia and South American farms. Texas AB: Abstract In 1988. Article Geographic Terms: ANW.) have attempted to identify and develop whole (heads-on) shrimp market segments in the U. Use and preference data was collected on U.. was sold in various frozen headless product forms. surveys. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp fisheries. Guadeloupe AB: Abstract France is promoting a shrimp culture industry in its western hemisphere overseas department. CA: Corporate Author National Marine Fisheries Serv. seafood wholesalers and distributors based on a 1989 mail survey. SEA GRANT PROGRAM. Cultured marine shrimp producers in the U. They have focused almost exclusively on freshwater shrimp. etc. RJ. 449-463. 766. (e. See also PB89-111801. marketing. Silver Spring. 1991. Ecuador. Data for a conjoint analysis of buyer preferences was also gathered during 1990 telephone . data processing. Panama.776 million pounds entered U.) and other countries (e.S. AU: Author Rhodes.

crustacean larvae. not size." Transmission electron micrograph results suggest that this envelope is an exuvium of a prehatch molt. The ecological significance of the prehatch molt to larval survival is discussed. no. shrimp farmers is consistent with the apparent latent demand for heads-on marine shrimp identified in this research. the authors are reluctant to estimate magnitude of whole shrimp usage at various levels in the wholesale sector.]. . MR. Record 366 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Update on larviculture practices and production for penaeid species in Brazil AU: Author de Paiva Rocha. may be the next important attributed for heads-on shrimp in the 22-30 count range after price. Vol. Abelin. Sorgeloos. This was followed by the first (holoblastic) cleavage at hour 1. P. RJ SO: Source American Zoologist [AM. Gainesville (USA). is needed including shell-on IQF shrimp. 1991. Lavens. Program Record 365 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Embryonic molting cycles and hatching in the marine shrimp.5 blastula formation at hour 4.5 and gastrulation at hour 5. molting and cuticle formation coincides with variations in embryonic ecdysteroid levels. Although heads-off marine shrimp is one of the preferred product forms in the U. Sea Grant Coll. mechanical and possibly enzymatic components. survival. Marketing experience by S. 31. The timing of envelope deposition. thus reinforcing the notion of crustacean embryonic molting cycles and establishing their existence in Penaedae. hatching. Due to low response rates. Once extracted from the hatching envelope. Article Taxonomic Terms: Sicyonia ingentis AB: Abstract Gravid Sicyonia ingentis were light cycled and spawned in the laboratory. Zygotes were cultured at a temperature of 20 degree C. The hatching process comprised osmotic. moulting. Additional research on the various heads-on market segments in the U.5 post-spawn. P. CA: Corporate Author Florida Univ.C. P. The conjoint analysis results suggest that product form. the nauplius assumed a brief period of quiescence before shedding the molted envelope and swimming away. I. there appears to be some willingness in the wholesale seafood sector to purchase various heads-on products. Sicyonia ingentis . The larvae emerged either posterior or anterior-end first and were enclosed by an "exoskeletal envelope. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: embryonic development. AU: Author Kidd. 91A p. 5.. thus underwent three successive exuviations. ZOOL. During the course of development the embryo secreted five successive envelopes and underwent three successive exuviations.S.interviews. Camara. Polar body formation and hatching envelope elevation occurred within the fish hour.S..

aeration. videotape recordings. Ollevier. J (comps) SO: Source Special Publication. Aeration is the addition of supplemental air (oxygen) to the pond. improved pond conditions. F SO: Source Special Publication. C. Circulation does not add oxygen directly to the pond but does influence oxygen levels by redistributing dissolved oxygen and affecting oxygen transfer. 1991. reduced anoxic zones. mussel. water circulation. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus. Aeration and circulation are important considerations for water quality management and both affect aquaculture pond dynamics. The current practices and production results in Brazilian marine shrimp hatcheries are evaluated and discussed. The major species of production include carp. oysters. European Aquaculture Society. aquaculture techniques. Brazilian hatcheries have finally selected fewer target species mostly represented by indigeneous penaeids. Rogers. shrimp culture. G. Joyce. Article Geographic Terms: Brazil AB: Abstract After initial slow progress with a variety of marine shrimp species. and started to report better results. Article Geographic Terms: Europe AB: Abstract European aquaculture has progressed rapidly in the past 25 years. aquaculture effluents. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: pollution control. aquaculture facilities. rearing. E. This video describes the effect of both aeration and circulation on the natural aging process of pond sediments and improvement of water quality. with marine shrimp (Penaeus japonicus) also receiving attention. The region is second only to Asia in total yield. and salmon. European Aquaculture Society. and improved habitat for production. Record 368 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Aquaculture in Puerto Rico: The coming decade AU: Author Nieto. DePauw. leading to optimistic prospects about this emerging industry in South America. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: aquaculture systems. It provides aerobic conditions necessary to support aquatic production and to improve water quality. 1991. crustacean larvae. N. environmental protection. There is also a great deal of interest in production of sea bass and sea bream. RR SO: Source . eel. hatcheries. highlighting effective management strategies that include aeration and circulation. uniform temperature and dissolved oxygen distribution.Jaspers. The benefits are extended life of pond. Case histories of major European species are presented. Record 367 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Water quality management at selected European aquaculture farms: Case histories AU: Author Cohen.

]. In the United States the value of the ornamental fish industry reaches $677 millions annually.World Aquaculture [WORLD AQUACULT. shrimp culture. While the wild catch fishery is valuable. which will be sold mainly in Puerto Rico. Eureka Maine Enterprises is growing Penaeus monodon. AB: Abstract China has rich species diversity and abundance of marine shrimp. Yang Ning SO: Source Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science [DEV. aquaculture statistics. Vol. of which 25% is produced by aquaculture. AQUACULT. 40 of which have high commercial value. It is estimated they will reach a production capacity of 1 million clown fish (Amphiprion spp) in about eighteen months. 1991.]. no. 80% of which will be sold locally. twenty minutes from San Juan.8 million tonnes. FISH. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: marine aquaculture. pp. So far. Annual production from this facility is expected to reach 136 tonnes. China has more than 100 shrimp species. SCI. The two most more important shrimp culture projects in Puerto Rico are Del Encanto Enterprises and Eureka Marine Enterprises. The farm is located in the town of Dorado. People's Rep. while the remaining 20% will be exported to Europe and the United States. it cannot meet market demands due to maximum sustainable yield limitations and to large yearly fluctuations in yield. 1. aquaculture development. aquaculture enterprises AB: Abstract The aquaculture industry is rapidly becoming an important economic force around the world and these forces are beginning to be felt in Puerto Rico as well. on a 59 ha farm leased from the Department of Agriculture. 74-77. This facility was capitalized with Taiwanese funds and utilizes Taiwanese expertise. pond culture. The annual world consumption of marine shrimp is estimated to be 1. Production projections call for 410 tonnes of shrimp annually. Presently the only marine ornamental commercial aquaculture project is C-Quest which has completed the construction of an indoor hatchery and growout facilities on a 21 ha tract in Santa Isabel. 11 ponds have been constructed out of a projected 60. aquaculture enterprises. most of which are imported as processed or frozen product. Del Encanto Enterprises is growing the white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) on a 25 hectare farm located in Guayama. Chen Jia. and it has made shrimp culture in ponds possible. Article Geographic Terms: China. aquaculture economics. At the present time over 90% of the marine and 1% of the fresh water ornamental fish in the market are captured in the wild.4 thousand tonnes are consumed annually. 1991. (DBO) Record 370 of 500 DN: Database Name . In Puerto Rico an estimated 1. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: marine aquaculture. Sheng. (DBO) Record 369 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Shrimp culture industry in China AU: Author Xin. 22. This abundance and diversity has led to a sizable fishery for wild shrimp.

Throughout this volume. Dominy. experimental facilities. SCI. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: marine aquaculture. environmental conditions. source and physiological state of the shrimp. FISH. However. AQUACULT. shrimp culture. This chapter provides basic information on marine shrimp nutrition to supplement the existing and rather limited published information. FISH. DM. SCI. Article Geographic Terms: ASIA AB: Abstract In this chapter. AW SO: Source Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science [DEV. 1991. Variables such as species. aquaculture development. shrimp culture. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: marine aquaculture. aquaculture statistics. AL SO: Source Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science [DEV. although I would emphasize that shrimp culture would not be where it is today without these contributions. and diet form. feed composition AB: Abstract Nutritional studies of shrimp were initiated in the early 1970's. these studies have been used to form the principal assumptions used in commercial feed formulations. I will not try to repeat these here. composition and processing often make comparisons invalid.]. references are made to important contributions made by Asian shrimp culturists and researchers to development of shrimp culture technology. I will give a brief overview of some aspects of Asian marine shrimp culture.].ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title An overview of Asian marine shrimp culture AU: Author Fast. It therefore will be of special relevance to the commercial feed industry. nutrition. nutritional requirements. AQUACULT. Lawrence. Comparisons of these with current studies are difficult due to differences in research methodologies and the absence of a standard research diet. 1991. while the following chapters will present detailed descriptions of important shrimp culture industries in several Asian countries. Its main limitation is the assumption that there are not major nutritional differences between individual species of shrimp. size. experimental design. (DBO) Record 372 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title . WG. (DBO) Record 371 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Penaeid shrimp nutrition AU: Author Akiyama. The information is based not truly on the authors' research and practical experience. but on analyses of commercial feeds and extensive discussions with other shrimp nutritionists.

FISH. Desireable seed. 1991. shrimp. and to the 15th century A. SCI. Only temperature and salinity offer the opportunity to conduct simple experiments to isolate the effect of the environmental parameter. and were then harvested. temperature effects. 1991. Its origin undoubtedly traces to the earliest brackishwater and marine ponds. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: marine aquaculture. this approach can still be profitable with low risk. are still commonly used today. salinity.Penaeid temperature and salinity responses AU: Author Lester. as well as unwanted predators and competitors were all carried into the pond with source waters where they grew for some time. dissolved oxygen and turbidity (or algal concentration). and other biota through passive flooding. Pante. AQUACULT. perhaps more properly termed "catch and hold" culture.D.]. the environment of a pond or tank is so complex that causal relationships are very difficult to determine. salinity effects. shrimp culture. there is a lack of information on how much variation a specific change in an environmental parameter can cause in survival or growth of shrimp in tanks or ponds. and pond improvement costs have been largely depreciated. The latter two are largely dependent on the biological community in the pond or tank.]. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: marine aquaculture. There are four parameters that are considered to be of primary importance in the culture environment: temperature. These culture methods. aquaculture development AB: Abstract The history of marine shrimp culture is not well documented. (DBO) Record 374 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Reproduction of Penaeus species in captivity . AQUACULT. These primitive ponds. Where land and labor costs are low. LJ. historical account. SCI. shrimp culture. FISH. AW SO: Source Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science [DEV. in Indonesia were typically stocked with fish. pond culture. Eventhough a set of simple environmental parameters is monitored to alert the culturist to potential problems. which date back thousands of years in the Mediterranean area. environmental effects AB: Abstract Marine shrimp culturists know that environmental conditions influence the survival and growth of shrimp during the culture cycle. Nevertheless. MaJR SO: Source Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science [DEV. (DBO) Record 373 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Introduction [to marine shrimp culture] AU: Author Fast.

AU: Author Bray. and acclimation. Appropriate techniques will contribute to high survival. True domestication (continued captive generations) of marine shrimp is still rare and accounts for only a handful of operations. PG. (DBO) . shrimp culture. FISH. Indonesia. AL SO: Source Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science [DEV. and perhaps another 2. AW SO: Source Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science [DEV. larvae.]. we will review some of the more reliable techniques and present some previously unpublished data from experimental trials. 1991. Fast. Taiwan. shrimp culture. nutritional requirements. At the same time. (DBO) Record 375 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Penaeid PL harvest. AQUACULT. The world market share of cultured shrimp has grown from 2% in 1980 to 25% in 1989. shrimp culturists possess a wealth of information concerning successful techniques established through experience. Some of these empirical approaches have proven to be highly reliable and efficient. complete reliance on captive populations by the shrimp culture industry has not occurred due to: 1) the regional availability of natural breeding stocks from wild populations. and optimal profitability for a given culture system. however. Failure to maintain optimum conditions during each step can result in low survival and low crop yield. representing 663.000 "hatcheries" which function only as spawning and larval rearing facilities for wild-matured females. especially in China. Lawrence. transportation. SCI. which discourages development of reproduction technology when other options are available. and the Philippines. acclimation and stocking AU: Author Olin. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: marine aquaculture. transport from the hatchery to the farm. brood stocks. Thailand. There is a scarcity of documented information on penaeid PL harvest. reproductive cycle.].000 metric tons of heads-on shrimp entering world markets. SCI. and 2) the often lower quality of larvae produced through captive reproduction. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus AB: Abstract Postlarval (PL) harvest at the hatchery. acclimation and pond stocking are important aspects of marine shrimp culture requiring careful planning and attention to detail. Although technically feasible. AQUACULT. The overriding concern during these operations is to avoid stress which could cause mortality or otherwise compromise PL survival. hatcheries. This explosive growth in shrimp culture has been accompanied by the construction of several hundred maturation/reproduction facilities. In this chapter. but also in other tropical and sub-tropical areas worldwide. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus AB: Abstract Striking growth in marine shrimp culture has occurred over the past decade. WA. 1991. Ecuador. FISH. aquaculture statistics. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: marine aquaculture. aquaculture techniques. transport. good crop inventory control.

1991. aquaculture systems AB: Abstract Like semi-intensive shrimp culture. larvae. in adequate amounts. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus AB: Abstract Marine shrimp have been cultured in earthen ponds for many centuries. intensive culture. Egyptian artworks also depict pond culture. AW SO: Source Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science [DEV. shrimp culture. 1991. and of the preferred species. (DBO) Record 377 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Penaeid intensive growout systems AU: Author Fast. shrimp culture. FISH.]. SCI. The Romans undoubtedly learned their pond culture practices from earlier civilizations. aquaculture systems. hatcheries. intensive culture. pond culture. aquaculture systems. SCI. intensive culture is only practiced where seed to stock the ponds are available when needed. This practice dates back several thousand years in the Mediterranean area. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: marine aquaculture. 1991. intensive marine shrimp culture is a recent development which has taken place over the last 20 years. FISH. For the most part. shrimp culture. (DBO) Record 378 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Penaeid ultra-intensive growout systems AU: Author Fast. SCI. pond culture. this means use of hatchery produced PL which have been nursed 20 to 60 days. Like ultra-intensive shrimp culture.]. where Roman's practiced brackishwater pond culture. AW SO: Source Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science [DEV. usually as incidental entrants along with fish. AQUACULT. AQUACULT. aquaculture techniques.Record 376 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Penaeid growout systems: An overview AU: Author Fast. Article Taxonomic .]. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: marine aquaculture. AW SO: Source Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science [DEV. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: marine aquaculture. FISH. AQUACULT.

CA: Corporate Author FAO/UNDP Proj. amino acids and vitamin C in fish feeds and fish tissues was provided. analytical techniques. Article Geographic Terms: Thailand AB: Abstract The report describes the activities conducted during the consultancy which was carried out in order to formulate and initiate a research programme to develop optimum dietary feeds for freshwater prawns and marine shrimp in Thailand. These shrimp factories produce large amounts of shrimp on very small land areas. feed composition. The Whole Pond Respiration-Diffusion (WPRD) model. RW DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. nighttime. 47. respiration. no. shrimp culture. was fitted to observations of DO at dusk and approximately 3 h after dusk to generate predictions of pond DO at . culture media. water temperature. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: pond culture. water quality. on Fish Nutrition and Aquaculture Diets. 1991. If extensive culture ponds can be compared with naturally balanced ecosystems. (DBO) Record 379 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Fish nutrition consultancy report 27 September to 5 December. CP SO: Source Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. feed preparation. AU: Author Medenjian. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon AB: Abstract Two different models for the nighttime dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) dynamics in ponds were compared to determine which was more accurate.Terms: Penaeus AB: Abstract Ultra-intensive marine shrimp culture systems are at the opposite end of the spectrum from extensive culture. In particular. in-service training of national staff on methods used to quantify the levels of lipids. 1990. Bangkok (Thailand) Record 380 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Nighttime pond respiration rate: Oxygen or temperature dependent?. then ultra-intensive culture systems are comparable to factories. Vol. mathematical models. DO and water temperature were monitored overnight in marine shrimp (Penaeus vannamei and P. fish culture. Ultra-intensive systems are impressive examples of bio-engineering achievements. diets. 1. pp. monodon ) ponds: wind speed was also measured. 180-183. Ultra-intensive culture "ponds" are little more than culture vessels through which large amounts of materials and energy are passed under the close attention of skilled attendants and business managers. in which night respiration rate of the pond system is a function of water temperature. AU: Author Hardy.

The respiration rate of the pond system at night was therefore better described as a function of water temperature than as dependent on pond DO. spawning. . Record 383 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Patterns of oxygen production and consumption in intensively managed marine shrimp ponds. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: aquaculture development. Record 381 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Development of cortical vesicles in Sicyonia ingentis ova: Their heterogeneity and role in elaboration of the hatching envelope. hatching. 1990. 7. D SO: Source World Aquaculture. An aquaculture success story. WH SO: Source Molecular Reproduction and Development. 1. and 3) the components of each type of vesicle contribute to different integral parts (the outer and inner layers) of the hatching envelope. 26. The data demonstrated that 1) the ring vesicles are formed by fusion of cisternal elements containing ring-shaped structures. In the present study. biological development. ova lack cortical vesicles at spawning. pp. the culture industry and the impact of shrimp farming on the mangrove forests and salt flats in the country are discussed. Article Geographic Terms: Ecuador AB: Abstract A review is made of the development of marine shrimp culture in Ecuador. 21. Vol. Previous ultrastructural studies suggested that two different populations of cortical vesicles (dense vesicles and the ring vesicles) appear within 30 min post-spawning. Vol. pp. no. lectins were used as molecular probes to study the development of cortical vesicles subsequent to spawning and the role of these vesicles in formation and elaboration of the hatching envelope. MC.dawn. AU: Author Aiken. Clark. environmental impact.12-16. 1. AU: Author Pillai. Employment benefits. no. the world's second largest producer. 2) the two species of cortical vesicles are chemically heterogeneous. 78-89. Record 382 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Shrimp farming in Ecuador. 1990. These vesicles undergo sequential exocytosis. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: ovaries. Article Taxonomic Terms: Sicyonia ingentis AB: Abstract In the marine shrimp Sicyonia ingentis .

