Tue Apr 24 21:14:12 EDT 2007 CSA Database: ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts Query: marine shrimp

Record 1 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Males also have their time of the month! Cyclic disposal of old spermatophores, timed by the molt cycle, in a marine shrimp AU: Author Parnes, Shmuel; Raviv, Shaul; Shechter, Asaf; Sagi, Amir SO: Source Journal of Experimental Biology [J. Exp. Biol.]. Vol. 209, no. 24, pp. 4974-4983. Dec 2006. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Males; Marine crustaceans; Reproductive cycle; Spawning; Sperm; Spermatophores; Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract That sexually mature females go through hormonally regulated reproductive cycles is a well-established phenomenon in sexually reproducing organisms. Males, on the other hand, are commonly regarded as being continuously ready to mate. `Programmed sperm degradation' on a periodic basis or an innate sperm `expiry date' have never been shown. This manuscript describes a newly discovered molt-dependent mechanism by which old sperm is periodically removed from the reproductive system of male Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp. Firstly, it is shown that the spermatophores of males held in captivity become progressively melanized, a process that eventually renders them impotent. Then, by using melanin specks as a color marker, it is demonstrated that this phenomenon can be delayed and even reversed as long as the males remain sexually active. Lastly and most importantly, it is shown that male shrimp go through reproductive cycles that are strictly associated with their molt cycles, which, in turn, are hormonally regulated. Intact intermolt spermatophores disappeared about 12 h premolt, and a new pair of spermatophores appeared in the ampoules the day after the males had molted. This phenomenon was observed in an almost constant portion of males, both those in an all-male population and those in mixed male/female populations, even during the times that the females of those populations were not vitellogenically active. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of males of any animal species exhibiting endogenous reproductive cycles, as do females, and of the finding that spermatozoa have a predetermined expiry date, a feature that may possibly contribute to male fitness. Record 2 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Morphological and biochemical changes in the muscle of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei during the molt cycle AU: Author de Oliveira Cesar, JR; Zhao, B; Malecha, S; Ako, H; Yang, J SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture]. Vol. 261, no. 2, pp. 688-694. 24 Nov 2006.

DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Actin; Animal appendages; Biochemical composition; DNA; Marine aquaculture; Marine crustaceans; Muscles; Nucleic acids; Shrimp culture; Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei; Penaeidae AB: Abstract Morphological changes and biochemical composition of abdominal muscles over the molt cycle were investigated in juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. Eight molt stages were characterized and clear uropod images are presented. Molt frequency was highly correlated with the age of the shrimp. Juvenile shrimps appeared to molt faster at one month of age (4.6+/-0.5 days/cycle), slow to 11.8+/-1.7 days/cycle at three months of age, and reach a long molt cycle at six months (17.2+/-2.7 days/cycle). Myofiber cross-sectional images revealed specific morphological changes in abdominal muscle associated with each molt stage. Expanded fiber size was observed during intermolt stages. Water content and total soluble proteins were balanced throughout the molt cycle. Total DNA concentration increased in intermolt and premolt, while total RNA concentration remained stable except in late-premolt stages. SDS-PAGE analysis showed high levels of actin and myosin in postmolt, reaching a plateau in intermolt and declining in premolt. These results suggest the occurrence of muscle fiber rearrangement in both the premolt and postmolt stages. Abdominal muscle buildup occurs mostly during the intermolt stage. Record 3 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title AFLP-based genetic linkage map of marine shrimp Penaeus (Fenneropenaeus) chinensis AU: Author Li, Z; Li, J; Wang, Q; He, Y; Liu, P SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture]. Vol. 261, no. 2, pp. 463-472. 24 Nov 2006. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Amplified fragment length polymorphism; Body size; Gene mapping; Genomes; Growth; Marine aquaculture; Marine crustaceans; New varieties; Quantitative trait loci; Shrimp culture; Article Taxonomic Terms: Fenneropenaeus chinensis; Penaeidae; Penaeus; Article Geographic Terms: INW, Huanghai Sea AB: Abstract This paper presents the genetic linkage map of the Chinese shrimp Penaeus (Fenneropenaeus) chinensis constructed with 472 AFLP markers. A hundred F sub(1) progeny from an intercross between a female from the new variety ''Yellow Sea No. 1'' and wild caught male used for the mapping study. Two separate maps were constructed for each parent. The female linkage map consisted of 197 marker loci forming 35 linkage groups and spanned a total length of 2191.1 cM, with an average marker space of 13.5 cM. The male map consisted of 194 marker loci mapped to 36 linkage groups and spanned a total length of 1737.3 cM, with an average marker spacing of 11.0 cM. The level of segregation distortion observed in this study was 12.2%. The estimated genome length of P. chinensis was 3150.3 cM for the female and 2549.3 cM for the male, respectively. The observed genome coverage was 69.6% for the female and 68.1% for the male map. The linkage maps constructed in this study provide basic information for further linkage studies on Chinese shrimp, and more importantly, the construction of the maps are part of the work of the genetic breeding programs which will be used for

growth discovered in the QTL analysis of P. chinensis. Record 4 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Experimental transmission and tissue tropism of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in two species of lobsters, Panulirus homarus and Panulirus ornatus AU: Author Syed Musthaq, S; Sudhakaran, R; Balasubramanian, G; Sahul Hameed, AS SO: Source Journal of Invertebrate Pathology [J. Invertebr. Pathol.]. Vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 75-80. Oct 2006. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Appendages; DNA; Eyestalks; Gills; Head; Hemolymph; Marine crustaceans; Mortality; Mortality causes; Muscles; Nucleotide sequence; Pathology; Polymerase chain reaction; Stomach; Stomach content; Symptoms; Tails; Tropism; Western blotting; Article Taxonomic Terms: Homarus americanus; Panulirus homarus; Panulirus ornatus; White spot syndrome virus AB: Abstract The susceptibility of two species of lobsters, Panulirus homarus and Panulirus ornatus to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was tested by oral route and intramuscular injection. The results revealed that these lobsters were as highly susceptible as marine shrimp when the WSSV was administered intramuscularly. The WSSV caused 100% mortality in both Panulirus homarus and Panulirus ornatus, at 168 and 120h, respectively, after intramuscular injection and failed to cause mortality when given orally. The presence of WSSV in moribund lobsters was confirmed by single-step and nested PCR, Western blot, histology, and bioassay test. It was found in eyestalk, gill, head muscle, tail muscle, hemolymph, appendages, and stomach. In lobsters with oral route infection, all tested organs except stomach and head muscle was negative for WSSV by nested PCR at 120h post-inoculation. The stomach and head muscle was positive by nested PCR at 120h p.i., but negative at 168h p.i. Western blot analysis was negative in all the tested organs of both species of lobster at 120h post-inoculation by oral route. Record 5 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Testing Three Models On The Adaptive Significance Of Protandric Simultaneous Hermaphroditism In A Marine Shrimp AU: Author Baeza, JA SO: Source Evolution [Evolution]. Vol. 60, no. 9, pp. 1840-1850. Sep 2006. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Bioenergetics; Body size; Breeding success; Evolution; Growth rate; Hermaphroditism; Marine crustaceans; Mortality factors; Ontogeny; Protandry; Reproduction; Reproductive behavior; Reproductive behaviour; Sex reversal; Spawning; Article Taxonomic Terms: Lysmata; Lysmata wurdemanni AB: Abstract Protandric simultaneous hermaphroditism, as reported for shrimps in

the genus Lysmata, is a sexual system in which individuals invariably reproduce as males first and later in life as simultaneous hermaphrodites. I tested three models (i.e., sex-dependent energetic costs, sex-dependent mortality rates and sex-dependent time commitments) in an attempt to explain the adaptive value of protandric simultaneous hermaphroditism in the shrimp L. wurdemanni. Specific assumptions and predictions of each model were evaluated using manipulative experiments. In the laboratory, males grew faster than simultaneous hermaphrodites of the same size and age, an indication that the female function incurs higher energetic costs of reproduction than the male function. Also, large SHPs were more successful in monopolizing food than small males. The sex-dependent growth rate and size-dependent resource holding power agree with predictions of the sex-dependent energetic cost model. The time that simultaneous hermaphrodites required for replenishing their sperm reservoirs after mating as males was much shorter (2 days) than the time required to brood one clutch of embryos (11 days). Also, small simultaneous hermaphrodites experienced heavier mortality due to predatory fishes than large ones. The sex-dependent reproductive time commitment and size-dependent mortality agree with predictions of the sex-dependent time commitment model. Conversely, I found no evidence that the sex-dependent mortality model explains protandric simultaneous hermaphroditism in the studied species. In contrast to model predictions, mortality due to predatory fishes suffered by simultaneous hermaphrodites was not greater than that suffered by males of the same body size. In L. wurdemanni, the relationship between sex-specific investment and reproductive success seems to change during ontogeny in a way that is consistent with an adaptive adjustment of sex allocation to improve age-specific reproductive success. Record 6 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Growth, survival and histological responses of the marine shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, to three dosage levels of oxytetracycline AU: Author Bray, WA; Williams, RR; Lightner, DV; Lawrence, AL SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture]. Vol. 258, no. 1-4, pp. 97-108. 31 Aug 2006. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans; Toxicity; Marine aquaculture; Exoskeleton; Drugs; Shrimp culture; Histology; Growth rate; Feed composition; Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei; Article Geographic Terms: USA AB: Abstract Toxicity of oxytetracycline (OTC) in prepared feed for penaeid shrimp was evaluated in a 42-day trial with Litopenaeus vannamei (initial mean weight, 10.3 g+/-0.504 S.D.). Four treatments consisted of: (1) 0.0 g/kg OTC (control feed), (2) 4.5 g/kg OTC (1x treatment, maximum recommended dose), (3) 13.5 g/kg OTC (3x treatment) and (4) 22.5 g/kg OTC (5x treatment). Each treatment consisted of 11 replicate tanks, with 8 shrimp per replicate. The test period was three times the recommended OTC label dosing period (14 days). This target animal safety study was conducted under GLP (Good Laboratory Practices) conditions, as part of submissions to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine for approval of

therapeutic use of OTC in penaeid shrimp feeds. Growth rate (weight gain) was found to be OTC-dose-related. There was no significant difference in mean weight gain between control and 1x OTC treatments (9.1 g and 9.2 g, respectively), but growth was strongly depressed in the 3x and 5x treatments (1.50 g and 4.02 g, respectively). There did not appear to be a dose response in mean percent survival of test shrimp (range: 93.2% to 98.9%). Abnormal soft exoskeletons (=shell, cuticle) were observed in 66.7% to 90.9% of shrimp in the 3x and 5x treatments after 42 days, compared with 0.0% and 9.1% in control and 1x treatments, respectively (from sample N=3 per tank=N=33 per treatment, 37.5% of individuals stocked). The high numbers of soft exoskeletons observed could be related to a deficiency of calcium/magnesium, principal shell components, due to divalent cation-chelating properties of OTC. Some dose-related histological changes were apparent in the hepatopancreas (HP) of experimental shrimp sampled after 42 days of OTC feeds. Only slight changes were apparent in the histological presentation of the HPs of the shrimp from the 0x (untreated control) and the 1x treatment levels. In contrast, shrimp sampled from the 3x and 5x OTC treatment levels showed generally reduced levels of lipid droplet storage in the HP, and some necrosis and sloughing of the HP tubule epithelium. The virtually complete absence of HP lipids and the presence of moderate atrophy of the proximal portion of the HP tubules, indicated by markedly reduced tubule epithelial cell height, were the principal characteristics of the HP of shrimp sampled from the 5x OTC group. Mitotic activity in E-cells, a measure of the regenerative capability of the HP, was constant across all experimental groups regardless of the OTC level in the experimental feed. Mean OTC consumed per shrimp in the 1x treatment was estimated to be 0.09813 g over 42 days, compared with 0.16850 g and 0.29687 g in the 3x and 5x treatments, respectively. Feeds containing OTC at higher levels (3x and 5x) were consumed at much lower rates than control and 1x treatments, indicating lower palatability and/or toxicity of extreme dosage levels. The 3x and 5x treatments consumed approximately 46% less feed than the control and 1x treatments. Record 7 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The effects of selective breeding on the genetic structure of shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis populations AU: Author Li, Z; Li, J; Wang, Q; He, Y; Liu, P SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture]. Vol. 258, no. 1-4, pp. 278-282. 31 Aug 2006. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Amplified fragment length polymorphism; Biopolymorphism; Breeding; Differentiation; Genetic diversity; Genetic structure; Growth; Heterozygosity; Marine aquaculture; Marine crustaceans; Population genetics; Selective breeding; Shrimp culture; Article Taxonomic Terms: Fenneropenaeus chinensis; Penaeidae AB: Abstract Seven AFLP primer sets were used to investigate the genetic structure of a wild base population and three generations of marine shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis selected for fast growth (F5-F7). More than 500 bands were generated in total. On average, each primer set detected 33.7 polymorphic markers. The expected average heterozygosity

inactivity and cleaning were recorded through instantaneous focal sampling. genetic diversity tended to reduce. Haribabu. 257. Syed Musthaq. Augusto de Lara Menezes. Penaeidae AB: Abstract Lack of information on the daily activity patterns of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone 1931) might result in inadequate feed management strategies in shrimp farms. 1-4.097. Feed. Virulence. 1001-1006.57 plus or minus 1. Swimming. 30 Jun 2006. Record 8 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Daily activity pattern of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone 1931) juveniles under laboratory conditions AU: Author Pontes. Juveniles. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei. 37. Freshwater environments. Viruses.085 to 0. half in light and half in dark phase.]. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. Substrate exploration. Mortality. Vol. Shrimp culture. Stomach. Cibele Soares. Vol. Intestine. In order to provide information to improve feed management in shrimp farms. Cleaning occurred evenly in both the light and the dark. S. with a most intense peak 7 h after light phase onset. Feed was provided once a day. the differentiation between generations became less. Mortality causes. using L. pp. Disease detection. Intestines. exploration of substrate. Temporal variations. P. 136-141. which characterizes the search for food. During the dark phase.01 g). the daily activity of juvenile shrimp reared in glass aquaria was studied. C. Pereira de Lima. and again alternated with exploration. Mukherjee. equivalent to 33 shrimp m super(-2). Meat. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans. vannamei (7. Muscles. no. R. Record 9 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Experimental transmission of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) in three species of marine shrimp (Penaeus indicus. at 10% of tank biomass. Gills. inactivity was predominant. pp. Viral diseases. Disease transmission. 10. . Patricia SO: Source Aquaculture Research [Aquacult. Maria de Fatima. swimming was predominant and alternated with exploration. As time under selection increased. Res. Prawn culture. Arruda. occurred in both dark and light phases. Penaeus japonicus and Penaeus monodon) AU: Author Sudhakaran.ranged from 0. Diurnal variations. Jul 2006. Gopal. over 280 h in 15 min h super(-1) windows. Shrimp culture. indicating this as the optimal feed offer. Thirty-two shrimp were observed. Polymerase chain reaction. Marine crustaceans. SC. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Activity patterns. Hemolymph. In the light phase. and the variation of genetic structure of the populations became smaller. no. Sahul Hameed. AS SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture]. Alexandre.

and heterotrophic removal of ammonia-nitrogen in aquaculture systems AU: Author Ebeling. Carbonate sediments. The reinoculation studies using the inoculum of MrNV and XSV prepared from marine shrimp caused 100% mortality in the post-larvae of freshwater prawn and the moribund post-larvae showed positive for these viruses by RT-PCR. ammonia-nitrogen buildup from the metabolism of feed is usually the second limiting factor to increase production levels after dissolved oxygen. The results revealed that these marine shrimp were not susceptible to these viruses which failed to produce mortality in shrimp. and heterotrophic bacterial conversion of ammonia-nitrogen directly to microbial biomass. Recirculating systems. Penaeus japonicus and Penaeus monodon) to Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV) was tested by oral route and intramuscular injection. In the past several years. 1-4. At high carbon . 346-358. pond aquaculture has used photoautotrophic algae based systems to control inorganic nitrogen buildup. Traditionally. Record 10 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Engineering analysis of the stoichiometry of photoautotrophic. abdominal muscle. heterotrophic bacterial growth is stimulated through the addition of organic carbonaceous substrate. intestine and hemolymph of three species of shrimp injected with viruses. Extra small virus AB: Abstract The susceptibility of three species of marine shrimp (Penaeus indicus. Article Taxonomic Terms: Algae. Penaeus monodon. Bacteria. the primary strategy in intensive recirculating production systems for controlling ammonia-nitrogen is using large fixed-cell bioreactors. 257. Bioreactors. These viruses were also found in different tissues of shrimp fed with WTD-infected prawn meat. autotrophic bacterial conversion of ammonia-nitrogen to nitrate-nitrogen. Timmons. Vol. Nodavirus. JM. RT-PCR analysis revealed the presence of MrNV and XSV in different organs such as gill. Intensive culture. no. In this third pathway. Aquaculture systems. Currently. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Ammonia. but not in control groups fed with uninfected meat. JJ SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture]. This option utilizes chemosynthetic autotrophic bacteria. Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Penaeidae AB: Abstract In intensive aquaculture systems. Oxidation. 30 Jun 2006. MB. Pond culture. for the nitrification of ammonia-nitrogen to nitrite-nitrogen and finally to nitrate-nitrogen. Water quality control. pp. Bisogni. Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria (AOB) and Nitrite Oxidizing Bacteria (NOB). Nitrogen. Biogeochemistry. stomach. autotrophic. Marsupenaeus japonicus.Fenneropenaeus indicus. The three nitrogen conversion pathways traditionally used for the removal of ammonia-nitrogen in aquaculture systems are photoautotrophic removal by algae. zero-exchange management systems have been developed that are based on heterotrophic bacteria and have been promoted for the intensive production of marine shrimp. The results of present study indicate the possibility of marine shrimp acting as reservoir for MrNV and XSV and maintaining their virulence in tissue system of marine shrimp. Culture media.

This paper reviews these three ammonia removal pathways. Animal physiology. Jun 2006. aquaculture techniques. Shrimp culture.9 billion in 2003. B . shrimp producers compete to provide a high value product at low cost. Shrimp fisheries. develops a set of stoichiometric balanced relationships using half-reaction relationships.to nitrogen (C/N) feed ratios. Economics. 50-59. Van Der Steen. Biotechnological application is a relatively new area in the shrimp industry especially with a respect to shrimp production in controlled environments. Int. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae AB: Abstract The United States imported US$10. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans. Biotechnology. In addition. worth $4 billion. Record 11 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Reproductive technologies for genetic improvement and marine shrimp production in controlled environments AU: Author Alok. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Indexing in process AB: Abstract These studies were conducted to evaluate various management practices for shrimp nurseries and possible effects on growout following nursing. 66. pp. 6349. Abst. H SO: Source World Aquaculture [World Aquacult. was comprised of marine shrimp.]. Abeydeera. & Eng. 2. no. L. Pt. Aquaculture economics. 12. 37. Population genetics. no. Consumers. Genetic selection using modern molecular and quantitative tools has enormous potential but there is a lack of associated biotechnologies required for their optimal application in shrimp genetic improvement programs and commercial production of postlarvae (PL). heterotrophic bacteria will assimilate ammonia-nitrogen directly into cellular protein.]. Vol. Vol. Seafood. (2) nursery duration and (3) . D. Jun 2006. Aquaculture development. Forty percent of the imported seafood. Globally. Shrimp breeding companies are competing to provide high value shrimp to farmers to meet requirements of not only the shrimp producers but also retailers and consumers. microbial growth fundamentals are used to characterize production of volatile and total suspended solids for autotrophic and heterotrophic systems. and discusses their impact on water quality. Record 12 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title An evaluation of nursery techniques and feed management during culture of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei AU: Author Zelaya. Objectives of the nursery studies were to evaluate the influence of: (1) nursery stocking rates.Sci. Reproduction. Oscar SO: Source Dissertation Abstracts International Part B: Science and Engineering [Diss. p.

Problems with diseases are common in aquaculture and at the least seven species of . 28 Apr 2006. J SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture]. Ponds. Decapoda. (2) Late aggressive feeding schedule which minimized early feed inputs when natural productivity is high and maximize feed inputs late in the cycle when natural productivity is more likely to be limiting.1-ha plastic lined production ponds were used for the grow out phase. Findings of the studies suggest that nursery densities in the range of 25 to 65 PL/L have no influence on subsequent growth and survival during grow out. The use of algal paste did not produce better results than algae that grew naturally in nursery tanks. however under grow out conditions nursed juveniles did not differ significantly in production criteria from direct stocked shrimp. Gulf Shores. The studies included nursery phases and a growout phases. When evaluating type and combination of diets. growth and feed conversion during the nursery phase and on survival. Decapoda) submitted to antibiotic treatment AU: Author Nogueira-Lima. The evaluation of feed management strategies was conducted with the objective of incorporating general aquaculture considerations into a management and feeding program and evaluating the effects and economic implications of three feeding schedules: (1) Early aggressive feeding schedule with high feed inputs early in the cycle to maximize early growth of the shrimp but then to minimize feed inputs during the end of the production when water duality is most unstable. and (3) Intermediate feeding (IF) which is intermediate to EAF and LAF. Mafezoli. 748-757. Feed composition.9 m) located inside a greenhouse and sixteen round plastic tanks of 1 m super(3). Alabama. 1931) (Crustacea. Vibrio. However at a higher density (65pl/L).) Record 13 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Oxytetracycline residues in cultivated marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone. Article Geographic Terms: Brazil AB: Abstract Shrimp culture is a very important economic activity in the world and the fastest growing industry in Northeastern Brazil. located under a plastic cover. The experiments were conducted at the Claude Peteet Mariculture Center. individual shrimp size and total production during the following grow out phase. TCV.the use of dried feed. Vibriosis. in terms of final average weight and biomass loading results suggest that there is a clear advantage in supplementing dried feeds with artemia for 3 days. pp. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Disease control. Postlarvae in the best performing nursery treatments also had higher yields and better size distributions during the growout phase.5 x 0. Gesteira.0 x 1. no. Six fiberglass tanks (3. 1-4. Aquatic drugs. Shrimp culture. When comparing a nursery period of 14 and 21 days. Twelve 0. on survival. algae and newly hatched artemia. Marine crustaceans. 254. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. Litopenaeus vannamei. Husbandry diseases. it was found that a longer nursery period enhanced larger juveniles and improved nursery biomass loading. Antibiotics. were used for the nursery phase of the experiments. Bacterial diseases. (Abstract shortened by UMI. Vol. Pathogens. improved feed and culture systems were required. AC.

Medicated animals were sampled periodically during the treatment period and thereafter. whereas in freshwater . Genes. and transcript was detected at 12 h p. indicus and M. Deoxyribonuclease. The mean OTC tissue residue concentration observed for both experimental environments is within the limits of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determined for vibriosis treatment. However. Transcription. Macrobrachium rosenbergii.Vibrio bacteria have been documented infecting shrimps during different culture stages. white spot syndrome.21 and 4. Viruses. Decapoda. Oxytetracycline (OTC) has been widely used against these pathogens. Although conditions were similar for both treatments. Article Taxonomic Terms: White spot syndrome virus. Sudhakaran. G. Sahul Hameed. Prawn culture. Habitat. Macrobrachium rosenbergii and freshwater crab. After 7 and 12 days of exposure to OTC. respectively. rosenbergii and P. monoceros. Syed Musthaq. pp.i. In P. 71-81. Temporal variations. Freshwater environments. 1-4. 31 Mar 2006. The VP28 gene from Indian WSSV isolate was sequenced and the sequence was deposited in GenBank (accession no.1 mu g/g. Marine crustaceans. Record 14 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Temporal analysis of VP28 gene of Indian white spot syndrome virus isolate (WSSV) in different crustacean hosts AU: Author Yoganandhan. Two trials were conducted: in indoor tanks under laboratory-controlled conditions and in cages installed in an outdoor commercial shrimp grow-out pond. 253. a longer withdrawal period is recommended to ensure complete drug depletion. Penaeus indicus. S. Gills. indicus. Freshwater crustaceans. the maximum tissue residue levels were 17. monoceros. AS SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture]. Paratelphusa hydrodromous. M.i. Article Geographic Terms: India AB: Abstract Temporal analysis of VP28 gene of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was carried out using RT-PCR and Western blot in different hosts (marine shrimp. Symptoms. R. then slowly and steadily until a residue level of 0. DNA.38 mu g/g for shrimp reared in the laboratory and in the pond. OTC peak concentrations differed. Shrimp culture. was attained at day 16 of OTC withdrawal. Vol. Hemolymph. freshwater prawn. Penaeus indicus and Metapenaeus monoceros. no. In the present study the distribution and residue depletion of OTC in Litopenaeus vannamei tissue were evaluated after 14 days of exposure to medicated feed containing 4 g/kg. Hosts. AY422228). considered a safe limit by the European Community requirements. Balasubramanian. After 25 days of OTC withdrawal no drug residues could be detected. K. Viral diseases. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Mortality. Fenneropenaeus indicus. The tissue levels of OTC were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). M. the WSSV caused 100% mortality at 72 h p. Penaeidae. Proteins. RT-PCR analysis was used to detect the VP28-specific transcript in DNase treated total RNA from hemolymph and gill tissue from WSSV-infected P. Metapenaeus monoceros. Polymerase chain reaction. Paratelphusa hydrodromous) with different habitats and response to WSSV for comparison. Nucleotide sequence. hydrodomous before infection (0 h) and at different time intervals of post-infection. Drug residue levels dropped quickly during the first 72 h after treatment termination. Haemolymph.

6million (Subasinghe et al. Andhra Pradesh. of late. Decapoda. ISW. the species has been observed to be vulnerable to several viral and bacterial pathogens that have resulted in the recurrence of diseases. such as vibriosis and White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) in many regions of India from Andhra Pradesh on the east coast to Kerala on the southwest coast. CS SO: Source Revista Brasileira de Zoologia [Rev. Vol. Bacterial diseases. no. with 100% mortality at 84 h p.i.. Litopenaeus vannamei. Symptoms. indicus and M. Swimming. 1. These observations correlate with the results of mortality data. Litopenaeus vannamei. Record 15 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title A needless diversification: A perspective on the unregulated introduction and culture of the Pacific white shrimp. Bras. India. hydrodomous at 72 h p. the Pacific white shrimp. 223-227. in India AU: Author Raghavan. pp. Vol. monodon for commercial aquaculture operations in the country (Rajeev and Prasad 2003). Aquaculture enterprises. Marine crustaceans. 23. and continues to be. White spot syndrome virus. It has been estimated that in 1994 alone. as an alternative to P. Diurnal variations. . DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans. It is in this context that industry sources are actively promoting the introduction of a non-native species. Zool. Growth rate. Shrimp culture. Prasad. Kerala AB: Abstract The giant tiger shrimp. Biological rhythms. monoceros at 24 h p. Pathogens. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. and in P. The expression of this protein was also detected first in P. the leading cultured species in India. Mar 2006. 37. However. Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) popularly called the black tiger in the international markets.]. thereby devastating the shrimp culture industry in India and inflicting losses amounting to approximately US$21 million. 1. Mar 2006. 8-12. Record 16 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Displacement pattern of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Crustacea. 1995). DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Penaeus monodon. the losses due to disease outbreaks in the country totaled over US$17. Husbandry diseases.]. has been. Penaeidae) in light and dark phases during a 24-hour period AU: Author Pontes. RP. Article Geographic Terms: ISW.i. Aquaculture regulations. Behaviour. Litopenaeus vannamei.i. G SO: Source World Aquaculture [World Aquacult. Photoperiods.crab the transcript was detected at 2 days p. pp.i. India. Superior growth rate and a high market demand have made it a good candidate among the available marine shrimp species in India for commercial aquaculture. no.

with a peak between five and seven hours after the lights were turned on. 1931) (Crustacea. With the aim of optimizing the management of shrimp farms through the study of this animal behavior. Vertical distribution. 1931) daily behavior pattern is still poorly understood. 12h:l2 h). Zool. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Biological rhythms. 223-227. 23.1. which were marked and kept in aquariums (30 l). Shrimp culture. swimming and exploration behavior (instantaneous focal). To record activity.57 +/. Record 17 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Displacement pattern of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone. To record activity. which were marked and kept in aquariums (30 l).01). Photoperiods. experiments were performed with juvenile (7. With the aim of optimizing the management of shrimp farms through the study of this animal behavior. Diurnal variations. 1. with a predominance of the swimming behavior. ER SO: Source . Food was provided at random times and a record kept of horizontal and vertical displacement (continuous focal). Exploration of the substrate occurred in both phases. Penaeidae) in light and dark phases during a 24-hour period AU: Author Pontes. The horizontal and vertical displacements of the shrimp were greater during the dark phase. with a predominance of the swimming behavior.01). The horizontal and vertical displacements of the shrimp were greater during the dark phase. with a peak between five and seven hours after the lights were turned on. experiments were performed with juvenile (7. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone. Andreatta. Decapoda. no. 12h:12 h). for 15-minute periods every hour. for 15-minute periods every hour. Bras. pp. Record 18 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Characterization of pH.Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract Litopenaeus vannamei daily behavior pattern is still poorly understood. Food availability. Vol. the aquariums were submitted to an artificial photoperiod (light and dark phases. J. Food was provided at random times and a record kept of horizontal and vertical displacement (continuous focal). with 16 shrimp (33 m super(2)) monitored in each phase for 20 days. Marine crustaceans. L.].57 plus or minus 1. Mar 2006. Exploration of the substrate occurred in both phases. Malpartida. the aquariums were submitted to an artificial photoperiod (light and dark phases. Cibele S SO: Source Revista Brasileira de Zoologia [Rev. with 16 shrimp (33 m super(2)) monitored in each phase for 20 days. organic carbon and redox potential in pond soils of semi-intensive culture of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei AU: Author Vinatea. swimming and exploration behavior (instantaneous focal).

Nauplii obtained from 7 individual spawns and unhatched eggs from one other shrimp were transported to the University of Arizona. organic carbon: 1. 2001. 25-30. in Tucson.53% (0. H. Vol. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. Seed production. Cultures. Eight spawns. China. Productivity. Wilkenfeld. Gong. Polymerase chain reaction. It was verified that pH is directly proportional to redox potential (R super(2) = 0.4 mV (-29 to -523 mV.05).05). Organic Carbon.51 plus or minus 64. Article Geographic Terms: INW. X.pH: 6. from April 20 through April 24. Record 19 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Development of a specific pathogen-free (SPF) population of the Chinese fleshy prawn Fenneropenaeus chinensis AU: Author Pantoja. Seed (aquaculture). Organic carbon.215). Hawaii AB: Abstract A total of 36 gravid female shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis. organic carbon (%) and redox potential (mV). CR. n=1. ISE. Aquaculture techniques. 2006. 250. Lightner.49 (6.Boletim do Instituto de Pesca Sao Paulo [Bol. People's Rep. 30 Dec 2005. 3-4. International cooperation. White spot syndrome virus. Nucleotide sequence. Tucson. 32. 573-578.51 plus or minus 0. Shrimp. Fenneropenaeus chinensis.85%. Noble. Redox potential. Arizona.52.. p < 0. Aquaculture regulations.30. DV SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture]. and redox potential: -283. B. Inst.45 to 2. Shrimp culture. n=255). the two most prevalent viral diseases affecting this species of shrimp in this region of China. pp. The mean values of the characteristics were as follows . Arizona. while additional tests were performed to determine their specific pathogen-free (SPF) status according to criteria set by the United .01) and inversely proportional to the percentage of organic carbon (R super(2) = 0. Shandong Prov. USA. Hepatopancreatic parvo-like virus of shrimps. pH. n=255). captured off the coast of Qingdao. Marine crustaceans. Disease detection.8. for larval rearing and production of postlarvae under quarantine protocols.. Pesca Sao Paulo]. Song. Marine aquaculture. Viral diseases. Hydrogen Ion Concentration. Shrimp culture.0 to 7. no. Xia. DNA. 1. Parasites. but with appropriate amount of organic carbon for productivity. L. pp. Bacterial diseases. USA. Vol. no. p < 0. J. USA. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Acids. Disease control. and the mathematical relationship between them was also investigated. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei. The resultant postlarvae were kept in Primary Quarantine for approximately 2 months. Qingdao. Penaeidae AB: Abstract Pond soils of semi-intensive culture of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were studied in relation to pH. were examined by PCR for the presence of WSSV and HPV. No significant relationship was found between percentage of organic carbon and redox potential in pond soil (p > 0. Pond culture. were selected from shrimp where no WSSV or HPV had been detected. Pathogens. derived from 8 different females.73 plus or minus 0. It was concluded that the studied pond soils are highly reduced and slightly acid. Peoples Republic of China.

Penaeidae) . Aquaculture economics. CAR1. even as a partial replacement for Artemia. Article Taxonomic Terms: Homarus americanus. By the time the shrimp had reached an average weight of approximately 0. Survival to 3 months was highest for animals fed CAR3 (85%). Rearing. Diets. Three separate experiments assessed the utility of rearing American lobsters on these shrimp CAR diets. yet formulated diets have never been commercially produced. Record 20 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Use of formulated diets as replacements for Artemia in the rearing of juvenile American lobsters (Homarus americanus) AU: Author Tlusty. Costs. Vol. have been successfully reared in hatchery operations for over a century. Larval development. 3-4. Finally. CAR2. or in combination (2:5. and better than a custom formulated maintenance diet. Economac 4. Decapoda. DR. CAR3) were compared to those of animals fed frozen adult n-3 fatty acid enriched Artemia. Growth rate. Record 21 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Artificial food access and digestive tract filling of juvenil marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) (Crustacea. Yield. Goldstein. while animals fed Artemia had the greatest weight gain (>6 % day super(-) super(1)). commercial Artemia replacement (CAR) diets have been developed and marketed for use in aquaculture production of marine shrimp. CAR2 was a cost effective feed to use. Again. A cost/benefit ratio analysis showed that CAR2 was the most cost efficient for juvenile production because of its low overall purchase cost. 30 Dec 2005. and Progression 3. This F1 generation may be used as a SPF founder population for propagation and selection programs. Homarus americanus. JS SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture]. Survival was higher in diets that included CAR2. Fiore. Survival. and 5:2). The benefits of incorporating formulated feeds into American lobster rearing programs to increase the effectiveness of enhancement programs is discussed. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Feeding experiments. 781-795.4 g. Hawaii for production of a F1 generation.States Marine Shrimp Farming Program (USMSFP). 1. Juveniles. Artemia AB: Abstract American lobsters. Developmental stages. Fatty acids. In recent years. and feeding it two days per week compensated for low quality Artemia. no USMSFP specific listed pathogens had been detected in any of the 7 hatches and the shrimp were released into Secondary Quarantine at the Oceanic Institute in Kailua-Kona.5 year old lobsters fed a gelatin-bound mix of 80% CAR2 and 20% frozen Artemia for five months survived and grew equally well compared to lobsters fed gelatin-bound frozen adult Artemia. survival and growth of stage IV American lobsters fed one of three CAR diets (Artemac 5. 250. pp. First. stage IV lobsters were fed either CAR2 or frozen adult n-3 fatty acid enriched Artemia exclusively. Lobster culture. Feed composition. no. MF. Second.

In a 6-week growth experiment.01g). Nutritional requirements. in order to register behavior during light and dark phases. one animal per 33 m super(2). MC. increasing feed costs and potential environmental pollution of that culture. 1039-1043. 4. Smith. G SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture]. Commercial species. Diets were fed to six tank replicates of shrimp for 2 weeks. The digestive tract filling was higher half hour following feed offer. Wastes. Chromatographic techniques. Arruda. Marsupenaeus japonicus. Feeding experiments. Bras. Feed composition. Nutrition. In order to provide tools for improved feed management methods in shrimp farms. Dec 2005. KC. 250. half of them in reversed cycle. DM. Article Geographic Terms: Australia AB: Abstract The essentiality of marine invertebrate meals in diets for marine shrimp is unresolved. The same SHM and krill meals were extracted with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and the recovered insoluble and soluble fractions compared with the original meals when incorporated into a basal diet at rates equivalent to 20% of the original (Experiment 2). Euphausia. Barclay. b) latency to start eating and c) digestive tract filling. Vol. M SO: Source Revista Brasileira de Zoologia [Rev. 377-390.]. CS. Riding. SJ.during light and dark phases in 24-hour period AU: Author Pontes. de F. Penaeus monodon.05) from 0.66 and 1. pp. Record 22 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Evidence of a growth factor in some crustacean-based feed ingredients in diets for the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon AU: Author Williams. pp. They were submitted to artificial photoperiods.95% per day for the basal to 1. Growth. shrimp head meal (SHM) or whole dried krill Euphausia spp.57 plus or minus 1. The following variables were registered (continuous sampling) after feed exposition: a) latency to access the feeding tray. specially in the hours during the light phase. Three experiments were carried out with juvenile Penaeus monodon of 3-6 g initial weight to address this issue. Zooplankton. 22. using 64 Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles (7. Zool. no. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Vol. Marine aquaculture. feed wastage and unnecessary nutrient input. Diets. no. Shrimp daily growth coefficient (DGC) improved curvilinearly (P<0. 14 Nov 2005. were included in a basal diet at 5% increments from 0 to 15% without altering the gross nutritional specification of the diet and fed to five tank replicates of shrimp. DGCs of shrimp fed diets with krill and the krill PBS-insoluble . Marine crustaceans. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Indexing in process AB: Abstract The few data on the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei behavior related to feed offer in trays can result inadequate feeding by the animal. Tabrett.68% per day for the 15% SHM and 15% krill diets respectively. Krill products. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. The animals accessed the feeding trays and started consumption faster in the light phase hours. a behavioral study was conducted. 1-2.

14 and 1. Invertebrate immunity. were the only diets significantly better than the basal diet (0. Virol. japonicus feed gave the best DGC (2. implying the involvement of RNA interference (RNAi)-like mechanisms in the antiviral response of the shrimp. Javier. Viral diseases. innate antiviral immunity is also induced by dsRNA in a sequence-independent manner. Paul S. Infection. all of these diets were better than the basal diet (0.05% per day). SHM (1. Immunity.fraction were identical (1.5 kDa) and an insoluble PBS/urea fraction.57% per day). Bartlett. Eleanor. 21.]. Chapman. siRNA.19% per day). 79. In the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. 13561-13571. fresh shrimp waste was freeze-dried (SW) and then sequentially fractionated using PBS. 1 Nov 2005. and the intact SW. Marine crustaceans. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Byproducts.15% per day) and both PBS-insoluble and -soluble SHM fractions (1.79% per day). and better than the SW diet (1. Evolution. which was present predominantly in the insoluble protein constituent of the meal. and gene silencing could all be induced by injection of long dsRNA molecules. Craig L. Shepard. the hypothesis that dsRNA can evoke not only innate antiviral immunity but also a sequence-specific antiviral response in shrimp was tested. pp. In this study. Article Taxonomic Terms: Invertebrata. Thomas. Gregory W SO: Source Journal of Virology [J. Warr. with the diet containing the insoluble fraction (1. It is concluded that these crustacean meals contained a growth factor. Robert W. The M. Browdy. Virology. While innate antiviral immunity. individually. Jaramillo. It was found that viral sequence-specific dsRNA affords potent antiviral immunity in vivo. Convergence. Sarah. Consistent with the activation of RNAi by virus-specific dsRNA. to produce three soluble fractions (PBS-soluble and PBS/urea soluble dialysed material of >3. and when combined together. Prior.19% per day) which. RNA-mediated interference. These fractions. followed by 6 M urea with subsequent dialysis and affinity chromatography. RNA. Vol. Gene silencing.10% per day). endogenous shrimp genes could be silenced in a systemic fashion by the administration of cognate long dsRNA. Double-stranded RNA. Models. sequence-dependent antiviral protection. Record 23 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Double-Stranded RNA Induces Sequence-Specific Antiviral Silencing in Addition to Nonspecific Immunity in a Marine Shrimp: Convergence of RNA Interference and Innate Immunity in the Invertebrate Antiviral Response? AU: Author Robalino.5 kDa or <3.34% per day) and better than the krill PBS-soluble fraction (1. Edward.92% per day). Guillermo. injection of short interfering RNAs failed to induce similar responses. Scura. Gross. no. In Experiment 3. were incorporated into a basal diet at amounts equivalent to 20% of the original product and evaluated against a commercial Marsupenaeus japonicus shrimp feed when fed to six tank replicates of shrimp in a 2-week experiment. suggesting a size requirement for . Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is a common by-product of viral infections and a potent inducer of innate antiviral immune responses in vertebrates.

BM SO: Source Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety [Ecotoxicol. 0. Zinc. Roque. while there were no significant differences in ash and zinc content in tissues. potassium. 3. Pesticides. Calcium. 66-74.4. no. The weight gain and mineral (calcium. 11. Anguas. Bioindicators. Haro. 0. K-M.0 g kg super(-1)) were fed to juvenile shrimp. Marine crustaceans. Hepatopancreas Mg super(2+)-ATPase and Na super(+)/K super(+)-ATPase activities and muscle content of lipid and protein were not significantly affected by graded levels of Mg. D. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei. Prior to the experiment.65% with no significant difference among the treatments. M. Y-N. survival ranged from 80. Sep 2005. O.60-3. Salinity effects. Environ. 5. After 8 weeks of feeding.extracellular dsRNA to engage antiviral mechanisms and gene silencing. Amin. Vol. Record 24 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Dietary magnesium requirement and physiological responses of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei reared in low salinity water AU: Author Cheng.]. no. X-J SO: Source Aquaculture Nutrition [Aquacult. Nutr.5 g Mg kg super(-1)) for 2 weeks. Casein-gelatin-based diets supplemented with seven levels of Mg (0. Feed composition. Magnesium. C-Q*. 6. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Solvents. QI. Oct 2005. . Record 25 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Evaluation of sublethal biomarkers in Litopenaeus vannamei on foodborne exposure to methyl parathion AU: Author Comoglio. Penaeidae AB: Abstract An 8-week feeding experiment was conducted to determine the dietary magnesium (Mg) requirement and physiological responses of Litopenaeus vannamei in low salinity water of 2 g L super(-1). The dietary Mg requirement for optimal growth was 2. HU. The Mg content in tissues except hepatopancreas was maintained relatively constant regardless of dietary treatments. Parathion. Potassium. 385-393. sodium and total phosphorus) content of different tissues were significantly affected by dietary Mg levels.8.4 and 8. S-X.]. We propose a model of antiviral immunity in shrimp by which viral dsRNA engages not only innate immune pathways but also an RNAi-like mechanism to induce potent antiviral responses in vivo. pp. Liu. Nutritional requirements.2. pp. A. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Feeding experiments. Diets. Shrimp culture. Zheng.46 g Mg kg super(-1) by using the polynomial regression analysis based on growth. Saf. L. 62.11% to 85. 1. Regression analysis. Betancourt-Lozano.6. Vol. the postlarvae were gradually acclimated to the low salinity media and fed with a basal diet (0. 1. Animal nutrition.

88 mu M P sub(i)*h super(-) super(1)*mgprotein super(-) super(1)).31=121.31=108. Feeding behaviour.62 and 1.11+/-0. Marine crustaceans.42+/-2. 0.31 than in solvent control and in 0.26 mu M P sub(i)*h super(-) super(1)*mgprotein super(-) super(1)).03. 3. Marine organisms. Marine crustaceans. Swimming behavior. The total-ATPase activity was significantly lower in controls than in pesticide treatments (control=77.62=7.81.62=110. Article Geographic Terms: Brazil AB: Abstract The few data on the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei behavior related to artificial food offer in feeding trays may result an inadequate feeding by the animal. The FR was significantly lower in controls than in pesticide treatments while no significant differences were detected in the ER. Shrimp. Sep 2005.13. and hepatosomatic index (HI)) biomarkers were evaluated. 648-652.Physiology.03+/-22. biomarkers.97. 1. Weight. 1. Exposure. The results in this study showed that pulse exposures to methyl parathion via food could elicit measurable effects on the marine shrimp L. Record 26 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Behavior of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) (Crustacea. Penaeidae) in relation to artificial food offer along light and dark phases in a 24 h period. Light effects.01. The HI was significantly higher in controls than in pesticide treatments. Sublethal Effects.10.69+ /-22.11+/-0. Food availability. solvent control=7.]. solvent control=83. 22.17. AChE activity was significantly higher in controls than in pesticide treatments (control=0.08+/-0.62=0. Food. Photoperiods. AU: Author Pontes.07+ /-0.63. 1. Decapoda. Ca super(2+)/Mg super(2+)-exchanging ATPase. 0. 1. 0. Adenosinetriphosphatase.41. shrimp culture.14+ /-10. Evaluation. Zool. Foods. Arruda.62=100. vannamei.31 mu g methyl parathion*g super(-) super(1) dry weight of food) on juveniles of Litopenaeus vannamei using integrated biochemical (acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and ATPases) and physiological (feeding rate (FR). Food contamination. Toxicity tests. The Mg super(2) super(+)-ATPase activity was significantly higher in treatments than in controls (control=65.31=0. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract Sublethal effects of foodborne exposure to methyl parathion (0.05. Vol. Feeding Rates.76.84 mu M P sub(i)*h super(-) super(1)*mgprotein super(-) super(1)).60+/-3.62 (control=14. Toxicology. Finally. could also simulate more realistic exposure scenarios.53+/-20. egestion rate (ER). Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei.06+/-2. Feeding.54+/-19. Feeding experiments. indicating that foodborne exposure can be a reliable toxicological procedure and. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Feeding behavior.02 mu M*min super(-) super(1)*mgprotein super(-) super(1)). Acetylcholine receptors. de F. CS. no. Biochemistry.90+/-12. M SO: Source Revista Brasileira de Zoologia [Rev. solvent control=0. pp.02.31=13.30+/-4.94+/-17. Methyl parathion.12+/-21. Bras. Ecotoxicology. if combined with pulse exposures. Acetylcholinesterase. Feeding behaviour. solvent control=75. Exploratory behavior. increasing the cost/benefit relation . 0. the results obtained for the Na super(+)/K super(+)-ATPase activity were significantly higher in control and in 1.

JH SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture]. Record 27 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Urinary amino acid excretion by marine shrimp. Lin. Urine was then collected from the shrimp for 24 h. Leu. half of them in reversed cycle. 1-4. Urine. feeding and inactivity (instantaneous sampling). 248. Feed composition. 17. the high percentage of amino acids lost in the urine could be another explanation of poor utilization of crystalline amino acids by shrimp. making the shrimp more active in all the intervals following its introduction. Each treatment had five replicates. and about 8-10% for Ile.6% for His. Diets. pp. Feeding time was higher in the half hour following food offer.in shrimp culture and its potential environmental impact. Nutritive value. Penaeus monodon.57 plus or minus 1. Shrimp culture. In addition to the high concentration of free amino acids in the plasma which might induce catabolism of the absorbed dietary amino acids. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans. Food offering worked out in both phases as an inductor of substrate exploration. Excretory products. 35-40. Swimming occurred mostly during the dark phase. The total amino acids lost in urine was about 6% of the total oral crystalline amino acids in the diet. the following activities were registered before and after food exposition: exploration. Vol. a behavioral study was developed. Cheng. Record 28 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title White spot syndrome virus in frozen shrimp sold at Massachusetts supermarkets AU: Author . Penaeus monodon AB: Abstract Oral protein administration was conducted to gain more insight into the ability of the shrimp (Penaeus monodon) to utilize different protein sources and estimate the urinary amino acid excretion. using 64 L. In established intervals. The individual amino acids lost in urine as a percentage of the crystalline amino acids in the diet were 13. Lys and Val. Nutritional requirements. Free amino acid concentrations in urine of shrimp fed the crystalline amino acid diet were significantly higher than those of shrimp fed the intact protein diet. Excretion. They were submitted to artificial photoperiods. Molecular structure. Proteins. 29 Jul 2005. CH. in order to register their behavior during light and dark phases. in response to orally administrated intact protein and crystalline amino acids AU: Author Liou. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. no. Feeding experiments. In order to provide tools for optimizing feeding management in shrimp farms. Amino acids. Both intact protein diet and a corresponding crystalline amino acid diet were administrated orally after the cannulated shrimp were fasted for 24 h. vannamei juveniles (7. Catabolism.01 g). respectively. swimming. SC. especially during light phase.6% for Phe.

KR. Aquaculture . DiagXotics). D. J. LA. Boston AB: Abstract One of the most damaging viral diseases affecting the shrimp aquaculture industry is white spot disease (WSD) caused by white spot virus (WSSV). 2005. Cherax quadricarinatus. A SO: Source Journal of Shellfish Research [J. Record 29 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Growth. Electrophoresis. Processing Measurements. Xiong. The risk of introducing this virus to cultured and wild shrimp and other native species of crustaceans in the United States warrants investigation. Indigenous species. Environmental impact. The rapid spread of WSSV within wild and cultured stocks of shrimp may be caused by unregulated processing. Z. Results showed a range of 0% to 38. and the four test stores. no. Article Geographic Terms: USA. which causes high morbidity and mortality rates in penaeid shrimp and other crustaceans. Further investigation is necessary to determine the risk of release of this virus into native fresh and marine water environments in Massachusetts and throughout the United States. or the use of contaminated broodstock. 3-4. no. Results provide preliminary evidence that an appreciable proportion of the shrimp sold in Massachusetts' supermarkets are carrying WSSV. 117-129. Tail Meat Yield. Shrimp culture.].7% for WSSV prevalence rate in the test populations. white spot syndrome. Xu. with an overall prevalence of 4. Rand. Importation. Webster. and Tail Meat Proximate Composition of Male and Female Australian Red Claw Crayfish.]. Significant (P < 0. W. WSSV positive samples were visualized by electrophoresis and amplified product of selected samples was sequenced. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Genomes. Article Taxonomic Terms: White spot syndrome virus. Aquacult.001) differences in WSSV prevalence were observed between shrimp from the two batches purchased a month apart. Vol. DB. Sequence analysis confirmed the presence of WSSV genome in PCR-positive samples. Alcivar-Warren. Country of origin seemed to dominate the results. 285-290. Husbandry diseases. Aquaculture. Meehan-Meola. the two size classes. Stocked into Earthen Ponds AU: Author Thompson. Samples from two size classes were collected in two different batches a month apart. Jan 2005. C. Mortality. Goldsmith. Morbidity. 24. USA. and this constitutes a substantial risk of importation of this virus into the local environment. Y SO: Source Journal of Applied Aquaculture [J. Mortality causes. Polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify a portion of the WSSV genome using a commercial PCR kit (ShrimpCare. ML. Vol. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Crayfish culture. Disease transmission. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of WSSV in frozen commodity shrimp sold at four stores in the Boston area belonging to different supermarket chains. Shellfish Res. Yancey. Viral diseases. disposal of infected imported shrimp. 16. pp.Reville. Pond culture. Al-Beik. Rouse. DH. Appl. Massachusetts. Massachusetts. Polymerase chain reaction. Muzinic. Penaeidae. CD. 1.7%. pp. Nucleotide sequence.

and ash in the tail muscle of male and female red claw when analyzed either on a wet-weight basis and averaged 81. and frozen (-20 degree C) for processing measurements and proximate composition. imaging. H.84 g for females). higher (P < 0. Growth rate. and then were hand-processed so that weights of chelae. H SO: Source Zoological Studies [Zool. percentage protein averaged 16. Cherax quadricarinatus.7 g) juvenile red claw. Females.41 g for males compared to 26.05) in the percentage moisture. Animal appendages.99 g for males compared to 14. Behavior. Subacute toxicity. . males had significantly (P < 0. no. When analyzed by sex. There were no significant differences (P > 0. Puchner.46%. Total weight and number of red claw from each pond were recorded at the harvest. red claw had a final average individual weight of 59.05 g) compared to females (53. fiber. Stud. and tail muscle were obtained to the nearest 0.01 g. T. Stress. 44. weight gain of 8.0%. Males. and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of 4.economics. Aquaculture enterprises.38 g for females). higher tail weight (25.53 g for males compared to 20. processing characteristics. were stocked in earthen ponds (0. lipid. Swimming. survival of 64.89 g for females). survival. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Heavy metals. Weight. G. A commercial marine shrimp was fed to all red in two separate feedings. and higher cephalothorax weight (32.0%. Cadmium. Kaiser.]. Napetschnig. individually weighed to the nearest 0. Forty red claw from each sex were randomly sampled. 1. Article Geographic Terms: USA. and percentage ash averaged 1. fiber averaged 0. Yield. Food technology. Body temperature. Muscles. thawed. After 87 days.44 g for females). Further research on growth and processing yields of red claw should be conducted to assist the industry.01 g.1 g for males compared to 6. have larger chelae.04 ha) in Kentucky and grown for 86 days so that measures of growth. S. percentage lipid averaged 0.1%. Bioaccumulation. Gretschel. tail.05) chelae weight (13.63. Vol. yield of 903 kg/ha. Food conversion. and proximate composition of tail muscle in male and female Australian red claw crayfish could be obtained. higher tail muscle weight (18. 71-80. and that male red claw grow larger. Jan 2005. each consisting of one-half of the total daily ration between 0800-0830 and between 1530-1600 hours for the duration of the culture period. Kentucky AB: Abstract Small (0.413%. pp. protein.6 g. and higher tail muscle weights compared to females so that it might be economically advantageous to stock all-male populations of red claw in ponds to achieve maximum production. Velocity. Article Taxonomic Terms: Cherax quadricarinatus.16%. Record 30 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Monitoring Behavioral Responses to the Heavy Metal Cadmium in the Marine Shrimp Hippolyte inermis Leach (Crustacea: Decapoda) with Video Imaging AU: Author Untersteiner. Human food. Results from the present study indicate that red claw can be grown as a commercial aquaculture species in locations with limited growing seasons.42%. chill-killed by lowering the body temperature in an ice-bath. Red claw were removed from the freezer.05) higher final individual weight (71.65 g). Aquaculture products.