Of these. stocks. biological production. Vol. Article Geographic Terms: INW. Honolulu. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon. Penaeus vannamei Boone and P. Pond management strategies to maintain positive pond net production and to mitigate the impact of sediment respiration on pond DO were recommended. There are more than 100 species of common penaeid shrimp. monodon Fabricius. oxygen depletion. HI (USA). China. CP SO: Source AQUACULT. pp. of the total pond oxygen consumed. AU: Author Tookwinas. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. pp.. 2. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: cage culture. in the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea has fluctuated dramatically. which are influenced by ambient environmental factors. aquaculture enterprises. Jiaxin DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: aquaculture development. People's Rep. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. China. Kuala Lumpur. over 40 are important commercial species. historical statistics show that the output of the most important commercial shrimp. Record 384 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Shrimp culture industry in the People's Republic of China. Abundant natural resources have provided shrimp stocks for aquaculture. 1990. Asian Interchange Program Record 385 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Pen culture techniques of marine shrimp in Thailand. 21. Pond sediments and water column were the chief consumers of oxygen in the pond. respectively.. Dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) and water temperature were monitored in four marine shrimp. no. 407-417. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon AB: Abstract Temporal trends were determined for primary production and respiration in marine shrimp ponds. . FISH. CA: Corporate Author Oceanic Inst. it is very difficult to meet the increasing demand for shrimp if their culture depends only on natural resources. People's Rep. oxygen consumption. accounting for 51% and 45%. Despite showing a marked increase during grow-out. AB: Abstract Marine shrimp resources abound in China. 1990. Penaeus chinensis . aquaculture systems. dissolved oxygen. ISEW. 4. For example.AU: Author Madenjian. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: growing ponds. AU: Author Chen. ponds during the grow-out. However. 38-40. no. S SO: Source INFOFISH International. shrimp respiration rate was of relatively minor importance in the pond oxygen budget. MANAGE. pond culture.

of the North Adriatic Italian coast. microbial contamination.. N. 1990. per la Ricerca e per lo Sviluppo dell'Energia Nucleare e delle Energie Alternative. Salmonella. E. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: aquaculture systems. Susilawati. Rome (Italy). the system nevertheless provides a cheaper and less risky alternative to the problem-ridden pond farming of the black tiger. valliculture. B. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. 1990. This result probably indicates that Salmonella is not found in the marine shrimp . DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: quality control.Thailand AB: Abstract The concept of pen-farming of Penaeus monodon began only a couple of years ago at a river-mouth in Central Thailand and has since caught on with other fishing communities along the coast. G SO: Source Quaderni Tecnici di Acquacoltura. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus japonicus. E. AU: Author Canese. D SO: Source FAO fisheries report. Penaeidae. aquaculture development. Ponticelli. shrimp fisheries. where the two species Penaeus japonicus and Penaeus monodon have been reared using earthen ponds. the experience carried out in a so called "Valle". Palmegiano. rearing techniques for marketable Penaeid shrimps.. Ricerche Sviluppo Agroindustriale Record 387 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Report on prawn hygiene project. Dip. A. This paper describes: state of shrimp culture in the various countries of the world. Herawaiti. CA: Corporate Author Comitato Naz. AU: Author Sunarya. with particular reference to Italy. Inevitably requiring appropriate site selection. Retnowati. Hariyani. an extensive fish farm. The results of all samples (gut and surface) of the shrimp was negative for Enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella . pond culture. Indonesia AB: Abstract Determination of Enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella in the gut and on the surface of Indonesian marine shrimp was carried out. S. rearing. Article Taxonomic Terms: Enterobacteriaceae. Record 386 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Semi-intensive shrimp farming in a "Valle" of the North Adriatic Italian coast. Subagio. Penaeus monodon AB: Abstract Marine shrimp farming is one of the most rapidly expanding branches of worldwide aquaculture. The reliability of the analytical method was confirmed by positive results of Enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella for inoculated shrimp samples with Salmonella . Murtiningsih.

. Penaeus monodon. Naruemon Sanghtong. Niracha Wongchinda. 1990. P. Naruemon Sanghtong. hazardous microorganisms and other sub-standard characteristics. 28.naturally and any Salmonella in the marine shrimp is probably due to contamination during handling. Of 31 good and medium quality shrimp samples tested for salmonella only two were found to have salmonella in addition to 17 white shrimp from local markets in Bangkok which originated from Samuth Sakorn landing port and also farm shrimp. landing places and seafood factories were also tested. Shrimp from local markets. microbial contamination. Salmonella weltevreden and S. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: quality control. but only the gut was collected for salmonella analysis. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon. Niracha Wongchinda. SO: Source FAO fisheries report. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: processing fishery products.. AU: Author Pongpen Rattagool. quality control. derby were found on fresh and frozen white shrimp and peeled and cooked marine shrimp. microbial contamination. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. filth..729 t of shrimp worth $4. All the samples that were found to have salmonella were rechecked. Japan. Australia and Europe. Bangkok (Thailand) Record 389 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Hygienic processing of shrimp in Thailand. CA: Corporate Author FAO Indo-Pacific Fisheries Comm. Preeda Methatip. monodon ) from prawn raising farms at Samut Songkarm and marine shrimp. transportation or processing.391 million was exported to USA. These studies used white shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis ) and tiger shrimp (P. Both species of shrimp were either treated or untreated (representing factory processing) by following the usual practices at the factory freezing plant. human food.. monodon and Trachypenaeus ) after harvest and at each step of processing and marketing.. Thailand AB: Abstract In 1986. Thailand AB: Abstract Salmonella contamination was investigated for farm-raised shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis ) and marine shrimp (P. SO: Source FAO fisheries report. Some shrimp shipments were detained and rejected because of decomposition. experimental research.. 1990. Trachypenaeus.. CA: Corporate Author FAO Indo-Pacific Fisheries Comm. Bangkok (Thailand) Record 388 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Salmonella contamination in Thai shrimp. The final product was headless shell-on 1 kg uniform frozen . Article Taxonomic Terms: Salmonella. merguiensis. AU: Author Pongpen Rattagool. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW.

feed preparation. JE DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: fish culture. M. DM DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: aquaculture enterprises. The aquaculture feed industry is expected to grow at 50% per year for several years. The feed industry is rapidly improving and expanding to meet the requirements for the development of aquaculture.. Bangkok (Thailand) Record 391 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The aquaculture industry in Southeast Asia. AU: Author Halver. Most of this expansion is due to the corresponding growth in the marine shrimp industry. CA: Corporate Author FAO/UNDP Proj. Results are given. shrimp culture.blocks. Total aquaculture production in Southeast Asia is approximately 1 million metric tons. shrimp culture. demonstrations and training in vitamin C assays of feedstuffs and use of the high performance liquid chromatograph for amino acids standard mixtures. Indonesia currently has the most area in aquaculture production and the greatest potential for development. CA: Corporate Author FAO Indo-Pacific Fisheries Comm. Article Geographic Terms: Southeast Asia AB: Abstract Aquaculture development in Southeast Asia is growing and has tremendous potential for expansion. 12 September to 4 November 1991. One of the major limitations to the development of aquaculture is the lack of cost effective quality feeds. analytical techniques. feed preparation. Bangkok (Thailand) Record 390 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Fish nutrition consultancy report. on Fish Nutrition and Aquaculture Diets. AU: Author Boonyaratpalin. Record 392 of 500 . diets. Akiyama. aquaculture development. Efforts were focused upon training personnel to use the gas liquid chromatograph for fatty acid analysis in shrimp and fish feeds. Approximately 50% of the total production is produced in the Philippines. treated shrimp were washed with cold clean (5 degree C) water 3:1 ratio of water and shrimp) then washed with chlorinated (30-50 ppm) water with 10% salt content. Article Geographic Terms: Thailand AB: Abstract The report describes activities conducted during the consultancy which was carried out in order to formulate and initiate a research programme to develop optimum needs for freshwater prawns and marine shrimp in Thailand. feed composition. This production is based on the "traditional" methods of culture which make limited use of fertilizers and feeds.

H SO: Source . The digestibility of nutrients. is discussed and the following nutritional components examined: proteins. 1990. japonicus. Several studies have successfully substituted fish meal and shrimp meal with soybean meal. The origin of protein. A description is given of feed ingredients extensively used in commercial shrimp feeds and also feed additives.DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Penaeid shrimp nutrition for the commercial feed industry AU: Author Akiyama. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. DM. proteins. Penaeus vannamei. Dominy.. DM SO: Source AMERICAN SOYBEAN ASSOC. does not affect digestibility but the quality of protein is important. 379-415. 189-236. and minerals. lipids. carbohydrates. When replacing these marine animal meals with soybean meal. The carbohydrate fraction of soybean meal appears to lower the total dry matter digestibility. one needs to consider not only protein but energy. WG SO: Source AMERICAN SOYBEAN ASSOC. and other nutrients which are present in the marine animal meals and not in soybean meal.. Least-cost feed formulations are considered briefly. diets. artificial feeding. Article Taxonomic Terms: Glycine max AB: Abstract Soybean meal appears to be highly digestible by marine shrimp and especially protein and amino acids. There appears to be little difference in soybean meal digestibility by 3 species of marine shrimp. minerals. artificial feeding. fiber. which involves mechanical breakdown. pp. plant or animal. 1990. Record 393 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Soybean meal utilization by marine shrimp AU: Author Akiyama. SINGAPORE (SINGAPORE). and P. feed preparation. solubilization and absorption. Record 394 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Farm management and techniques of marine shrimp culture in Thailand AU: Author Kongkeo. P. nutritive value. fatty acids. monodon. vitamins. diets. SINGAPORE (SINGAPORE). DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae AB: Abstract Information is provided regarding marine shrimp nutrition in order to help shrimp feed processors understand shrimp nutrition and nutritional principles so as to improve the nutritional quality and cost of shrimp feeds. pp.

upon survival and growth of larval marine shrimp. States. 11-19. food preferences. 127-133. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. Kosrae. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon. Future development prospects of the industry are considered briefly. Suva [Fiji] Record 396 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The effect of feeding two prey organisms. Penaeus monodon accounts for the majority of the shrimp production. Micronesia. pp.. Artemia. CA: Corporate Author FAO South Pacific Aquaculture Development Proj. 1990.. YC SO: Source FAO. 37 pp. Jun 1989. In the first. Browdy. N. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). no. These species appear to be the most promising for development due to simple culture technology. Economic analysis. Brachionus plicatilis (Muller). Penaeus semisulcatus (de Haan). seaweed and giant clams. The second part details the findings of a preliminary economic evaluation of the culture of marine shrimp (Penaeus monodon and P.stylirostris). Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. Vol. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus semisulcatus. SINGAPORE (SINGAPORE). food organisms. Brachionus plicatilis . Fed. nauplii of Artemia and rotifers. 77. TM. 1989. the findings are presented of a study conducted in the Federated States of Micronesia to make a preliminary economic evaluation of the cultivation of sponge. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. aquaculture systems. Thailand AB: Abstract Details are given of current farm management and techniques of marine shrimp culture in Thailand. ISEW. Uziel. CL SO: Source Aquaculture. (DBO). aquaculture techniques. were studied in a . Aquaculture economics. 1. AU: Author Samocha. Suva (Fiji). DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture development. red tilapia and seaweed (Eucheuma alvarezil). nutritional requirements. growth. Each of the 4 states were examined individually -. Truk and Yap. survival. Fiji AB: Abstract The document is presented in 2 parts. Brachionus plicatilis AB: Abstract The survival and growth of Penaeus semisulcatus postlarvae fed Artemia nauplii or rotifers. low capital requirement and available market.AMERICAN SOYBEAN ASSOC. Record 395 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title A preliminary economic assessment of aquaculture development in the Federated States of Micronesia and Fiji AU: Author Shang. pp.Pohnpei.

16-17. MR. several impediments must first be dealt with. Record 398 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Shrimp fisheries in the Bay of Bengal. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: aquaculture techniques. Chang. AU: Author Knapp. fishery management AB: Abstract The marine shrimp fisheries in countries around the Bay of Bengal are described. biochemical . a liberal government policy and high profits are largely responsible for the impressive expansion of shrimp farming in PR China. Record 397 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine shrimp farming in PR China. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: fishery statistics. CA: Corporate Author FAO/UNDP Proj. summarizing available information on the fishery. Yoshida. YC SO: Source INFOFISH International. AU: Author Chen. Colombo (Sri Lanka) Record 399 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The distribution and characteristics of steroid binding proteins in fish and shrimp. Thus Artemia nauplii alone may be a superior food for mass culture of penaeid larvae. YH. the world's top producer of cultured shrimp. Article Geographic Terms: China. For the industry to progress even further. High survival can be achieved with rotifers. MADRAS (INDIA).small-scale bioassay system. 2. The status of exploitation. but energy intake is apparently reduced as dry weight is lower. 1989. Mvan der SO: Source BOBP. AB: Abstract New and improved culture techniques. aquaculture development. Lee. Kuala Lumpur. These include seed shortage. People's Rep. stock assessment and management in various countries of the region is reviewed. and by-catch. chemical extraction. rates and composition. catch data. high production costs and quality problems. for Marine Fishery Resources Management in the Bay of Bengal. AU: Author Shang. 1989. stock assessment. pp. T DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: hormones. no. CF.

10. 2. but less than 1% in the hepatopancreas. 10. for Marine Biotechnology. 71. Vol. respectively. The authors found that 78. AU: Author Wood. testosterone (T).5% of species had T. The pellets are made from bagasse--the crushed stalks that remain after sugarcane is processed--and from inexpensive forms of protein.0%. LS SO: Source Journal of crustacean biology.7% of species had both T and E2 binding proteins. and minerals. 1989. pp. activity in both tissues increased. 9. Article Taxonomic Terms: Pisces.6% of species had E2.5% and 2. fish. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: yolk AB: Abstract Yolk production of the marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei was measured using an antibody to a subunit of the yolk protein complex. Foundation for Advancement of International Science. E2 and P4 binding proteins. 65. pellet feeds. pond-raised marine shrimp (Penaeus vannamei ) grow well on small pellets of the experimental feed. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: pond culture. Vol. 21 days after eyestalk ablation activity levels in both tissues returned to levels equal to or lower than preablation levels. no. CA: Corporate Author Japanese Soc. 37. Record 401 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Yolk protein production in the marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei . Thirty eight species of marine and freshwater fish and 3 species of marine shrimp were collected. AU: Author Quackenbush. Washington DC. ICSU Int.analysis. pp. 1989. 4. Scientific Comm. Initially. feed composition AB: Abstract Results from a 12-week experiment indicate that young. fats. 9. Plasma binding proteins of estradiol (E2). steroids. The effects of unilateral eyestalk ablation on protein synthesis of the hepatopancreas and ovary were measured in vitro. M SO: Source Agricultural Research. Natantia AB: Abstract The objective was to investigate the distribution and characteristics of steroid binding proteins in different species of fish and shrimps. P4 and C binding proteins. Both intact controls and eyestalk-ablated shrimp had as much as 1 mg/ml yolk protein in the . progesterone (P4) and cortisol (C) were measured with RIA. no. T. Tokyo (Japan). 509-516.9%. for Biotechnology Record 400 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Pond-raised shrimp thrive on sugarcane. Steroid binding proteins were not detected in shrimps. The yolk protein content of the tissues increased shortly after eyestalk ablation and reached a maximum of 8% in ovarian tissue.

feed AB: Abstract The apparent dry matter digestibility (ADMD). SR. 1. Conklin.. preparation and proximate composition of 2 diets are provided. Lawrence. and diatomaceous sand. Homarus AB: Abstract Details of the formulation. Penaeus monodon. crayfish and crab. feed preparation. P.4% to -21. Record 404 of 500 . Evaluation of two formulations.]. D'Abramo. JD. DE SO: Source Journal of the World Aquaculture Society. SOC. 91-98. Use of an SRD will provide a more accurate assessment of non-nutritional growth factors and permit comparisons among laboratories. no. The ADMD values ranged from 91. AU: Author Akiyama. balanced rations. prawn. JC. SCI. 55. stylirostris. Kean. AU: Author Castell. aztecus and H. Both of these diets. cellulose. The dietary fillers (cellulose. americanus suggest that either BML 81 S or HFX CRD 84 would be an acceptable SRD for these species. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: diets. EH SO: Source Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi [NIPPON SUISAN GAKKAISHI/BULL. Record 402 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title A standard reference diet for crustacean nutrition research. The purified feedstuffs were more efficiently digested than the practical feedstuffs. Robinson.4%. DM. Record 403 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Apparent digestibility of feedstuffs by the marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei Boone. squid meal. and apparent amino acid digestibility (AAAD) of thirteen feedstuffs used for marine shrimp diets were determined for the marine shrimp.hemolymph during ovarian maturation. chitin. 20. chitin. The feedstuffs evaluated were casein. JAP. 93-99. The preliminary data on growth and survival of Pandalus danae. Coelho. which had been used to culture lobster. P. FISH. LR. pp. shrimp meal. P. apparent protein digestibility (APD). Penaeus. soybean meal. AL. Each feedstuff comprised 88% of the experimental diets. Article Taxonomic Terms: Pandalus. species and experiments. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. were compared with the usual control diets of several research teams from different countries in feeding trials with many different species of crustaceans including freshwater and marine shrimp. brasiliensis. setiferus. soy protein. corn starch. pp. 3. rice bran. vannamei . Homarus sp. P. 1989. Vol. lobster. 1. Penaeus vannamei . gelatin. and diatomaceous sand) were either poorly digested or not digested. artificial feeding. fish meal. no. wheat gluten. P. Vol. 1989.

Aquila. C SO: Source Pacific Science. 2. 7) investigations. SO: Source FAO. development projects. A standard curve of dilution versus absorbance was made for each isolate. However. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: aquaculture development. Live cells are needed to produce pathological effect. Ten shrimp (five per tank) were injected with appropriate concentrations of bacteria. Document prepared for the Project GCP/RLA/075/ITA Support to the Regional Aquaculture Centre for Latin America and the Caribbean. Two Pseudomonas) species had similar LD sub(50)'s. 1989. 1989.DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title (Technical meeting on aquaculture planning. Venezuela. Vibrio AB: Abstract Eight Vibrio isolates were obtained from wild harvested marine shrimp and from marine shrimp aquaculture facilities.0 x 10 super(6). 43. The Vibrio isolates were tested against Penaeus stylirostrus . DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: disease resistance. AU: Author Arume. stylirostrus . certain pseudomonad species show pathogenicity similar to that of the Vibrio isolates. 4) commercial aquaculture in freshwater.0 x 10 super(2) to 3. and 8) planning and legislation. Caracas. 186. The LD sub(50) of the Vibrio isolates ranged from 4. LD sub(50)'s of the Vibrio isolates were determined. planning. 5) mariculture. The document provides summaries of the reports and syntheses of the round tables held at the meeting under the following major section headings: 1) inaugural conference. Different species of Vibrio and different strains of the same species of V. 8-12 May 1989. Considerably fewer Vibrio bacteria were required to cause pathogenicity compared to E. CA: Corporate Author FAO Proy. Article Taxonomic Terms: Pseudomonas.). coli . 2) aquaculture and repopulation. Article Geographic Terms: Latin America AB: Abstract The main objectives of the meeting were to make available pertinent information regarding the formulation of aquaculture development plans in Latin America. BRASILIA (BRAZIL). Brasilia (Brazil) Record 405 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Determining the lethal dose (LD sub(50)) of Vibrio and Pseudomonas bacteria for marine shrimp. 6) marine shrimp culture. The injected bacteria were recovered from the blood of moribund animals. Escherichia coli had an LD sub(50) of 1. report literature.3 x 10 super(4). 3) rural aquaculture. Record 406 of 500 DN: Database Name . alginolyticus have different levels of pathogenicity on P. no. pp. Heat-killed Vibrio) did not produce mortalities. Vol.

the result was between 28 and 40 g. Nde (comps) SO: Source Special Publication. Musa. Small-Scale Coastal Fisheries Development Proj. The final average weight of the individual varied between 33 and 49 g in ponds used fertilizer and artificial feed. Manila (Philippines) Record 407 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Commercial aspects of Penaeus japonicus farming in northeastern Nile Delta in semi-intensive ponds. In marine shrimp and finfish culture it has been proven that more than 50% of cost of production goes to the feed for the cultured animals. European Aquaculture Society.91 g and 68% respectively for ponds enriched with fertilizer and fed commercial feed and 1. Each pond received similar water quality management. Pauw. The ponds were fed two to three times daily over the course of the 155 day study. This paper discussed briefly the present status of feeds for marine shrimp and finfish. the major issues faced by the feedmilling industry and the potential development of the feed industry in Malaysia. CA: Corporate Author . Billard.5 g were stocked in 12 earthen ponds at an average density of 3 and 6 animals/m super(2). Article Geographic Terms: Malaysia AB: Abstract Feeds is one of the factors which plays an important role in determining the successful development of the aquaculture industry. whereas in fertilized ponds. feed. Water exchange averaged 10% per day. S DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. according to the soil features and water salinity of each pond. aquaculture techniques. Yield ranged from 360 to 864 Kg/ha in the ponds. Animals weighing an average of 0. pellet feeds.9% for ponds only enriched with fertilizer. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. artificial feeding. AU: Author Sadek. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus japonicus AB: Abstract A 5-acre pond operation with 12 ponds is used to describe the economics and operational considerations typical of marine shrimp (Penaeus japonicus ) farming conditions in Egypt.. HH. CUBC. Shrimp growth was correlated with variations in water quality among treatment. 1989. R.44 g and 59.ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Status of shrimp and finfish feeds in Malaysia. using organic and inorganic fertilizers. It also identifies some of the major steps needed to be taken by both the government and private sectors in order to ensure the development of marine shrimp and finfish feed industry. aquaculture development. Hanafi. Ponds were enriched with cattle manure plus inorganic fertilizer. The average weekly weight gain and average survival were 1. aquaculture economics. pond culture. S. The growth rate was significantly enhanced by the addition of post-larvae or more artificial feed. CA: Corporate Author ASEAN/UNDP/FAO Reg. Different water fertilization programmes were designed. Pathmasothy. IA. AU: Author Hassan.

diets. 4. has improved considerably in the last 5 years. Recent results in intensive and ultra-intensive grow-out tests applicable to southern European and north African conditions are detailed.. constructing. Domanski. Bredene (Belgium) Record 409 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Natural tracers in dietary studies: Data for 210 Po and 210 Pb in decapod shrimp and other pelagic organisms in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean. Pauw. The technology for grow-out of marine shrimp. polonium isotopes. L. Penaeus vannamei . A new technology for prawns was developed in Mississippi and Hawaii and implemented successfully in Hawaii. based upon a better understanding of prawn heterogenous individual growth rate and proper management of this growth variation using high density nurseries. European Aquaculture Society. T. P. Cotsapas. Computer-based inventory control is described. Parseval. Article Taxonomic Terms: Decapoda. Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium rosenbergii AB: Abstract Until now freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii ) and marine shrimp (Penaeus yannamei ) grow-out technology worldwide has lacked innovative methods to increase production to economically successful levels in temperate climates where the growing season is favorable. R. Article Geographic Terms: ANE. aquaculture economics.. along with new technologies sex-ratio control techniques and closed system prawn hatcheries which make inland prawn culture viable. Stocking densities of > 100 juveniles/m super(2) were used and production of > 10. Lde. pp. Fasham. SR. ER.. 97. Cherry. MacMichael. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: radioactive tracers. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. size grading and more efficient harvesting systems. prawn culture. Mississippi and Central America. Billard. M. AU: Author Heyraud. PA. and operating a highly-efficient closed-system freshwater prawn hatchery are presented. 507-519. et al. L. MJR SO: Source Marine biology. Vol. Sandifer. lead 210.000 kg/ha per crop can be achieved in earthen ponds. Berlin. no. aquaculture development. AU: Author Malecha. Bredene (Belgium) Record 408 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Application to southern Europe and North Africa of recent advances in the culture of marine shrimp and freshwater prawns. CA: Corporate Author European Aquaculture Soc. RD. Desmond. aquaculture systems. North Atlantic . especially the white shrimp. M major technical problems in designing. D'Abramo. Heidelberg. but not year around.European Aquaculture Soc. Nde (comps) SO: Source Special Publication. 1988. 1989.

whereas. FJ SO: Source DISS. Feb 1988. however. and in many cases data were obtained for shrimp hepatopancreas. B .AB: Abstract Measurements of the concentrations of the naturally-occurring radioactive nuclides super(210)Po and super(210)Pb in a large number of pelagic organisms from the Atlantic Ocean are reported.0. 48. as well as for whole individuals. These groupings are explained on the basis of variations in diet between the different categories. The inductively active portion of EW elutes as a high molecular weight complex (>690 Kd) on gel filtration and includes a 230 Kd glycoprotein(s) and a grouping of 66 Kd and 37 Kd proteins. The ionophores.5. Sperm.75-8. Valinomycin induction does. Several lines of evidence suggest that acrosomal exocytosis and filament formation are elicited by separate inducers or inducing activities and that a trypsin-like protease is the inducer of acrosomal filament formation: (1) the kinetics of induction differ for the two phases of the AR. (3) bovine trypsin induces filament formation in exocytosed sperm. and posterior intestine plus contents. The wide ranges found in super(210)Po concentrations group into categories: the shrimp. become pH dependent at elevated levels of extracellular K super(+). and attention is drawn to the need for investigation of cytological and/or genetic effects which could possibly be caused by the very high natural radiation doses to which such organisms are exposed. nigericin and valinomycin. two penaeid and two carid. stomach-contents. divide into four categories. for example. Low external pH elicits acrosomal filament formation in sperm that have undergone acrosomal exocytosis.SCI. Nigericin does not elicit filament formation at external pHs greater than or equal to 8. but does not induce sperm to undergo exocytosis. but does not induce exocytosis in unreacted sperm. 130 pp. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Biological fertilization.8-8.5). (4) EW contains trypsin-like activity and this proteolytic activity is required for EW induction of filament formation. valinomycin induces filament formation over a wide range of external pHs (5. Record 410 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Induction and control of the acrosome reaction in the sperm of Sicyonia ingentis AU: Author Griffin. Vol. ABST. The acrosome reaction is induced in vitro when sperm are incubated with egg water (EW).0).0. INT. As a result of the acrosome reaction (exocytosis of the acrosomal vesicle and formation of an acrosomal filament) pH sub(i) is decreased to 7. PT. These results demonstrate that acrosomal filament formation is associated with a pH sub(i) decrease and suggest that a K super(+) efflux is connected to the pH sub(i) decrease. no. Marine shrimp are particularly well represented. (2) trypsin inhibitors (SBTI and PAB) block only formation of acrosomal filaments. Article Taxonomic Terms: Sicyonia ingentis AB: Abstract Unactivated sperm of the marine shrimp Sicyonia ingentis possess an elevated intracellular pH (pH sub(i)) of 8. 8. and (5) SBTI affinity . Particularly high levels of super(210)Po are not uncommon in certain penaeid shrimp. & ENG. enhance the % of sperm that form filaments in low pH sea water (pH < 8.

chromatography separates the inductive activities of EW. Record 413 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title . pp. The acrosomal filament is a cylindrical structure 0. shrimp fisheries. Record 412 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Forecasting commercial harvest of marine shrimp using Markov chain model. The TLS are 30 nm in diameter and do not resemble tubulin containing microtubules. Vol. Matis. 1988. JH.0% in terms of value to the total fish production of the country. harvesting. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: population levels. It contributes 17. quality assurance. Petals possess substructural elements that appear as incomplete TLS. The filament is composed of granular regions and tubular-like structures (TLS). Miller. 3-4. 43. 183-193. prediction. B-O DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: quality control. (DBO) Record 411 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Aquaculture and product grading. Production of freshwater shrimp and marine shrimp increase dramatically.5 mu m in diameter and 10 mu m in length. The Markov model provides forecast distributions of final crop yield depending on the state of the system at selected times prior to the end of the harvest season. Trends of important species of aquaculture production are described. WE.3-0. The method provides more information concerning the yield and requires less stringent assumptions than more traditional regression approaches. AU: Author Grant. both of which course the length of the filament. the filament terminates in 12-15 radiating extensions (petals). aquaculture products. shrimp culture. Grading and inspection of both marine and freshwater shrimp are elaborated. AU: Author Saisithi. mathematical models. Article Geographic Terms: Thailand AB: Abstract Aquaculture plays a significant role in the economic progress of Thailand. population dynamics. aquaculture development. W SO: Source Ecological Modelling. Quality requirements of some importing countries are highlighted. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus AB: Abstract The ability to forecast harvest levels is a prerequisite for effective management of shrimp and other commercial fisheries. marine environment. One of the more recent advances in crop yield forecasting is a method based on Markov chain theory. Anteriorly. no.

GL. Sperm viability was assessed using the in vitro acrosome reaction technique of Griffin et al. 1988. fish ponds. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: sperm. A cooling rate of 1 degree C/min resulted in minimal cell breakage. cytology. (1987). nighttime. Record 415 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Aquaculture in the West. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. T. Crowe. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon AB: Abstract The Whole Pond Respiration-Diffusion (WPRD) model was evaluated for brackish-water ponds. 1842-1847. AU: Author Madenjian. Sicyonia ingentis . Vol. Article Taxonomic Terms: Sicyonia ingentis AB: Abstract Sperm from a marine shrimp. Griffin. water temperature. no.Cryopreservation of sperm from the marine shrimp Sicyonia ingentis . AW SO: Source Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. AU: Author Sandifer. Record 414 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Predicting nighttime dissolved oxygen loss in aquaculture ponds. Sperm samples were frozen in solutions of known membrane stabilizers--trehalose. DO. The highest sperm survival (56%) was obtained with samples frozen at 1 degree C/min in a 5% (v/v) DMSO solution. (Kahuku. Clark. sucrose. no. No decrease in viability was seen in sperm samples stored in liquid nitrogen (-196 degree C) for 1 month. 3. 25. 1988. 238-243. pp. Oahu) during July through December 1986. Fast. Rogers. PA SO: Source Journal of the World Aquaculture Society. and glycerol. Oahu) and at the Mariculture Research and Training Center (Hakipuu. pp. and wind speed were monitored overnight in marine shrimp (Penaeus vannamei and P. no. 10. These compounds were somewhat effective but a dramatic increase in sperm viability was seen when DMSO was present in the freezing medium. WH Jr SO: Source Cryobiology. FJ. CM. Vol. 2. 19. a perspective. were frozen to -196 degree C using a variety of cooling rates and cryoprotectants. 73-84. The WPRD model accurately describes the nighttime decline of dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) in both freshwater and brackish-water ponds. . JH. proline. freezing storage. AU: Author Anchordoguy. pp. The model has yielded accurate predictions of dawn DO for a variety of aquaculture ponds and meteorological conditions. monodon ) ponds at Amorient Aquafarm Inc. 1988. 45. Vol. prediction. mathematical models.

pp. Caridina nilotica. The known distribution range of P. rude was found only in the Gqunube River. Caridina nilotica and C. 23. 59-63. AFR.DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: aquaculture development. no. southern and eastern Cape coasts and Ciskei were investigated for the occurrence of freshwater shrimps. Some examples are given of successful farming ventures. Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium rude. Article Geographic Terms: USA AB: Abstract Following a brief historical review of aquaculture in Western countries. ZOOL. considering their implications for aquaculture. 3. the easternmost river in the study area. Palaemon pacificus . and C. ecological distribution. nilotica occurred south-westwards as far as the Gamtoos River. check lists. AU: Author Dominy. DIERKD. 1988. namely salmon. channel catfish. whereas M. and it appears to be the only freshwater shrimp occurring in the often very acid dark brown ("black") waters of the south-western and southern Cape rivers. AU: Author Coetzee. Record 417 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The utilization of blood meal as a protein ingredient in the diet of the marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei . namely Palaemon capensis. Macrobrachium petersii. American red swamp crawfish and marine shrimp. capensis was extended eastwards to the Keiskamma River in the Ciskei. a discussion is presented on the state of capture fisheries and its relation to aquaculture. Ako. WG. J. was often found in the estuarine sections of rivers. petersii and C. about 15 km further south-westwards. consumers. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: biological surveys. 1988. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: feeding experiments. concinnus . nutritional requirements. 70. H SO: Source Aquaculture. Major trends in the US food market are summarized. M. 1. An estuarine/marine shrimp species. TYDSKR. no. rude. typus only in the Nahoon River. DJ SO: Source S. Vol./S. Caridina typus. Five species were found. Record 416 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Collections of freshwater shrimps along the southern coast of South Africa. Article Geographic Terms: South Africa AB: Abstract During Feb 1983 to Nov 1986 a total of 38 rivers along the south-western. typus . Future development prospects for the aquaculture industry are also examined. pp. another estuarine/marine species. As far as is known this is the first published record of P. 289-299. concinnus in the Cape Province.-AFR. M. and P. Vol. was collected in the Gqunube River. .

growth. In general. total length. and weight were measured fortnightly and growth rates of male and female blue shrimp were compared in each group. INT. Vol. vp. and coefficient of condition (K) were also calculated. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus stylirostris. 48. Oct 1987. In the third series it was Sargassum > Enteromorpha.25% of the body weight) did not cause any cannibalism. cannibalism was related to density rather than food. Wild shrimp had higher protein and lower lipid content than cultured shrimp.. F SO: Source DISS. 4. are one of the commercially important species ranging from the upper Gulf of California to Peru. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Commercial species. An electivity index study supported the laboratory measurements of food preferences. Experimental groups were fed natural foods and a formulated diet was given to the control group. B . Biochemical composition. Record 418 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Biochemical composition. Nutritional requirements. about 0. Variation in the biochemical composition of the blue shrimp has been documented as a function of sex. Cannibalism . Offering a low amount of food (dry pellets. Carapace length. Food preference was in the following order: fish > squid = shrimp tail > green alga (Enteromorpha) = brown alga (Sargassum) in the first series. Mortality causes. The biochemical composition. followed by lipid. protein was highest. Results also indicate that the blood meal product containing covalently attached methionine may be a potentially useful way to supplement limiting amino acids in shrimp diets. size. Food preferences. and cannibalism in the eastern pacific marine shrimp. Penaeus stylirostris. Vulnerable (molted) animals were subjected to cannibalism in crowded areas. Cannibalism. PT. The food preferences of three size classes of male and female blue shrimp were studied in three experimental series. & ENG. growth. food preference. ABST. and type (cultured and wild stock).SCI. both increased with increase in body size. Article Geographic Terms: IE. stylirostris were studied in the laboratory in order to gain insight into the nutritional requirements and behavioral aspects of blue shrimp. food conversion efficiency. and cannibalistic behavior of P. In the second series the preference was as follows: shrimp tail > Enteromorpha = Sargassum. Shrimp fisheries. A 30-day growth study consisting of two experimental and one control group was conducted. size. Thus the blue shrimp can be considered a more carnivorous species of penaeid shrimp. East Pacific AB: Abstract Blue shrimp. proteins. Specific growth rates. no. Protein was higher in males while lipid was higher in females. In blue shrimp. food preference. growth AB: Abstract Four blood meal products were compared and tested as protein substitutes for a marine protein mix in grow-out rations for the marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei . Penaeus stylirostris Stimpson AU: Author Mofidi. The results suggest that blood meal products can replace marine proteins in grow-out rations for medium sized (3-4 g) Penaeus vannamei . and type of shrimp.amino acids. Carbohydrate levels were very low and did not vary with sex.