2005. 6. Wu. respectively.01) reduced with the 1 ppm Cd treatment. the test animals showed a significant (p less than or equal to 0. Record 31 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title cDNA cloning and expression characterization of lysozyme gene in two freshwater prawn AU: Author Gao. the median moving velocity was for the first time highly significantly (p less than or equal to 0. no.Marine crustaceans. including 140 residues of mature peptide and 18 residues of signal peptide. Open reading frames. Ruiquan SO: Source Acta hydrobiologica sinica/Shuisheng Shengwu Xuebao [Acta Hydrobiol.1%. respectively. Gene expression. The amplified cDNA fragments were inserted into pGEM-T vector. Macrobrachium nipponense AB: Abstract Total RNAs were isolated from haemocytes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii and M. Vol. Xing. The locomotory activity was analyzed by means of real-time image analysis. Fengying. Hemocytes. Haihua.0% and 80.5 ppm (C sub(3)). The nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity between the two prawn cDNAs is 99. moving velocity and moving distance) as indicators. After 3 h of Cd exposure. Junjie. At initiation (0 h) of Cd exposure. Polymerase chain reaction. which encodes 158 amino acid residues. Pollution effects. Signal peptides. Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium rosenbergii.. Freshwater environments. Record 32 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title . The cDNAs encoding lysozyme were amplified by RT-PCR. For a sequence of 3000 images per treatment. Enzymes. Shrimp were exposed to the heavy metal concentrations for 12 h under static conditions. using a video camera and a Pentium PC equipped with a standard low-cost frame grabber. too. 615-620. nipponense. Article Taxonomic Terms: Hippolyte inermis.e. Sequence analysis revealed that both of the two freshwater prawn lysozyme cDNAs contain an open reading frame (ORF) of 477nt. Subacute effects were evaluated using changes in the locomotory behavior (i.4% and 98. Their nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity is above 83./Shuisheng Shengwu Xuebao]. Test organisms. Pollution indicators. 2 (C sub(2)). Toxicity tests. Lysozyme. Amino acid sequence.0%. and 3. the subacute toxicity of the heavy metal cadmium to Hippolyte inermis Leach was investigated. 29. the trajectories were reconstructed as binary image sequences. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Freshwater crustaceans. Ye. where 10 shrimp were moving simultaneously. Bai. The two prawn cDNAs possess high identity with marine shrimp cDNAs. Nucleotide sequence.05) decrease in the average swimming velocity at C sub(3). Lao. The locomotory activity of the test organisms was analyzed under normal conditions (without heavy metal stress) and after application of a subacute Cd stress. Sin. Genes. Test animals were stressed by Cd of the following 3 concentrations: 1 (C sub(1)). Audiovisual materials. pp. Cloning. Decapoda AB: Abstract In this study.

9-. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon. However. Disease detection. 6. Australia. no. RAJ. 3. Garcia-Orozco. These results suggested that stocked postlarvae rather than invading wild crustaceans were the source of WSSV infection and disease. GM. 8. TT. Analysis of approximately 157 WSSV isolates showed common variations in the number of repeats. High repeat number genotypes (i. Preston. DTH. Islas-Osuna.e. respectively. 24-28 November 2002. The marker was applied to examine the extent of variation among WSSV isolates from Penaeus monodon hatcheries and farms in different regions of Vietnam and to obtain a better understanding of the progression of infection in ponds during grow-out. KD. 7. with some broodstock harbouring more than one genotype. RNA. Hodgson. Biotechnol. WSSV genotypes containing 4-. Disease outbreaks usually result in high mortalities in affected ponds. Shrimp culture. Genotypes. Walker.and 23-TRS) were found in unidentified species including a large crab. pp.TRS elements were detected with no evidence of any predominant genotype. Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Viral diseases. Sotelo-Mundo. DE: Descriptors . Calderon-Arredondo. [np]. WSSV genotypes containing greater numbers of tandem repeat elements (i. The results also suggest that genotype analysis in this TRS region will be a useful tool for tracking virulent strains of WSSV. A wide range of other crustaceans can also act as apparently healthy carriers of infection. Genomes.and 9. NJ. Oanh. Queensland. amongst shrimp sampled from disease outbreak ponds. 14. shrimp may also be infected chronically with no signs of disease and often obtain the infection in hatcheries from infected broodstock.].AU: SO: DE: AB: Genotypic variations in tandem repeat DNA segments between ribonucleotide reductase subunit genes of white spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) Isolates from Vietnam Author Hoa. 5-. Romo-Figueroa. SA. J. Vol.e. Yepiz-Plascencia. variations in the number of a 54 nucleotide tandem repeat sequence (TRS). In healthy ponds and in healthy broodstock or postlarval batches collected from hatcheries. MA.7-. 15 Dec 2004. 339-351. Article Geographic Terms: Vietnam Abstract White spot syndrome is a viral disease that affects most commercially cultivated marine shrimp species. were used as a WSSV strain-specific genetic marker. the 7-TRS genotype dominated. 23-TRS and 14-TRS) were not detected in cultured shrimp from the same pond. Polymerase chain reaction. a small crab and wild shrimp. E. MG. On the other hand. PJ Source Diseases in Asian aquaculture 5: proceedings of the fifth Symposium on Diseases in Asian Aquaculture. Phuong. located between genes encoding the large (RR1) and small (RR2) subunits of ribonucleotide reductase. In this report. However. Record 33 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Recombinant expression of marine shrimp lysozyme in Escherichia coli AU: Author de-La-Re-Vega. NT. The disease first emerged in East Asia in 1991 and has since spread throughout most shrimp farming regions of Asia and the Americas. RR SO: Source Electronic Journal of Biotechnology [Electron. Jan 2005.

Segall. Promoters. no. 2009. C. A grocery store experiment was done and a mail survey was sent out. Hemocytes. Larger quantities of freshwater prawns are more likely to be sold in more populated and higher income urban locations than less populated. Marine crustaceans. Marketing. Davis. Shellfish. which can be attributed to external factors that could affect the grocery store experiment. Inland water environment. Int. Education establishments. low-income rural locations. it has not been possible to purify this protein because of the very low amount present in the shrimp blood cells (hemocytes). p. Results indicated that consumers showed an equal behavior toward marine shrimp and freshwater prawns. Rosa Karina SO: Source Masters Abstracts International [Masters Abst. coli. 1-4. Vol. Dec 2004. results did not show a consistent equivalence between the two alternative methods. freshwater prawns. C. Blood cells. Raviv. and using alternative methods that included revealed preference data and stated preference data. marketing efforts should focus on freshwater prawns' flavor attributes.]. Article Geographic Terms: USA. 6. E. Mississippi AB: Abstract This study analyzed the willingness-to-pay for a new shellfish product. Vol. Mills. however. In an effort to produce enough protein to study its function and biochemical properties we have overexpressed Lysozyme from marine shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) in E. S. its refolding led to an active protein with a yield of similar to 10%. Inclusion bodies. Although Lyz was produced as insoluble protein in inclusion bodies. 14 Jun . Details of the protein recombinant expression techniques applied to this shrimp protein are presented. 42. A* SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture]. Freshwater crustaceans. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus. Record 34 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Comparison of revealed and stated preferences for a new shellfish product: The case of freshwater prawns (Machrobrachium rosenbergii) AU: Author Gallardo. 236. pp. in different contexts. Finally. Sagi.Article Subject Terms: Lysozyme. both procedures were performed in two localities with different demographic characteristics. This emphasizes the importance advertising campaigns could play in making consumers more familiar with the product. Escherichia coli AB: Abstract Shrimp Lysozyme (Lyz) is a key component of the antibacterial response as part of the innate defense in Crustacea. Also. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Consumers. no. 593-606. Record 35 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Reproductive readiness of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei grown in a brackish water system AU: Author Parnes. S. Taste. A bacterial protein expression system based on the T7 polymerase promoter was used.

Growth curves. 48.810 super(6) cells per compound spermatophore. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. However. Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract The effect of acclimation time. Brood stocks.8% of the cells were spiked. The shrimp were cultured on two commercial shrimp farms in brackish water that was pumped from artesian wells that tap into a geothermal aquifer. pp. 236. and ionic challenge AU: Author McGraw. some of the ovaries had become opaque and the vitellogenin gene was found to be expressed in the ovary-but not in the hepatopancreas-of 7 out of 10 females. increased shrimp . DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Acclimation. A unique case of a 46. Shrimp culture. 40. Vol. WJ. and final freshwater ion composition on the survival of freshwater-acclimated Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae was investigated.2004. shrimp were acclimated from 30 ppt to freshwater (1 ppt TDS) utilizing various acclimation times (32. habituation period. no. Ovaries. white spermatophores were observed 8 months after PL0. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans. Spermatophores. Sexual maturity. Record 36 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Mortality of freshwater-acclimated Litopenaeus vannamei associated with acclimation rate. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. Marine crustaceans. and molecular tools. J* SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture].8 g female with a fully developed ovary that was found in the brackish-water-held broodstock is reported. and some with developed. first became evident before the appearance of white spermatophores. The shrimp populations exhibited a bimodal growth curve with the females being significantly bigger than the males at the end of the growout period. but either strongly monovalent or strongly divalent. Brackishwater aquaculture. Osmoregulation. Ion treatment solutions derived from chloride-based chemicals were of the same total ion concentration. Melanization of the males. Female ovaries were transparent and appeared to be arrested in a previtellogenic stage. and 81. Reproduction. Litopenaeus vannamei. Salinity tolerance. 1 or 2 days (habituation period) before being transferred to challenge ion treatment solutions. physiological. Mortality causes. habituation period. Animal physiology. Scarpa. Survival. normal-looking. 285-296. An acclimation time of 72 h compared to 48 h. which eventually affected about a third of the male population.6 plus or minus 19.110 super(6) plus or minus 5. Developmental stages. Some male shrimp started to develop spermatophores about 6 months after the first post-larval (PL0) stage. The sperm count in these males was 10. 72 h) with a constant or variable rate of salinity reduction. During each of three experiments. Shrimp culture. Shrimp were then held at the final acclimation salinity for 0. beyond a weight/age threshold of 20 g/8 months. 1-4. with no habituation period. 14 Jun 2004. Penaeus AB: Abstract The reproductive readiness of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (formerly Penaeus vannamei) cultured in brackish water was characterized by applying morphological.

35. pp. Rearing. Crustacean larvae. In this context the development of small-scale Artemia farming has been proposed as a complimentary means of reducing harvesting pressure in local saltworks (Camara 2003). postlarvae and feeds. respectively (Table 1). The longer freshwater acclimation time and habituation period probably allowed shrimp to equalize hemolymph ions before transfer to ionically unbalanced challenge solutions.survival by 27%. A 1-day habituation period compared to no habituation after 48-h acclimation also increased mean shrimp survivals by 27%. Costa. growth at these ion concentrations still needs to be verified. vannamei postlarvae. 2001). estimated consumption of Artemia cysts and biomass will reach 16. Through the years. Artemia are used as live. Brine shrimp culture.]. The survival of freshwater-acclimated shrimp can be improved by either extending the acclimation time from 48 to 72 h or providing a habituation period of 2 days after 48-h acclimation. However.128 tons in 2002. 2. Brazilian demand for L. 30 down to 1 ppt) and increasing acclimation time at lower salinities (1 ppt) allowed successful freshwater acclimation of shrimp within 32 h. there are growing concerns about the long-term sustainability of current harvesting practices.4 tons and 246 tons. grew from 0. Monteiro. frozen or dried product to feed juvenile and broodstock shrimp. is found on a year-round and permanent basis in the State of Rio Grande do Norte (RN) in northeastern Brazil as a result of inoculations made in Macau. 40-42. Decreasing acclimation time at higher salinities (i. and it was expected to exceed 16. Jun 2004. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. for example. Although all Artemia biomass and most cysts available in Brazil are harvested in local saltworks as a byproduct of the solar salt industry. MR. introduced Artemia dispersed to over 40. This expansion has required increasing quantities of land. Vol. among other resources.e. USA) stock (Persoone and Sorgeloos 1980).000 ha of solar saltworks in RN and became an important asset in the development of a local aquaculture industry (Camara 1990. Not only are Artemia being collected in a reduced harvest area since several hundred hectares of saltworks have been converted to shrimp growout ponds. Article Geographic Terms: Brazil.4 billion in 2002.4 billion in 2003. The commercial production of farmed marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in northeastern Brazil has grown from 40.000 tons in 2001 to 60. PA. Diets.. RN in April 1977 with cysts from a San Francisco Bay (California. This demonstrates a critical period for freshwater acclimation of marine shrimp at lower salinities. Reis. Food organisms. Accordingly. LG. Rio Grande do Norte AB: Abstract The brine shrimp Artemia sp. hatched from encysted embryos. but the carrying capacities of salt ponds inhabited by Artemia are still largely undetermined. In terms of biomass. MF SO: Source World Aquaculture [World Aquacult. Farmed marine shrimp larvae in northeastern Brazil consume Artemia as live nauplii. Artemia. . no. Record 37 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Farming Artemia in a multi-cycle culture system in Northeastern Brazil AU: Author Camara.5 billion in 1994 to 11.

no. in sperm suspension. Cryobiology. After thawing. Spermatophores. Granja. Sex reversal. which was also utilized to determine spermatic viability by DNA staining with propidium iodine. Cooling. pp. DNA. spermatic mass. 55. These results show that flow cytometry is a valuable tool to evaluate sperm cell viability in decapod species and it is more sensitive technique than optical microscopy. RT SO: Source Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology [Behav. Aquaculture techniques. individuals begin benthic life in a male phase (MP) but later change to a female phase (FP) with female external morphology. M. although the percentage of viable cells was always lower when determined by the later. Salazar. the marine shrimp Lysmata wurdemanni (Caridea: Hippolytidae) AU: Author Baeza. Thawing. In this study. Cells were frozen by fast and slow cooling rates. Toxicity. Jun 2004. Record 39 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Experimental test of socially mediated sex change in a protandric simultaneous hermaphrodite. Aquaculture.]. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans. One of the main problems relies on the limitations for the determination of sperm cell viability. Shrimp culture. Social behavior. M* SO: Source Cryobiology [Cryobiology]. 544-550. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei. Flow cytometry. There was a positive correlation between morphotype analysis and flow cytometry. Methanol. Ecol. Vol. Biotic factors. JA. Iodine. 48. Article Taxonomic Terms: Lysmata wurdemanni. at three different concentrations. 3. Evaluation. Freezing storage. pp. no. Apr 2004. there is no protocol routinely used for this procedure. the best result was obtained when the spermatic mass was frozen by slow cooling rate in the presence of methanol (61. 6. Social behaviour. 349-356. Hippolytidae AB: Abstract In Lysmata wurdemanni. they were analyzed by optical microscopy and flow cytometry.Record 38 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The use of flow cytometry in the evaluation of cell viability of cryopreserved sperm of the marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) AU: Author Lezcano. Life history. Considering viability by morphotype analysis. C. Cryopreservation. Sociobiol. Hermaphroditism.6%). and complete spermatophore of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Penaeidae AB: Abstract Although the cryopreservation of penaeid prawn sperm or embryos has definite applications in the aquaculture industry. Bauer. but with both male and female reproductive capacity . Vol. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Sperm. we evaluated the toxicity and cryoprotectant effect of four agents. Light microscopy.

the status of inland shrimp farming in various countries around the world is briefly discussed based on available information. In L. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Industries. speed of sex change was inversely related to the abundance of female-phase individuals (FPs) in the group (sex-ratio induction). Georgia and Texas in the U. Experimental results from 'small groups" (1-2 individuals) were qualitatively similar but not as conclusive as those from large groups. DE SO: Source Aquaculture Magazine [Aquacult. Vol. South America. Mexico. An MP may gain reproductively by increased growth before changing to FP at a larger size (fewer but much larger broods). and in Alabama. Shrimp culture. We experimentally tested for social mediation of sex change by rearing male-phase individuals (MPs) in both large and small social groups with different sexual and size composition. In this and the next column. The number and complexity of social interactions in large groups may be necessary to stimulate labile sex change in this species. Aquaculture development. Latin America. USA AB: Abstract The activity of inland culture of various marine shrimp species in areas away from the coast has been growing considerably in recent years. In the 'large group" experiment. it has expanded significantly in Asia with the introduction of the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) into several countries. Record 40 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Status And Issues In Inland Shrimp Farming Part 1 AU: Author Jory.]. Previous studies have demonstrated that the size (timing) of sex change varies considerably in natural populations. When FPs are abundant. Brazil. 65-68. Article Geographic Terms: Asia. Size-ratio induction of sex change by small MPs was suggested but not confirmed.S. More recently. pp. and also some of the technical issues faced by the industry. Arizona. wurdemanni. Thailand. delayed sex change might be adaptive because the costs of female reproduction are considerable. This expansion has also taken place in the Western Hemisphere and there are now several inland shrimp culture operations in Ecuador. Litopenaeus vannamei. Panama and other Latin American countries. Florida. Record 41 of 500 DN: Database Name . Aquaculture enterprises. sex change may be influenced not only by abiotic factors related to breeding [Bauer (2002) Biol Bull 203:347-357] but also by social factors in certain demographic situations. Aquaculture techniques. 30. Mar-Apr 2004. Mag. Marine crustaceans. 2. It has been common during the past several years with the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) in Thailand and other Asian countries. Increased allocation to female function (more rapid change to FP) may occur when male mating opportunities are lower because the simultaneous-hermaphrodite FP can immediately reproduce as a female while maintaining male mating capacity. no.(protandric simultaneous hermaphroditism). Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon.

Stocking density. and subsequent subdivision into two clades prior to the emergence of the Panamanian isthmus. Nucleotide sequence. + Fenneropenaeus + Farfantepenaeus + Litopenaeus). Marine crustaceans. Colonization. CD.1 g) Australian red claw crayfish. pp. Manomaitis. YL. derived from mitochondrial DNA AU: Author Lavery. Cherax quadricarinatus. pp. Appl.ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the shrimp genus Penaeus s. KH SO: Source Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution [Mol. 15. Pond culture. Aquacult. 2004. genus of marine shrimp. DB. Marsupenaeus. DNA. Stocked at Three Densities in Earthen Ponds in a Cool. was rejected. 3-4. Litopenaeus. Rearing. with a single relatively recent colonisation of the Western Hemisphere. no. A key conclusion from a previous molecular study. Cherax quadricarinatus. Chan.l. that the subgenera Farfantepenaeus and Litopenaeus are paraphyletic. were stocked in July at three rates of 12. Article Taxonomic Terms: Cherax quadricarinatus. Xiong. Vol. Article Geographic Terms: USA. Cytochromes. Apr 2004. 31. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Freshwater aquaculture. rRNA 16S. Temperature Climate AU: Author Webster. Pacific AB: Abstract Mitochondrial DNA sequences were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of the Penaeus s. DH. Disease control. Fenneropenaeus. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Phylogeny. L SO: Source Journal of Applied Aquaculture [J. Yancey. Temperate zones. Muzinic. 37-50. This phylogeny was used to test the validity of hypotheses on the species groupings. Aquaculture economics. Evol. Phylogenetic analyses do not support the validity of all the previously created six subgenera (or genera) but provide evidence for division of the genus into two previously unrecognised clades (Melicertus + Marsupenaeus and Penaeus s.]. Crayfish culture. Record 42 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title A Preliminary Assessment of Growth. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus. Vol. Mitochondrial DNA. Food conversion. S. Phylogen. YK. TY. Growth rate. 1. and on the species' evolutionary history. . Newly derived sequences of both 16S rRNA and COI genes from 19 species of Penaeus s. S. Article Geographic Terms: IW. in particular the subgenus/genus subdivision. Geographical distribution. Chu. Dasgupta.]. 39-49. Yield. and one outgroup were combined with previous sequences from seven additional species to allow analysis of 26 of the 28 recognised (or nominated) species. Farfantepenaeus. Survival. no. KR. The molecular data support an Indo-West Pacific origin of the genus. Yield. Thompson. Survival. and Economic Return of Australian Red Claw Crayfish. Evolution.l. Kentucky AB: Abstract Juvenile (mean weight 8. Rouse.l. Aquaculture techniques.000/ha.s. Melicertus. Cytochrome-c oxidase. LA. Tam.

Freshwater aquaculture.05) differences in the percentage of males and females harvested from the ponds among any stocking rate with males comprising 48. and alkalinity were measured twice weekly. 35. These variables were: dissolved oxygen concentration at the beginning of respirometry incubation. Tucker. total ammonia nitrogen (TAN).7%. Six variables were included in multiple regression models that explained slightly more than half of the variation in SOD.18.000/ha in terms of growth. and total depth of accumulated sediment. and 24. Sediment oxygen demand was most sensitive to changes in dissolved oxygen concentration in the overlying water. survival. . and -$2659/ha. Oxygen demand. John A.].8%. Final individual weight of males and females was not significantly (P > 0. At harvest. Red claw were fed a pelleted marine shrimp diet twice daily. particulate organic matter concentration in water above the sediment surface.05) different among all treatments. nitrite. Models for SOD in this . Hargreaves. 2004. 42. 7. yield. Soc. Article Geographic Terms: USA. no. James A. and economic return among all treatments and averaged 58.05) differences in final individual weight.038 mg/m super(2) per h.04%/day. organic carbon concentration at the immediate sediment-water interface (flocculent or F-layer) combined with the upper 2 cm of sediment (S-layer). Vol. Dissolved oxygen and temperature were measured twice daily (0900 and 1530 hours). 461 kg/ha. Dissolved oxygen. and pH was measured daily. and the concentration of organic carbon in the combined flocculent and upper sediment (F+S) layer. Article Taxonomic Terms: Ictalurus punctatus. respectively. Record 43 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Factors Affecting Sediment Oxygen Demand in Commercial Channel Catfish Ponds AU: Author Steeby. specific growth rate. 3. water temperature.000/ha. Sediment-water interface.02-ha earthen ponds in a cool temperature region of the United States (Kentucky) and grown for 70 days. yield.4 g. organic carbon concentration in the mature (M) underlying sediment layer. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Sediment chemistry. 805%. 322-334. There were no significant (P > 0.000/ha into two. 0. pp. Ponds had continual aeration provided. Mean SOD in this study (359 mg/m super(2) per h) was greater than that reported previously for catfish ponds but was similar to SOD in semi-intensive marine shrimp ponds. Craig S SO: Source Journal of the World Aquaculture Society [J. percentage survival. Fish culture. there were no significant (P > 0. World Aquacult. Fish ponds. percentage weight gain. 3. particulate organic matter concentration in the water.47. and economic return and that red claw can grow to marketable size in a cooler temperate region of the United States with a short (<110 days) growing season by stocking a larger-size (8 g) red claw. These data indicate that there is no advantage to stocking red claw at rates below 24. Nine variables were selected and measured to assess their relative importance in accounting for variation in SOD. Mississippi AB: Abstract Sediment oxygen demand (SOD) measured in 45 commercial channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) in Northwest Mississippi using in situ respirometry (N = 167) ranged from 63 to 1. feed conversion ratio.2% and females comprising 51.

1. no. wurdemanni from the Gulf of Mexico and L. Stratification and normal daily fluctuation of dissolved oxygen concentration in eutrophic culture ponds likely limit expression of sediment oxygen demand. hatching. pp. Individuals apparently change from MP to FP in a single molt. californica are outcrossing simultaneous hermaphrodites. and spawning. a species from the warm-temperate eastern Pacific. californica. prespawning FPs. Protandry. Biol. amboinensis from the Indo-West Pacific. Pleopod flanges related to embryo attachment and incubation are somewhat masculinized in FPs of L. The sexual system of L. 2004. Thus. Reproductive cycle. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Hermaphroditism. Observations on a large number of female-phase individuals (FPs) from a museum collection indicated that FPs with broods containing advanced embryos spawn again (successively) soon after brood hatching. californica. Protandric simultaneous hermaphroditism is probably widespread if not ubiquitous in the genus Lysmata. RT.research predict that the mass of sediment below the upper 2-cm surface layer on average contributes only ~20% of total SOD. Female-phase individuals retain male gonopores from the MP phase. 24. Newman. FPs of L. Crust. Record 44 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Protandric simultaneous hermaphroditism in the marine shrimp Lysmata californica (Caridea: Hippolytidae) AU: Author Bauer. californica is similar to that of L. Vol. WA SO: Source Journal of crustacean biology [J. Time-lapse video observations confirmed that FPs are able to copulate as males and inseminate postmolt.]. Spawning. Prespawning FPs maintained alone did not produce successful broods of embryos. Female-phase individuals maintained in pairs went through successive cycles of embryo brooding concomitant with gonadal vitellogenesis. Article Taxonomic Terms: Lysmata californica AB: Abstract To investigate the extent of protandric simultaneous hermaphroditism (PSH) in the genus Lysmata. molting. Record 45 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title A mu-class glutathione S-transferase from the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: Molecular cloning and active-site structural modeling . Size-frequency distributions of sexual phases showed that individuals develop first in the male phase (MP) and then change to the female phase. observations were made on the sexual system of L. Maintaining aerobic conditions at the sediment-water interface will minimize accumulation of organic matter in pond sediment. and relative growth of male ejaculatory ducts is similar in MPs and FPs. 131-139. as shown by (a) otransitionalo individuals that were fully MP externally but whose ovotestes were full of vitellogenic oocytes and (b) a distinct change in the presence/absence and growth of pleopod characters from MP to FP.

Using RT-PCR. 245-252. harvesting. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Agropisciculture. Penaeus monodon. The deduced amino acid sequence (215 amino acids) has >50% identity to rodents and other mammals mu-class GSTs. AU: Author Hung. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Glutathione transferase. predator prevention. Substrate specificity. LT SO: Source Integrated agriculture-aquaculture. Tec. Mol. Shrimp culture. Vietnam. and.3-dimethyl-2-cyano-1-nitrosoguanidine. Citlalli. International Inst. no. pp. Aquaculture techniques. Yepiz-Plascencia. Penang (Malaysia) . Gloria SO: Source Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology [J. Rome (Italy). CA: Corporate Author FAO. Prawn culture. This position is commonly occupied by serine or threonine in mammalian mu-class GSTs. Vol. gills. the shrimp GST transcript was detected in hepatopancreas. Harris-Valle. Aquaculture systems. and muscle. Hemocytes. Muscles.AU: Author Contreras-Vergara. fertilizing. Rogerio R. is more conserved compared to the flexible C-terminal domain II. Biochem. care and maintenance. Vietnam AB: Abstract A description is given of 2 systems of rice field aquaculture that farmers in coastal areas of southern Viet Nam use to increase their incomes . Carmen A. World Fish Cent. Stocking (organisms). Gills. and shrimp Q208 may affect the affinity to substrates like aminochrome or 1. no. Agro-acuicultura integrada. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract A cDNA clone coding for a mu-class glutathione S-transferase (GST) was isolated from a hepatopancreas cDNA library from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. A primer. The shrimp GST sequence was computer modeled and found to fit the classical two-domain GST structure. Record 46 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Rice-prawn and rice-shrimp culture in coastal areas of Viet Nam.. pest control. Manual basico. Sotelo-Mundo. This is the first report of molecular cloning and structural modeling of a crustacean GST and provides new insights into the nature of the detoxification response on marine invertebrates. Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium rosenbergii. but not in pleopods. Residue Q208 appears to be a key to substrate specificity by comparison with mammalian GST mutants. Detoxification. Amino acid sequence. The following aspects are covered: site selection. land preparation and transplanting for rice. 5. Polymerase chain reaction. Domain I. 2004. Oryza sativa. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. stocking. 2004. Cavite (Philippines). of Rural Reconstruction. feeding. containing the glutathione (GSH) binding site. 18. pp. Plant culture. dike and trench construction. hemocytes. Pesca].rice-freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and freshwater prawn or marine shrimp (Penaeus monodon) monoculture in the dry season. FAO documento tecnico de pesca [FAO Doc. 86-89. Hepatopancreas. 407.]. Silang. Rice field aquaculture. Toxicol.