no.)] (DBO). Doheny Library. where it has been developed on a commercial scale since about 1958. in 1983 world aquaculture production increased 688% compared to 1975. Induction of the acrosome reaction (exocytosis of the acrosomal vesicle and generation of an acrosomal . is farmed in Taiwan. Sicyonia ingentis. particularly in Ecuador and Panama. Woods Hole [BIOL.was a major factor in the death of shrimp. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. In South-East Asia Penaeus monodon . pp.9-7. Article Taxonomic Terms: Sicyonia ingentis. Marine Biological Laboratory. vannamei and P. 1987. de Investigaciones Cientificas. Barcelona (Spain) Record 420 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Intracellular pH decreases during the in vitro induction of the acrosome reaction in the sperm of Sicyonia ingentis AU: Author Griffin. AU: Author Lumare. 1987. Decapoda AB: Abstract Activation of the sperm of many invertebrate and some vertebrate species to undergo an acrosome reaction is accompanied by an increase in intracellular pH (pH sub(i)). cytology. [(Copies available exclusively from Micrographics Department. In each of these instances the pH sub(i) of the unactivated cell is relatively low (6. Currently great interest in P. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus. the Philippines and many other countries. the giant tiger prawn. USC. kerathurus and P. LM SO: Source Biological Bulletin. Los Angeles. Vol. F SO: Source Scientia Marina.5). Article Geographic Terms: Italy. marine crustaceans.4). Penaeid culture is developing in tropical and sub-tropical areas. BULL. JH. WH Jr. Unactivated sperm of the marine shrimp. 173. biochemical phenomena. possess an elevated pH sub(i) (8. Record 419 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine shrimp culture in the world and present state and trends of kuruma prawn culture in Italy. the giant fresh-water prawn from the Indo-Pacific area. Japan AB: Abstract Crustacean culture is growing fast. Crowe.]. Clark. 2. The main culture group are the Palemonidae Macrobrachium rosenbergi . CA: Corporate Author Consejo Super. 311-323. otherwise the health of shrimp was favorable. CA 90089-0182. Japan is the center of shrimp culture in the world. prawn culture. animal physiology. P. stylirostris (white shrimps) are very important. japonicus culture is shown in Europe and in the Mediterranean. Macrobrachium rosenbergii. In Central America. world. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: sperm. and many Penaeids. pH effects. Crowe. FJ.

AU: Author Hedgecock.75-8. firm rejection of the hypothesis of selective neutrality awaits full explication of population sizes and structures. genetic drift. Genetic variation in natural populations of economically important crustaceans appears to be sufficient to support genetic improvement programs. brine . D SO: Source Schriften der Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Fischerei Hamburg. The ability of valinomycin to induce filament formation in the upper portion of this pH range (8. nigericin. ICES. conspecific populations. These results demonstrate that the sperm of S. hybrid culture. Valinomycin induces filament formation in sperm that have undergone exocytosis over a wide range of external pHs (5. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: population genetics. BUNDESFORSCHUNGSANST. Low external pH elicits acrosomal filament formation in sperm that have undergone acrosomal exocytosis. Rome (Italy). Presently these genetic resources are underutilized because of a general lack of control over crustacean reproductive processes.8). but does not induce exocytosis in unreacted sperm. D SO: Source Schriften der Bundesforschungsanstalt fur Fischerei Hamburg. Although natural selection is implicated by several lines of evidence. CA: Corporate Author FAO Europ. Inbreeding appears to threaten the few closed populations of marine shrimp that have been established because husbandry practices have ignored genetic principles. enhances the percent of sperm that form filaments in low pH seawater (pH < 8. HAMB. AU: Author Hedgecock.filament) is accompanied by a decrease in pH sub(i) (7. (DBO) Record 421 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Population genetic bases for improving cultured crustaceans. literature reviews AB: Abstract Studies on the population genetics of crustaceans reveal considerable variation among higher taxonomic categories in the amounts of genetic variation within and between local. Hamburg [SCHR. Comm. they also suggest that an efflux of K super(+) ions is connected to the pH sub(i) decrease. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: crustacean culture.. In addition.0.]. 1987. Copenhagen (Denmark) Record 422 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Interspecific hybridization of economically important crustaceans. FISCH.0) declines as the extracellular K super(+) concentration rises. ingentis undergo a pH sub(i) decrease as a result of the acrosome reaction and that the decrease is associated with acrosomal filament formation. but does not elicit filament formation at external pHs greater than or equal to 8.5). crustacean culture. Adv.0). Inland Fish. The ionophore.. 1987.

shrimp culture. The most important potential benefits of interspecific hybridization. Arume. Among the decapods. hybrid vigor and sterility. marine shrimp. Copenhagen (Denmark) Record 423 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Suriname. DV SO: Source Journal of fish diseases. Rome (Italy) Record 424 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Efficacy of formalin in reducing the levels of peritrichous ciliates on cultured marine shrimp. Daphnia AB: Abstract The scientific literature on hybridization among Crustacea is sparse. Garen. B. 1987. Potential profitability and potential impact of shrimp rearing and export are examined. Marine shrimp culture in Suriname. AU: Author Bell. 45-51. TA. development of the sector should be associated with reliable sources of juveniles. some brachyuran crabs of fisheries importance hybridize in nature. Oxford. P SO: Source FAO. chiefly brine shrimp (Artemia ) and water fleas (Daphnia ). Vol. have yet to be realized in commercial crustacean culture. particularly if one restricts attention to species of aquacultural importance. Article Taxonomic Terms: Artemia. Article Geographic Terms: ASW. Suriname AB: Abstract An account is given of activities of the shrimp culture development project in Suriname. CS. 1. Comm. Adv. 1987. The tests were conducted at concentrations above and below those being used in shrimp culture and were designed to define the concentration . freshwater prawns and clawed lobsters have been hybridized artificially. Lemercier. food organisms. Branchiopoda. pp. Lightner. P. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus stylirostris AB: Abstract Tests were performed to measure the efficacy of formalin in reducing peritrichous ciliates on the surface of cultured marine shrimp. Rome (Italy). DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. Conditions are favorable for rearing shrimps at a low cost. ICES. are of interest because they are prime food species for many cultured fish and shellfish. CA: Corporate Author FAO Europ. aquaculture development.. A report prepared for the Project for the Development of Marine Shrimp Culture in Tidal Ponds. ROME (ITALY). AU: Author Detante. Programme. 10. Inland Fish. The chief constraint to artificial hybridization appears to be lack of control over reproductive processes. disinfectants. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: antiprotozoal agents. aquaculture economics. shrimp culture. CA: Corporate Author FAO Technical Coop. no.

2. economic feasibility. 244. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. 1987. Vol. The higher the level of formalin used the better the protection from ciliate epifaunation. CA: Corporate Author International Finance Corp. AU: Author Avault. no. P.freshwater prawns and marine shrimp. Sicyonia ingentis . Calculation of cash flow and unit costs of production are also covered. prawn culture. Penaeus AB: Abstract Farming techniques. monodon . availability of seedstock and project design. MC. Record 426 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine shrimp farming: A guide to feasibility study preparation. 325-329. 50 and 100 ppm was demonstrated to be effective in reducing ciliates.providing the most effective rapid reduction of ciliates for Penaeus stylirostris Stimpson. management. Penaeus vannamei. aquaculture techniques.. SO: Source AQUAFOOD BUSINESS ASSOCIATES. pp. 1987. Formalin at 25. financing. Four factors critical to the success of a commercial shrimp farm are examined: site selection. which may vary from country to country. stylirostris . capital costs and operating characteristics and costs are discussed in detail. no. WH Jr SO: Source Journal of Experimental Zoology. CHARLESTON. Project performance characteristics. Record 425 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Species profile -. Washington. and P. including Macrobrachium rosenbergii. while 12 multiplied by 5 ppm did not differ from the control (0 ppm). Clark. SC (USA). DC (USA) Record 427 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Oocyte activation in the marine shrimp. 53-56. 3. Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium rosenbergii. 1987. JW Jr SO: Source Aquaculture Magazine. costs AB: Abstract The manual is intended to aid in the preparation of an appraisal of a commercial marine shrimp farming project. are detailed for shrimp species. pp. . Vol. manuals. AU: Author Pillai. It is designed as a tool to assist project sponsors in the careful preparation of feasibility studies prior to approaching potential sources of funding. 13.

CA: Corporate Author FAO/UNDP Reg. Article Taxonomic Terms: Sicyonia ingentis AB: Abstract The resumption of meiotic maturation and formation of the hatching envelope in the ova of the marine shrimp. If unfertilized ova that formed neither polar bodies nor a hatching envelope in Ca super(++)-free seawater were transferred to normal seawater. MI. The author follows with an . pathology. viral diseases of freshwater fish. AU: Author Enomoto. meiosis. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon. marine shrimp diseases and oyster diseases on the North European coast. vibriosis. Y. Jehangeer. shrimp culture. Munbodh. crustacean larvae. a slightly longer time was required for the completion of meiotic maturation and hatching envelope formation in unfertilized ova. aquaculture. Proj. depended on external Ca super(++).DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: biological fertilization. oyster culture. Victoria (Seychelles) Record 429 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The role of pathology in aquaculture. but not fertilized ova. fish diseases. aquatic animals AB: Abstract Case histories are given for vibriosis of salmonids. Metapenaeus monoceros AB: Abstract A brief account is given of the spawning and larval rearing of Penaeus monodon and Metapenaeus monoceros considering also prospects for shrimp culture in Mauritius. Activation of unfertilized ova. yield and other economic parameters. for the Development and Management of Fisheries in the Southwest Indian Ocean. disease control. Record 428 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Breeding of Penaeus monodon and Metapenaeus monoceros and prospects for marine shrimp culture in Mauritius. 1987./DOC. External Mg super(++) was necessary for both fertilized and unfertilized ova to undergo activation. whirling disease. whirling disease in salmonids. AU: Author Sindermann. eel diseases. eggs. OISO. viral diseases. however. aquaculture development. It is concluded that further research is required to improve larval rearing techniques for the mass production of marine shrimp seed and also to determine growth. diseases. rearing. The hatching envelopes formed in both cases were structually identical. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. Fertilized and unfertilized ova underwent the same sequence of events. CJ DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: fish culture. diseases of yellowtail in Japan. activation resumed. M SO: Source SWIOP DOC. Sicyonia ingentis were triggered by exposure to seawater. hatcheries.

Record 431 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Status of world aquaculture: 1985. PG. AL SO: Source J. growth. 3) salmon culture and the Pacific Ocean. Record 430 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Effects of diet and size on growth. digestibility. 1986. carboxypeptidase A and B. WORLD MARICULT. and 7) crawfish and other US critters. chitinase. Shrimp survival was unrelated to diet or size.5 g) and large (14. non-specific esterase and lipase activities were also assayed for small and medium shrimp. Small shrimp fed the 38% protein diet displayed the highest dry matter digestibility. 6) US catfish farming. AU: Author Rhodes. General and acid protease. 1986.7 g). DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. diets. BUYER'S GUIDE '86. 16. MAG. medium (9. Instantaneous growth rate. 5) salmon in Norway. disease control in aquaculture and emerging concepts in aquaculture pathology. AU: Author Lee. 4) Latin American shrimp culture. amylase.assessment of the significance of disease in aquaculture. apparent feed digestibility. size. Apparent total dry matter digestibilities and apparent protein digestibilities were determined for small and medium shrimp. feeding experiments. 275-287. digestive enzyme activity and growth of Penaeus setiferus were investigated during a 30-day growth trial. survival AB: Abstract Relationships between protein level. especially carbohydrases. Small shrimp fed the 22% protein diet grew the least but exhibited the highest enzyme activities. aquaculture development. pp. world AB: Abstract A global view is given of aquaculture considering the following topics: 1) marine shrimp culture in Asia. Medium shrimp fed the 30% protein diet exhibited the lowest survival and growth while medium shrimp fed the 22% protein diet exhibited the highest enzyme activities.7 g) shrimp were fed 4 isocaloric diets with varying protein levels. RJ SO: Source Aquaculture Magazine [AQUACULT. Small (3. total dry matter and protein digestibilities decreased as shrimp size increased. trypsin. 2) China aquaculture tradition. SOC. enzymatic activity. Vol. artificial feeding. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: aquaculture enterprises. Penaeus setiferus Linnaeus. feed digestibility and digestive enzyme activities of the marine shrimp. Higher digestive enzyme activities on the 22% protein diet may be evidence of an adaptation to a diet containing less digestible proteins. . Lawrence.].

In South-East Asia Penaeus monodon . Penaeus kerathurus. the fresh-water giant prawn from Indo-Pacific area. stocking (organisms). Record 433 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Prawn and shrimp culture in Pakistan. This species is stimulated to sawn by unilateral eyestalk ablation. is farmed in Taiwan. Record 434 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Physical dimension relationships of juvenile Penaeus stylirostris . Article Geographic Terms: MED. Vol. 1986. 17. no. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. prawn culture. AU: Author Yaqoob. World Waters AB: Abstract In 1983 production from crustacean aquaculture worldwide increased 688% compared to 1975. Penaeus indicus. Penaeus indicus being the species involved. AU: Author Lumare. 1-4. Penaeus monodon. AU: Author Wang. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus stylirostris . Italy. Marine shrimp pond culture is also examined briefly. shrimp culture. Vol. M SO: Source PROG. 6. the fry are reared in extensive and semi-intensive conditions to marketable size. The main crustacean groups for culture are the Palaemonidae Macrobrachium rosenbergi . DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: pond culture. FARMING. in the Philippines and in many other countries. 25-32. describing the pond culture systems used for Macrobrachium malcolmsonii and culture requirements. Penaeus japonicus. aquaculture development. and many penaeids. body size. Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium malcolmsonii. pp. Lam. 5. methodology.Record 432 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine shrimp culture in the world and present state and trends of kuruma prawn culture in Italy. Penaeid culture is developing in tropical and sub-tropical areas. no. aquaculture systems. F DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: crustacean culture. J-K. 1986. pp. 33-36. CY SO: Source Journal of the World Aquaculture Society. Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Article Geographic Terms: Pakistan AB: Abstract Freshwater prawn culture in Pakistan is discussed. the tiger giant prawn. length-weight relationships. juveniles.

WH Jr SO: Source Development Growth & Differentiation. ranging from 0. 1986. weight. it was determined that a regression equation of the form Y = (A super(*)X super(**)B) super(*) epsilon can be used to adequately describe the relationships between weight. moulting.33 g.07 to 10. ultrastructure. Record 436 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Spermiogenesis in the marine shrimp. 239. no. 1986. A simple mechanical device is needed to sort juvenile shrimp by their physical dimensions. Article Taxonomic Terms: Alpheus AB: Abstract Marine shrimp of the genus Alpheus exhibit a remarkable reversal of asymmetry in their great claws.AB: Abstract Stocking of juveniles is widely practiced in marine shrimp production. MM. AU: Author Shigekawa. Record 437 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts . DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: muscles. Sicyonia ingentis . We have developed monoclonal antibodies that specifically recognize fast and slow myosin heavy chain (MHC). width and length. This represents the first example of programmed myofiber death as a mechanism used in crustacean muscle development. pp. Vol. 299-305. 2. degradation. K. Record 435 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Myofiber death plays a role in determining fiber type composition in the claw closer muscles of the snapping shrimp. By analyzing a sample of 551 commercially produced Penaeus stylirostris juveniles. 2. This unique phenomenon includes transition of the closer muscle in one claw from a muscle of mixed fiber type into a homogeneous slow muscle. 28. Clark. AU: Author Quigley. and have used these as immunohistochemical markers to follow the fate of different myofiber types during this transformation. Alpheus heterochelis . Article Taxonomic Terms: Sicyonia ingentis AB: Abstract Spermiogenesis in the marine prawn Sicyonia ingentis was examined using transmission electron microscopy. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: cell morphology. Vol. pp. no. The onset of fiber degeneration appears linked to the molt cycle and occurs rapidly once started. D Jr SO: Source Journal of Experimental Zoology. 95-112. Mellon. This analysis reveals a strikingly specific necrosis of the fast fibers.

AU: Author Lawrence.Wildlife and Aquatic Organisms. and research in the western hemisphere. Though shrimp farming is commercial. pollution monitoring. pollution detection. Reviewer Evaluation. For example. Washington. The SEP for the Shrimp 96-Hour Toxicity Test is only one of a number of SEP's published by the National Technical Information Service as a supplement to Subdivision E of the Pesticide Assessment Guidelines. Article Geographic Terms: America Coasts AB: Abstract In the past decade shrimp culture has developed from the experimental and testing phase to commercial production. AL DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. Reporting Requirements. technology is still poorly developed and ventures into shrimp culture still must be considered as high risks. Because of the limited growing season. toxicity tests. Off. in Ecuador. and Appendix of appropriate methods to guide the review and scientific evaluation of pesticide effects on estuarine/marine shrimp. analytical techniques AB: Abstract The Standard Evaluation Procedure (SEP) for the Shrimp 96-Hour Acute Toxicity Test is a guidance document primarily intended for Agency reviewers and the regulated industry who evaluate ecological effects data specified in 40 CFR Part 158. The SEP is also intended to provide information to the general public indicating how the Agency evaluates these types of studies. CA: Corporate Author EPA. standard evaluation procedure: Acute toxicity test for estuarine and marine organisms (shrimp 96-hour acute toxicity test). Materials and Methods. DC (USA).145. the technology needed for shrimp farming to be commercially successful in the US is much greater than in the more tropical areas and in developing nations. AU: Author Rieder. use of non-native species and legal restrictions. of Pesticide Programs Record 439 of 500 DN: Database Name . aquaculture development. D DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: pesticides. shrimp are now the most valuable crop with a value for 1983 and 1984 of approximately $200 million per year. As such. Record 438 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Hazard Evaluation Division. Most countries from Brazil and Peru north to the United States have commercial shrimp farms and pilot farms are operating in the US.TI: Title Marine shrimp culture in the Western Hemisphere. This paper reviews recent developments in commercial farm management. Ecuador produces more shrimp commercially than any other country in the western hemisphere. environmental impact. it is designed to supplement Subdivision E of the Pesticide Assessment Guidelines: Hazard Evaluation . This SEP provides an Introduction.

AU: Author Kibria. introduction to shrimp culture. marketing AB: Abstract Marine shrimp aquaculture is discussed under the following headings: overview of world production and consumption. AU: Author Andreyeva. Polar diagrams of backscattering by live shrimp are analyzed and described in terms of the model. aquaculture systems. 3. G SO: Source N A G A: I C L A R M Quarterly [ICLARM NEWSL.]. The effect of the physical characteristics of the materials and shape of the model is evaluated. backscatter. Article Taxonomic Terms: Natantia AB: Abstract An acoustic model of marine crustaceans in the form of a rigid elastic shell filled with liquid is developed. aquaculture development. 328-332. 8. 11-12. acoustic models. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. Record 440 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Shrimp fisheries of Bangladesh. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. no. DP SO: Source Oceanology of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. LA (USA) Record 442 of 500 . Inc. 1985. pp. Lysak. zooplankton. production trends -problems and potentials. current technology developments. IB. New Orleans. 1985: A survey of the world status and outlook for shrimp aquaculture. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: sound scattering. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. 1985. and outlook for cultured marine shrimp supplies. pp. outlining briefly processing of the products.ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Sound scattering by individual crustaceans and by crustacean aggregates in the ocean. The backscatter coefficients for aggregates of mesoplankton and larger marine shrimp are calculated. an overview is made of freshwater and marine shrimp culture operations. 25. Record 441 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Shrimp aquaculture. Bangladesh AB: Abstract Following details of the shrimp species of commercial importance in Bangladesh. CA: Corporate Author Shrimp Notes. market situation analysis for cultured shrimp. no. Vol.. Vol. 3. Article Geographic Terms: ISW.

bioaccumulation. Lima. of the marine shrimp are reviewed. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: cadmium. Record 444 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Accumulation of cadmium from contaminated water and sediment by the shrimp Callianassa australiensis .F. seed production. (MEXICO). no. MEXICO. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: aquaculture facilities. control of the physicochemical parameters. Vol. increase of shrimp fisheries and overcatching are reviewed. pp. aquaculture techniques. Berlin. M. such as deforestation of mangrove swamp. AU: Author Kurata. Article Geographic Terms: ISE. burrowing organisms. DS SO: Source Marine biology. spawning. 191-197. Heidelberg. 1984. 1985. acclimatization and the direct and indirect sowing methods are discussed. AU: Author Horna Z. MC. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae AB: Abstract The biological aspects. AU: Author Ahsanullah. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus. pp. growth. transfer. The main causes of shrimp mortality such as capture.). fish handling. R SO: Source Revista latinoamericana de acuicultura. and seed harvesting and transport. 15-26.). Also the methodology for the culture of commercial shrimp is showed. transport. including pond construction. trash. Negilski. Record 443 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title (Culture of the Kuruma shrimps. H SO: Source SECRETARIA EDUCACION PUBLICA.DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title (Mortality of shrimp post-larvae because of handling effect. Article Taxonomic Terms: Callianassa australiensis AB: Abstract . 1985. Ecuador AB: Abstract The characteristics of breeding and culture of marine shrimp (Penaeus ) in Ecuador are reviewed. 26. Some of the possible causes of larvae population decrease. some recommendations for avoidance post-larvae mortality are given. D. such as life cycle. intensive culture. The developed area for breeding purposes is shown. no. The methods for obtaining post-larvae seeds are described. 2. Mobley. 82. etc. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. maturity. diets.

Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin). Vol. Article Taxonomic Terms: Thalassiosira pseudonana. Ure. Oyster growth was only slightly improved when supplements of lipid encapsulated vitamins were added to algae/yeast diets. and yeast was not a satisfactory substitute for algae. pp. Isochrysis. a bacterial fermentation product. Langdon.5 to 63 mu g Cd l super(-1) for water and 0. Crassostrea virginica. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: artificial diets. AU: Author Katzen. 1984. 277-281.The burrowing marine shrimp Callianassa australiensis (Dana) was collected from an uncontaminated area in Western Port. Australia in 1977. feeding experiments. cheese whey. pp. no. The shrimp accumulated cadmium from water at a rate commensurate with increases in the concentration of cadmium in water and the duration of the experiment. The concentration factors decreased with increasing concentration of cadmium in water but increased as the duration of exposure increased. Thalassiosira pseudonana. diets. Only rice starch and the shrimp diet improved oyster growth compared with the growth of oysters fed on algae/yeast diets alone. galbana which were supplemented with yeast and other non-algal foods. Record 445 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Reduction in costs of diets for the American oyster. by the use of non-algal supplements. 4. AU: Author Urban. aquaculture. a marine shrimp diet. S. Rice starch. ER Jr. 40. Vol. J SO: Source Aquaculture. and a trout diet were each tested in combination with algae/yeast diets. The shrimp dry weight decreased with increasing concentration of cadmium water and duration of exposure. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: lysine. The concentrations ranged from 0. 277-292. Isochrysis. 1984. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus stylirostris . no. The shrimp were exposed to cadmium-contaminated water and sediment for 8 wk. Penaeus stylirostris . disease resistance. 4. blood meal. Victoria. Salser. Although the cadmium concentration in the sediments was 10 super(3) times higher than that in water. feed composition. feed composition. CJ SO: Source Aquaculture. The growth of oysters fed algae/yeast diets was mainly dependent on the proportion of algae in the diet. Crassostrea virginica AB: Abstract A series of growth experiments was carried out with juvenile Crassostrea virginica fed algal rations of Thalassiosira pseudonana and Tahitian Isochrysis aff. Record 446 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Dietary lysine effects on stress-related mortality of the marine shrimp. BR.5 to 63 mu g Cd g super(-1) for sediment. comparative studies. biological stress. it had no effect on cadmium uptake by the shrimp. 38.

000/ml from brackish water (16 ppt) used to culture the larvae of Machrobrachium spp. TCBS. 47-68. aquaculture economics.) and this water is mixed with fresh water (1 ppt) from another well to culture freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium spp. WL. aquaculture. Vibrio AB: Abstract Since vibriosis is a potential problem in aquaculture. Article Geographic Terms: USA AB: Abstract A general conceptual model of a marine shrimp farming system representing important relationships between the engineering design of facilities. As expected. Record 447 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Enumeration of Vibrio species in marine. 1-3. marine aquaculture. cholerae non-01 and many other unidentified Vibrio spp. The selected farm uses marine water (33 ppt. freshwater ponds (1 ppt) used to grow the prawns to maturity. no. economics. alginolyticus. The membrane filtration method using marine agar. Grant. microbial contamination. V. computer programs. shrimp culture. prawn culture.A. Microscopic examination of the dead shrimp revealed neural lesions in all test treatments but in greatest incidence and severity in shrimp fed the lowest lysine level. R. 25. TCBS+7% NaCl and MAAC Agar was used. WE. RW. the various stages of an operating aquaculture farm were analyzed for vibrio bacteria. S DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: freshwater aquaculture. pp.AB: Abstract Studies with semi-synthetic diets revealed that dietary lysine reduced the effects of an unidentified disease of penaeid nervous systems.). Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus. Four semi-synthetic diets were prepared with different levels of dietary lysine as the sole variable. Heavy treatment-related mortality resulted after the first weigh period. Record 448 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title A bioeconomic model of shrimp maricultural systems in the U. Greco. FORTRAN. and the factors affecting production costs and . Penaeus. Hanson. AU: Author Griffin. Brick. JS SO: Source Ecological Modelling. shrimp culture. Vol. AU: Author Fujioka.S. viral diseases. 1984. V. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus. programming languages. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: mathematical models. Vibrios at 30-7. the environmental and managerial factors affecting shrimp growth and survival. fluvialis. Subsequent stress exercises resulted in a consistent mortality pattern which was inversely related to lysine levels in the diet. salinity) from a well to culture marine shrimp (iPenaeusspp.000/ml were also recovered from the outdoor. Macrobrachium. Vibrio isolates include V. vibrios were not recovered from freshwater samples obtained from the well but were recovered at concentrations of 250-8. brackish and freshwater systems used in an aquaculture farm.

catch composition. 42. The level of protein in the diet had a greater effect on the enzyme . The protein sources were varied by changing the animal to plant protein ratio (a/p ratio). Record 449 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Burma. 9. Preliminary stock assessment of marine shrimp resources in Burma. an evaluation of marine shrimp resources along the coast of Burma. shrimp fisheries. a bioeconomic simulation model is developed to assess the economic feasibility of a projected penaeid shrimp maricultural operation along the Texas coast. and to evaluate the effects of changes in an important managerial variable rate of water flow. shrimp culture. Rome (Italy) Record 450 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Digestive proteases of Penaeus vannamei Boone: Relationship between enzyme activity. Htin. Penaeus vannamei AB: Abstract The relationships between protein level.profit is presented. no. were investigated during three 30-day growth experiments. proteins. A report prepared for the Marine Fisheries Resources Survey and Exploratory Fishing Project.8. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae AB: Abstract This report consists of two principal elements: first. AL SO: Source Aquaculture. an analysis of available catch records for the artisanal and industrial shrimp fisheries. pp. Penaeus vannamei Boone. Results of simulations of a projected penaeid shrimp maricultural operation along the Texas coast suggest that such an operation would be marginally economically feasible when based upon the particular assumptions of this study. on the biological and economic productivity of the system. catch/effort. based on results from previous exploratory surveys. The modeling in development of shrimp maricultural systems in the Unites States is discussed. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: enzymatic activity.8 g) were maintained in 2650-1 indoor tanks and fed ad libitum with six isocaloric diets. feed composition. and digestive protease enzyme activities of the marine shrimp. Based upon this conceptual model. fishery statistics. 1984. PG. protein source. Smith. size and diet. Three sizes of shrimp (4. AU: Author Price. CA: Corporate Author FAO. diets. body size. 225-239. digestion. while each of these two series was composed of three diets having protein levels of 22. 30 and 38%. LL. 2:1 and 1:1. Lawrence. 3-4. K DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: stock assessment. size. AU: Author Lee. fishing grounds. ARG. Vol.0. 20. and second.

To further develop shrimp farming.608. GAZ. 2. The average total cost and net profit of extensive shrimp farming in the area near the Inner Gulf of Thailand in 1983 were 25. Chamberlain. When the specific activities of the fed shrimp were evaluated. 1984. P. Bray. induced breeding. some degree of spermatophore expulsion occurred in 80% of the attempts. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: electric stimuli. no. Complete expulsion of one or both spermatophores occurred in only 47% (29-65%. AU: Author Supawewat. disease control. aquaculture is considered as a substitute source of fish production. AD. no. and other aspects of culture technology. shrimp culture. WA SO: Source Aquaculture. Article Geographic Terms: Thailand AB: Abstract In view of the overfishing in the marine fisheries of Thailand. 444-459. an internal regulatory agent. stylirostris .total activities in the large shrimp (17-30 g) than in small shrimp (< 10 g). 5. 1984. Record 453 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Adenosine 5'-monophosphate. Record 452 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The economy of marine shrimp culture. Shrimp with melanized terminal ampullae generally did not expel a spermatophore following electrical stimulation.33 baht/kg and 1. PA. feed formulation. males. depending on species). Shrimp is one of the species of particular interest for fish farmers. vannamei . 37.22 baht/rai (small farm: 50 rai and less). Harris. respectively. 41. Lawrence. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: marine aquaculture. shrimp culture. pp. pp. GW. Penaeus spp. P SO: Source THAI FISH. AU: Author Sandifer. is a potent . small shrimp (< 10 g) fed the 1:1 a/p ratio diets displayed lower activities than those fed the 2:1 ratio diet. Vol. Record 451 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Electrical stimulation of spermatophore expulsion in marine shrimp. aquaculture development. 181-187. For healthy animals. SG. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus stylirostris AB: Abstract Electrical stimulation (4-6 V AC) applied near the male gonopores at the base of the fifth pereopods caused expulsion of the spermatophore in Penaeus setiferus . Vol. the government needs to emphasize research in order to improve hatchery techniques. Stokes. and P. AL.

This was due to the much higher levels of triglycerides in FWP as compared to marine shrimp. DH SO: Source Journal of Food Science. 1983. HW SO: Source Journal of Comparative Physiology. The omega 3 PUFA predominated in marine shrimp. Behavioral bioassays of AMP in the concentration range of 0.9%). aquaculture techniques. attractancy. AU: Author Chanmugam. Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium rosenbergii AB: Abstract Total lipid content of fresh water prawn (FWP. 48.1 to 1000 mu mol/l show that the dose-response curve is biphasic with the maximum response occurring at about 10 mu mol/l. the integrity of the ribose phosphate is of special importance since most of the substances having changes in this moiety are complexity inactive as attractants. Donovan. Wheeler. P.18 vs 1. Vol. 1983. ATP and adenosine are inactive as attractants. AMP is much more potent than ADP. in part. 47-53. Record 454 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Differences in the lipid composition of fresh water prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii ) and marine shrimp.33%). FL (USA). 153A. SO: Source CRC PRESS. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: lipids. pp. Record 455 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title CRC Handbook of Mariculture. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: AMP.chemoattractant for a marine shrimp. Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Macrobrachium rosenbergii ) was found to be greater than that of marine shrimp (3. J. 5. no. BOCA RATON. no. to the shorter shelf-life of Macrobrachium as compared to marine shrimp. CJ. pp.3 vs 2. 1440-1441. Bioassays of 28 substances structurally related to AMP show that the integrity of both the adenosine and the ribose phosphate moieties are required for maximal activity. Hwang. 1983. The triglycerides of both species contained considerable amounts of PUFA and FWP has a high triglyceride content. chemoreception. chemotactic factors. 1. This may contribute. WES. primarily due to the greater concentration of linoleic acid in FWP lipids (16. A. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: marine aquaculture. AU: Author Carr. Homarus americanus AB: Abstract . Vol. However. Palaemonetes pugio . Volume 1: Crustacean Aquaculture. biochemical composition. Article Taxonomic Terms: Palaemonetes pugio AB: Abstract Th nucleotide adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) is a potent chemoattractant for the marine shrimp. Thompson. crustacean culture. storage life.

Section I contains specific methods for the culture and preparation of algae.Current step-by-step procedures and techniques utilized in the culture of commercially important crustaceans are described by recognized culturists. treatments. hemolymph. The unit may also be suitable for incubating marine shrimp and crab eggs as well as the adhesive demersal eggs of freshwater fish species. Weber. frequenting Zostera meadows. Vol. Thus. 154-155. Haemolymph Oxygen Tension and Haemocyanin Level in the Shrimp Palaemon adspersus Rathke. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: fish eggs. 1981. they must operate in eithr open or closed systems and remain functional during pumping or power failure. rotifiers. no. Record 457 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Respiratory Rate. 44. and other foodstuffs used in crustacean hatcheries. methodology. 13-20. 1. AU: Author Hagerman. incubation devices for such eggs must provide water flow velocities sufficient to thoroughly ventilate egg masses as large as 100 mL while avoiding agitation. 54. An incubator with air-powered water flow is described. Section III describes various diseases. AU: Author Giorgi. Hatching success of ling cod (Ophiodon elongatus ) eggs incubated in this equipment was more than 90%. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: respiration. Section II provides detailed descriptions of all aspects of culture techniques for the three main groups of crustaceans: marine shrimp (Penaeidae). freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii ). oxygen consumption. shows an oxygen consumption rate (MO sub(2)) that is independent of water oxygen tension (P sub(W)O sub(2)) as PO sub(2) decreases to a critical point (P sub(cr))near 70 mm Hg. embryonic development. This respiratory independence is associated with maintenance of a . no. Section IV provides the most recent information available on crustacean nutritional requirements. RE SO: Source Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. pp. AE SO: Source Progressive Fish-Culturist. Record 456 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Incubator incorporating air-powered water flow for marine fish eggs. Article Taxonomic Terms: Ophiodon elongatus AB: Abstract Adequate ventilation of adhesive eggs is necessary to assume proper embryo development. and methods used in combatting disease problems experienced in crustacean culture. incubation. aquaculture equipment. pp. hatching. Article Taxonomic Terms: Palaemon adspersus AB: Abstract The marine shrimp Palaemon adspersus Rathke. 3. and lobster (Homarus americanus ). hemocyanins. 1982. Artemia . Vol. L.