Brackishwater environment. South 24-Parganas and East Midnapore is dominated by mangroves. increasing in nutrient density as the relative prawn. Feeding experiments. Marine crustaceans. Raised in Earthen Ponds in a Temperate Climate AU: Author Coyle. Costs. Stocking density. Underutilized species. Food additives. Kentucky AB: Abstract This study compared the current recommended technology of "phase feeding" diets. West Bengal. India. many of which are of commercial value. Fishery economics. no.]. S. Biomass. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Crustacean fisheries. 71-80. pp. 16. D SO: Source Journal of Applied Aquaculture [J. 2004. estuaries. India comprising of three districts. All these ecosystems are very rich in fauna including the crustaceans. an inventory of a total of 34 species of commercially important prawns and crabs has been prepared along with a list of 13 species of ill-tapped/untapped crustaceans. ISW. Bright. Article Taxonomic Terms: Decapoda. Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Article Geographic Terms: India. 147-156. Estuarine fisheries. Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Sociobiol. Proteins. Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium rosenbergii. West Bengal AB: Abstract Coastal West Bengal. JH. Vol. Freshwater crustaceans. biomass increased. North 24-Parganas. In the present communication. Aquacult. Food conversion. Data for marine shrimp (both penaeid and non. Yasharian.penaeid) and crab production and their export from the state have been presented. MKD. namely. 1-2. 2004. Appl. Pellet feeds. Overexploitation. Pond culture.]. LA. Vol. Resource conservation. 1. Nandi. Annual variations. Environ. The major threats to crustacean fishery of the State of West Bengal have also been discussed along with the conservation issues. Nutritive value. Record 48 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Effects of Different Feeding Strategies on Production and Economic Returns for Freshwater Prawn. Depleted stocks. Stock assessment. 1-3. compared to feeding a steam-pelleted. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Prawn culture. Tidwell.Record 47 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Crustacean fishery resources of coastal West Bengal and their conservation issues AU: Author Roy. Article Geographic Terms: USA. Coastal fisheries. Trade. Commercial species. Diets. practical diet containing 32% protein . Aquaculture techniques. Fishery resources. no. Fishery management. NC SO: Source Journal of Environment and Sociobiology [J. Backwaters. Feed efficiency. backwaters and brackishwater bheries. pp. Aquaculture economics.

no. some added expense may be justified. There appears to be little benefit to feeding expensive marine shrimp diets to freshwater prawn. The gonads of the female were vitellogenic. There were three replicate 0. however. A SO: Source Israeli Journal of Aquaculture/Bamidgeh [Isr.4 g. The added expense of the marine shrimp diet resulted in approximately a US $1. C. S. Vol. overall. 55./Bamidgeh]. Two treatments were evaluated. D. In Treatment 2. which was partially sequenced in our laboratory. C. prawn were fed a 28%-protein. Polymerase chain reaction. Female shrimp were sampled from the farm at various times. Vg gene expression was not detected in young previtellogenic females using the same set of primers. steam-pelleted diet throughout the entire 18-week production period. Females. However. if the market being addressed requires. there was no significant difference (P > 0. the percentage of prawns which reached over 30 g was increased approximately 20% in the phase-fed treatment. Gonads. was expressed in the female. average individual weight. or pays. it was detected after the females reached a certain size and age threshold. we found that the vitellogenin gene. Sagi. Treatment 1 was phase-feeding where prawn were fed unpelleted distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) for the first four weeks.500/ha and were provided with artificial substrate in the form of polyethylene "safety fence" oriented vertically at a rate to increase available surface area 50%. 28. Article Geographic Terms: Israel. Using PCR and specific vitellogenin primers. Vitellogenesis. fed a steampelleted prawn diet containing 28% protein for weeks 5-12. Gene expression. Davis.05) between treatments in terms of production. Brackishwater aquaculture. without clear signs of secondary vitellogenesis. Goshen. Feeding rates in both treatments were based on a feeding table. Aquacult. and 92%. After 97 culture days. or survival which averaged 2. 4. J. Sexual maturity. however. FCR.2.00/kg increase in the break-even price in the phase-treatment compared to feeding the diet containing 28% protein exclusively. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei. more for large animals. p. Older female shrimp that grew in brackish water (2-3 ppt) and were fed a commercial pelleted diet could be manipulated to . and fed an extruded marine shrimp diet containing 40% protein for weeks 13-18. 2. Dec 2003. Azulay. Segall. T. S.throughout the entire production period. 233. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Geothermal springs.02-ha ponds for each treatment. based on morphological and physiological examinations. All ponds were stocked at 87. We therefore decided to probe the issues of gonad maturation and the timing of vitellogenin gene expression in this marine shrimp when it is grown in geothermal brackish water from the Negev in southern Israel. Record 49 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Gonad maturation and vitellogenesis in a marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) grown in geothermal brackish water AU: Author Parnes. Negev Desert AB: Abstract A unique case of the full development of female gonads was discovered during a routine check of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp broodstock grown in geothermal brackish water at a commercial shrimp farm in the Negev. Raviv.272 kg/ha.

enriched diet). Culture effects. Record 50 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Aquaculture development potential in Arizona: A GIS-based approach AU: Author McIntosh. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans. Many involved in aquaculture believe that application of best management practices (BMPs) could be a reasonable and affordable way to improve the quality and reduce the volume of pond effluents. TK. Thus. Baldwin. Arizona AB: Abstract Interest in aquaculture in the state of Arizona is on the rise. no. Finfish including tilapia. Marine aquaculture. while other culture organisms. 31 Oct 2003. During recent years. 226. Fitzsimmons. no. primarily marine shrimp. marine shrimp producers. will be difficult or impossible. Currently. research/educational facilities and distributors. Article Geographic Terms: USA.]. Tilapia. but typically they are sprawling operations where large volumes of relatively dilute effluents are released at many points. application of traditional effluent treatment methods to meet effluent standards. Freshwater fish. pp.start vitellogenic processes by transferring them to a marine-like environment (30 ppt. Vol. Aquaculture regulations. as done for point source pollution. Shrimp and fish producers are concerned that these regulations will be unnecessarily restrictive and expensive. Record 51 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Guidelines for aquaculture effluent management at the farm-level AU: Author Boyd. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. pp. trout and catfish accounted for 590 tons. Arizona aquaculture production in 2000 was 680 tons. GIS. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture effluents. Most pond aquaculture cannot be conducted without discharge. Fish and shrimp farms tend to be concentrated in specific regions. 34. there are more than 30 licensed aquaculture operations in Arizona. 101-112. bass. including finfish producers. several . Aquaculture development. Pollution control. 1-4. CE SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture]. 4. Most of these females developed a full vitellogenic ovary with clear expression of the vitellogenin gene in both the hepatopancreas and the ovary. rounded out production. Effluents from pond aquaculture resemble non-point sources of pollution more than point sources. Environment management. Dec 2003. Wastewater treatment. 32-35. Water quality control AB: Abstract Pressure from environmental groups will force most governments to impose effluent regulations on aquaculture. D. K SO: Source World Aquaculture [World Aquacult. Vol. Fish culture.

Coastal zone. This treatment via constructed microbial mats is a technically feasible method for simultaneously reducing effluent nutrient loading (especially nitrate and ammonia) and for reducing organic loading (especially BOD sub(5)) of shrimp culture effluents. . 3-4. Australia. Wastewater treatment. Article Geographic Terms: ISE. industry groups (Global Aquaculture Alliance. Pollution control. marine shrimp industry poses a problem with respect to the waste effluent disposal into the ocean as well as the nearby area. Many shrimp producers in several nations have installed settling basins. Aquaculture effluents. Garcia. Vol.]. Cultures. and it is expected that regulatory programs based on BMPs will be forthcoming. and Alabama Catfish Producers). Nitrogen removal.organizations have suggested systems of BMPs for making pond aquaculture more environmentally responsible. Microbial mats. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei. Oceans. O SO: Source Aquacultural Engineering [Aquacult. There is an obvious attempt by producers in Latin America. and state agencies in the USA (Missouri Department of Natural Resources and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services). Asia. Artificial substrata. The contents of BMP documents presented by the different groups are remarkably similar. over a 20 days period of treatment. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Ammonia. Culture effects. Eng. Record 52 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Ex-situ bioremediation of shrimp culture effluent using constructed microbial mats AU: Author Paniagua-Michel. the topic is being discussed widely. Aug 2003. Shrimp culture. There also is considerable discussion among producers and governmental agencies in several nations regarding BMPs. and the United States to improve production practices. Marine Shrimp Culture Industry of Thailand. Nitrate. and some producers are voluntarily adopting BMPs. The treatment concept relies on the immobilization of natural marine microbial consortium on glass wool to mitigate the levels of dissolved nitrogen from a shrimp culture effluent. no. and producers are becoming more aware of environmental issues. Biochemical oxygen demand. Constructed microbial mats offer an interesting alternative for shrimp culture effluents. pp. Bioremediation. Nitrates. Shrimp. and a few large shrimp farms monitor effluent quality. Coastal waters. Wool. The Aquaculture Certification Council (ACC) plans to implement a certification program based primarily on compliance with BMPs during 2003. Effluents. Biotechnology. J. Our results indicate that average efficiencies of ammonia nitrogen removal from shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) effluent was 97% and 95% for nitrate nitrogen. Effluent treatment. Ocean dumping. Organic Loading. Mexico AB: Abstract In coastal countries. 131-139. These include international development organizations (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and International Finance Corporation). Although the BMP approach is largely a 'paper list' at present. 28. Australian Prawn Producers Association. Nitrogen. a research center (Coastal Resources Center. University of Rhode Island).

a comparison of extraovarian VTG and ovarian VT of the marine shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus was performed at the protein and cDNA levels. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: cDNA.]. Vol. VTG cDNA from hepatopancreas was similar to VTG cDNA from ovary. Vitellogenesis. Nucleotide sequence. Two cDNAs (7920 and 2068 nucleotides [nt]) were sequenced for VTG from the ovary and one cDNA (7920 nt) was sequenced from the hepatopancreas. 1. Proteins. similar to 7. Jul 2003. Feed composition.Record 53 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Relationship Between Vitellogenin and Vitellin in a Marine Shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) and Molecular Characterization of Vitellogenin Complementary DNAs AU: Author Avarre. Feeding. 69. Michelis. Lubzens. Artificial substrata. Vol. Prawn culture. no. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus semisulcatus AB: Abstract The source of yolk proteins in crustacean ovaries has been the subject of controversy for several decades. Article Geographic Terms: .8-kilobase transcripts were only detected in the ovary and hepatopancreas of females. Diets.]. DNA. showing intraovarian gene expression and synthesis of yolk protein. Ovaries. Vitellogenin. Yield. Animal nutrition. 34. Shrimp culture. E SO: Source Biology of Reproduction [Biol. Aquaculture techniques. as determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. To offer a new insight into the relationship of vitellogenin (VTG) and vitellin (VT). Yolk. Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Polymerase chain reaction. VTG and VT apoproteins were composed of two and three major subunits. Costs. Stocking density. Fertilizers. Gene expression. and both extraovarian and intraovarian synthesized proteins have been implicated. Habitat improvement (physical). These results indicate that penaeid shrimps constitute a unique model for vitellogenesis. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Feeding experiments. Pellet feeds. 2. 51-53. N-terminal sequences of these subunits revealed the presence of a cleavage site at a consensus motif for a subtilisin-like endoprotease in VTG and VT and an additional cleavage site in VT revealed by an unidentified endoprotease. Record 54 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Effect of different feeds and feeding technologies on prawn production AU: Author Coyle. Jun 2003. Nutritional requirements. pp. Although a VTG gene was also found in the males. pp. A. 355-364. J SO: Source World Aquaculture [World Aquacult. S. J. R. as shown by SDS-PAGE. Tietz. no. The mRNA expression pattern was related to the stage of ovarian development and to the molt cycle. Body size. respectively. Hepatopancreas. Tidwell. Moulting. Aquaculture economics. Sexual maturity. Reprod.

Potassium. they have also been expensive 2. Shellfish Res. Vol. DDGS (Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles) at 20kg/ha/day for the first month. such as added substrate. Record 55 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Minimum environmental potassium for survival of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) in freshwater AU: Author McGraw. freshwater prawns actually have nutritional requirements that are similar to penaeid shrimp. Prawns have typically been fed agro-industrial byproducts or low protein diets. which are typically fed high protein. While these changes in feeds and feeding have been effective. production rates increased from 900-1. Ions. 22. high quality diets. at higher production rates prawn are likely to be more dependant on commercial feeds. currently in research ponds. we must be sure that potential production rates are not constrained by suboptimal diets. especially the large high value individuals (>40-50 g). DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans. Shrimp culture. Sodium compounds. While prawns can receive substantial nutritional benefit from natural foods in ponds at relatively low prawn biomass densities (<1. In studies at Kentucky State University. Scarpa. Chlorides. increased stocking densities. pp. Osmoregulation. WJ. followed by a 28 percent protein steam pelleted diet formulated similar to catfish feed for the next six weeks and finally. Fresh water. and SO sub(4) super(2-)) on the short-term survival of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in freshwater (<1 ppt .]. no.USA. When these feeding and production technologies were changed. K super(+). 263-267. 1. J SO: Source Journal of Shellfish Research [J. In phase feeding. prawns are fed a 22 percent protein unpelleted organic fertilizer. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract The effect of three essential osmoregulatory ions (Mg super(2+). have increased prawn production rates from 900-1.500 kg/ha. size grading and increased feed rates. Jun 2003. Distilled water. we have used what we call phase feeding in recent years. such as added substrate and increased stocking density. Research has shown that. In prawn farming. Recent developments in prawn production technologies. To be sure that maximum prawn production rates are being achieved by these new technologies. Survival. Kentucky AB: Abstract The commercial culture of the freshwater prawn. in the United States has increased considerably in recent years and estimated pond production now exceeds 600 hectares. so we initiated a series of studies to evaluate the cost/benefit relationships of the different feeds and feeding scenarios.000 kg/ha). which were used primarily to enhance natural pond productivity rather than to serve as a complete diet for the animals.500 kg/ha in our research ponds when combined with other management factors. physiologically. including substrates and grading.000 kg/ha five years ago to over 2.000 kg/ha to over 2. feed costs are a relatively small proportion of total costs 5-15 percent. a 40 percent protein marine shrimp diet for the remaining four weeks of the production period. Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

There was no significant difference between survival rates of shrimp reared at 9ppt. 18ppt or 36ppt. Res. but also by a significantly higher concentration of chlorophyll a (Chl a) per weight of suspended matter (1. G.61 mu g Chl a/mg TSS) salinity. Concentrations of ciliates (max 6000 cells mL super(-1)) showed considerable fluctuations over the sampling period.72 g). 34. Solutions with K super(+) exhibited an average increase in survival of 20% and 42% above solutions without K super(+) at 24 and 48 h.]. no. 4. This study demonstrates the necessity of K super(+) in "freshwater" at a minimum concentration of 1 ppm for the survival of this euryhaline marine shrimp. Delanoy. Ten shrimp were placed in triplicate 4-L plastic containers holding 2 L of treatment solutions for 24-48 h. Potassium was found to significantly (P < 0. 345-355. Shrimp culture. Mar 2003. as is currently being done in the wastewater industry. Tacon.23 plus or minus 2.total ion concentration) was examined in several experiments. whereas Mg super(2+) and SO sub(4) super(2-) had no effect.05) increase shrimp survival. K super(+). Shrimp postlarvae (PL-18 and -28) were acclimated from seawater (32 ppt) to freshwater (700 ppm TDS. dynamic interactions between ciliates and their diverse roles within the shrimp production system. and compare this information with shrimp growth and survival. Treatments consisted of various Mg super(2+). DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Salinity effects. reflecting the impact of water salinity. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract Recent efforts have been made to culture marine shrimp in systems operating under low or zero-water exchange and with decreased water salinity. L. pp. Cody.26 g to 10. 280 ppm Cl super(-)) over 48 h and held for an additional 24 h before being placed in treatment solutions. Record 57 of 500 . The regulatory aspects involved in maintaining K super(+) in crustaceans under hypo-osmotic conditions are discussed. but decreasing salinity from 36ppt to 9ppt led to a significant decrease in final shrimp body weight (from 13. O.37 plus or minus 0. J. within experimental zero-water exchange culture systems AU: Author Decamp. Record 56 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Effect of salinity on natural community and production of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone). respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of various salinity levels on qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the natural community and. more particularly. Future work should address the potential of ciliates as an indicator of aquaculture water quality.72 mu g Chl a/mg TSS) than tanks with 18ppt (1. AJ SO: Source Aquaculture Research [Aquacult. ciliated protozoa. Conquest. Tanks with 9ppt salinity were characterized by a higher pH. and the contribution of ciliates as food sources. Vol.68 mu g Chl a/mg TSS) or 36ppt (1.40 plus or minus 0. and SO sub(4) super(2-) concentrations in Na super(+) and Ca super(2+) solutions that were all derived from chloride or sodium based chemicals added to distilled water. Recirculating systems.29 plus or minus 0.93 plus or minus 0.

feed. Mar 2003. MP SO: Source Arquivos de Ciencias do Mar [Arq. 2003. Culture effects. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. Marine aquaculture. The results of the monitoring program at demonstration farms are presented here. there has been environmental degradation of coastal areas as well as physical. pp. processors and exporters. The Northeastern region accounted for 96. Article Geographic Terms: ASW. 1. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. Southern Thailand AU: Author Tookwinas. was the commitment to an environmental management system among stakeholders and the development of guidelines. the country harvested 60. Environmental monitoring. In response. P SO: Source World Aquaculture [World Aquacult.5% of Brazil's . 36. the Brazilian industry has gone through a series of crises until becoming the 7th largest world producer of farm-reared shrimp in 2002. Farfantepenaeus. Coastal zone management. 34. Northeast AB: Abstract With fisheries catches stable at the global level. Vol. AU: Author Gesteira. In that year. The second phase was the farm demonstration program. pp. Cienc.DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Results of the code of conduct for marine shrimp farming demonstration in Songkhla. Brazil.128 Mt of marine shrimp. Shrimp culture. The first phase. Paiva. 9-11. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus. Shrimp culture. no. Environmental protection. penaeid shrimp are the most promising group for Brazilian mariculture. Environmental impact. 1998 to 1999. Songsangjinda. Among all farmed marine organisms. Thailand AB: Abstract In the last decade. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Environmental impact.]. Mar]. social and economic impacts of shrimp farming on the coastal environment. aquaculture has become the most important alternative. chemical and drug suppliers. which was conducted in 2000. Aquaculture regulations. biochemical. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Environment management. the Thailand Department of Fisheries (DOF) has paid a great deal of attention to these issues to help minimize the impacts and maintain or sustain the shrimp farming industry. S. The DOF has developed a Code of Conduct for Sustainable Marine Shrimp Farming Industry in Thailand that was initiated in June 1998 with funding from the World Bank in two phases. Vol. After the beginning of shrimp farming in the 1970's in the country. such as hatcheries. The shrimp farming industry includes not only the shrimp farms but also involves associated industries. The farm practice manual was developed along the guidelines established in phase one. Penaeus. Environment management. Record 58 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Environmental impacts of shrimp farming in the Brazilian Northeast. TCV. 23-28.

health.total production. Perna perna. Oyster culture. World. Cultured organisms. Conferences.com). 1-2. the salinization of aquifers. pp. Aquaculture techniques. Record 60 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Indian Aquaculture AU: Author Gopakumar. Jan-Feb 2003. Cirrhinus mrigala. no. pp.]. no. Pearl oysters. Freshwater aquaculture. Per capita availability of fish in the country is 9. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture development. China last April. which should be available from the World Aquaculture Society Home Office (phone 225-388-3137. 42-48. There were several excellent shrimp papers presented and covering topics like nutrition and feeds. Freshwater fish. Aquacult. the pollution of nearby areas by farm effluents. Penaeidae. This production level makes . If you are interested in additional information. Shrimp farming has led to controversial debates between environmentalist and farmers. All these impacts can be mitigated though good farming. 13. 1-10. Here I briefly comment on some of the most relevant papers. K SO: Source Journal of Applied Aquaculture [J. Human food. Labeo rohita. DE SO: Source Aquaculture Magazine [Aquacult. Record 59 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine Shrimp Papers At World Aquaculture 2002 AU: Author Jory. refer to the Book of Abstracts.]. The construction of ponds in mangrove-covered lands and the collection of wild post-larvae are practices that are no longer part of this activity. Mag. Article Geographic Terms: India AB: Abstract Fish play an important role in the nutrition of people in India. Fish culture. the reduction in biodiversity during the catch of wild post-larvae and the escape of exotic species into the natural environment. 2003. Is clear that the survival of the farming business relies on the protection of the environment to which it is intimately linked.5 kg with production at 5. 29. The major impacts of this activity are the destruction of mangrove forest. Marine fish. 1. production and others. Pinctada fucata. Mussel culture. Vol. as some of them are not relevant to shrimp culture. Vol. Marine aquaculture. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Appl. Perna viridis. Article Taxonomic Terms: Decapoda AB: Abstract The World Aquaculture 2002 meeting was successfully held in Beijing. fax 225-388-3493 or by email at: wasmas[at]aol. Marine aquaculture. genetic improvement. Labeo calbasu. Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Article Taxonomic Terms: Catla catla.8 million tonnes during 1999-2000.

chemical fertilizer containing both nitrogen and phosphorus should be used to encourage natural productivity.to 3-day intervals are usually adequate. and a review of water quality and bottom soil management will be provided. Once ponds have been filled with water. Sediment chemistry.5%) or too high (> 3 or 4%). Aquaculture techniques. After a shrimp pond has been drained for harvest. Shrimp culture. pp. Water and soil conditions have a great influence on the efficiency of shrimp production. 13. but water exchange often can be reduced to much lower levels than commonly applied. rohu. CE SO: Source Journal of Applied Aquaculture [J. and pearl oysters for domestic and international markets. organic carbon analyses can indicate if organic matter concentrations are too low (< 0. 2003. Labeo rohita. India must increase its current level of production to 7-8 million tonnes per year. Pond culture. marine shrimp.5 million tonnes to 5 million tonnes by 2010. India cultures many different species including Indian major carps (catla. no. Labeo calbasu). Water exchange is widely used in shrimp farming. In soil with excessive organic matter. and calbasu. fertilization should be used cautiously because of the danger of causing excessive phytoplankton blooms. inland aquaculture production must increase from its current level of 2. Mechanical aeration can be used to increase feeding rates and allow higher levels of shrimp production. With marine fishery production/capture steady at 3 million tonnes per year. Applications of 2 to 4 kg/ha of N and P sub(2)O sub(5) at 2. Bottoms should be dried for 2 to 3 weeks to enhance oxidation of organic matter and other reduced substances. Record 61 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Bottom Soil and Water Quality Management in Shrimp Ponds AU: Author Boyd. Feeding. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae AB: Abstract Marine shrimp farming has become an important component of aquaculture. Nitrate nitrogen is especially effective as a nitrogen source for treating pond bottoms because it also is a soil oxidant. Habitat improvement (fertilization).5-1 kg P sub(2)O sub(5)/ha at intervals of about 1 week should be continued for a few weeks. freshwater shrimp. green and brown mussels. India must intensify culture production methods for this increased production values to be achieved. Water quality control. natural food should be abundant and postlarvae can be stocked. To meet the increased demand for fisheries products by 2010. Catla catla. Aquacult. 11-33. nitrogen fertilizers may be applied at 200 to 400 kg/ha to enhance microbial activity. Physicochemical properties. 1-2. naini. Vol. However. Soil pH should be measured and agricultural limestone applied to acidic pond bottoms. Culture media. Fertilization with 1-2 kg N and 0. Cirrhinus mrigala.]. Suggestions on the use of better practices to minimize . China is the leading aquaculture producer. once feeding rates exceed 20 to 30 kg/ha per day. Empty pond bottoms also may be tilled to 5 to 10 cm depth with a disk harrow to encourage oxidation. oysters. Within 1 or 2 weeks.India the second largest aquaculture producing country in the world. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine aquaculture. Appl. Substrata.

Vol. 4. Thunjai. 34. pp. Thailand. most animals died 24-48 h postexposure. Lotz. CE. Aquaculture techniques. USA AB: Abstract . no.]. Article Taxonomic Terms: Taura syndrome virus. Hawaii AB: Abstract We used an experimental procedure based on a mathematical epidemiology model to compare the transmission. Virulence. Aquat. 48-54.. For the WSSV-exposed shrimp. 2003. USA. JM SO: Source Journal of Aquatic Animal Health [J. 1. Ground water. no. Hawaii I. Record 63 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Concentrations of Major Ions in Waters of Inland Shrimp Farms in China.. Article Geographic Terms: ISE. and recovery coefficients of Litopenaeus vannamei (Kona stock) exposed to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) or Taura syndrome virus (TSV). DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Brackishwater aquaculture. vannamei used in the experiments were from the original unselected. highly susceptible population of shrimp maintained by the U. Soc. Thailand. Culture media. most died 48-96 h postexposure. Fresh water.or TSV-infected shrimp cadaver for 14 h and then isolating the exposed shrimp individually for 5 d to determine the number of infections and deaths. and the United States AU: Author Boyd. Ecuador. 15.10) than for the WSSV exposures (0). Two experiments were conducted. Virulence.S. Vol.41 for the WSSV exposures. Shrimp culture. Litopenaeus vannamei. Kona Coast. Mortality. Article Geographic Terms: China. People's Rep.12). Ecuador. Chemical analysis. Hawaii. The estimated transmission coefficients were 0. Record 62 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Transmission. MA. The estimated virulence coefficient was higher for the WSSV exposures (0.61 for the TSV exposures and 0. T SO: Source Journal of the World Aquaculture Society [J. 2003. the estimated recovery coefficient was higher for the TSV exposures (0. The procedure involved exposing 12 susceptible shrimp to a single WSSV. Brines. In contrast. Ions.37) than for the TSV exposures (0. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Disease transmission. World Aquacult. Health]. Marine Shrimp Farming Program. Surface water. Shrimp culture. Anim. pp. White spot syndrome virus. the results from which were similar. virulence. and Recovery Coefficients of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) and Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) Infections in Kona Stock Litopenaeus vannamei AU: Author Soto. 524-532. for the TSV-exposed shrimp. Pond culture. USA. Viral diseases. The L.possible adverse environmental effects of shrimp farming are provided.

it was possible to collect water samples from inland shrimp culture ponds in China. Florida. marine fish. 43% and 75%. During a recent study of inland shrimp farming techniques (Boyd. Fish culture. In other nations. and Thailand and in Alabama. and Texas of the United States. the protein and amino acid content and digestibility of fish meal and marine byproducts will become critically important as proteins from marine sources switch from a primary role in feeds to a specialty role as sources of essential amino acids that are limited in proteins from grains and oilseeds. In Thailand.Culture of marine shrimp in inland areas has been done in Thailand for more than a decade and now is being attempted in many other nations. Thus. Amino acids. Fish oils. The amino acid profile of fish meal is optimum for aquaculture feeds. as well as granular salt which may be added to ponds to raise salinity. and carp. The brine solution used in Thailand has proportions of major ions similar to those of seawater. the primary sources of low-salinity water for shrimp culture are saline ground water from wells and surface water. in press). requiring more feeds and thus more fish protein and oil. i. Fish meal and oil fulfill specific roles in feeds for each species group. Over 70% of the fish meal and oil consumed by aquaculture is used in feeds for four species groups. may differ greatly from seawater in ionic proportions. salmonids. 2003. Article Geographic Terms: USA AB: Abstract Aquaculture production increased by more than 12% per year in the past 15 years and is expected to continue to do so for the foreseeable future. granular salt has been applied to ponds to increase salinity. In some cases. Arizona. but supply and demand concerns will increasingly result in fish meal being combined with grain and oilseed proteins to produce blends suitable for growing fish. in 2000. 2002 Conference Proceedings. There have not been problems with shrimp stress and mortality from imbalances of major ion concentrations in inland shrimp culture in Thailand. marine shrimp. pp. and thus marine byproducts can have different specifications for each. Food additives. fish oils will switch from being a primary energy source in .. Ecuador. RW SO: Source Advances in Seafood Byproducts. Pond water prepared by mixing freshwater and brine solution usually is similar to seawater with respect to ionic proportions. Record 64 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine Byproducts for Aquaculture Use AU: Author Hardy. Groundwater and surface water. but ionic imbalance has been problematic in the United States and Ecuador. Likewise. Fishery products. Fatty acids. 141-152. Shrimp culture. Feed composition. shrimp are cultured in ponds containing water of 2 to 5 ppt salinity prepared by mixing brine solution from coastal seawater evaporation ponds with freshwater. These samples were analyzed for salinity and concentrations of major ions to provide information on the characteristics of waters used for inland shrimp culture. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Seafood. Fish meal. The percentage of annual world fish meal and oil production used by the aquaculture feed industry was 10% and 6% in 1988 compared to ca. respectively. Nutritive value.e. Byproducts. Proteins.

Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus orientalis. Oryza sativa. Aquaculture systems. The reproduction of cultured shrimp was lower than marine shrimp. 2. The first stage started with size PL 15 until shrimp weighs 25-30g. 24-26. Vietnam AB: Abstract The experimental closed life-cycle culture of Penaeus Orientalis Kishiouye 1918 in brackish water areas was conducted in order to maintain and protect the genetic resource of Vietnam and to add to the structure of cultured shrimp species in Northern provinces. Brackishwater aquaculture. Peches]. Rice field aquaculture. Penaeus monodon. Tech. Integration agriculture-aquaculture: principes de base et exemples.5m. 86-90.7g.5%) in brackish water ponds and reached maturity at 11 months old in the condition of artificial culture.diets to a specialty role in finishing diets to supply omega-3 fatty acids. Vietnam. NV SO: Source Fishries review [Fish. Pond culture. 2003. Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Rev. meanwhile the quality of their eggs and larvae were similar to marine shrimp. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. female shrimp weighed 68. no. Record 66 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Rice-prawn and rice-shrimp culture in coastal areas of Viet Nam. Plant culture. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans. FAO Document technique sur les peches [FAO Doc. The experimental result showed that although living in unfavourable condition. while male shrimp weighed 37. Penaeus Orientalis could sexually develop and ripen with high rate (80. Penaeus orientalis grew rather fast. pp. Prawn culture. At the second stage shrimps from the fist stage were transferred to another pond and released with a stocking density of 1ind/m super(2). no.000m super(2) area and water level at 1.]. and stocking density was 10ind/m super(2). Record 65 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Closed life-cycle culture of Penaeus orientalis Kishiouye 1918 in brackish water areas. Experimental culture. AU: Author Hung. 2003. LT SO: Source Integrated agriculture-aquaculture: A primer. Vietnam AB: Abstract . after 11 months. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW.4g after three months of culture. reaching an average weight of 25. The research was carried out in two stages 1995-1996 and 1996-1997 in abrackish water pond of 2. AU: Author Quyen. Aquaculture techniques. pp. Shrimp culture.5g. Shrimp culture. Spawner shrimp were kept separately and grown out in ponds. 407. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Agropisciculture.

Notable quantitative differences in cholesterol were seen in the three batches. International Inst. with values of 482 plus or minus 80 mg/100 g (D1). stocking. RA SO: Source Journal of aquaculture in the tropics [J. The following aspects are covered: site selection. Just when gonads were ripe. Penaeus monodon. Eyestalk extirpation. 309-314. land preparation and transplanting for rice. Vol. pest control. Ration size was 10% body weight per day. 50:25:25) and D3 (squid + trash fish + bioencapsulated bloodworm. of Rural Reconstruction. World Fish Cent. AU: Author Chiem.]. feeding. suggesting a possible link with differences in egg quality. 569 plus or minus 95 mg/100 g (D2) and 615 plus or minus 95 mg/100 mg/100 (D3). Aquacult.rice-freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and freshwater prawn or marine shrimp (Penaeus monodon) monoculture in the dry season. NV SO: Source . Penang (Malaysia). tiger prawn were sacrificed and gonad samples removed for cholesterol analysis. Mustafa. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. dike and trench construction. and.. pp. 2003.A description is given of 2 systems of rice field aquaculture that farmers in coastal areas of southern Viet Nam use to increase their incomes . bioencapsulated bloodworm contributed to substantially increasing the cholesterol content of the intraovarian oocytes. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans. This study is a part of investigations of factors that influence the quality of egg and measures that could be taken to improve the quality. is the most widely cultured species of marine shrimp not only in Malaysia but the whole of Southeast Asia. Kota Kinabaly AB: Abstract Tiger prawn. Rahman. Malaysia. 18. predator prevention. Ovaries. S. harvesting. fertilizing. Shrimp culture. Trop. Crustacean culture. Cavite (Philippines) Record 67 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Increasing cholesterol deposition in oocytes of eyestalk-ablated tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) by feeding bioencapsulated live prey AU: Author Kian. 4. care and maintenance. D2 (squid + trash fish + bloodworm. AYS. Survival of the seed produced in hatcheries is highly variable even in specimens of the same population. Three batches of females were subjected to unilateral eyestalk ablation and were fed different diets (D1-D3) while in captivity: D1 (squid + trash fish in 50:50 ratio). Evidently. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon. Silang. Live bloodworm were bioencapsulated using tricalcic phosphate. 50:25:25). Record 68 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Shrimp release into the sea. Cholesterol. Oocytes. no. Broodstock were fed 3 times dally at 0800 h. Rome (Italy). CA: Corporate Author FAO. 1300 h.

Seed (aquaculture). pp. no. Egypt. Nghe An. especially in terms of international trade. Both these states are considered the pioneers in commercialization of shrimp mariculture in the Arab region. Spec. AB: Abstract The world shrimp culture industry is now well developed and competitive. Ranching. Aquaculture enterprises. no. But it requires a supply of shrimp seeds. rev. 2003.. 7.5-1 seed/m super(2). MED. pp. Binh Dinh. Arab Rep. Arab Rep. Mag. There has been an increase in demand for seafood products in the Arab world in general. Two Arab states in particular have shown significant progress in marine shrimp farming on a commercial basis . right zone for release. 45-47.000-32. Vietnam AB: Abstract Based on the data collected from surveys regarding the marine shrimp stock of Vietnam in the period from 1975 to 1987. Saudi Arabia. Article Geographic Terms: ISW. Aquaculture development. In some provinces such as Khanh Hoa. marine shrimp seed was released into sea to preserve shrimp resources. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. it can be estimated that there is 70-80 thousand tones of marine shrimp per year and the shrimp catch can be up to 30. 2003. Resource conservation. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon. The main species cultured by far is Penaeus monodon. 36-37. Stocks./INFOSAMAK Mag. Marine aquaculture.Egypt and Saudi Arabia. Record 70 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Seawater irrigation system for intensive marine shrimp farming in Thailand AU: Author .000 tones a year.Fisheries review [Fis. and in the Arab states surrounding the marine waters of the Arabian Peninsula in particular. Peche Ind. Egypt. I SO: Source INFOSAMAK international magazine/INFOSAMAK magazine specialise dans la peche et des industries de poisson [INFOSAMAK Int. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. release density of 0. But recently. Poisson]. This growing local and international demand for seafood has led several Arab states to engage in marine aquaculture. providing also some information on other mariculture attempts in other Arab states. 3. Details are given of the various shrimp culture enterprises and their activities in these 2 countries. ISW. Record 69 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Egypt and Saudi Arabia: shrimp culture AU: Author Feidi. With the purpose to restore of natural balance. the decline of marine shrimp resources has great impacts on socio-economic conditions in many coastal areas.]. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Quang Ninh about 100 millions of shrimp post larvae (PL 12-15) has been released for recent five years.

Article Geographic Terms: Thailand Record 71 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Culture And Nutrition Of Red Claw Crayfish . 35-40.Tookwinas. Shrimp culture. Culture media. Rouse. Water quality. it is imperative that the least expensive diet be formulated that meets the nutrient requirements of the species.For the past 3. Pollution effects. Sep-Oct 2002.]. L SO: Source Aquaculture Magazine [Aquacult. pp.5 years. To date. CD. Phosphorus. Vol. 4.Part 2 AU: Author Webster. Nutritional requirements.]. Aquaculture techniques. no. B . KR. Oct 2002. pp. DM SO: Source Dissertation Abstracts International Part B: Science and Engineering [Diss. Very little information exists on their nutritional requirements.Sci. The following body of work describes my efforts to help reduce the . Animal nutrition. Irrigation water. Kentucky AB: Abstract Kentucky State University . Yingcharoen. 1. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. Int. however. 68. DB. Pt. Thompson. p.]. thereby reducing operating costs and potentially increasing profitability. Nov 2002. no. have largely been overshadowed by the environmental degradation some segments of the industry have caused. 5. Muzinic. suppl. Vol. Article Taxonomic Terms: Cherax quadricarinatus. diets to be used. Since producers may use an expensive marine shrimp diet to feed red claw. Feed composition. Kentucky State University in an attempt to learn about their culture habits. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Environmental impact. we have grown red claw indoors and in ponds at the Aquaculture Research Center. Abst. Aquaculture effluents. yet nutritious. D SO: Source Fisheries Science [Fish. Sea water. Record 72 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Reducing the environmental impact of aquaculture AU: Author McIntosh. Pollution control AB: Abstract Aquaculture has great potential to help supply the nutritional needs of a growing population. determination of nutrient requirements specific for red claw may allow for less expensive. Mag. 63. LA. 28. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine aquaculture. Vol. Manomaitis. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Crayfish culture. S. Article Geographic Terms: USA. 855-858. 2007. & Eng. Sci. Intensive culture. Diets. the benefits that aquaculture can have. Since diet costs can be as much as 70% of the operating expenses for an aquaculture enterprise.

]. This suggests that by tracking δ[super]15N and/or δ[super] 13C through a high-density. A linear regression of %P (corrected) on δ[super]13C and δ[super] 15N resulted in R2[super] values of 0.843 and 0. In 2001. Aquaculture techniques. I describe the characterization and evaluation of the effluent from an inland. Vol. flow-through aquaculture facility over time I will be able to determine the residence time of P with a high degree of accuracy. representing about 10% of the world's supply of farmed shrimp.41 kg of ammonia-nitrogen. 601-620. In chapter 3. In an effort to improve shrimp performance. Sci. 8. I decided to conduct a farm trial to quantify the effects of these shrimp farm effluents on olive trees. I found that 0. Recent expansion of the aquaculture industry in Arizona has made it possible to study the integration of olive groves with marine shrimp culture.7 kg of nitrate-nitrogen and 0. Aquaculture development.93 kg of total phosphorus (TP) were made available as fertilizer each day in the effluent water. Chapter 5 describes work conducted in Idaho.8622. Sep 2002. Article Geographic Terms: Western Hemisphere AB: Abstract Shrimp aquaculture expanded significantly during the 1980s and now represents a multibillion dollar industry. as part of a larger study aimed at reducing the effluent loads of phosphorus (P) from high density. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. By integrating aquaculture production into traditional agriculture. shrimp farmers in the Western Hemisphere produced an estimated 125. Record 73 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine Shrimp Farming in the Western Hemisphere: Past Problems. Despite this level of production. 3-4. Aquaculture economics. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. Aquaculture. pp. Research steps were taken to establish a relationship between TP and the carbon 12/13 isotope ratio (δ[super] 13C) and/or the nitrogen 14/15 isotope ratio (δ[super]15N). Fish. and Future Visions AU: Author Moss. low-salinity shrimp farm as a potential source of irrigation water. While growth of trees irrigated with shrimp farm effluent did not improve in respect to the other treatments.698 kg of nitrite-nitrogen. shrimp farmers have suffered significant economic losses over the last decade because of environmental problems associated with traditional farming practices and viral diseases that have plagued the industry. 0. after correcting for P retention. This work is described in chapter 4.environmental impacts of aquaculture. 10. SM SO: Source Reviews in Fisheries Science [Rev. Our findings suggest that both δ[super]15N and δ[super] 13C are good better proxies for P.1 cm over the four month study period. Aquaculture statistics. farmers are adopting biosecure approaches to shrimp culture that include reduced water exchange and the use of .000 metric tons of product. Technology transfer. Present Solutions. Trees in all treatment groups grew an average of 40. the impact of farming on already limited water resources and the reliance on chemical fertilizers can be reduced. Based on the results of this first study. our results do indicate that irrigating with low-salinity water had no noticeable negative effects. no. respectively. flow-through aquaculture facilities.

Disease control. Lessons from Bangladesh AU: Author Islam. aquaculture development. (UK). is considered to be the cause of many of the problems encountered. Rome (Italy). no. Dhaka. Husbandry diseases. Bangladesh. Fish culture. Article Geographic Terms: Bangladesh AB: Abstract Bangladesh has a long history of rural. CA: Corporate Author FAO. MdN SO: Source Primary aquatic animal health care in rural. improved traditional or polyculture. small-scale aquaculture. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Small scale aquaculture. most of it carp culture. while simultaneously increasing production and profitability for the shrimp farmer. 27-30 September 1999. Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA) Record 75 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Twin Meiosis 2 Spindles Form After Suppression of Polar Body 1 Formation in Oocytes of the Marine Shrimp Sicyonia ingentis AU: Author Hertzler. small-scale. the shrimp aquaculture industry could expand in an environmentally responsible manner. Disease problems are occasionally observed. the risk of crop loss still exists. Development of the United Kingdom (DFID). 287-296. Shrimp culture. 2002. and viral infections of marine shrimp occurred in 1994 and 1996.]. Technical proceedings of the Asia Regional Scoping Workshop. although other species are cultured in both monoculture and polyculture. This paper describes ongoing aquaculture extension projects and the role of the government extension services in the provision of fish health management. Pap. With these technologies in place. 406. promoted by many extension projects. pp.high health seed. These technologies must be integrated into a holistic approach to shrimp culture that incorporates major advances used in terrestrial meat production with novel approaches to aquatic animal husbandry. Pond culture. Freshwater prawn farming. and these are mainly attributed to poor husbandry. Development projects. either traditional. Tech. These outbreaks served to highlight the importance of aquatic animal health management in Bangladesh. is also practised. Department for Int. FAO fisheries technical paper [FAO Fish. PL . Although these efforts have had a positive impact on the industry. Record 74 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Extension methodologies for aquatic animal health management in rural pond culture. integrated with rice cultivation and certain fish species. Intensification of traditional aquaculture systems. The long-term viability of shrimp aquaculture depends on appropriate technologies that are designed to mitigate negative environmental impacts and reduce the introduction and spread of pathogens. However. a serious outbreak of epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) occurred in 1998.

Biological development. no. Succession. Woods Hole [Biol. Nutrients (mineral). 202. phosphorus and carbon was added to the pond water. Matias. Marine Biological Laboratory. Community composition. Zubaidah. and from 42. Shrimp culture. KJ. Nutrients. significantly increased when a combination of nitrogen. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture techniques. Addition of silica seemed to depress the growth rate of Oscillatoria sp. Bull. Davis. Chaetoceros calcitrans. Kwan. AU: Author Wirth. Nutrient enrichment should be minimized and the supply of nitrogen and silica should be adequate for promoting the growth of beneficial phytoplankton in aquaculture systems. 269-278.81 mg m super(-3) in the treated and control ponds respectively. WS SO: Source .]. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Meiosis. Cyanophyta. Woods Hole].00 mg m super(-3) in the final phase. Chaetoceros AB: Abstract Succession of phytoplankton dominance was studied in shrimp culture ponds treated with commercial bacterial products. pp. Bacillariophyceae. FF. Res. Habitat improvement (fertilization). LR. Biol. Dominant species. Cyanobacteria were significantly higher in the control compared with the treated ponds during the final phase of the culture. 4. Pond culture. MS. Otwell. Record 77 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Combining taste panels with focus groups to elicit consumer preferences toward a new shrimp product. Marine crustaceans. Bacteria. no. Carbon. the diatoms significantly decreased whereas cyanobacteria increased in both ponds. Penaeidae. Silica. pp. The specific growth rate of Oscillatoria sp. Diatoms. FM. Vol. Algal bioassay showed that the addition of nitrogen either alone or with silica to pond water significantly increased the specific growth rate of Chaetoceros calcitrans . Aquaculture. Phosphorus. Phytoplankton.SO: Source Biological Bulletin.12 mg m super(-3) to 242. Chlorophyll a increased from a mean of 35. Mar. 100-103. Article Taxonomic Terms: Oscillatoria. Garrido. HB. Lab. Mar 2002. TS SO: Source Aquaculture Research [Aquacult. Vol. Ecological succession. Oocytes Record 76 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Phytoplankton succession in intensive marine shrimp culture ponds treated with a commercial bacterial product AU: Author Yusoff. Reproduction. 33. 2. Intensive culture. Apr 2002. After 34 days.56 mg m super(-3) in the first phase to 186. Nitrogen. Diatoms were dominant and the cyanobacteria were absent in both treated and control ponds at the beginning of the culture period.

Gary Fornshell pp. Shrimp culture. pp. Fish culture. Odour AB: Abstract This study was conducted to evaluate acceptability to consumers of the appearance. 230 pp. Flounder culture and its challenges in Asia. 7. 545-557. Hargreaves pp. Aquaculture effluents. 8. and future visions. 2. Salmonidae AB: Abstract The following papers are included in this proceedings: 1.' Cheng-Sheng Lee pp. USA. John A. Makoto Nakada pp. C. Aquaculture techniques. 391-402. 11. Honolulu. Wade O. Tadahisa Seikai pp. Current and future technological trends of European seabass-seabream culture. Mao-Sen Su. February 12-15. Sparidae. O'Bryen. Hawaii. Marine aquaculture. Platichthys flesus. Mar 2002. Tilapia. 5. et al. Paralichthys olivaceus. Theodorou pp. Marine shrimp farming in the western hemisphere: past problems. 601-620. Seriola quinqueradiata. Environment management. 593-600. Marketing. 4. Nick Brown pp. et al. 6. The shrimp clearly have market acceptance. Rainbow trout--challenges and solutions. Aquaculture systems. and challenges. Technical responses to challenges in milkfish aquaculture. 2002 (Proceedings of a workshop held by the Oceanic Institute. 529-543. AU: Author Lee. Tilapia production systems in the Americas: technological advances. 13. present solutions. Moss pp. pp. Water quality control. and to use the lessons learned to predict what technological improvements or . Yellowtail culture development and solutions for the future. Technical innovations in eel culture systems. 421-432. 10(3/4):391-620. Chen-Sheng Lee pp. John Forster pp. trends. I. 559-575. 577-591. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. Improved shrimp growout systems for disease prevention and environmental sustainability in Asia. 152-154. Shaun M. et al. Farming salmon: an example of aquaculture for the mass market. 403-419. Chanos chanos. Scophthalmus maximus. 10. CA: Corporate Author Florida Sea Grant Record 78 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Aquaculture growout systems--challenges and technological solutions. Anguillidae. and to provide shrimp farmers with the consumer-preference information needed to develop successful direct marketing strategies. 9. Disease control. Taste. 2001). Conferences. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans. General discussion on 'Aquaculture Growout Systems--challenges and technological solutions.450. Ictalurus punctatus. 12. Dicentrarchus labrax. 451-464. Channel catfish farming in ponds: lessons from a maturing industry.Journal of Food Distribution Research. Oncorhynchus mykiss. Chiu Liao. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Freshwater aquaculture. 499-528. 433. 3. Watanabe. Fishery products. Thirteen papers are compiled here from a workshop convened to discuss technical solutions to challenges faced in the past by different aquaculture production systems. flavor. PJC SO: Source Reviews in Fisheries Science. pp. Consumers. John A. texture and overall likeability of freshwater-farmed marine shrimp versus domestically wild-harvested and imported farm-raised products. Flatfish farming systems in the Atlantic Region. 2002. aroma.

turbot. Survival.]. 21 Jan 2002. S. Polymerase chain reaction. tilapia. The PCR detection for WSSV revealed no positive results for Artemia exposed to WSSV by immersion challenge and oral route. Shrimp culture. 38-45. The PCR analysis was WSSV-positive for P. Article Taxonomic Terms: Artemia. Record 79 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title An investigation of Artemia as a possible vector for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) transmission to Penaeus indicus AU: Author Sahul Hameed. there were no differences in mortality between control and challenged groups. Menippe adina. Rasheed. BLM. Vectors. indicus fed with WSSV-infected shrimp meat. Lotz. Proceedings of the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute [Proc. 1-2. Litopenaeus vannamei. European seabass and seabream. Jayaraman. Gulf Caribb.and animal-specific issues. Sathish. Marine shrimp. M. Shervette. MA. VR. No mortalities were observed in the juveniles of Penaeus indicus fed with Artemia exposed to WSSV by immersion challenge and oral route. eel. JM SO: Source Proceedings of the Fifty-Third Annual Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute. 1-10. trout. Japanese flounder. Record 80 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Susceptibility of Litopenaeus vannamei. 204. pp. whereas 100% mortality was observed in P. V. White spot syndrome virus. environmental sustainability and a variety of region. carp. Biological vectors. no. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Viral diseases. Disease resistance. Histological studies agree with these observations. Murthi. 53. Disease transmission.innovations will be needed in the future. whereas it was negative for P. AS. Yoganandhan. indicus fed Artemia exposed to WSSV. Topics included disease prevention. Fish. and salmon are covered. pp. channel catfish. yellowtail. Article Geographic Terms: ASW. Shrimp culture. Article Taxonomic Terms: Farfantepenaeus duorarum. indicus fed WSSV-infected shrimp meat. Inst. Penaeus indicus AB: Abstract The pathogenicity of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) for different developmental stages of Artemia was carried out by immersion challenge and oral route in order to investigate the possibility of Artemia acting as a reservoir or carrier of WSSV to marine shrimp. USA AB: Abstract . Farfantepenaeus duorarum. no. Vol. K SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture]. halibut. Histology. to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) and Infection of Menippe adina with WSSV AU: Author Soto. milkfish. K. Food organisms. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Viral diseases. The WSSV failed to infect the developmental stages of Artemia. White spot syndrome virus. Animal diseases. Murugan.

and two molluscan species. KA. Eucinostomus gula (silver jenny). duorarum to L. adina challenge. Syringodium and Halodule) and nearshore sandy habitats over 13 months in Jamaica's largest bay. Jamaica. we demonstrate that the stone crab (Menippe adina) is susceptible to WSSV infection. Portland Bight AB: Abstract Sampling of mangrove. Article Geographic Terms: ASW. S SO: Source Proceedings of the Fifty-Third Annual Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute. and that M. two of the four crabs injected with WSSV died. Portland Bight AU: Author Aiken. The five most abundant fish species numerically were Anchoa lyolepis (dusky anchovy). Mollusca.White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) can cause 100% cumulative mortality to farmed shrimp. Gulf Caribb.16 kg of fishable species were taken comprising 2. Crustacea. and F. and . Fishery resources.81 for L. adjoining the country's largest landing site. Hay. B. duorarum. From the M. yielded 98 species. plus eight crustacean species from six families. The L. no. Menippe adina were challenged by injection of a homogenate containing WSSV and exposed per os to WSSV infected tissue. vannamei from exposures to WSSV. We used an experimental procedure that is based on a mathematical epidemiology model to compare the survival of F. including three elasmobranchs families. Proceedings of the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute [Proc. seagrass (Thalassia. pp. vannamei used in the experiment were obtained from the United States Marine Shrimp Farming Program. and there is increasing concern over the possible introduction of this virus into wild shrimp and crab populations in the Gulf of Mexico. vannamei. and were represented entirely by juveniles. and both of those were found to be histologically positive for WSSV associated lesions. we compare the mortality rate of WSSV infected Farfantepenaeus duorarum to Litopenaeus vannamei. basophilic. Most (69%) of the 92 finfish species came from mangrove-seagrass habitats. Montemuro. duorarum is as susceptible to mortality from WSSV as L.. 53. Inst. A statistical difference was not detected in final mean mortality rates between L. confirming the small sizes taken. Our results suggest F. Record 81 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Preliminary Assessment of Nearshore Fishable Resources of Jamaica's Largest Bay. vannamei and F. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Fishery surveys. A total of 18. In addition.389 individuals. duorarum and M.75 for F. Adult. Diapterus rhombeus (caipita mojarra). Coastal fisheries. The experimental procedure involved exposing 12 uninfected susceptible shrimp to a single infected shrimp cadaver for a specified period of time and then isolating the exposed shrimp individually to determine the number of deaths. Article Taxonomic Terms: Pisces. duorarum. and 0. intranuclear inclusions were found in hypertrophied nuclei of hepatopancreatic cells which may be caused by another pathogen. adina were obtained from the wild. comprising 92 finfish species from 41 families. sub-adult and juvenile fishes were captured with two types of seines nets deployed in shallow waters of not more than 2m depth.]. adina is susceptible to infections by WSSV. Sardinella anchovia (Spanish sardine). Fish. The mean mortality rate from a WSSV exposure was 0. In this contribution. In addition to the WSSV inclusions. vannamei. 157-176.

would affect the livelihoods of several thousand fishers. Crustaceans comprised 7. it was apparent that some areas functioned as critical nursery areas for many species and that the entire area as a whole. its contribution to world farm-raised shrimp production is insignificant. CR. Two commercially important marine shrimp species (Penaeus schmitti and P. Litopenaeus vannamei. Stokes. Browdy. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei. 2002. BJ. and preliminary results suggest diversity in adjoining bays was sometimes different from each other. These fishable resources are inextricably linked with the larger body of resources landed at Old Harbour Bay beach. Similarity in diversity between sample stations and areas were measured using Jaccard's coefficient of similarity. CL. (1987). This study was limited to very shallow waters. exist in the US. As a result. [np]. of these .1% with Callinectes spp. notialis. Recirculating systems. McAbee. with molluscs contributing 2% of all species taken. Aquaculture economics. southern white and southern pink shrimps) were caught. while the nation's commercial catch has remained fairly constant. Prototypes. AD SO: Source Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Recirculating Aquaculture. Aquaculture systems. The economic value of the fishable resources is thought to be so great that loss of these nursery areas through poorly planned development or other means. Although US demand for marine shrimp is high. Marine aquaculture. Bratvold. Mangrove-seagrass complexes in eastern Portland Bight had higher species diversity than western. sampling of waters deeper than 2 m would be necessary for a more complete assessment. through movement from the Portland Bight area into deeper. and thus. In addition.Haemulon sciurus (bluestriped grunt). Intensive culture. Jamaica's largest fish landing site. and not unlike that (SR = 87) found in the Florida Everglades by Thayer et al. (blue swimming crab) the most abundant species. Species richness for the total area is high (SR = 98). exploited reef areas and through directly supporting the commercially fished reef species by providing forage species. as well as equal numbers of directly dependent vendors and their respective families in adjoining parishes. D. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture development. approximately 80% of shrimp consumed in the US are imported and of this amount it is estimated that over 50% originate from shrimp farms located in Asia. focusing on the production of Pacific white shrimp. Article Geographic Terms: USA AB: Abstract Over the last two decades there has been a significant increase in US consumer demand for marine shrimp. Portland Bight and the area just west of it was shown to possess important juvenile fishable resources which occupied shallow nearshore zones as well as deeper areas that are fished commercially. appeared to function as a giant nursery for many useful species. Despite limited sampling. Crustacean larvae. Record 82 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Preliminary characterization of a prototype minimal exchange super-intensive shrimp production system AU: Author Weirich. Shrimp culture. Currently only a few facilities. Water quality control. Culture tanks. despite nearly identical ecology and physico-chemical characteristics. Rearing.