Article Geographic Terms: MED. pandionis . bioaccumulation. zoeae. 2. environmental factors. Record 458 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Polonium-210 Content of Marine Shrimp: Variation With Biological and Environmental Factors. a direct dependence of MO sub(2) on internal PO sub(2). 165-175. pp. males. JR SO: Source Crustaceana. M SO: Source Marine biology.0 pCi g super(-1) dry wt in the whole shrimp and 85 pCi g super(-1) dry in the hepatopancreas. 1951 (Caridea. was described by Holthuis (1951) from a single female specimen. South Africa. The data are discussed as regards adaptations for aerobic metabolism. Heyraud. Heidelberg. Factor. The median super(210)Po concentration was 8. lead. USA and Great Britain. RD. a small marine shrimp. XVIII. pp. but MO sub(2) levels reflect an insignificant role for the pigment as an oxygen store. 3. 1981. Rediscovery of Periclimenes (Periclimenes ) pandionis Holthuis. Berlin. AU: Author Gore. 40. reflecting. both MO sub(2) and P sub(a)O sub(2) fall. 253-265. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: radioactive contamination. Haemolymph copper measurements demonstrate relatively high haemocyanin concentrations and oxygen-carrying capacities. Vol. Vol. CL. The variations in the levels of super(210)Po. RH. The range of concentrations covered more than two orders of magnitude for both nuclides. no. AU: Author Cherry. Palaemonidae) with Notes on the Males and Zoeal Stages. At lower P sub(W)O sub(2) values. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. 1981. the remainder from Kuwait. in particular. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: taxonomy. most were from the Mediterranean Sea near Monaco. van Dover. could be related to biological and environmental factors. in contrast to the above independence. polonium. 65. During a series of recolonization experiments 26 . Article Taxonomic Terms: Periclimenes pandionis AB: Abstract P. the corresponding super(210)Po: super(210)Pb activity ratios were 77 and 138. respectively. Samples were collected in the years l977 to l980. The species has apparently not been reported since Holthuis' description in his monograph of American Palaemonidae. no. Caridea. ASE AB: Abstract The concentrations of super(210) Po and super(210)Pb were determined in more than 30 species of marine shrimp (Penaeidae and Caridea).relatively constant "arterial" (post-branchial) haemolymph tension (P sub(a)O sub(2)) at 70-80 mm Hg. Record 459 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Studies on Decapod Crustacea from the Indian River Region on Florida.

The preliminary draft was reviewed at a workshop held in September. For Crangon .. For salmon. resource development. Plans include approaches to resolving the problems confronting commercial development of these species--programs of research.D.W. Metcalfe. crawfish. The authors provide supplemental data on both males and females of P. development. Salmo salar. a freshwater clam (Anodonta cataractae ). As a result of the workshop. 9(2).B. nonylphenol is slightly more toxic than aminocarb. pollution effects. catfish.. lethal limits. (1980) DE: Descriptors pesticides. pandionis . Homarus americanus. the lethality of the aminocarb formulation is due almost completely to nonylphenol. planning. The National Plan is actually the first interaction of what will be a continuing process of updating and expanding the original plan document. aminocarb. and briefly compare the larvae to those known from one other western Atlantic species of Periclimenes .D. aquaculture. and funding. marine shrimp. toxicity tests. Crangon septemspinosa. In addition. there will be plans for 12 species: baitfish. and nonylphenol to juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar ).. the plan has been redrafted and is out for review by the aquaculture community. WN DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: oyster culture. salmon. The authors also provide a description and illustrations of the first 2 zoeal stages for the species. In this section. including illustrations of several characters not discussed by Holthuis. Article Geographic Terms: USA AB: Abstract A major section of the National Aquaculture Development Plan deals with proposed species development programs. Mya arenaria AB: Abstract This paper presents data on the lethality of the aminocarb formulation. and a marine shrimp (Crangon septemspinosa ). Record 460 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title National aquaculture development plan. Record 461 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Lethality of aminocarb and the components of the aminocarb formulation to juvenile Atlantic salmon. AU: Author Shaw. marine invertebrates and a freshwater clam AU: Author McLeese. SO: Source Chemosphere. This change occurs because aminocarb is more toxic to the shrimp than to . mussel.V. data are presented on the lethality of nonylphenol to lobsters (Homarus americanus ) and the soft-shelled clam (Mya arenaria ). Lethality data are presented for 585 oil and several invertebrate species. oyster. striped bass. Zitko. and trout. Anodonta cataractae. freshwater prawn. Sergeant. largemouth bass.D. 79-82.C.specimens of Periclimenes pandionis were obtained. clam.

000 tons per year. population characteristics. are noted. Res. the order of sensitivity to the formulation components appears to be: marine crustaceans > salmon > bivalves. 2(1). Hymenocera picta AB: Abstract This paper examines the usefulness of taking long-term data on the position of individuals to describe relationships among members of a group of invertebrates. Agric. The objectives of the Third National Five-Year Development Plan are briefly noted. Penaeidae. where shrimp exploitation is considered excessive. fishery development.. Record 463 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Sociometric analysis of groups of the marine shrimp Hymenocera picta AU: Author Seibt.. knowledge of the concentrations of aminocarb and nonylphenol in surface waters potentially affected by the formulation was insufficient for a more detailed hazard assessment. and more than 42 species make up this catch. This diversity of species results in complex management problems.U. 17-20. Record 464 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title . J. SO: Source Z. 52(4). and subjects proposed for the fuure shrimp research programme. (1980) DE: Descriptors social behaviour. 321-330. Indonesia AB: Abstract The marine shrimp catch in Indonesia has ranged from about 50.salmon. Tierpsychol. The excess capacity must be reduced. ISEW. It appears that no adverse ecological effects resulted from use of the aminocarb formulation during actual spray operations. The diluent oil contributes little towards the toxicity of the formulation. However. Among the animals tested. Record 462 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Plans for a future marine shrimp research and development program. particularly since shrimp stocks are not visible and their assessment must be made by indirect methods. Dev. The major economic constraint in development has been caused in some areas by over-capitalization. Over exploitation and other problems require more accurate data and rational policies AU: Author Naamin.000 tons to 60. (1980) DE: Descriptors shellfish fisheries. Priority areas. SO: Source Indones. Nonylphenol is not an 'inert ingredient' of the formulation and its presence provides an increased hazard to freshwater and marine environments.N.

Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research. hatcheries. food organisms. 65(4). 281-303. Farmer. current and potential output from farming and the species being cultured are described for the following regions: Japan. Record 466 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Antifouling adaptations of marine shrimp (Decapoda: Caridea): gill cleaning mechanisms and grooming of brooded embryos AU: Author Bauer. Record 465 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Shrimp farming development in other areas. CA: Corporate Author INFOFISH. Author Al-Hajj. It is concluded that the production of farmed shrimp and prawns from mostly temperate developed countries will probably never reach the level attained by the mainly tropical developing nations. the Mediterranean and the Near East regions. Linn. ECL. SO: Source Zool. Pacific Islands and Southern Hemisphere. ASD Source Annual research report. Maynard. Results indicate the importance of accuracy in the maintenance and monitoring of concentrations of live food organisms during the hatchery culture phases for penaeid larvae. J. USA. 1980.R. Three types of live foods were tested: omega-marine yeast (Candida sp. Soc. prawn culture. AK. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus semisulcatus Abstract In order to refine shrimp hatchery production technology a series of 3 experiments was conducted to determine the optimum levels of live food organisms required by the various larval stages.). Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. Al-Ahmed. MB DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture.. The type of rearing technology utilized. AB. Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Mediterranean. aquaculture development AB: Abstract A review is made of the status and potential of marine shrimp and freshwater prawn farming in the Caribbean and Pacific Islands. Caribbean Islands.AU: SO: DE: AB: Optimal levels of food for hatchery culture of the marine shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus . AU: Author New. Near East. Caridea AB: Abstract . rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis ) and brine shrimp (Artemia salina ) nauplii. Non-Mediterranean Europe and USSR. Federation of Asian and Pacific Fishery Assoc. (1979) DE: Descriptors fouling organisms.T. diets. aquaculture systems. adaptations.

Embryos brooded by female carideans are often brushed and jostled by the grooming chelipeds. reproductive physiology of fish.. Record 469 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title (The Culture of Marine Shrimp. Waimanalo AB: Abstract The Director's report for the year is presented. oceanography. Setae of cleaning chelipeds and of epipod-setobranch complexes show similar ultrastructural adaptations for scraping gill surfaces. and a financial summary. 28 p. seed (aquaculture). finfish husbandry. larval food production. while those of controls remain clean. In H. together with status reports on major projects. Gaz. economic analysis. while in others. SO: Source Thai Fish. research institutions. Rep.). in Experimental Ponds. Annu. Projects reported on include artificial propagation of finfishes. Inst. a list of publications. sea cage culture.. Penaeus monodon AB: Abstract No abstract text. Record 467 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The Oceanic Institute annual report 1978 SO: Source Jan 1979.P. Hawaii. AU: Author . Penaeus duorarum notialis (Burkenroad) and Penaeus aztecus subtilis (Perez Farfante). Important mechanisms for cleaning the gills are brushing of the gills by the grooming or cleaning chelipeds in some species. and phytoplankton sinking rate. Ablation of the cleaning chelipeds of the shrimp Heptacarpus pictus results in severe fouling of the gills in experimentals. CA: Corporate Author Oceanic Institute. 329-336.Gills in the branchial chambers of caridean shrimps. Ocean.. HI (USA) Record 468 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Production cost of marine shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius) seed AU: Author Kungvankij. marine pathology. seed production. Waimanalo DE: Descriptors annual reports. setae from the bases of the thoracic legs brush up among the gills during movement of the limbs (epipod-setobranch complexes). removal of the cleaning chelae results in heavier microbial and sediment fouling than in controls. USA. as well as the brooded embryos in females. are subject to fouling by particulate debris and epizoites. (1978) DE: Descriptors aquaculture economics. Waimanalo. marine shrimp. water quality analyses. 31(4). pictus .

each one more comprehensive and better organized than its predecessors. 3(3). S. Shrimp culture is presently a very dynamic field and such a bibliograp Gependent on published information. culture tanks. neptunium. monthly survival rate and behavior are reported.E.S. Woods Hole.Martinez Silva. Western Hemisphere AB: Abstract This bibliography has been compiled through a series of iterations.50 x 0. Penaeidae. Commun. Goodwin. CA: Corporate Author Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution..C. MA (USA). Appendex C. J. Penaeus aztecus subtilis cultivated in tanks (0. It is in part intended to provide as complete a listing as possible of pertinent published materials. crustacean culture. (1977) DE: Descriptors bioaccumulation.L. VMJ. Penaeus duorarum notialis and the northern brown shrimp. In addition. The bibliography provides an organized method for the serious investigator to acquire in-depth scientific and technical information. there are data voids and some of the references are general.. Fowler.A. 211-229.by: WHOI. Dec 1977. Rep. growth. R DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: crustacean culture. Rojas Beltran.. Tech. survival.W. Average monthly growth in length and weight. Department of Biology Record 471 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Biokinetics of neptunium-237 in mussels and shrimp AU: Author Guary. which can be used to clarify the state of the art. Huguenin.30 x 0. Crustacea AB: Abstract Neptunium-237 kinetics were studied in marine shrimp and mussels using a thick source alpha counting technique. A marine shrimp culture bibliography AU: Author Hanson. DE: Descriptors bibliographies. J. LE.. Article Geographic Terms: Colombia AB: Abstract A study was made of the growth and behavior of the southern pink shrimp. A subject index of selected references and an author index have been provided.. Woods Hole. since many aspects of importance for commercial application do not get discussed extensively in scientific journals. SO: Source Publ. Vega Velez.. Torres. S. Record 470 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine shrimp farming in the western hemisphere. Mollusca. Huguenin. Sci. Inst. H. M. SO: Source Mar. reaching whole body . 45p. Woods Hole Ocean. J. will not completely reflect current capabilities existing in laboratories or in the field. Bioaccumulation of SUP-237 Np from water was relatively slow in both species.25 m). MA (USA).

molting will play an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of this transuranic in the marine environment. RT SO: Source Marine Biology [Mar. Penaeidae. but the duration of other grooming behaviors was greater. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Ultrastructure. Glyphocrangonidae. aquaculture. Proceedings of technical sessions. 40. SO: Source In: First ASEAN Meeting of Experts on Aquaculture. a frequent and widespread behavior of caridean shrimps and other decapod crustaceans. Indonesia. USA. California AB: Abstract Preening (cleaning. Surface adsorption was implicated in the initial uptake. Crangonidae. Tidepool shrimps (Heptacarpus pictus) experimentally prevented from grooming the antennules by ablation suffered fouling of the olfactory hairs of the antennules with their subsequent breakage and loss. 2. Biol. The motor patterns of antennular cleaning were similar for all spp. Vol. Pandalidae. this may be a reflection of the physical nature of the uptake. 3. Antennular preening. U. Animal appendages.concentration factors of only 15 to 20 after three months. Article Taxonomic Terms: Heptacarpus pictus. Semarang. Sense functions. antennules of controls remained clean and undamaged. was studied with light and scanning electron microscopy. Distribution and ultrastructure of serrate grooming setae on the third maxillipeds. AU: Author Bauer. Palaemonidae. 1. Feeding behaviour. T. no. 1977. Record 473 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Recent developments in intensive Penaeid shrimp culture in Thailand AU: Author Pongsuwana. Antennae.].. Thailand . pp. Both uptake and loss of the radioisotope were not significantly affected by temperature. Technical report. is suggested as having high adaptive value in keeping sensory sites free of epizoic and sedimentary fouling which might render them inoperative. Working papers DE: Descriptors crustacean culture. Hippolytidae. Antennular preening was the most frequent grooming behavior observed. Rapid growth of organisms like mussels acts to reduce the SUP-237 Np concentration in tissues during a period of decontamination. 261-276. 31 January to 6 February 1977. Caridea. Article Geographic Terms: INE. grooming) of the antennules and other cephalothoracic appendages by the third maxillipeds was observed in several spp of shrimp. Record 472 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Antifouling adaptations of marine shrimp (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea): functional morphology and adaptive significance of antennular preening by the third maxillipeds. which scrape the antennules. By virtue of the large amounts of accumulated SUP-237 Np associated with the exoskeleton of shrimp. Pasiphaeidae. Alpheidae. Bhukasawan. Experimental research.

The second part presents a similar account of freshwater prawn farming (genus Macrobrachium) in the western hemisphere. growout systems. 1977. 439 p. especially marine shrimp culture. Production rates of up to 7. 3 kg/ha/yr may now be achieved with P. marine aquaculture.by: Dowden.monodon. and legislation. Record 475 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine shrimp farming in the western hemisphere. State-of-the-art reviews and status assessments SO: Source Publ. Stroudsburg. A summary chapter and a discussion of research priorities are included. These problems were to a large extent resolved when in 1976 the Department of Fisheries produced over 7 million fry and seed of Penaeus spp. This results from inadequate supply of natural shrimp larvae together with poor management techniques used in traditional operations.056 ha. including accounts of hatchery systems. Record 476 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts . production economics. Hutchinson and Ross. nutrition and feeds. potential markets. DE: Descriptors crustacean culture. DE: Descriptors crustacean culture. CA: Corporate Author ASEAN meeting of experts on aquaculture Record 474 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Shrimp and prawn farming in the western hemisphere. is becoming an important fishery industry in Thailand. individual chapters describe the methodology and biology of marine shrimp farming. Within each chapter brief accounts come from individual contributors.monodon seed.154 farms and 9. A state-of-the-art review and status assessment SO: Source Publ. 191 p. the productivity is very low. presents a state-of-the-art review and status assessment. period life cycle control. Penaeidae AB: Abstract Following a brief historical perspective. The total number of shrimp farms and total farm area used in 1972 were 1. Separate abstracts in this issue of ASFA describe each part.AB: Abstract Coastal aquaculture. with an average of 109 kg /ha. diseases. literature reviews AB: Abstract This volume includes two accounts. PA (USA). PA (USA). The first. and its monoculture in farm ponds. Generally. on marine shrimp farming in the western hemisphere. The authors here discuss the mass production of P.by: Dowden. Hutchinson and Ross. obtaining spawners. 1977.656 . Stroudsburg.

pp.. Fowler. J. Sci. Vol.36 mM. Uptake of SUP-237 Np from water was slow reaching concentration factors of only 15 to 20 in both species. iodoacetate. 677-696. AU: Author Ahearn. 2. Int.1 mM than at 1. Amino acids. 24(3). suggesting a greater proportion of energy-dependent transport at lower amino acid concs.-C. 3. 9. P.42 {mu}moles/g. V Sub(max) = 0. (5) D-Fructose added to the incubation medium restored normal glycine transport in the presence of alanine. Monaco. pp. 2. Biol.].0 mM glycine. no. Reun. (2) Glycine transport inhibition by N Sub(2) gas. Record 478 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Biology of Hymenocera picta Dana. . Comm.-V. Panaeus marginatus. indicating that the 2 amino acids most likely utilized separate. 225-230. Invertebrata AB: Abstract Neptunium-237 kinetics were studied in marine shrimp and mussels using a thick source alpha counting technique. 4-DNP. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Digestion. AU: Author Wickler. (1977) DE: Descriptors bioaccumulation. active transport entry process (K Sub(t) = 0. Mer Mediterr. neptunium. and ouabain was more extensive at 0. (4) Alanine was a fully non-competitive inhibitor of mucosal glycine entry. S. 1974. no. Vol. (3) Aliphatic neutral amino acids and histidine were more potent inhibitors of mucosal glycine influx than were aromatic neutral. elimination of the isotope was rapid being strongly influenced by both shrimp molting and growth of mussels.. GA SO: Source Journal of Experimental Biology [J. SO: Source Rapp. mucosal transport processes.. NaN Sub(3). 1973. and anionic amino acids. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus marginatus AB: Abstract (1) Mucosal glycine influx occurred via a single carrier-mediated. W SO: Source Micronesica. 27-31.TI: Title [Accumulation and retention of SUP-237 Np in two marine invertebrates] AU: Author Guary. ebergy-consuming.min) with an absolute Na Super(+) requirement. whereas proline appeared to be a fully competitive inhibitor of luminal glycine transfer. NaCN. Exp. Record 477 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Kinetic characteristics of glycine transport by the isolated midgut ofthe marine shrimp. (6) A tentative model of glycine transport in the penaeid shrimp intestine is presented. Explor. 61.