Two of the raceways have a combination upflow bead (2. The establishment of commercial. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine aquaculture. In addition. PG. This research project was supported by Woods Brothers Shrimp Farm. Turk. AL SO: Source Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Recirculating Aquaculture. 2002. Hawaii. shared facilities and shared personnel. Clearly. Disease control. and Texas. Design AB: Abstract Production losses from disease (i. PE. The other two raceways have a reciprocating biofilter (8. Recirculating systems. viruses) have had a serious negative economic impact on marine shrimp farming world-wide. Raceway culture. The tanks and filters were all new construction and artificial sea salts were used to establish and maintain the salinity (5-25 ppt). All four raceways have protein skimmers and activated charcoal filters. Each raceway was designed to produce >100 shrimp m super(-2) for a total of 40. Record 83 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Design and construction of a commercial biosecure. environmentally isolated broodstock also necessitates the use of totally. The system is composed of 4-3. the raceways were used to acclimate 5. which are sold and distributed mainly to foreign buyers. Biofilters. Engineering. Aquaculture systems.000 biosecure adult broodstock. A commercial biosecure facility composed of 4-100 mt raceway systems has been designed and constructed. The latter is more difficult to accomplish because of possible sources of contamination from influent sea water.e. Shrimp culture.3 m D concrete raceways housed in greenhouses. expansion and development of the US farm-raised shrimp industry would provide many economic benefits including reduction of the nation's considerable trade deficit. In addition.3 m W X 33 m L X 1. closed recirculating water filtration systems to contain the costs of water replacement due to declining pH and nitrate accumulation.6 m deep settling basin at one end. AZ and a State of Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board Technology Development and Transfer grant (# 004952-079).2 m super(3))/fluidized sand (1. Filtered water is returned to the surface of the raceways along the central partition at 1-2 m intervals. All effluent water is drawn from a screen standpipe located in the middle of the settling basin.operations. closed. a cleaning system consisting of notched 5 cm polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe located along the lateral walls and medial partition suspends uneaten feed and particulates off the bottom. . Each raceway has a central concrete partition and a 1. which has resulted largely from imports of seafood products. Bend. located primarily in the states of Florida.5 x 10 super(6) postlarvae before they were stocked into production ponds. South Carolina. [np]. The need for specific-pathogen-free (SPF) broodstock that are either geographically or environmentally isolated from common diseases has become a priority. recirculating shrimp production system AU: Author Lee.9 m super(3)) supplied by an airlift pump (500 lpm). Lawrence. Gila.44 m super(3)) biofilter system supplied with water from a 2-1 hp pumps (200 lpm). Intensive culture. several produce only larval shrimp.

CC. Feed composition. Development of the intestinal microflora in early life stages of flatfish. Water quality control. and control the microbial floc within dynamic aerobic fermentors. Nutritive value. pp. Leading experts on microbial ecology. The microbial loop in aquaculture. 31-60. Cultured organisms. 9. and to further explore its potential as a source of nutrition and for biocontrol in aquaculture production. 183-187. Albert G. pond dynamics. The nutrition and feeding of marine shrimp within zero-water exchange aquaculture production systems: role of eukaryotic microorganism. Koji Nagao. et al. Food organisms. 1-18. 12. Toru Inuta. Russell P. Bacteria. 19-30. Mollusc culture.79-86. Digestion and microbial interactions in the rumen ecosystem.Record 84 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Microbial approaches to aquatic nutrition within environmentally sound aquaculture production systems. Overlooked microbial agents in aquaculture: thraustochytrids. Shrimp culture. Conferences. Mollusca AB: Abstract The following papers are included in this proceedings: 1. 11. The aim of a recent workshop was to better understand. Feeding. Haliotis discus. Andrew Brittain. Linda L. 109-117. Overlooked microbial agents in aquaculture: nanobacteria. 133147. T. and aquaculture production systems presented the papers that are compiled here along with a summary of discussion sessions. P SO: Source World Aquaculture Society. Dietary importance of microbes and detritus in penaeid shrimp aquaculture. 8. water quality. monitor. 10. 2002. Moss pp. Verner. 119-131. 5. Dehority pp. F. Record 85 of 500 DN: Database Name . Ian Forster. Microbial ecology of Australian prawn aquaculture systems--sediments. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. Blackall. Masachika Maeda pp. et al pp. Workshop discussion and recommendations on microbial contributions to aquatic nutrition. 161-182. Human commensal enteric bacterium as a food additive to aquatic nutrition: application to processed feeds for the Japanese kuruma prawn. wastewater treatment. 188 pp. Baiano pp. Harry Birkbeck and David W. Nutrition.87-97. Microorganisms. 149-160. Tatsuhior Fukuba. as a source of dietary nutrients for the culture species. Shaun M. and for the Japanese abalone. Recirculating systems.Jeffreys pp. Microbial communities and their use in aquaculture. Farooq Azam. Scott Haskell. Lytha Conquest. AU: Author Lee. 99-107. Role of bacteria in the nutrition of bivalve mollusks: intriguing results and research possibilities. Justice C. Aquaculture systems. Marsupenaeus japonicus. et al. 7. O'Bryen. 61-78. 3. 6. Food additives. water and water treatment. Forest Rohwer pp. Ami Horowitz pp. and through their ability to remove potentially toxic metabolites from the water column. Microorganisms play an important role in maintaining the health and stability of aquaculture production systems. Sarah Horowitz. Tacon pp. et al pp.J. 4. 2. rumen ecosystems. Burk A. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine aquaculture. Olivier Decamp. Herwig pp. 13. Microbial intervention in aquaculture.

Hermaphroditism. The ovary is also frequently reported to be the site of yolk protein synthesis in penaeid shrimp. Kuan-Fu.]. Seasonal variations. monodon. declining during the fall to zero values in early winter. in which the hepatopancreas was confirmed to be the extraovarian site of vitellogenin synthesis. Yolk. Breeding seasons.ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Hepatopancreas and ovary are sites of vitellogenin synthesis as determined from partial cDNA encoding of vitellogenin in the marine shrimp. 742-749. Dev. Deng-Yu. The disappearance of the population in early winter is attributed to its movement beneath the jetty or to some other location inaccessible to sampling. rosenbergii and P. it contained a high proportion of larger (older) individuals. Recruitment. U. Article Taxonomic Terms: Lysmata wurdemanni AB: Abstract The temporal pattern of population abundance. A population inhabiting the rock jetty in Port Aransas. Liu. Biol. vannamei. RT SO: Source Journal of crustacean biology [J. the partial structure of the vitellogenin gene is further presented. and recruitment of the marine shrimp Lysmata wurdemanni is described and analysed.. no. The breeding season was seasonal but extended. respectively.]. no. DNA. pp. Abundances were greatest in the summer. Crust. The deduced amino acid sequence of Vg in P. vannamei showed high identities of 57% and 78% with those from M. Texas. Protein synthesis. When the population reappeared in late winter to early spring. 22.A. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Vitellogenesis.S. It is therefore concluded that the hepatopancreas and ovary are sites of vitellogenin synthesis in P. Penaeus vannamei AU: Author Tseng. . The same PCR product was obtained using cDNA from the hepatopancreas or the ovary as a template. Ying-Nan. Chu-Fang. Hepatopancreas. with increases in the late winter and early spring. Lo. Ching-Ming* SO: Source Invertebrate reproduction and development [Invertebr. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Population number. Guang-Hsiung. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract The site of yolk protein synthesis in crustaceans has long been a subject of controversy. The same location of the intron in the sequenced region of genomic DNA was also found between these three species. Genes. 2-3. 2002. breeding. was sampled monthly for one year and then bimonthly in a second. 137-143. A portion of the vitellogenin gene structure was reported recently in a freshwater giant prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). pp. Ovaries. 4. 2002. Record 86 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title reproductive ecology of a protandric simultaneous hermaphrodite. Vol. Reprod. Spawning. the shrimp Lysmata wurdemanni (Decapoda: Caridea: Hippolytidae) AU: Author Bauer. Chen. Vol. Kou. 42. Kuo.

Biogeochemistry.08. and shrimp final weight. [np]. the 3 months study revealed no significant difference between tanks treated with the commercial bacterial supplement and those that were not. Physicochemical properties. Sludge. finally changed sex. However. far past minimum FP size. Male-phase individuals (MPs) changing to FPs were found throughout most of the year. Intensive culture. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine aquaculture. Aquaculture techniques. based on this work and other studies of probiotics' use in aquaculture. No major differences were noted in respiration and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the treated and control sludge samples. Horowitz. Recruitment occurred primarily in the spring and summer in both years. for the mean shrimp survival. recruitment. Thus. The probiotics treatment had no effect on the nitrogen cycle in the tanks. Shrimp culture. is not strikingly unusual or different from that of gonochoristic shallow-water carideans. at the end of the test. Article Taxonomic Terms: Bacteria. biological oxygen demand (BOD) in the treated sludge was lower than that of the untreated sludge. Recirculating systems. The breeding pattern of this shrimp. although its timing and intensity varied between years. as shown by the significant positive correlation between the degree of embryonic development (nearness to hatching) in an FP and the degree of ovarian maturation (nearness to spawning) in its ovotestes. TM. with an unusual hermaphroditic sexual system. The commercial bacterial supplement was further tested for its microbial activity on shrimp sludge. AL. However. and population abundances of Lysmata wurdemanni is what might be expected of a primarily tropical species living in an area transitional between the tropical Caribbean and warm temperate Gulf of Mexico biogeographical provinces.Most female-phase individuals (FPs) incubated broods of embryos continuously during the warmer months (spring through early fall). Horowitz. some differences were significant at alpha = 0. S SO: Source Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Recirculating Aquaculture. 2002. Record 88 of 500 . shrimp final yield. it appears that commercial bacterial supplements might have some advantage. Microorganisms. Their relative abundance was greatest in late winter to early spring when a group of large MPs. Aquaculture effluents. Spawning of a new brood occurred soon after hatching of the previous one. Litopenaeus setiferus AB: Abstract The effect of a commercial bacterial supplement (probiotics) on the high density production of Penaeus setiferus in an outdoor tank system with no water exchange was studied. but more studies are necessary to answer this issue unequivocally. Biochemical oxygen demand. A. Water quality control. The observed pattern of breeding. using high (45%) and low (20%) protein diets and high aeration. Record 87 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The use of commercial probiotics in the production of marine shrimp under no water exchange AU: Author Samocha.05. At alpha = 0. Lawrence.

Article Geographic Terms: Taiwan. W. Chiu Liao. Chiu Liao. Chiu Liao. Anguilla japonica. Article Taxonomic Terms: Bidyanus bidyanus. Thunnus albacares. Yun-Yuan Ting. By Ying-Mei Lin. Aquaculture development strategies in Asia for the 21st century. Sciaenops ocellatus Linnaeus. Han. H. I. By I. By Shuenn-Der Yang. Chang. Fish culture. Tzeng. By I. Anguilla japonica. Tuna fisheries. Disease control. Chu-Fang Lo. Epinephelus malabaricus. Aquaculture development.-S. Liu. Emily Y. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Fishery organizations. for reducing edwardsiellosis in cultured European eel. 1. Chiu Liao. Ying-Nan Chen. Enterococcus faecium SF68 and Bacillus toyoi. Shean-Ya Yeh. Yu. Chiu Liao. 2002. Tsung-Han Lee. Marine ecology. larvae in captivity. The exotic American eel in Taiwan: ecological implications. C. Chang-Ming Kuo. By Jinn-Rong Hseu. W.-Y. By I. Chyng-Hwa Liou. Effects of dietary protein level on growth performance. Chang. Microbiology. Guang-Hsiung Kou. Yu. Chang-Fong Chang. Docosahexaenoic acid is superior to eicosapentaenoic acid as the essential fatty acid for growth of grouper. Sciaenops ocellatus. Sciaenops ocellatus. Timing and factors affecting cannibalism drum. Commercial species. Ya-Ke Hsu. Sylvie Dufour. Target strength. Bacillus toyoi. By Feng-Cheng Wu. Technical responses to challenges in milkfish aquaculture. Fishery resources. Epinephelus malabaricus. Yung-Sen Huang. Fish physiology.-W. Hui-Fen Chang. Hepatopancreas and ovary are sites of vitellogenin synthesis as determined from partial cDNA encoding of vitellogenin in the marine shrimp. Chiu Liao. Kuan-Fu Liu. Thunnus alalunga. Documents. Fu-Guang Liu.DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Fisheries Research Institute Collected Reprints SO: Source Fisheries Research Institute. Fishery sciences.-I.-H. carcass composition and ammonia excretion in juvenile silver perch (Bidyanus bidyanus). By Deng-Yu Tseng. By Jinn-Rong Hseu. Chiu Liao. Record 89 of 500 DN: Database Name . An evaluation of two probiotic bacterial strains. [vp]..-T. Vol. By Long-Jing Wu. Anguilla anguilla L. By Chi-Lun Wu. Roles and contributions of fisheries science in Asia in the 21st century. Penaeus vannamei. Guan-Ru Chen. I. Epinephelus coioides. Effects of size difference and stocking density on cannibalism rate of juvenile grouper Epinephelus coioides. By I. Emily Y. Jiun-Chern Lin. Yun-Yuan Ting. By I. By Shan-Ru Jeng. Cheng-Sheng Lee. Chanos chanos. Selectivity and accessibility of prey in captive juvenile red drum. Houng-Yung Chen. Determination of in situ target strength of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) aggregated around sub-surface fish aggregating devices by acoustics. Wu-Chang Lee. Le-Min Chen. Geographic distribution and area demarcation on the fisheries resource of South Atlantic albacore. Wei-Cheng Su. Jong-Yih Lai. Inducing effects of hormones in metamorphosis-arrested grouper larvae. By C. Enterococcus faecium. By Mao-Sen Su.-N. Litopenaeus vannamei. Technical innovation in eel culture systems. Histological changes in the thyroid and digestive glands during spontaneous and artificially-induced metamorphosis of larvae of the grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus). Chang. By Y. Asia AB: Abstract This issue contains reprints of the following articles: Regulation of pituitary gonadotropin II and growth hormone content by sex steroids and pituitary extract in the aquacultured Japanese eel. Jinn-Rong Hseu. Chang. C.

Results showed that in both low-saline (5ppt)as well as high-saline (35ppt) acclimated shrimps the respiratory rates were significantly lower in midrange salinities (20ppt and 25ppt) and significantly higher in both low (5ppt. Diwan. Dhana Yingcharoen SO: Source SEAFDEC Asian aquaculture [SEAFDEC Asian Aquacult. 2002. Development projects AB: Abstract The aim of the seawater irrigation system (SIS) is to clean up shrimp pond effluent and provide high quality seawater for shrimp farming. 10ppt. The construction site must be on the coastal area outside a . 2002. 1. AD SO: Source Journal of crustacean biology [J. The system has 3 components: water intake. Exposure to different grades of high-saline media on the other hand induced a significant decrease in ammonia excretion rate of low-saline acclimated shrimps.ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Effects of acute salinity stress on oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion rates of the marine shrimp Metapenaeus monoceros AU: Author Pillai. Ammonia. The O:N ratio (ratio of oxygen consumed to nitrogen excreted in atomic equivalents) showed a decreasing trend when the high-saline acclimated shrimps were abruptly exposed to low-saline media. Vol. no. Marine aquaculture. Article Taxonomic Terms: Metapenaeus monoceros AB: Abstract The present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of an abrupt change in the salinity of the medium on the oxygen consumption and ammonia-N excretion of the marine penaeid shrimp Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius). Biol. indicating a shift towards protein dominated metabolism. Vol. 24. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Salinity effects.]. Acclimation. treatment reservoir and discharge system. pp. Aquaculture systems. There are criteria for site selection because shrimp farmers are required to form associations so they can work closely together. 30ppt and 35ppt). 1. 10ppt. A significant increase in ammonia-N excretion was observed when high-saline acclimated shrimps were abruptly exposed to different grades of low-saline media. BR. Crust. 15-16. no. 22.]. 15ppt and 20ppt) to lipid/carbohydrate dominated metabolism in high salinities (25ppt. Salinity tolerance. A reverse trend could be observed in the O:N ratio when the shrimps were exposed to high-saline media indicating a shift towards lipid dominated metabolism in high salinities. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. there appears to be a shift in energy substrate utilization in these shrimps from protein dominated metabolism in low salinities (5ppt. Intensive culture. pp. Record 90 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Seawater irrigation system for intensive marine shrimp farming in Thailand AU: Author Siri Tookwinas. and 15ppt) and high (30ppt and 35ppt) salinities. 45-52. Irrigation. Thus. 3-4. Excretion.

Polymerase chain reaction. raw fresh WSSV-SHM and freeze-dried WSSV-SHM at 10% in each diet. Shrimp. Diet 1 was the control diet containing no WSSV-SHM. In both Experiments I and II. In Experiment II. Dec 2001. were fed each diet for 6 weeks to satiation. s1. respectively. Pathogens. Zhang. monodon . were completed and operated. Feed. J. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon. no. the pooled hemolymph samples from five shrimps were taken with 2-week feeding interval and determined in triplicate for WSSV detection using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. five diets were used: Diet 1 as the control diet without WSSV-SHM. Microbial contamination. Q SO: Source . M SO: Source Aquaculture Research [Aquacult. W. Vol. which cover a culture area of 6. White spot syndrome virus AB: Abstract The effects of supplementary shrimp head meal contaminated with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV-SHM) in the diet on detection of WSSV in Penaeus monodon Fabricius were investigated. Kasornchandra. Record 91 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Effect of dietary shrimp head meal contaminated with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) on detection of WSSV in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius) AU: Author Pongmaneerat. The Department of Fisheries has planned for another 28 projects. Five SIS projects.500 ha with 1. These results suggested that using commercial SHM and WSSV-SHM in diets had no adverse effects on WSSV infection in P.8 g. In both Experiments I and II. S. Diets 2-4 contained wet-cooked WSSV-SHM (autoclaved at 115 degree C for 15 min).]. 15 shrimp with a mean body weight of 18. 383-387. Diets. Boonyaratpalin. J.300 farmers (families).2 g were fed to apparent satiation with each of four diets for 8 weeks.000 ha of culture area. In Experiment I. respectively. oven-dried WSSV-SHM (60 degree C for 8 h). and should be located on the area listed in Thailand's Coastal Zone Management Plan. that will cover almost 44.mangrove forest and located away from a production agricultural area. pp. Viral diseases. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Biological pollutants. PCR products from hemolymph samples showed the negative results for all dietary treatments. Diets 2-5 containing steamed WSSV-SHM (100 degree C for 15 min). Record 92 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The status of marine fish culture in China AU: Author Hong. 32. dry-cooked WSSV-SHM (oven-dried at 90 degree C for 1 h) and commercial SHM at a level of 10% in the diets. All construction sites must have undergone an environmental impact assessment. Feeding experiments. Boonyaratpalin. Disease detection. Detection. Res. weighing 10. Feeds.

no. Marine aquaculture.]. 4. Jayaraman. Gills. vp 18-20. Viral diseases. Experimental infection. People's Rep. molluscan shellfish and marine shrimp. still well behind seaweeds. 179-186. with production in 2000 of more than 40. Hemolymph. 201. Paratelphusa hydrodomous and P. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture statistics. after intramuscular injection. White spot syndrome virus. Fish culture. Haemolymph. no. Thus. M. WSSV caused 100% mortality in both P. pp.000 mt for the year 2000. The results revealed that these freshwater crabs were as highly susceptible as marine shrimp. Freshwater crustaceans. CC. V. it is only about 4.700 mt by 1998. AS. Yoganandhan. It also caused 100% mortality when given orally. 32. Eyestalks.World Aquaculture [World Aquacult.000 tons. AB: Abstract China is the leading producer of aquaculture products in the world. Heart. 3-4. pulvinata to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was tested by oral route and intramuscular injection. heart tissue. pulvinata) AU: Author Sahul Hameed. In 1996 the total output of marine fish by aquaculture was only 182. abdominal muscle and hemolymph. Vol. hydrodomous. Article Geographic Terms: China. respectively. It was found in gill. Rasheed. Vol. By far the largest part of the industry is freshwater fish production. the production of the large yellow croaker is the most important. at 60 and 84 h. pulvinata and P. That increased to 306. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Mortality.0 percent of the total output of all cultured marine animals and plants. S. AU: Author Lee. K SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture]. Article Taxonomic Terms: Paratelphusa hydrodromous. EMC SO: Source . Article Taxonomic Terms: Pisces. Although marine fish production has more than doubled in five years.8 million metric tons of fish. crustaceans and molluscs in 1998 increased to 24 million mt in 1999. Paratelphusa pulvinata AB: Abstract The susceptibility of two species of freshwater crabs.000 tons. Donaldson. Its combined production of 20. in the marine sector it lies a distant fourth in importance. Dec 2001.67. Sathish. Murugan. Record 94 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Reproductive biotechnology in finfish aquaculture. Record 93 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in two species of freshwater crabs (Paratelphusa hydrodomous and P. K. eyestalk. The presence of WSSV in the moribund crabs was confirmed by PCR and histological analysis. 1 Oct 2001. Among all the cultured marine fish. and was estimated to be 400.

DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Brood stocks. Genetics and broodstock management of coho salmon. Liao pp. S. trialkyltin compounds were more toxic than dialkyltin compounds. The role of aquatic biotechnology in aquaculture. et al. L. 191-204. Biotechnology. Samaras. Mylonas pp. V. J. et al. Lee and E. pp. Inter. pp. M. 3. S. 9. Donaldson pp. Zohar and C. Petala. Bullis pp. et al. A. Daphnia magna proved to be more sensitive than Artemia franciscana as a test organism in detecting tin toxicity. LC sub(50) values for the effect of organotin compounds on Daphnia magna were also determined.]. 43-62. Proceedings. C. 63-98. 2001. pp. Bromage. and prospects. Honolulu. pp. 3-24. [Proc. Vol. pp. B. Disease control. C. GP SO: Source 7th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology. Endocrine sex control strategies for the feminization of teleost fish. Sep 03-06. Volume 1. N. Aravossis. Conf. Ermoupolis. Belgium AB: Abstract The toxicity of four organotin compounds towards freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna and marine shrimp Artemia franciscana was investigated. Tributyltin chloride had an LC sub(50) value . Fletcher pp. Freezing storage. L. Article Taxonomic Terms: Pisces AB: Abstract The following papers are included in this report: 1. Biological stress. K. M. Disease prevention and control for gametes and embryos of fish and marine shrimp. Endocrinology. Hadjispyrou. Genetics. 25-42. Hawaii. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Freshwater crustaceans. Water pollution. M. 2. Sexual maturity. 8. J. October 4-7.-S. Selective breeding. 5. Antifouling substances. A. 99. 283-301. AU: Author Kungolos. M. Bioaccumulation. Endocrine manipulations of spawning in cultured fish: from hormones to genes. Y. 2. The environmental regulation of maturation in farmed finfish with special reference to the role of photoperiod and melatonin. 320 pp. F. et al. Sexual reproduction. problems. Effects of stress on fish reproduction. Tech. Sakellaropoulos. 7. Marine crustaceans. 4. Tributyltin chloride proved to be the most toxic among all four organotin compounds. Aquaculture techniques. Induced breeding. Daphnia magna. Scie.Proceedings of a workshop. Tsiridis. C. Piferrer pp. 303-320. J. Fish culture. et al. Gametes. C. Animal nutrition. Envir. Toxicity tolerance. Genetic improvement of aquaculture finfish species by chromosome manipulation techniques in Japan. Izquierdo. Syros I. Heavy metals. 499-505. Furthermore. Article Geographic Terms: ANE.-H. 12. A. Monosex male production in finfish as exemplified by tilapia: applications. 10. Greece. 137-159. Conferences. gamete quality. General discussion on 'Reproductive biotechnology in finfish aquaculture'.136. Arai pp. Record 95 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Assessment of toxicity and bioaccumulation of organotin compounds. Brock and R. 205-228. Monosex culture. 229-281. Effect of broodstock nutrition on reproductive performance of fish. Beardmore. P. 2001. Synergism. 11. Hew and G. Chemical compounds. and progeny. 161-189. Embryos. N. 2001. Article Taxonomic Terms: Artemia franciscana. Cryopreservation of finfish and shellfish gametes and embryos. pp. C. Schreck. Meyers. Chao and I. 6. K.

sail sloops and canoes. Article Taxonomic Terms: White spot syndrome virus. The sector is characterized as a commercially artisanal industry except for the industrial shrimp trawl fishery. Aquaculture. Macrophthalmus sulcatus. the fisheries sector ranks as the third foreign exchange earner in the country and has contributed 8% of the . Industrial products statistics. B. 1-2. Macrobrachium rosenbergii AB: Abstract The presence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) of shrimp in various marine crustaceans was studied by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Charybdis annulata. Disease detection. Gelasimus marionis nitidus. Chakraborty. The industry is considered to be lucrative and successful. A. The artisanal fishing fleet is composed of open boats. of Environmental Studies Record 96 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Detection of new hosts for white spot syndrome virus of shrimp using nested polymerase chain reaction AU: Author Hossain. This virus could be detected in apparently healthy marine crabs Charybdis annulata.00095 mg/L and dimethyltin dichloride had an LC50 value equal to 19. Vol. Solenocera indica. DNA. CA: Corporate Author Univ. pp. Parapenaeopsis stylifera. Solenocera indica and Squilla mantis carry WSSV. Squilla mantis. 198. Hosts. The results indicate that wild-caught asymptomatic marine shrimp such as Metapenaeus dobsoni. Karunasagar. 1-11. Record 97 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Fisheries statistical report 2000 DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Fishery industry. Trade.equal to 0. Metopograpsus messor. Macrophthalmus sulcatus. Gelasimus marionis nitidus and Metopograpsus messor. of the Aegean. mainly because of the good prices obtained on the foreign market and because most fishermen belong to one of the four main cooperatives. Charybdis cruciata. Article Geographic Terms: Belize AB: Abstract The capture fisheries industry of Belize contributes significantly to the economy of the country and has traditionally revolved around the lobster. The virus could also be detected in asymptomatic Macrobrachium rosenbergii cultured inland far away from coast. The interactive effects between tin and cyanide and tin and beryllium on Artemia franciscana were also investigated. no. MS. 15 Jun 2001. cruciata. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Polymerase chain reaction. Shrimp culture. Prawn culture. Otta. Karunasagar. Parapenaeopsis stylifera. The incidence of the virus in non-cultured crustaceans from shrimp farms was also studied. I* SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture]. C. Metapenaeus dobsoni. conch and shrimp fisheries. SK. Joseph. Detection of carrier animals required two-step nested PCR. Fishery statistics. I*. Viral diseases. Presently. Syros (Greece) Dep.27 mg/L.

CA: Corporate Author Belize Fisheries Dep. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae AB: Abstract Disease prevention is a facet of the total quality management for gametes and embryos of fish and marine shrimp.to post-hatch conditions in embryo incubation. For the vertically transmitted biotic agents. There are a number of viruses of fish and shrimp which may transfer from broodstock to the offspring at the time of spawning. Disease transmission. Fish culture. chemical treatment of the broodstock to control a specific pathogen. Prevention of the diseases that stem from these agents involves primarily the application of the best management practices (BMPs) available for broodstock selection and maturation. Capture Fishery Unit Record 98 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Disease prevention and control for gametes and embryos of fish and marine shrimp AU: Author Brock.GDP in 2000. Gametes and embryos may also provide the means for vertical transmission of certain pathogens from brood animals to their offspring. collection and storage. Embryos. no. pp. gamete production. Specific techniques have been developed for the control of selected pathogens of high economic significance to fish and penaeid shrimp culture. Poor quality gametes or unhealthy conditions during collection and incubation can result in embryo mortality and/or lead to the attack of the eggs by saprophytic bacteria and fungi. A few bacterial and fungal pathogens are also dispersed in this way. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Disease detection. JA. Gametes. aquarium fish and shark fishery sectors. bacteria and fungi are the major infectious agents of concern for the gametes and embryos of fish and marine shrimp. (Belize). Vol. 1 Jun 2001. conch. Fungi. the quality of the techniques used during gamete production. Incomplete knowledge regarding BMPs that are unattainable because of system or other constraints and human error are important factors hindering the prevention of egg transmitted infectious diseases of the mass cultured fish and shrimp species. Aquatic bacteria. the use of specific pathogen-free (SPF) broodstock. Shrimp culture. Microbial contamination. Bullis. Eggs.Specific viruses. The tactics highlighted are the application of BMPs to maintain gamete and embryo health.to post-hatch egg incubation. collection. Gnotobiotics. marine shrimp. Disinfectants. Brood stocks. 1-4. 197. are discussed here. storage and pre. the testing and elimination of broodstock carriers of specific pathogens. Using specific pathogens as examples. and pre. Infestation. Marine organisms. finfish. Aquaculture. Gamete health is strongly influenced by broodstock health and nutrition. like a number of the measures applied by aquaculturists to eliminate or reduce the pathogen/disease risks associated with gametes and embryos of fish and marine shrimp. Disease control. Production and export statistics are provided for the lobster. the use of pathogen-free . R SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture]. Saprophytes. Disinfection. 137-159. the principal biological impact of the disease occurs typically well beyond egg hatching.

DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Yolk. the reaction of these mAbs on P. pp. It was suggested that these mAbs could be used in studying haemocyte differentiation. Penaeus vannamei AU: Author Quackenbush. no. 25. and mechanical rinsing with pathogen-free water of the eggs or the early larval stages. Haemolymph. CBT. monodon was compared with other crustaceans and disparate taxa. Comp. Protein synthesis. 4. a terrestrial isopod crustacean and with coelomic fluid of an annelid. Record 100 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Monoclonal antibodies against haemocyte molecules of Penaeus monodon shrimp react with haemolymph components of other crustaceans and disparate taxa AU: Author van de Braak. the embryos or the early life stages. Hemocytes. monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against different haemolymph molecules of the marine shrimp Penaeus monodon were produced and characterised. no. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract Eyestalk neuroendocrine factors control specific yolk protein synthesis in the ovaries of the shrimp. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon. 458-464. 41. Jun 2001.culture water. Defence mechanisms. 279-283. monodon. Vol. Penaeus vannamei. The mAbs also reacted with haemolymph components of three freshwater crustaceans. This comparative study shows reactivity of the mAbs with a wide range of crustaceans and related animals and suggests that well conserved molecules are recognised. A bioassay was developed to measure specific yolk protein synthesis in vitro. Rombout.]. JHWM SO: Source Developmental & Comparative Immunology [Dev. chemical treatment of the gametes. chemical and/or physical disinfection of the culture water. Well-described mAbs can be used in studies of the crustacean defence system and may finally result in a better insight into this system. Zool. The eyestalk neuroendocrine complex may also produce a peptide capable of stimulation of yolk synthesis. N. MHA. Hemolymph. nor with blood cells of two vertebrates. WPW. behaviour and function in P. Ovaries. Record 99 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Yolk Synthesis in the Marine Shrimp. No reactions were observed with haemolymph of an insect and a mollusc. Immunology. Vol. pp.]. Antibodies. van der Knaap. Taverne. 3. . Botterblom. which may indicate functional importance. Immunol. In the present study. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Monoclonal antibodies. May 2001. Crustacea AB: Abstract In a previous study. LS SO: Source American Zoologist [Am. Blood cells.

M. B. two related cDNAs have been isolated that encode a mature protein of 250 amino acid residues. Tietz. the International Triennial Conference and Exposition of the World Aquaculture Society (WAS). Babin. Its apparent molecular mass in SDS-PAGE is 29-35 kDa and 33-36 kDa. Readers interested in copies of the proceedings should contact the World Aquaculture Society 143 J. pp. Molecular weight. 64. under . The deduced amino acid sequences revealed the presence of repeated cysteine-rich domains that are related to the chitin-binding domains of insect intestinal peritrophins.Record 101 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine Shrimp Culture At Aquaculture 2001 AU: Author Jory. Several shrimp papers were presented at the Special Shrimp Session of the WAS Conference. Funkenstein. A. Record 102 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Molecular Characterization and High Expression During Oocyte Development of a Shrimp Ovarian Cortical Rod Protein Homologous to Insect Intestinal Peritrophins AU: Author Khayat. Penaeus semisulcatus AB: Abstract Penaeoid shrimp oocytes nearing the completion of oogenesis are enveloped in an acellular vitelline envelope and possess extracellular cortical rods (CRs) that extended into the cortical cytoplasm. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. These cortical specializations are precursors of the jelly layer (JL) of the egg. DE SO: Source Aquaculture Magazine [Aquacult. and this one was surely overdue. E SO: Source Biology of Reproduction [Biol. Similar cysteine-rich domains were reported in insect intestinal mucin. 49-56. Cytoplasm. LA 70803 USA wasmas[at]aol. crustacean tachycitin. In searching for highly expressed mRNAs during oogenesis in the marine shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus ). Vol. Aquaculture enterprises. M. Vol. M. The shrimp ovarian peritrophin (SOP) is glycosylated and can bind chitin when extracted from CRs. 1090-1099. Apr 2001.com. and invertebrate chitinases. Chitin. 2001. The last such shrimp session was held in 1995 in San Diego. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae AB: Abstract Aquaculture 2001. Oogenesis. Developmental stages. Mag. California. Florida on January 21-25. Lubzens. Parker Coliseum. Here I summarize these papers. no. Louisiana State University. Mar-Apr 2001. Intestines. pp. 2. no. Baton Rouge. 27. Mucins. Nagasawa. Aquaculture techniques. Sammar. 4.]. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans.]. Hepatopancreas. PJ. Reprod. H. was recently held in Orlando. Aquatic insects.

]. SOP is a major protein of CRs and the JL. and was immunodetected in ovaries. barramundi (Lates calcarifer) and aquarium fish. Hippocampus. and in the cloudy. Mar 2001. Metapenaeus sp. Aquaculture development. estuarine fish (Lutjanus sp.. Shrimp expressed SOP mRNA in ovaries at all oocyte developmental stages. Article Taxonomic Terms: Amphiprion. marine shrimp/prawns (Penaeus sp. whereas expression in the hepatopancreas was restricted to vitellogenic stages. P SO: Source World Aquaculture [World Aquacult.). Northern Queensland is an ideal location to research and study tropical aquaculture with industries based in this region including pearl oysters (Pinctada maxima. fertilized eggs that were surrounded by a JL matrix. Ornamental fish. purified CRs. Pearl oysters. Plectropomus. Cromileptes sp. Lates calcarifer. SOP mRNA was abundant in the shrimp ovary and was detected before the presence of the corresponding protein. will ensure the continued growth of aquaculture within Australia.) markets. Saccostrea sp. Pinctada maxima. pp.. Penaeidae.. Immunolocalization in tissue sections determined that SOP was present in oocyte cytoplasm and in extraoocytic CRs. Panulirus sp. Vol. The maximal exploitation of wild fisheries combined with the increasing demand for protein and healthy food. This is the first demonstration that a protein with similar features to insect intestinal peritrophins is a component of CRs and is therefore a main precursor of the JL of spawned shrimp eggs... Tropical fish. Stenopus. Record 104 of 500 DN: Database Name . Australia's most valuable aquaculture industry). Stenopus sp. The university is located in the middle of the aquaculture region of northern Queensland providing access to industry for collaborative research and graduate employment. Pearl culture. Oyster culture.). 1. and marine crustaceans (Scylla sp. Epinephelus sp.. Shrimp culture. Cherax quadricarinatus. Queensland AB: Abstract James Cook University (JCU) is the largest University in tropical Australia and is located adjacent to the Great Barrier Reef. Cromileptes.). Pomacentrus sp.. Tropical Australia is the most productive aquaculture region in the country. 13-17. whitish flocculent material appearing in sea water immediately after spawning. Epinephelus. a major component of which will be tropical aquaculture. Saccostrea. Tropical environment. Record 103 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Aquaculture research and training in the tropics AU: Author Appleford. Pomacentrus. redclaw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus).) and ornamental (Hippocampus sp. 32. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Training...nonreducing or reducing conditions. respectively.) and bivalves (Pinctada spp. Crayfish culture. Research is underway to develop culture methods for new species of coral reef fish for the food (Plectropomus sp. Lutjanus. Article Geographic Terms: Australia. no. Amphiprion sp. Lysmata sp. Aquaculture techniques.

CE SO: Source World Aquaculture [World Aquacult. Environmental legislation. Article Geographic Terms: Brazil AB: Abstract Brazil is the latest nation to experience a rapid growth in shrimp culture. Suresh. In some areas. 1. Aquaculture development. During the summer of 1998. no. Considerable controversy over the ban remains. Environmental impact. Shrimp culture. Where saline water is not available naturally. the Thai government banned inland shrimp farming in response to concerns about salinization of soil and irrigation water.]. After going through several stages of trial and error the industry is finally flourishing in the northeastern part of the country. 32.500 ha of inland shrimp farms in central Thailand. Ponds. Record 105 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine shrimp farming in northeastern Brazil AU: Author Nunes. Legislation. This practice became a major activity. brine solutions from coastal salt farms or solid salt may be transported to the ponds and mixed with freshwater to provide enough salinity for shrimp culture. In 1989. Historical documentation of inland shrimp farming is lacking. and ponds can be filled from wells developed in these aquifers. Marine organisms. Irrigation water. this practice never became established in the area. I visited a site near Mahasarakham in northeast Thailand where salty ground water was being used by a few farmers to produce Penaeus monodon. Article Geographic Terms: Thailand AB: Abstract There is considerable interest in the farming of marine shrimp in inland areas where slightly saline water is available and even in some freshwater areas. Aquaculture. The current phase of rapid growth is characterized by . Salinity. pp. and a 1997 survey reported that there were about 11. Penaeus monodon. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. and the Thai government is now attempting to find a way to address the concern and still allow inland shrimp farming. Soils. Saline water. Government regulations. 32-38. aquifers containing naturally saline water exist. but some reliable information is available.]. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Environmental impact. Mar 2001. AV SO: Source World Aquaculture [World Aquacult. Vol.ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Inland shrimp farming and the environment AU: Author Boyd. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Aquaculture economics. 1. 10-12. Saline waters for inland shrimp ponds can be obtained in two ways. Inland water. no. Vol. Inland waters. Water quality. Groundwater pollution. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. 32. During the mid 1990s. shrimp farmers in central Thailand began to mix brine solution with irrigation water in inland ponds to culture shrimp. pp. Mar 2001. AJP. However.

Toxicity tests. Aquarium culture. Bioassays. Culha. L. 2001. belonging to different taxonmic groups. Bioaccumulation. These species are strikingly colorful and relatively easy to maintain as adults in an aquarium environment. Akbulut. 1837 (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) AU: Author Bat. For example. Heavy metals. Sci. When tested in combinations of paired metals. Lead. Lysmata rathbunae. Synergism.p. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans. Lethal effects. some Lysmata species are facultative or obligatory cleaners of fish parasites and some (e.]. Culture & Conservation Program and Abstracts. Stenopus. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Ornamental fish.g. Article Taxonomic Terms: Lysmata grabhami. J SO: Source Marine Ornamentals 2001: Collection. are collected from wild for the aquarium trade. the expected mortalities were not similar to those observed mortalities which suggested that paired metals acted interactively. Periclimenes yucanicus. Article Taxonomic Terms: Palaemon adspersus AB: Abstract The acute toxicity by single or combinations of copper and lead to the marine shrimp Palaemon adspersus Rathke. In recent years efforts have been made to understand . L. 1837 (Decapoda: Natantia) was evalulated by static bioassays.expansion of surface area and intensification of production. M. Mar. A. no. Vol. Record 106 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Individual and combined effects of copper and lead on the marine shrimp. 103-117. Toxicities of mixtures of copper and lead were assessed also using the toxic-unit concept. J. Record 107 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Overview of Marine Ornamental Shrimp Aquaculture AU: Author Lin. The results of this study were compared with the other studies and discussed. grabhami) live symbiotically with sea anemones. Direct and indirect impacts of collecting these shrimp have caused concerns. 2. Aquaculture techniques.25 times more toxic to Palaemon than lead. pp. Bilgin. 2001. 7. Palaemon adspersus Rathke. Lysmata wurdemanni. Copper was 4. M SO: Source Turkish Journal of Marine Sciences [Turk. It is also raising concerns related to the environmental and economic sustainability of the industry.]. Copper. S.. calculating the LT sub(50) (lethal time for 50%) and the LC sub(50) (lethal concentration for 50%). Aiptasia padilla AB: Abstract Many species of marine shrimp. Shrimp culture. Each bioassay lasted up to 30 days and survival time has decreased with increasing concentrations of copper and lead in the environment. [n. Periclimenes petersoni. Several of these species have developed close symbiotic relationship with a variety of other animals. Guendogdu.

Surveys. . Periclimenes petersoni and P. 2. have the additional value in controlling the glass anemone Aiptasia padilla. Among 26 species being cultured with different culture models. The anemone can proliferate quickly through asexual reproduction in an aquarium. pp. Littoral zone. fishes and mollusc culture with productivities and yields in the period 1999 . the number of fry with good quality has not been large enough for aquaculture. Vietnam AB: Abstract The paper presents result of the survey on marine littoral area for aquaculture. 116-118. wurdemanni. Culture knowledge of fishfarmers is still low and limited. situation of marine shrimp. Mollusc culture. Vol. 1997). The research and development have largely concentrated on the species of cleaner shrimp Lysmata and banded coral shrimp Stenopus and complete life cycle culture has been achieved for several species. P SO: Source NATO Science Series: Series A: Life Sciences. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine aquaculture. 2001. Shrimp culture. Vol. 392-401. During 1998 -2000 the research station of Brackishwater Fisheries carried out the experimental culture of tiger shrimp in the system of reduced water exchange and obtained good results. Tuyen tap cac cong trinh nghien cuu nghe ca bien. 314. for Marine Fisheries Record 109 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Progress in Larviculture Nutrition of Fish and Shellfish AU: Author Sorgeloos. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW.806 kg/ha/crop and 1000 to 1668 kg/ha/crop in the close circulated-water shrimp culture system. The quality of formulated feed produced by some sectors is not high. V SO: Source Proceedings of Marine Fisheries Research. Fish culture. The production in experimental ponds ranged from 820.6 to 1. AU: Author Dung. two very similar species (often marketed together). epidemic diseases in the intensive culture areas has not been carried out regularly.2000 in the northern coastal area of Vietnam. and the control of environment. CA: Corporate Author Research Inst. They possess both spirocysts and nematocysts that used in selfdefense and prey capture and therefore are harmful to other tank inhabitants. Lysmata rathbunae and L.the biology of these shrimp and develop cultivation technology to reduce wild collection while sustaining the aquarium trade industry. pp. yucanicus are very small (therefore less popular in the aquarium trade) and their broodstocks are difficult to maintain (Creswell and Lin. Aquaculture development. This method gives more income and less disease. Potential resources. Record 108 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Status and solution on proper user of littoral zone for aquaculture development in the Northern Coastal area of Vietnam.

Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract Viral diseases cause serious economic losses and threaten the sustainability of the shrimp industry worldwide. Three-generation reference families are being used for linkage mapping. little is known about the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the response of the shrimp immune system to viral attacks. Type II markers include microsatellites isolated from both L. Zooplankton culture. scallop). crabs) and fish (e. Genome mapping is the first step towards identification of the quantitative trait loci (QTL) responsible for economically important traits like high growth. Record 110 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title ShrimpMap: A genetic approach to understand immune response and disease resistance in shrimp AU: Author Alcivar-Warren. oyster. To do this. ShrimpMap is a collaborative effort supported by Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine and the US Marine Shrimp Program Consortium (USMSFP). Polymorphic Type I and Type II markers are used for genotyping. flounder. Type I markers include complementary DNAs (cDNAs) and/or expressed sequence tags (ESTs) obtained from L. and 3) map the QTL for TSV and WSV resistance. DNA. Disease resistance. a genetic (linkage) map for penaeid shrimp is needed. Brine shrimp culture. bream. To date however. Larvae AB: Abstract Different species of microalgae. Penaeus monodon. Article Taxonomic Terms: White spot syndrome virus. and the brine shrimp Artemia spp. clam. Shellfish culture. are essential live food in the farming of several species of molluscs (e. 2001. Selective breeding. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Food organisms. vannamei and P. and cold tolerance. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Viral diseases. Marsupenaeus japonicus. A SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. Penaeidae. Animal nutrition. vannamei challenged with TSV and WSV. Genomes.Modern Aquaculture in the Coastal Zone-Lessons and Opportunities. Information on the progress made to develop markers for genetic . 2001. This paper will present a review of progress made to develop a genetic map for Litopenaeus vannamei (ShrimpMap). In order to breed for resistance or tolerance to these diseases. Genotypes. monodon genomic libraries.g. Shrimp culture. resistance to diseases. crustaceans (e. it is important to first identify the genes responsible for these traits. Phytoplankton culture. the rotifer Brachionus spp. Published information on the status of genetic maps for Penaeus monodon and Marsupenaeus japonicus will also be reviewed. bass. among others. 11 p. 2) construct a moderate-density genetic map for shrimp. Immunology. susceptibility to environmental pollutants.g. freshwater prawn. marine shrimp. Two of these diseases are Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) and White Spot Virus (WSV). halibut). The goals of ShrimpMap are to 1) develop highly polymorphic markers from penaeid shrimp. grouper. A brief overview is given of the latest developments in their production and use in industrial hatcheries.g. turbot. yellowtail. Taura syndrome virus. Fish culture.

Bioenergetics. 35% of ESTs contained microsatellites and 86% of these had enough flanking sequences to develop primers. Preliminary mRNADD results showed that 59% of the cDNAs had no significant homology to other genes in the GenBank database and 41% were weakly or moderately similar to known or unidentified genes. Growth rate. Daily feed consumption will be recorded to calculate the feed conversion ratio. Based on this presumption. Experimental culture. Nine practical diets with various protein to energy ratios will be fed to juvenile (<1 g) L. TSV was chosen as a model for understanding the immuno-regulatory mechanisms of shrimp to a viral attack and for developing Type I markers for QTL mapping. It is . The ability of this species to tolerate freshwater makes it possible to expand its farming in inland waters or in indoor recirculating aquaculture systems. Information from ShrimpMap will be valuable for studying the genetic mechanisms that regulate resistance to viral diseases in shrimp. 7% were homologus to potential immuno-regulatory genes of other organisms and were used as probes for gene expression analysis by Northern blotting. Because we breed for TSV resistance. Water quality parameters will be monitored on weekly basis. vannamei along with a commercial control diet for 6 to 8 weeks. It is expected that a change in salinity necessitates the animal to readjust the osmotic balance at the expense of certain nutrients and energy. 23 p. A cDNA library using shrimp from the highest TSV-surviving family has also been cloned and thousands of clones identified. an important marine shrimp of the western hemisphere. is usually cultured at salinities of 25 to 45 ppt. Shrimp culture. Scarpa. 2001. Record 111 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Protein and energy requirements of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in freshwater AU: Author Anwar. Allele amplification conditions are being optimized and polymorphic markers used for linkage mapping.analysis will be presented. Initial and final carcass composition (protein and lipid) will be analyzed to support the growth. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture techniques. Growth in terms of body weight gain will be measured once a week. a growth trial was planned to delineate protein and energy requirements of juvenile L. Of the known genes. Diets. Hundreds of differentially expressed cDNAs have been isolated by mRNADD from RNA of juveniles before and after TSV challenge. A 3 x 3 factorial experiment was designed to observe the growth of shrimp fed diets ranging from 30 to 40% crude protein and 3850 to 4200 kcal/kg gross energy levels. J SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. Biochemical composition. ESTs are isolated using either mRNA differential display (mRNADD) or cDNA library cloning. MF. Feed composition. Freshwater aquaculture. Moreover. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract Litopenaeus vannamei. 4 tanks/diet) will be acclimatized to freshwater and the diet for two weeks. Body conditions. Feeding experiments. Diets will be fed four times a day at the rate of 15% body weight /day. Under these altered conditions it is presumed that the requirement for protein and energy of the animal might change. vannamei in freshwater. Test animals (n=10/tank.

The development and commercialization of shrimp maturation and hatchery technologies continues to be an important goal at the SC researchers and growers use healthy and genetically improved stocks based upon the US Marine Shrimp Farming Programs selective breeding efforts at the Oceanic Institute. Research. research efforts are directed at the evaluation of the growth potential of these stocks under local conditions and on the study of the response of these stocks to challenge with and/or Broodstock nauplii postlarvae have been produced at to demonstrate production systems designed for local conditions. Selective breeding. Studies include manipulation of C/N to increase rates of waste degradation. health and growth while reducing hatchery water usage. USMSFP disease control research in SC has supported the establishment of local diagnostic capabilities which are applied for screening local stocks and to respond to potential problems which may arise. Shrimp culture. bait or commodity shrimp and basic research into the physiological responses of shrimp following infection. CL SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. vannamei grown in freshwater. Marine aquaculture. Microbes play a major role in pond dissolved oxygen dynamics. A dedicated bioassay laboratory has been established at a remote facility separate from local water bodies. Aquaculture techniques. demonstration and transfer of shrimp farming technologies for application in South Carolina. Article Geographic Terms: USA. augmentation of microbial . Intensive culture. Record 112 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Current us marine shrimp farming program research at the Waddell Mariculture Center AU: Author Browdy. Brood stocks. 88 p. Aquaculture systems. The bioassay facilities support diagnostic tests on local. Genetics.expected that the study will provide useful information on possible modifications for practical diets of L. Induced breeding. Current studies are focusing on stabilizing microbial communities in larval culture systems to improve larval growth and survival Disinfection reduced hatchery hatchery efforts reduce hatchery Ongoing work is exploring improving larval survival. Basic and applied research is ongoing to measure pond microbial processes and to explore management regimes. 2001. Biotechnology. as a byproduct of basic research on shrimp reproductive biology and for supplementing industry seed supplies. South Carolina AB: Abstract The Waddell Mariculture Center maintains an integrated shrimp mariculture development program aimed at research. At this lab basic research on virus host relationships and factors affecting pathogenicity are carried out in controlled systems based on the individual challenge of large numbers of shrimp. Optimization of culture systems which do not rely on water exchange depends upon an understanding of the pond microbial community. Technology transfer. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture development. Systems for estimation of lethal infective waterborne or injected dosages of have been developed and applied. natural food availability and mineral recycling rates. The has been a leader in the development of intensive shrimp culture technologies was among the first to successfully demonstrate intensive culture in zero exchange systems.

These technologies are now being applied in super-intensive greenhouse enclosed raceway units which will offer new opportunities for expansion of the shrimp culture industry beyond current coastal earthen pond based systems. Algal species commonly used in the larval culture of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were tested. also on various diets) to assess the feasibility of using different natural diets as substitutes for traditional. The next trials are ongoing. Interestingly.. Record 113 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Plankton alternatives to artemia for growth of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei larvae AU: Author DeMicco. Hubbard. Rhodomonas (Cryptophyceae). As expected. medium strain. Article Taxonomic Terms: Algae. Screening of various algal species and methods for shrimp larviculture was performed by various workers (e. In the first basic screening test. These two trials also produced the shortest period required to reach post-larval stages. not only to determine survivability.g. Strains. some in combination with HUFA-enriched rotifers. Aquacop) in the late 1980s and the present work is a continuation of some of that research. but to detect any differential feeding by protozoeal larvae. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Survival rates were promising for several non-Artemia diet combinations. over Isochrysis. Nauplii. 180 p. higher rates of survival and more rapid development occurs. Brachionus plicatilis. six replicate tanks of Litopenaeus vannamei nauplius (stage 1-3) larvae were fed single-strains and seven combinations of Chaetoceros muelleri. as well as the latter less successful species. 2001.. Phytoplankton. Some novel genera which grow well in warmwater mass culture and are being tested include Pavlova (Prasinophyceae). R SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. The present paper will provide a review of the current USMSFP supported research activities in these areas.communities through addition of bacterial products and surface area enhancement to provide alternative habitat. Feeding experiments. Chaetoceros muelleri. and of interest were the dynamics of larval feeding and growth on algal diets. and using combinations of rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis. Food organisms. Isochrysis. Survival. Food preferences. Nannochloropsis salina. 16 d from nauplii. and/or Nannochloropsis salina. Feed composition.000 cells/ml. Tahitian Isochrysis sp. differential feeding did occur where larvae favored Chaetoceros. Zooplankton. but with the goal of finding new combinations of planktonic feeds without the use of Artemia. followed by the combination of all three species (58%). Artemia-augmented diets. over Nannochloropsis. The former two traditional species were used. Mass culture. and use novel algal species. and potential for spreading disease. Artemia salina. Diets. Crustacean larvae. along with novel species never tried before. Porphyridium . inconsistent availability. in shellfish and fish larviculture has become problematic because of high cost. Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract The intensive use of brine shrimp. Baca. A pure diet of Chaetoceros produced the highest survival (61%). Algal numbers were adjusted each day with the proper species to obtain a total level of 10. E. B.

a commercial biosecure facility composed of 4-100 mt raceways was designed and constructed. closed recirculating water filtration systems to contain the costs of water replacement due to declining pH and nitrate accumulation.2 m super(3))/fluidized sand (1. C. 2001. a 2. resulting in a harvest in less than 120 d. respectively. One raceway design had a combination upflow bead (2.600 L) was constructed and operated. 363 p. Nannochloris (Chlorophyceae). These raceways were operated in partial flow-through mode using low salinity groundwater and in a totally closed. Filtered water was returned to the surface of the raceways. a laboratory biosecure broodstock system (5. and 15 ppm.(Rhodophyceae). Article Geographic Terms: USA AB: Abstract Production losses from disease have had a serious negative economic impact on marine shrimp farming worldwide. The accomplishments to date are: (1) Texas Parks and Wildlife granted the first shrimp quarantine certification in the coastal zone due to the indoor system's biosecurity. biosecure broodstock necessitates use of totally. Davies.2-1. Ochromonas (Chrysophyceae). Woods. a 1 m super(3) bead filter. (4) inland raceways were used to acclimate >6. Recirculating systems.6 m deep settling basin and flowed into a 1 m super(2) sump at the opposite end. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture.1. 900 L shrimp culture tanks (artificial sea water). Lawrence. NO sub(2)-N and NO sub(3)-N remained below intended limits. polysaccharides.5 g wk super(-1)).05. 0. 0. Spawning. 0.44 m super(3)) biofilter system supplied with water drawn from the sump by 2-1 hp pumps (800 lpm). (2) shrimp were reared to adult size in indoor. C. and Micromonas (Prasinophyceae). Brood stocks. PG.e. The need for specific-pathogen-free (SPF) broodstock that are either geographically or environmentally isolated from disease has become a priority (i. AL. G. After acclimation. Effluent was drawn from a screened standpipe located in the 1. each raceway had a central concrete partition. Aquaculture equipment.5 x 10 super(6) postlarvae . ultraviolet sterilizer.7 m super(3) submerged oyster shell biofilter. Establishment of commercial. SPF broodstock culture systems AU: Author Lee. T. Zuercher. and vitamins. protein skimmer. The system was composed of 2-1. commercial. Turk. Disease control. PE SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. biosecurity). Pelagococcus (Pelagophyceae). Samocha. inland marine shrimp raceway production and environmentally isolated. environmentally isolated systems (40-45 g). (3) ultra-high intensity (100-300 shrimp m super(-2)) production was obtained in inland raceways with excellent survival (70-86%) and growth rate (1. First.05 m super(3) activated carbon filter. recirculating mode. These were selected as genera or representatives of classes (divisions) rarely used in aquaculture but which have unique and/or abundant fatty acids. Second. The other raceway design had a reciprocating biofilter (8. The system was composed of 3. Raceway culture. NH sub(4)-N.3 m W X 33 m L X 1. Record 114 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Biosecure.9 m super(3)) supplied by an airlift pump (800 lpm) also drawing from the sump.3 m D concrete raceways housed in a greenhouse. Aquaculture systems. denitrifying bioreactor and automated process control system.