Juvenile Malaysian prawns held under mass culture conditions for 60days increased in length from 98 to 112 per cent on 3 different diets. Mysis-larvae hatch out of the eggs within 18 days. Penaeus setiferus and Penaeus duorarum.J. Seven representative diets ranging from 25 to 40 per cent total protein were prepared and tested for their dry weight loss in water for 1-. Annu. 369-377. 3. Hymenocera seem to feed exclusively on starfish. 4. AB: Abstract An inexpensive. 2. Record 480 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title A method for obtaining metaphase chromosome spreads from marine shrimp with notes on the karyotypes of Penaeus aztecus. they are able to kill even large specimens. 1973. CA (USA). Vol. all prepared diets produced good growth with low mortality when compared with data reported by other workers. it tries to copulate with every available freshly moulted female. this sp seems to have a rather low population density which has been confirmed by field data. Every Hymenocera male has a clear preference for his individual mate with whom it stays most of the time. These shrimps are territorial (philopatric) and normally live in pairs. However. no. GH SO: Source Aquaculture. 7.AB: Abstract The marine shrimp H. picta of the Indo-Pacific region grows up to 5 cm in length. AU: Author Balazs. 1000 eggs which become attached to the underside of her abdomen. held under experimental conditions. Between moulting and egg-laying the female will allow one single copulation which is good for only one batch of eggs. Both sexes moult every 18-20 days. SO: Source . pp. World Mariculture Society. San Diego. There is no obvious cooperation between the members of a pair. 25 Jan 1976 AU: Author Milligan. Since individual recognition and pairbond do exist. simple and effective method is described for preparing water-stable diets suitable for aquatic crustacean feeding experiments. In general. Record 479 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Preliminary studies on the preparation and feeding of crustacean diets. Juvenile Penaeus japonicus held under mass culture conditions for 75 days increased in weight 1877 per cent on a 35 per cent protein diet. Growth appeared to increase with amount of protein in the diet. Meet. nor are 2 animals necessary to make hunting successful. After each moult the female is ready to spawn approx.and 5-hour periods.D. Diets were subsequently fed to both marine shrimp (Penaeus sp) and fresh water Malaysian prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Dissolution was influenced by diet composition. and loss was greater in fresh water than in seawater. Results of these trials showed that diets were capable of producing a 106-329 per cent increase in weight in juvenile penaeid shrimp over a 25-day period.

and Marine instrumentation. Aquacultural research service. Record 481 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The Oceanic Institute: 1986 Annual report. New programs initiated in the year include. aquaculture development. annual reports. karyotypes. Studies on the maturation and spawning of milkfish in captivity. Reproductive studies on milkfish. duorarum 2n=88 are given. US marine shrimp farming consortium. Soc. Education and training program. Comprehensive agriculture and aquaculture feeds production system. January 25-29. CA: Corporate Author Oceanic Inst. World Maricult. DM . DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: oceanographic surveys. Aquaculture planning grant. California. annual reports. P. CA: Corporate Author Oceanic Inst. HI (USA) Record 483 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Soybean meal utilization by marine shrimp. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: aquaculture development. The chromosome numbers for Penaeus aztecus 2n=88. and. setiferus 2n=90. and Education and training program. DE: Descriptors genetics. Meet. Mahi mahi marketing studies.. research programmes AB: Abstract The report describes accomplishments made during the year 1986 by the Oceanic Institute in the following prograes: Oceanography. research programmes AB: Abstract The report describes accomplishments made during the year 1987 by the Oceanic Institute in the following programs: Oceanography. Center for tropical and subtropical aquaculture. US marine shrimp farming consortium. marine fisheries. Penaeus aztecus. Annu. HI (USA) Record 482 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The Oceanic Institute: 1987 Annual report. Waimanalo. Penaeus setiferus.Proc. Penaeus duorarum AB: Abstract A method for demonstrating metaphase chromosome spreads from the hepato-pancreas tissue of marine shrimp is described. 1976 in cooperation with San Diego State University â § Syntex . Waimanalo.. Stock enhancement.In: Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Meeting [of the] World Mariculture Society held at San Diego. and P. AU: Author Akiyama.

207-225. and least-cost feed formulations detailed. diets. artificial feeding. The carbohydrate fraction of soybean meal appears to lower the total dry matter digestibility. P. vannamei. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae AB: Abstract A discussion is presented on marine shrimp nutrition providing information of special relevance to the commercial feed industry so as to help improve the nutritional quality and cost of shrimp feed. Article Geographic Terms: Colombia AB: Abstract The facilities installed at a shrimp culture farm located in the Cordoba department. pp. Colombia. fatty acids. minerals. stocking ponds. pp. lipids. AU: Author Akiyama. considering proteins. WG. Dominy. AL SO: Source AMERICAN SOYBEAN ASSOC. Feed ingredients and feed additives are also examined. 80-98. Record 485 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title (Experimental center for marine shrimp culture.. P. nutritive value. Penaeidae AB: Abstract Soybean meal appears to be highly digestible by marine shrimp and especially protein and amino acids. japonicus . Lawrence. proteins.. Further processing of soybean meal may increase its nutritional value to marine shrimp. carbohydrates. SINGAPORE (SINGAPORE). Article Taxonomic Terms: Glycine max. energy. are described. and minerals. Three different systems were constructed one is a triphasic system in which culture ponds . There is little doubt that soybean meal can replace a considerable amount of the marine animal meals while maintaining similar shrimp production performance. given that all the required nutrients are available. one needs to consider not only protein but energy.SO: Source AMERICAN SOYBEAN ASSOC. shrimp culture. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. M DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: aquaculture facilities. and other nutrients which are present in the marine animal meals and not in soybean meal. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. AU: Author Giraldo. nutritional requirements. When replacing these marine animal meals with soybean meal. artificial feeding. and P. fiber. diets. The dietary requirements of shrimp are outlined. Record 484 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Penaeid shrimp nutrition for the commercial feed industry: Revised.). Several studies have successfully substituted fish meal and shrimp meal with soybean meal. SINGAPORE (SINGAPORE). There appears to be little difference in soybean meal digestibility by 3 species of marine shrimp. vitamins. monodon . DM.

Record 487 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Disused Shrimp Ponds: Options for Redevelopment of Mangroves AU: Author Stevenson. Vol. the environmental conditions remaining following disuse. Record 488 of 500 DN: Database Name . Environmental effects. intensive culture. Environment management.]. Manage. RES. largely due to inappropriate construction methods. Fishery management. DEV. 119-139. Record 486 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine shrimp aquaculture in Thailand -. 425-435. 4. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus. Water quality. the second system is a modular one which consists of 10 pools based on the traditional system. The case for restoration. economic feasibility. and disease. and the flora and fauna composition of the pond area. hydrological conditions. NJ SO: Source Coastal Management [Coast. Fish ponds. Ecosystems. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. Shrimp culture. Mangrove swamps. trade. and pond disuse lead to alterations to the physical and chemical properties of soil. no. Coastal zone management. the needs and preferences of pond owners and coastal managers. pp. Pond construction. 12. and technical constraints. Vol. pp. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp fisheries. and the third is a level system which takes advantage of the natural topography. poor environmental conditions. or rehabilitation to a sustainable use. is strong. A number of shrimp ponds consequently are unproductive and lie idle. unofficial estimates have suggested that as many as 70% of ponds may be disused after a period in production. Thailand AB: Abstract (DBO). shrimp culture. overstocking. Failures AB: Abstract Associated with the rapid increase in the production of cultured marine shrimp has been large-scale conversion of mangroves to shrimp ponds. shellfish catch statistics.maintain an area relationship of 1:4:8. Production in many regions has proved to be unsustainable. Consideration must be given to the causes of production failure. Ponds. however. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. Aquaculture. Tubingen [ANIM. 43-44.].results and problems of an export oriented intensive culture AU: Author Uthoff. Accurate assessments of pond disuse are difficult to obtain. D SO: Source Animal research and development.

Although the development of TSV-resistant strains of P. There is also the potential to produce shrimp that respond well in disease-challenge tests used in breeding programs. the efficacy of breeding for disease resistance in penaeid shrimp has not been established because of the paucity of information about relevant genetic parameters. Systematic genetic selection is known to enhance disease resistance in a number of fanned plants and animals. vannamei have been evaluated for growth and TSV resistance. Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) has resulted in a direct economic loss on shrimp farms in excess of US$ 1 billion (Lightner 1995). SM. vannamei may benefit shrimp farmers. Mahler. resistance to YHV and WSSV has been evaluated. including fish (Gjedrem et al. In response to viral disease problems facing the shrimp farming industry. RSV resistance could be negatively correlated with resistance to other pathogens.ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Design and Economic Analysis of a Prototype Biosecure Shrimp Growout Facility AU: Author Moss. In addition to TSV. and screening influent water. 1997). Unfortunately. WJ. Infectious diseases. SPF populations of P. Disease control. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract Disease outbreaks have devastated the global shrimp fanning industry in recent years. and results indicate that there is high between-family variation in response to TSV challenge (Moss et al. Various pond management strategies have been employed to mitigate the risk of disease outbreak. including the stocking of high health seed. none of these strategies are effective in reducing the loss of shrimp due to diseases (Brock et al. Viruses can mutate. such as phenotypic and genetic variation. over 450 full-sib families of P. Aquaculture techniques. These differences between full-sib families suggest that it may be possible to improve TSV resistance through selection. and immunostimulants have proven effective in combating some pathogens in other meat-producing industries. 1998). 1994). Todate. although preliminary heritability estimates (h2) for TSV resistance are low. they are either unavailable to shrimp farmers or their efficacy is unproven. Mortality causes. Reynolds. Although vaccines. However. heritability. Results indicate that there is little or no innate resistance to either virus in the families of P. and genetic correlations between traits. Husbandry diseases. the US Marine Shrimp Farming Program (USMSFP) has developed a selective breeding program using specific pathogen free (SPF) Penaeus vannamei (Carr et al. the USMSFP is developing biosecure . 199 1). but perform poorly when stocked in commercial ponds. thereby rendering selectively bred shrimp incapable of defending themselves against new strains of virus. reducing water exchange rates. vannamei were acquired from different regions of their natural range to establish genetic diversity in the breeding program. vannamei currently maintained by the USMSFP. Mass mortalities of cultured shrimp due to Yellow Head Virus (YHV) and White Spot Syndrome Virus (WS SV) have occurred in the major shrimp fanning regions in Asia (Flegel et al. In the western hemisphere. LE SO: Source Proceedings of the US Marine Shrimp Farming Program Biosecurity Workshop. In light of the limitations inherent in breeding for disease resistance. medicated feeds. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Further. breeding for TSV resistance is not a panacea to the health problems plaguing the industry. 1997).

reduced water exchange will minimize the discharge of farm effluent into receiving waters. Risk assessment analysis can provide a means for focusing biosecure production system development in directions that will provide the greatest reduction in disease risks for given financial and technological constraints. the most appropriate means for pathogen exclusion from production systems can be implemented. Mortality causes. on February 14. intake water disinfection. Record 489 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Preliminary Development of a Biosecure Shrimp Production System AU: Author Browdy. CL. In systems where seawater disinfection is indicated. D SO: Source Proceedings of the US Marine Shrimp Farming Program Biosecurity Workshop. and the need for measures such as seawater disinfection can be determined. These include: 1) Development of risk analysis models for application on a site-specific basis. 199 8. and BOD (Ziemann et al. Disease control. In addition. Aquaculture development. It is expected that biosecure. community establishment after disinfection. including total suspended solids. Bratvold. cost-effective technologies will provide the shrimp farming industry with economically viable and environmentally sustainable alternatives to traditional shrimp culture in order to meet the growing demand for high quality shrimp products. Aquaculture facilities. including pond enclosure. Shrimp farm effluent typically exceeds federal and state water quality limits for many parameters. Based on risk assessment analysis. 2) Development of appropriate seawater and .shrimp production technologies that rely on minimal water exchange. appropriate methods for disinfection assurance must be developed based on water chemistry and viral susceptibility to disinfection as determined by bioassays. 1990). results of the study suggest logistical and technological limitations encountered in retrofitting earthen pond production systems for improved biosecurity. Infectious diseases. While shrimp production in this prototype system was comparable to control systems. preventing implementation of costly mitigation methods which may have minimal benefits. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae AB: Abstract One of the most important problems limiting shrimp mariculture production worldwide has been the spread of shrimp viruses. The model will determine the highest risk pathways for pathogen transfer and direct development of the most appropriate mitigation methods. This paper presents the design and economic analysis of a prototype biosecure shrimp growout facility developed by the Oceanic Institute and was presented at the USMSFP Biosecurity Workshop held in Las Vegas. A prototype biosecure shrimp production system is described. Control of disease will depend upon effective designs for more biosecure production systems which prevent pathogen transfer and establishment. nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. Primary knowledge gaps and research needs have been indentified. and shrimp harvest results. These technologies will protect cultured shrimp from potential disease vectors and are especially important in light of the increasing incidences of "exotic" viruses being identified in wild shrimp stocks. Nevada. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture.

Aquaculture facilities. Thus. in Idaho. and less water usage. increased management. . Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae AB: Abstract In recent years the spread of several viruses in shrimp culture worldwide has led to a renewed interest in production of shrimp in facilities that provide some degree of security from the viruses. Feed that is devoid of shrimp meal will be less likely to carry contamination than feeds that employ shrimp meal. evaluation of pathogen sensitivity to various disinfectants. Disease control. In 1979. the Stillman Ranch. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture techniques. Some of the earliest attempts at shrimp production in closed systems occurred in 1972 at the National Marine Fisheries Service Lab in Galveston. and that problem forms part of the rationale for the design concept presented here. That research has led to increased shrimp yields. Viral diseases. Biosecure Shrimp Growout System AU: Author Ogle. biosecure systems are very much like classical closed recirculating systems. smaller ponds. Florida. Shrimp culture. Michigan. In the 1980s. pathogens may be transported by infected seed (postlarval shrimp). water. whereas threats from birds and feral animals may be met by placing the systems in an enclosure. Research on the closed system culture of shrimp as well as other marine animals has been active continuously at the Gulf Coast Research Laboratory (GCRL ) in Mississippi and the Institute of Marine Science in Texas for the past two decades. Record 490 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Preliminary Design of a Closed. feed. and the most likely routes are those that support the most activity. and at Toesco Inc. Recirculating systems. JM SO: Source Proceedings of the US Marine Shrimp Farming Program Biosecurity Workshop. In particular. and Texas. JT.production system disinfection protocols. Biosecure production systems are typically enclosed or covered tanks that use recirculating seawater. The 1990s have seen efforts by individuals in New York. all of these results appear to coincide with the development of closed systems. such systems produce little wastewater that needs disposal. The use of zero water exchange systems (tanks or ponds) will reduce the likelihood of waterbome biohazards. Texas. By their nature. Lotz. other animals. There are many routes that pathogens can use to gain access to shrimp production systems. Solar Aquafarms in California and Aquabiotics in Chicago attempted commercial shrimp culture in closed systems. The final route of pathway introduction (people and equipment) is often the hardest to prevent. Red Ewald. These efforts should include basic evaluations of the advantages and disadvantages of various disinfectants. 3)Demonstration of effective technologies for retrofitting existing facilities and for new innovative systems based on sound financial analysis and viable production strategies. The mainstream of shrimp research for the past two decades has been focused on pond production. or by people and their equipment. and the study of the interrelationships between disinfection and culture system design and management. and Ecomar made their attempts in Texas. The danger from contaminated seed can be reduced by using a source of seed known to be free of specific pathogens.

in 1995.4 billion dollars a year (Johnson and Associates 1997). people have a tendency to use short cuts if faced with difficult or complicated procedures. The objectives of this paper are to develop and evaluate a biosecurity program that will result in an increased production of farm-raised shrimp in Texas and the US. Texas AB: Abstract Shrimp consumption worldwide is in an increasing trend with an annual growth of 7-9% in the US alone. Infectious diseases. Increasing production of farm-raised shrimp in the US is one solution to satisfy the increasing demand that can also help reduce the current huge trade imbalance. About 150.000. Preliminary observations suggest that viruses in imported frozen shrimp can stay potent for a few years.5 million. The second part will describe potential biosecurity management practices to reduce the risk of viral disease outbreaks during the shrimp nursery phase. Recent discoveries of wild shrimp populations infected with exotic viruses in South Carolina and Texas suggest that wild stocks are at risk. However. Adequate tools have to be developed to ensure that this increase in production will not result in a negative impact on wild shrimp stocks. more than 450. Although these viruses are not posing any threat to humans.Unrestricted movement of people and supplies between facilities is a very likely means of spreading disease and also a likely source of initial infection. Record 491 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Preliminary Design and Operating Specifications for a Biosecure Shrimp Growout Facility in Texas AU: Author Samocha. AL SO: Source Proceedings of the US Marine Shrimp Farming Program Biosecurity Workshop. Aquaculture facilities. the effect on native wild shrimp stocks and the US shrimp farms is unknown. Viral diseases. The third part of the paper will deal with potential methods to reduce the chance of . it must be kept in mind that even though people are an important pathway for disease introduction and spread. The first part of the paper will focus on disease prevention methods in cultured shrimp stocks. Article Geographic Terms: ASW. of shrimp were imported to satisfy the US market demand. USA. When designing a biosecure system. Disease control. With the recent viral disease outbreaks in farm-raised shrimp in Southeast Asia and Central America. of marine shrimp per year are harvested by the US fishing fleet. The value of the shrimp imported into the US is almost 2. More than 70% of the US production of shrimp on farms occurs in Texas.000 lb. a great part of the imported frozen shrimp is suspected to be infected by virulent viruses. The occurrence of viral diseases on US shrimp farms also suggests the US shrimp farms are at risk.000 lb. In contrast. the recent viral disease outbreaks in farm-raised shrimp in Texas and South Carolina suggest that careful planning and testing are essential for the growth of the shrimp farming industry in the US.000. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. TM. the farm-raised shrimp in the US is currently contributing less than 1% of the total shrimp consumed in the country at a value of $26. Aquaculture techniques. with minimal negative impact on native shrimp populations and receiving waters. Lawrence. However. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae.

The remaining 20. Biofiltration was to be achieved from the center raceway of each system measuring 126 feet by 3 feet by 4 feet and filled with 1. Texas. This location is south of Austin. Culley. aztecus. giving a volume of 36. Palaemonetes vulgaris.763 gallons and 152 square meters of surface area. ER. Two 65-hp compressors of I 000 cubic feet per minute capacity were installed to operate airlifts in each tank. Independent air conditioning units were installed along both sides of the building to maintain temperatures during the summers. To insure the zero discharge operation of the facility. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. Record 493 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Toxicity of various off-shore crude oils and dispersants to marine and estuarine shrimp. AU: Author Mills. Texas AB: Abstract Penbur Farms. Recirculating systems. Each single tank measured 26 feet wide by 62 feet long.000 square feet consisted of two independent hatcheries. DD Jr SO: Source Proceedings of the Twenty-fifth Annual Conference. P. Each four-tank growout system was equipped with a heat exchanger operating from a boiler to maintain water temperatures during the winter months. P SO: Source Proceedings of the US Marine Shrimp Farming Program Biosecurity Workshop. Inc. pp. AB: Abstract The acute effects of 4 crude oils and 2 oil spill removers on 4 spp of marine shrimp (Penacus setiferus. Aquaculture facilities. The indoor recirculating shrimp culture facility was sited on a 53-acre tract of land at 1235 South Loop 4.000 square feet of intensive growout. in Hays County. Disease control. and wet laboratory facilities. Article Geographic Terms: USA. The growout area was formed by nine independent systems consisting of four tanks each with a biofilter raceway down the middle of each system. Aquaculture techniques. just off Interstate Highway 35. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. algae production area.shrimp viral disease outbreaks during the growout phase. 642-650. . Southeastern Association of Game and Fish Commissioners. was a Texas corporation chartered in 1994. Buda. a nursery facility. Intensive culture. two independent maturation facilities.5 inch bio-balls. The facility was built in a 2OO-feet by 500-feet steel building and consisted of 80. a one-quarter acre concrete pond was built outside the building to retain all water discharged from the fan-n tanks. Record 492 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The AquaTech Seafood Closed System Shrimp Farm: A Central Texas Operation and Management Perspective AU: Author Boeing.

or zero. In doing so. employed in most other countries. genetically improved shrimp stocks and advanced disease diagnostic and treatment methods. Evidence indicates that the most serious effects of oil pollution would be noted in the shallower areas where high concentrations of toxic compounds might build up. Fishery management. A prerequisite for the importance of minimal. using primitive production methods. The USMSFP. Foreign producers. the USMSF elected to pattern its efforts after those used in successful US agricultural industries. Major efforts have been undertaken to establish defenses against disease problems encountered by existing shrimp farmers. Such systems fall under the umbrella term biosecurity. environmentally or economically acceptable in the United States. Disease control. labor. Aquaculture development. indicating a synergistic effect. Recently. is dedicated to research. The oil spill removers were much more toxic than the crude oils. shrimp disease agents and associated problems have spread from foreign countries into the United States. Aquaculture effluents. water exchange was rapidly established. pugio) were determined. has provided US producers with direct access to reliable supplies of high health. however. The Oceanic Institute (01) has principal responsibility for genetic improvement of shrimp stocks. and most certainly lower cost for environmental protection. Beginning in . Massive disease problems are directly associated with deteriorating water quality and poor quality broodstock and seed. From the very outset it has been clear that to be internationally competitive. would not be socially. diagnostics and treatment centers. are proving to be environmentally and economically unsustainable. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. Such primitive methods. Record 494 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Proceedings of the US Marine Shrimp Farming Program Biosecurity Workshop DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. gene marker and microsatellites. The Palaemonetes spp appeared more tolerant to all toxicants. including disease resistance. Tufts University (TUFTS) has the lead in molecular genetics.and P. development and transfer of technologies and products required for domestic shrimp farmers to become competitive in world markets. Problems are so severe that parallel efforts were initiated to develop production systems designed to exclude diseases from the populations under culture. Results of 48-hr bioassays showed that distinctive differences in toxicity existed between crude oils from different areas with all shrimp tested. The Waddell Mariculture Center (WMC) and the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station (TAES) work directly with shrimp farmers in resolving on-farm problems. Beginning in 1988. especially poultry and swine. enjoy lower costs for land. Aquaculture techniques. The University of Arizona (UAZ) and the Gulf Coast Research Laboratory (GCRL) are the principals in disease research. Environmental impact. the Consortium stated its position that primitive culture practices. Decapoda AB: Abstract The US Marine Shrimp Farming Program (USMSFP). initiated in 1985. Recirculating systems. Marine aquaculture. US producers must rely on advanced technologies and systems to offset cost advantages enjoyed by foreign producers. Addition of the oil spill removers to all crude oils at recommended application ratios increased the toxicity of both the crude oils and the oil spill removers. through the work of its six member institutions.

This paper reviews the major bacterial and viral pathogens of economically important finfishes with emphasis on seabass and grouper. fungi. CA: Corporate Author Asian Fisheries Soc. viral encephalitis and iridovirus infection. It is noted that expert panel presentations were taped only. Article Taxonomic Terms: Lates calcarifer. Flavobacterium AB: Abstract The floating net-cage culture has been established in early 1970s in Southeast Asia and since then it has become very popular. Appreciation is expressed to the speakers and other participants for their contributions to this workshop. November 22-26. Flexibacter. vulnificus) and myxobacterial infection Flexibacter sp.) dominate.). and Flavobacterium sp. OI. Viral diseases. Vibrio anguillarum. Commercial species. The workshop and proceedings publication were supported by the Oceanic Institute under contract with CSREES/USDA #95-38808-1424. GCRL. AU: Author Jiraporn Kasornchandra SO: Source Fourth Symposium on Diseases in Asian Aquaculture: Aquatic Animal Health for Sustainability. only 4-5 species particularly the seabass (Lates calcarifer) and grouper (Epinephelus spp. Record 495 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Major viral and bacterial diseases of marine fishes with emphasis on seabass and grouper. Infectious diseases. This workshop was scheduled as part of efforts to coordinate and integrate institutional programs. Transcription was on a best efforts basis. V. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine fish. Among the recognized causative agents of infectious diseases are protozoa. errors should be attributed to the editor and not the presenter. These proceedings include a list of participants.]. 1999. [unpag. Viral diseases have so far been confined to lymphocystis. Although several species of marine and diadromous fishes have been successfully cultured and commercialized. five invited workshop presentations and six expert panel presentations including questions and answers. Cebu City. Aetiology. Book of abstracts. Philippines. The expansion of the commercial culture of marine and estuarine finfishes had been accompanied by the occurrence of diseases of infectious and non-infectious etiologies. Manila (Philippines) Fish Health Sect.. anguillarum and V.FY97. Bacterial diseases have continued to parallel the growth of cage-culture marine finfishes in importance involving Vibrio species (particularly V. Cage culture. Vibrio. The workshop also was designed to provide opportunities for receiving industry input and information and technology transfer. Bacterial diseases. parahemolyticus. Waterfront Cebu City Hotel. bacteria and viruses. Record 496 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts . WMC and TAES accepted specific USMSFP assignments to begin development of biosecure and zero water exchange shrimp growout systems. Vibrio vulnificus. Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Epinephelus. Cebu International Convention Center.

Thailand AB: Abstract Primary shrimp cell cultures were developed from lymphoid organ. Philippines. in which YHV showed characteristics of cells rounding. Histology. The optimum conditions for primary culture in vivo were obtained in L-15 medium with an osmolality of approximately 710-730 mmol/kg. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon. Viral diseases. Disease detection. Book of abstracts. Aquaculture development. [unpag. Virulence. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Fish culture. Cultures were maintained for at least 43 days. November 22-26. Penaeus monodon in double-strength Leibovitz's L-15 medium supplemented with 15% fetal bovine serum.]. Viral diseases. yellow head virus (YHV) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Cebu International Convention Center. Book of abstracts. Article Taxonomic Terms: Epinephelus coioides. Record 497 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Detection of blister disease in brown-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides in Thailand. Cytopathic effect (CPE) induced by these two viruses in primary shrimp cells were similar. Sarawuth Sriwatanavarunyou SO: Source Fourth Symposium on Diseases in Asian Aquaculture: Aquatic Animal Health for Sustainability. 1999. AU: Author Jiraporn Kasornchandra. 1% glucose. Manila (Philippines) Fish Health Sect. Ovaries. AU: Author Raewat Khongpradit.TI: Title Recent progress in the development of shrimp cell cultures in Thailand. Prophylaxis. November 22-26. Waterfront Cebu City Hotel. a temperature range of 25-28 degree C and incubation in a normal atmosphere. Thailand AB: Abstract . Within three days. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. Philippines. CA: Corporate Author Asian Fisheries Soc. Cebu City. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Primary lymphoid cell cultures were also examined for supporting the propagation of shrimp viruses. 5 g/L NaCl and 10% shrimp meat extract. Raewat Khongpradit SO: Source Fourth Symposium on Diseases in Asian Aquaculture: Aquatic Animal Health for Sustainability. Heart. Cebu International Convention Center. Husbandry diseases. Both epithelial-like and fibroblastic-like cells were observed from those organs within 24-48 h incubation. Lymphatic system. Waterfront Cebu City Hotel. Jiraporn Kasornchandra. 1999. 80% confluent monolayers were obtained from the lymphoid organ while cultures from other tissues required five days. No cell aggregation was observed in the WSSV-infected cells. Only cells from lymphoid organ can be subcultured and confluent monolayers achieved within 10 days post-spilt.]. Cell culture. Cebu City. [unpag. aggregation followed by detachment and lysis. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. heart and ovaries of black tiger shrimp.. Healthy cultures of the lymphoid cells did not persist beyond the third passage.

pp. Epinephelus coioides. Polymerase chain reaction. spleen. Manila (Philippines) Fish Health Sect. Results indicated that iridovirus was the causative agent of the blister disease in brown-spotted grouper and its name 'GIV-2' has been tentatively proposed. nauplii. Liver showed severe blood congestion. DNA. Selective breeding. 2 . in southern Thailand in 1995-1996 and 1998. An emphasis is placed on the use of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based technology to amplify targeted segments of the shrimp genome that can be used as markers to manage the selective breeding process. Intron amplification and sequencing showed a large amount genetic heterozygosity in both naturally occuring stocks and hatchery generated populations. Results of research that led to the selection of introns in nuclear genes as method of choice for a DNA based management system for Penaeus vannamei are presented. Recife-PE. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Histopathological changes showed highly localized severe inflammation of the epidermal and dermal layer. Sustainable development. Recife-PE. Desenvolvimento com sustentabilidade. and post larvae will become established as a new segment of the industry. Record 498 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title DNA marker assisted selective breeding of marine shrimp.. Volume 1: Conferencias. Brood stocks. containing exudation and hemorrhagic infiltration at the area of the intact layer. Infection trials carried out on healthy juvenile grouper by immersion demonstrated pathogenicity similar to those found in natural infections. R SO: Source (Aquaculture Brazil '98. The commercial production of genetically improved shrimp broodstock. respectively at temperature ranging from 25-30 degree C. Production of shrimp stocks that are homozygous for selected DNA markers allows comparisons of stock performance in the same production systems. Histopathological changes and virological examination of experimentally infected fish coincided with naturally infected. The dermis was necrotized. Proceedings.Virological and histological investigations were conducted on a serious disease outbreak of cultured brown-spotted grouper. Aquaculture techniques. Epithelioma Papulosum Cyprini (EPC) and blue gill fry (BF-2) cell lines. 335-348. Volume 1: Lectures ). kidney and lesions. This will result in more dependable performance and improved profits for shrimp . CA: Corporate Author Asian Fisheries Soc. 2 a 6 de novembro de 1998. Brazil.6 November 1998. Inoculation of cell-free homogenates of pooled visceral organs and lesions from the diseased fish produced cytopathic effect (CPE) in grouper fin (GF). This approach makes it possible to evaluate selected lines for inbreeding and to make crosses to restore desired performance levels. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the presence of icosahedral to round-shaped virions with a diameter of 180-200 nm in the infected cells of liver. Aquicultura Brasil '98. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract A review is presented of various approaches to and methods for managing a selective breeding program for marine shrimp. AU: Author Shleser. Brasil. Typical signs include the appearance of whitish blisters on the body and fins. Anais.

how innovative the presentation is and also other aspects related to the environmental characteristics of the region from where the product originated. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Fish culture. adopted by EU countries through their respective fishing and aquaculture ministries and agencies. Brasil. its nutritional value. both from fishery activities and from aquaculture. and marketing entities (including supermarkets. where the main players are changing their market share through mergers and acquisitions with large companies devoted to the marketing of products other than seafood. Aquicultura Brasil '98. Europe AB: Abstract Tilapia is the second most important aquaculture species in the world today. associations of seafood producers. Aquaculture products.S. which import over 22% of the global production. after marine shrimp and Atlantic salmon. Record 499 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title (Analysis of the present trend of tilapia marketing in the United States of America and in the European Union ). Volume 1: Lectures ). ease of preparation. Recife-PE. 349-364.. Marketing.685 mt in 1992 to 45. Sustainable development. 2 . whole fish. During the last 15 years consumption of seafood in countries of the European Union (EU) has grown significantly due to various factors. C. etc. tilapia production increased from 2. tilapia consumption went from 6. Market research. freshness.. processing plants and industrial chambers. This rapid growth can be attributed to a greater availability of products in markets. Jory. Brazil.farmers. Volume 1: Conferencias.S. Department of Commerce show that between the second semester in 1996 to the end of 1997 tilapia imports increased from 4. AU: Author Alceste. DE SO: Source (Aquaculture Brazil '98. Pooling these data show that U. This is partly due to the strong advertising efforts to motivate consumers to increase consumption of seafood products.S. pp. Another factor has to do with the traditional ways of marketing seafood products in Europe. One of these is that. including Spain. at the time the consumer is purchasing seafood products he/she is using several selection criteria (in addition to price). This has generated a strong dependency on seafood imports from third countries (outside the EU) with the objective of fulfilling this growing demand in countries with the highest rates of seafood consumption.619 mt.). These ways are undergoing evident modifications. Proceedings.621 mt in 1997.417 to 37. Anais.002 mt. Tilapia products have rapidly become one of the most popular seafood products in the U. and the third most important seafood commodity imported into the U.268 to 8. catering and franchising companies) among others. Article Taxonomic Terms: Tilapia. and this is evident from the growth rate experienced by tilapia imports in the past few years.6 November 1998.S. This dependency situation tends to increase due to the policies to . Trade. fillets. Italy and Germany. Desenvolvimento com sustentabilidade. This was observed at both the retail and the wholesale levels. live tilapia. Concurrently U. Article Geographic Terms: USA.S. sanitary aspects related to product handling. both in volume and in the various presentations (eg. France. Available data from the U. 2 a 6 de novembro de 1998. including organoleptic characteristics. Recife-PE.

Proceedings. very strict sanitary norms must be followed to guarantee products of the highest quality. Details about mating frequency. Although large-scale tilapia producers in Latin American countries have as a goal the exporting of their products to the U. Article Geographic Terms: Western Hemisphere AB: Abstract A survey form was sent to a cross section of shrimp maturation biologists to determine the status and future concerns of the shrimp hatchery industry in the western hemisphere. Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus stylirostris. Hatcheries. Selective breeding. DK SO: Source (Aquaculture Brazil '98. Recife-PE. Aquicultura Brasil '98. Brasil. Brazil. insemination method. Sustainable development. AU: Author Kawahigashi. Volume 1: Conferencias. and EU countries' markets. 2) Broodstock Quality and Pond Management. Record 500 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Overview of commercial maturation technology in the Western Hemisphere. To have access to the EU seafood markets. respondents were asked to provide their views on maturation research priorities. 2 . Finally. Areas of shared concern were 1) Shrimp Domestication through Genetic Selection. Desenvolvimento com sustentabilidade. 381-392. and nutrition.S. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture.reduce fishing effort currently implemented by EU countries in its common fishing areas. average spawn size. This maturation survey encompassed shrimp farming regions in nine countries culturing the 'open-thelycum' marine shrimp. pp. Recife-PE. The participants responded to technical questions regarding the origin of broodstock (pond-reared or ocean-caught). Anais. and broodstock replacement value was also tabulated. eyestalk ablation. nauplii production.6 November 1998. 3) Broodstock Nutrition. 4) Broodstock Certification and 5) Biosecurity Systems. . The results obtained from this survey helped to quantify methods and criteria used in the management of these maturation facilities. Brood stocks. a significant portion of their production is being directed to local markets due to the high prices that tilapia and its products command in these markets. 2 a 6 de novembro de 1998. Volume 1: Lectures ).