UAZ helped draft the new Aquaculture Rules for the Arizona Department of Agriculture. 21 short courses and workshops in shrimp pathology and diagnostics have been given since 1989 and 629 students from 50 countries have been trained. This research project was supported by Woods Brothers Shrimp Farm. Under Objective 1. Record 115 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Research activities at the University of Arizona (UAZ) AU: Author Lightner. Disease resistance. DV SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. Viral diseases. (6) a pilot maturation laboratory at the inland commercial site was used to obtain commercial spawning (8-10% spawns/night). now. Marine Shrimp Farming Consortium (USMSFC) were within Objectives 1 (Stock Improvement) and 2 (Disease Control). UAZ further developed diagnostic and detection methods for IHHNV. land-based shrimp production. Frozen products. vannamei adults collected off Panama. Article Geographic Terms: USA. (5) inland raceways were used to over-winter broodstock. Arizona AB: Abstract Activities at UAZ during the FY 2000 reporting period in the U. Standard PCR methods for detection of WSSV. WSSV.S. and provided diagnostic services to the shrimp culture industry. and HPV and RT PCR methods for TSV and YHV were further refined and the improved methods were applied to diagnostic testing and to research questions. 375 p. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. AZ and grants from the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board's Advanced Technology Program (#004952-068) and Technology Development and Transfer Program (# 004952-079). These results prove the concept for biosecure. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei. Polymerase chain reaction. YHV. Before this industry/university collaboration. vannamei were found relative to the reference Kona stock and some resistance to WSSV was found in a few selected families. and TSV. Disease detection. UAZ collaborated with the Oceanic Institute to develop a new SPF family from wild L. A generic bacterial probe was developed for confirmation and . White spot syndrome virus. 2001. Marine birds. processing and reporting 428 case submissions in FY 2000. Gila Bend. there was no consistent inland production of shrimp. HPV. The annual Shrimp Pathology Short Course was well attended. Husbandry diseases. several new farms have been started in the desert southwest region. Also within Objective 1. UAZ performed disease resistance evaluation challenge studies (to WSSV and TSV) on 101 domesticated families of Litopenaeus vannamei USMSFC and domestic industry breeding programs. Disease control. With the 2000 class. Five chapters for the 2000 OIE Aquatic Animal Diagnostic Manual and Code were contributed by UAZ which also serves as an OIE Reference Laboratory. Disease transmission. and service efforts within Objective 2. Marked improvements in TSV resistance in selected stocks of L. In FY 2000 UAZ was most active in research. and (7) shrimp in an inland raceway from which no water was discharged (0% water exchange) reproduced naturally (no ablation) and postlarvae grew within the same raceway.before stocking. teaching. In research and development using molecular methods. IHHNV. Aquaculture products. Stocking (organisms). Taura syndrome virus.

differentiation by hybridization of putative lesions due to bacterial pathogens such as rickettsia from lesions due to other causes. Argue. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Survival. FL. family survival may differ among labs because of procedural differences in the challenge test. Research on TSV from the Mexican 1999-2000 epizootic in cultured L. vannamei were produced at the Oceanic Institute. and a number of samples of Asian P. The objective of this study was to compare family survival of juvenile L. Marine Shrimp Farming Program (USMSFP) established a selective breeding program to enhance TSV resistance in the Pacific white shrimp. 459 p. Lotz. CL. DV. monodon were found to be positive for WSSV and/or YHV. BL. real time PCR was used in conjunction with DNA probes by hybridization to investigate the relative WSSV load in the heads and tails of shrimp from an emergency harvest. Resistance is assessed by exposing known families of L. vannamei from Central America was positive for WSSV and infectious to indicator shrimp. Our ongoing survey of frozen commodity shrimp from U. Disease resistance. JM. The application of MABs. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei. In addition. Browdy.S. 2001. 65 families were selected for TSV . laboratory conditions. SM. RA SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. Eighty families of specific pathogen free L. Castille. A new rickettsial pathogen of shrimp was isolated by UAZ and its characterization was begun in FY 2000. Lightner. BJ. Arce. shrimp heads and tails were found to contain similar WSSV virus loads. AL. H. survival under these conditions may not be predictive of survival in commercial ponds. capable of detecting and quantifying very small numbers of IHHNV and WSSV. Prior. the U.S. Viral diseases. Record 116 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Family survival of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei to Taura Syndrome Virus in field and laboratory challenges AU: Author Moss. Contrary to assumptions made in recent risk assessments. SY. VM. whereas with WSSV the infectivity is apparently lost after passage through the avian gut. Lawrence. Of these. However. developed to TSV and WSSV to different types of antibody based diagnostic tests was investigated. Litopenaeus vannamei. vannamei to viable virus (either through feeding of infected tissue or by injection) under controlled. White. Studies in which captive sea gulls were fed TSV and WSSV infected shrimp confirmed that TSV remains present and infectious in gull feces for several days after ingestion. shrimp farming industry. were developed and applied to research questions and to limited use as a new diagnostic method for WSSV. Taura syndrome virus AB: Abstract Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) occurs in the major shrimp farming regions of the Western Hemisphere and has caused catastrophic economic losses on shrimp farms. retail sources continued in FY 2000. Real time PCR methods. Breland. vannamei after exposure to TSV in three USMSFP laboratories and one commercial shrimp farm where TSV was expected to be enzootic because of prior TSV-caused epizootics on the farm. A retail sample of L. Selective breeding. stylirostris L.S. Bowers. vannamei suggested the emergence of a new strain of the virus. In response to TSV problems facing the U. SM. Bullis. In one study. Husbandry diseases.

Oceanographic institutions. 24 families were evaluated at the University of Arizona (UAZ) where they were exposed to TSV in a per os challenge for 14 days. Mean family survival at GCRL was 45. family survival at WMC was 61.001.0% and ranged from 0-82.1 g. despite procedural differences between labs. representative shrimp from 80 full-sib families were stocked in OI's 337-m super(2) round pond and 58-m super(2) recirculating raceway for growout comparisons at a stocking density of 200 shrimp/m super(2).55. 2001. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei. family survival at BSF was 24. Record 117 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Shrimp research activities at the Oceanic Institute AU: Author Moss. Importantly. n = 41).0%.4% and ranged from 7. Otoshi. family survival was different when TSV was administered via injection.33. SM. and UAZ and BSF (r super(2) = 0.3% and ranged from 20. However.14. Survival.0-93.7 . During the past year. CA.9%. P < 0. Selective breeding. 460 p. Husbandry diseases. Hawaii AB: Abstract Through the U. Mean survival was 72. FRO.001. In addition to laboratory challenges.3-57. Regression of mean family survival was significant between GCRL and UAZ (r super(2) = 0. After 16 weeks.1% and ranged from 14.5% plus or minus 17. 15 families were unselected control families. Disease resistance. shrimp in the round pond exhibited a mean harvest weight of 20.0 g plus or minus 4.100%.7 (SD) and family survival ranged from 45 . shrimp in the recirculating raceway exhibited a mean harvest weight of 22.4 (SD) and harvest weight ranged from 4. the Oceanic Institute (OI) has established a selective breeding program to improve the performance of specific pathogen free Pacific white shrimp. Research.5 weeks. Calderon. OL SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. Mean survival was 75.8%. Arce. After 14. vannamei and to predict their performance in farm environments where TSV is enzootic. 41 families were evaluated at Bowers Shrimp Farm (BSF) in Texas where they were reared in replicate ponds containing TSV-infected shrimp for eight weeks. GCRL and BSF (r super(2) = 0. However. Of the 80 families that were evaluated. 60 families were selected 100% for growth.68.100%. P = 0.8 g plus or minus 4. Also. Representative shrimp from all 80 families were evaluated at the Gulf Coast Research Laboratory (GCRL) where they were exposed to TSV in a per os challenge for 21 days. Hennig. Litopenaeus vannamei.S.08.9 (SD) and family survival ranged from 45 . and 5 families were inbred lines to evaluate inbreeding depression. SM. Article Geographic Terms: USA. In addition to growout . these results indicate that per os laboratory challenges provide a tool to evaluate and compare TSV resistance among families of L. family survival at UAZ was 21. BJ. n = 16). n = 28).9 g.8%. Marine Shrimp Farming Program (USMSFP). regression of mean family survival was not significant between WMC and GCRL (r super(2) = 0.001.6% plus or minus 11.resistance and 15 families were unselected controls.6-93.41. and 28 families were evaluated at Waddell Mariculture Center (WMC) where they were infected with TSV by injection. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Argue. Family survival was similar in labs using a per os TSV challenge. Viral diseases. after which time percent survival by family was recorded.6 (SD) and harvest weight ranged from 10. P < 0.61. P < 0.9 . n = 24).

Recirculating systems. OI has supported the U. a second tank for solids removal. UV sterilization. and a third tank for biological filtration. Filtration. Such systems use one tank for the animals. JM SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts.500 sentinel shrimp were provided to USMSFP Consortium institutions and private farms for disease-related research and for biosecurity purposes.5 to 120 acres in size with farms occupying 600 acres. Culture tanks. Some of the earliest attempts at shrimp production utilize closed systems. Rearing. The external tank filtration can be run either in series or in parallel but all such systems require that water be removed from the culture tank and then returned by pumping. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture.76.S. During the past year. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei. Record 118 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Closed systems for sustainable shrimp culture AU: Author Ogle. Development of closed systems for shrimp culture have paralleled the development of pond culture in time but not in scope. 2001. n = 24). six maternal families of F sub(1) Panamanian juvenile L.3%. aeration or oxygenation devices and protein shimmers. To date. 274. There have been so few such ventures that they can all be discussed here. Mean survival of representative shrimp from 79 full-sib families to TSV at GCRL was 38% and survival ranged from 8. r super(2) = 0. Although the ecological impacts of such operations have been pointed out. vannamei that were selected for resistance to Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) were challenged with TSV at the Gulf Coast Research Laboratory (GCRL) in Mississippi and at the University of Arizona (UAZ). vannamei are being maintained at OI's secondary quarantine facility with the expectation that they will be included into the breeding program during the next year. 489 p. Additional components may include a tank for secondary solids removal.81. In addition to shrimp research. it has not been until recently that interest has grown in developing a more sustainable means for growing shrimp such as closed systems.3 .2%. Lotz. Article Geographic Terms: USA. Closed systems for shrimp have typically been copied from the classical fish systems. have traditionally been constructed adjacent to estuarine water sources in wetlands and mangrove swamps. In addition.S. Shrimp ponds which can be 0.001. and broodstock shrimp were distributed throughout the U.139 postlarvae. JT. Aquaculture systems. OI worked jointly with UAZ over the past year to diversify the germplasm of the breeding program by developing new candidate SPF shrimp stocks from Panama. Mississippi AB: Abstract The mainstream of shrimp research and production for the past two decades has been focused on pond production. families of L. Also.evaluations.9% and survival ranged from 0 . Aquaculture techniques. There was a significant positive relationship between mean family survival to TSV between GCRL and UAZ (P < 0. Mean survival of representative shrimp from 24 full-sib families to TSV at UAZ was 32. For marine shrimp which must molt to grow such systems are difficult to maintain. shrimp farming industry by providing shrimp to research institutions and the commercial sector. 123. juvenile.51. The molted exoskeletons will clog pump intakes .

Survival. hurricanes and lower end-of-the-season prices for their crop. Coupling these high yield production systems with a temporally partitioned pond reclamation system offers the hope of long term 0% water exchange. The first crop would provide a . This strategy was to provide two crops of reasonably sized shrimp during a single growing season of 155 days. biologists at the Waddell Mariculture Center (WMC) stocked a low-density production study focused on producing two crops of shrimp in 75 to 80 days each. USA. The GCRL has operated a closed system for the maturation and reproduction of Penaeus vannamei almost continuously since 1985. Whetstone. The production season is limited to one crop per year due to temperature. Growers are also concerned with the possibility of disease. This management strategy relied upon the superior growth performance of the US Marine Shrimp Farming Program selected stocks and higher growth rates. That aeration mixes a suspended bacterial floc which purifies the water. A. In addition. 2001. Thus the development of closed systems will enable shrimp culture to move out of environmentally sensitive areas and reduce the consumption of protein. 612 p. For that reason modern shrimp systems have become simpler with fewer external filters or pumps and relay on in tank filtration. Since that time the systems have been operated for a year at a time with no water addition. A number of systems were built utilizing a variety of filters. The original design described in 1992 used submerged biofilters packed with clam shell. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Experimental culture. The contribution of algal and bacterial processes and the effects of low protein feeds on the growth and survival of shrimp in these systems are current areas of interest to researchers as is genetic improvement. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei. In an attempt to minimize some of these production risks and improve marketing opportunities. By 1994 those filters had been replaced with aerobic trickling filters packed with a plastic media and in 1996 the systems were standardized and further simplified. Similar bacterial driven systems have recently been described for the pond production of marine shrimp. Richardson. At the GCRL a variety of closed systems have been used. shrimp growers deal with a number of issues associated with producing shrimp in SC. J. Shrimp culture. Stocking density. Record 119 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Low density double cropping pond management strategy using Litopenaeus vannamei in South Carolina AU: Author Stokes. Pond culture. which can be achieved at low densities in earthen ponds. SC shrimp growers use only high health shrimp and some years there is a shortage of postlarvae for optimum stocking dates. Article Geographic Terms: ANW. The system currently in use by the GCRL consists of a tank with central aeration. J SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts.and screens. The experience gained in evaluating different filters for the maturation system was applied to the grow out systems. CL. water and energy making them truly more sustainable for the future. It is interesting that both pond and closed system research for shrimp production seem to be converging on s similar end point. Browdy. South Carolina AB: Abstract Each year. Growth.

The ponds were fertilized prior to stocking and filled using the puddle method.5% squid) commercial shrimp diet according to a WMC feed management regime. problems with seed availability would be minimized. By reducing stocking numbers and spreading stocking to two times per season. Shrimp in the latter pond experienced mortality due to a black gill problem. Article Geographic Terms: ISE.125KG/HA. water quality deterioration is less likely in zero water exchange systems. These fifteen metals were measured in whole body homogenates from 12 Litopenaeus vannamei broodstock maintained at the . antimony (Sb). Production results and costs will be analyzed and compared to determine risk and production benefits for both the high and low-density two crop production strategies in SC. selenium (Se).2 for the second crop. Two high-density ponds were stocked at a rate of 300. nickel (Ni). The other two ponds were stocked at a low-density rate of 150. The low-density ponds had a mean survival rate of 89% for the first and 86% for the second crop. D SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. 10 p. Trace metals. Mean harvest production for both low.mid-season cash flow when prices are generally higher and would also be harvest before hurricane season. Pond culture. Meehan. USA.221 KG/HA with a mean FCR of 1. Recirculating systems.000shrimp/HA and managed for 155 days. Hawaii AB: Abstract Heavy metals affect immune and reproductive system function. and a genetic component to heavy metal susceptibility has been reported for freshwater shrimp. limited information is available on trace metal concentrations in marine shrimp or on the molecular genetic mechanism(s) involved in susceptibility to heavy metal accumulation. 2001.9 for the first and 1. AA.9. with 24 and 12 hp aeration per HA respectively phased in according to oxygen demand. High and low density ponds were managed with no routine water exchange. cadmium (Cd). DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Heavy metals. Mean shrimp harvest size was 24g. Cultured organisms. lead (Pb).263 KG/HA for the first and 1. frozen samples of whole shrimp were digested with a concentrated nitric acid digestion and trace metal analyses were performed for aluminum(Al). silver (Ag) and vanadium (V). copper (Cu). All water was filtered through a 185-micron mesh screen to minimize disease introduction. The FCR for the low-density ponds was . Immunity. Bioaccumulation.000shrimp/HA and managed for 80 and 75 days respectively prior to harvest. The high-density ponds had shrimp survival rates of 88 and 59%. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei.density crops was 4. Four 0.25HA ponds were stocked in the study. potassium (K). The shrimp were fed a 36% protein (with 2. Production averaged 5. Record 120 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Preliminary results on trace metal concentrations in cultured shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei AU: Author Alcivar-Warren. manganese (Mn). Brood stocks. Aquaculture systems.863 KG/HA for second crop. At lower stocking densities. Sexual reproduction. However. Mean shrimp size was 17g and 15g respectively. barium (Ba). mercury (Hg). iron (Fe). Production averaged 2. chromium (Cr). In this study. All ponds were stocked with high health postlarvae produced at the WMC.

Oceanic Institute, Hawaii. Six broodstock originated from a flow-through, dirt pond and six were from a closed, recirculating raceway. There were variable concentrations (ppm, mean (SD) of trace metals among and within collection sites. Analysis of variance showed no significant differences (P > 0.05) in trace concentrations of K, V, Cr, Ba, Pb, Se, Ni, Cu and Sb in shrimp maintained in either the dirt pond or the recirculating raceway. Trace concentrations of Al, Mn, Ag and Fe were significantly higher (P < 0.10) in shrimp from the dirt pond (17.13 (18.69, 1.12 (0.51, 0.10 (0.04 and 19.30 (17.62, respectively) than from the recirculating raceway (0.00, 0.49 (0.15, 0.05 (0.02 and 5.72 (0.95, respectively). Only Cd and Hg were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in shrimp from the recirculating raceway (0.16 (0.04 and 0.03 (0.00, respectively) than from the dirt pond (0.01 (0.01 and 0.02 (0.00, respectively). Record 121 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Review of Texas A&M U.S.D.A. Marine Shrimp Farming Program, 2000 AU: Author Lawrence, A; Samocha, T; Castille, F; Bray, W SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. p. 353. 2001. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Research programmes; Shrimp culture; Marine aquaculture; Selective breeding; Nutritional requirements; Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae; Article Geographic Terms: USA, Texas AB: Abstract In addition to the authors, collaborating scientists with the Shrimp Mariculture Project (SMP) research program included Drs. W.Neill, D.Gatlin and W.Grant, Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, and Dr. J.Dixon, Soil and Crop Sciences, of Texas A&M, Drs. D.McKee, J.Fox, E.Jones and J. Mott, Texas A&M at Corpus Christi and Dr. P.Lee, Marine Biomedical Institute, University of Texas, and scientists from the other USDA Marine Shrimp Farming Program. Three students completed Doctor of Philosophy degrees and seven students completed Master of Science degrees in 1999 and 2000. Collaborative research programs are ongoing with the commercial shrimp farms in Texas and the following companies: North American Agrisystems Archer, Daniels, Midland; Distributors Processing, Inc. (DPI); Seaboard; Solvay Duphar; Industria Organica; Ziegler Brothers, Inc.; Rangen, Inc.; and Baker Brothers. In addition to $323,000 from the USDA Marine Shrimp Farming Program, about $350,000 was received from other grants, about $450,000 from the State of Texas and a minimum of $1,500,000 of "in kind" support from private companies during 2000. For 2000, offspring of genetic crosses were received from Oceanic Institute reared to 4 to 5 gm size, and tagged. Populations of these tagged shrimp were sent to Harlingen Shrimp Farm and Bowers Shrimp Farm in Texas. The purpose was to evaluate these genetic crosses under commercial conditions in Texas. No class I shrimp diseases were observed at either the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station Flour Bluff or Port Aransas research facilities for 2000. Vitamin requirements for Litopenaeus vannamei stylirostris were determined with no water exchange. Carotenoids were shown to increase survival in the presence of Class I pathogens. A simulation model for the nitrogen cycle with no water exchange was developed. Protein and energy requirements at different salinities and temperatures in the presence of no water exchange were determined. Fifteen papers were published and 59 oral presentations were given by

the Shrimp Mariculture Research Project staff in 1999 and 2000. Record 122 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Floating cages as an alternative for growing the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in open sea water AU: Author Lombardi, JV; Marques, HLA; Barreto, OJS; Gelli, VC; Pereira, RTL; de Paula, EJ SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. 384 p. 2001. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture; Cage culture; Rearing; Polyculture; Algal culture; Experimental culture; Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei; Article Geographic Terms: Brazil, Sao Paulo, Ubatuba AB: Abstract Shrimp culture plays an important role in worldwide aquaculture. However this activity has some limitation for expanding, since the use of coastal lands is rigorously controlled by environmental protection laws, particularly in some States of Brazil. The aim of this study was testing floating cages as an alternative for rearing the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in open sea water, in order to attend principally to the requirements of fishermen communities. The experiment was carried out in the Aquaculture Research Centre of Sao Paulo State's Fishery Institute in Ubatuba - SP - Brazil (24 degree 26'S; 45 degree 04'W). Experimental cages (1.00 m x 1.00 m x 1.20 m) were constructed with a polyester/PVC mesh (5 mm) and fixed in PVC floating frames. Postlarvae of L. vannamei were reared during 60 days in nursery cages and so they were transferred to the growing cages. Since growth was very heterogeneous in the nursery phase, juveniles were grouped according to their different weight category and stocked in 6 growing cages in a density of 100 shrimps m super(-2). Commercial pellets 35% PB was supplied once a day, and shrimps were harvested after 103 days of growing phase. Macroalgae Kappaphycus alvarezii were also fixed in floating tubes and disposed inside 3 cages, in order to better use the available space in the water column. There were no negative interferences in culturing shrimps and algae inside the same cage. However, positive aspects must be better studied for testing the viability of using algae as shelters, shade providers, and bed for other organisms which could improve the natural food source for shrimp. The results has demonstrated that floating cages are a viable alternative for rearing L. vannamei in open sea water. Further, the association with algae seems to be feasible for best exploration of available space inside cages. Record 123 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Process control of pond sediment redox AU: Author Peterson, EL; Indran, G SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. p. 525. 2001. DE: Descriptors

Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture; Pond culture; Ponds; Aeration; Redox reactions; Aquaculture systems; Aquaculture equipment; Article Taxonomic Terms: Metapenaeus endeavouri; Article Geographic Terms: Australia AB: Abstract Process control of pond aeration is currently under demonstration at two marine shrimp farms which are members of the Australian Prawn Farmers Association. The speed of paddlewheels and propeller-aspirators are automatically reduced when pond water is saturated by photosynthesis. The low-speed operation of paddlewheels and propellers does not erode pond levees, and so feed pellets are not smothered by silt if they are applied during daylight. The hypothesis is that the process control system will cause pond sediment to be more aerobic. Two adjacent one-hectare ponds were stocked with Metapenaeus endeavouri 30 PL/m super(2). Each was provided with four 2hp paddlewheels and four 2hp propeller-aspirators. "Pond A" was conventionally aerated at fill speed, day and night. Pond "B" was controlled to run at halfspeed during daylight. Each pond demanded 13 kW of electric power at ffill speed, but "Pond B" consumed only 2.5 kW during daylight hours. Sediments were probed across each pond a few weeks before harvest. Redox results are plotted, confirming the hypothesis that "Pond B" would be more aerobic, while "Pond A" would accumulate anaerobic sludge. Record 124 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Review of engineering for sustainable shrimp farming AU: Author Peterson, EL SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. p. 526. 2001. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture; Pond culture; Ponds; Aquaculture engineering; Site selection; Aquaculture development; Article Geographic Terms: Australia AB: Abstract Investors get what they pay for when they fail to engage suitably qualified consultants. There are multi-disciplinary firms which have learned from successes and failures in many industries to provide investors with a facility which will be durable and efficient. Developers should allow more capital investment at the beginning, so that long-term costs of operation may be minimised. Advise on selecting an aquacultural engineering consultant is given by Mayo (1998). The present paper addresses issues which developers of shrimp farms should consider before they purchase property upon which they would build a marine shrimp farm. These issues should be addressed as a "schematic design" by an Engineer before heading into full scale development. These three factors are the foundation of a profitable farm: Access to waterway with sufficient tidal flushing to provide good water quality in and out; Land that is high enough above the tide to avoid acid sulfate soils and provide good drainage and Soil that has sufficient clay content so ponds do not leak, but also some aggregate content. There are other important factors which must be satisfied when choosing land to build a farm: Access to freshwater, power, and a nearby quarry to provide inexpensive sand and gravel. Topographic surveys should be completed and a schematic hydraulic design should be drafted for the candidate site. Key features to be

account for are as follows: Header dam to provide pumped storage and pre-treatment of water requirements. Gravity feed open channels to growout ponds, with screened control weirs. Hydrodynamically designed pond - square ponds are the rectangle shape which most closely approaches a circle. Round ponds are internally superior, but farm-layout may require that ponds be square. The worst ponds may be triangular and rectangular shapes having distorted aspect ratios far from 1:1. Corners should be filled in and rounded as much as practical. Pond levee banks should have a slope no steeper than 1:2, topped with road gravel, and slopes protected with gravel or geotextiles. Salt tolerant plants should be encouraged, and Open channel drains connected to pond outlet structures by culverts under levee banks - these channels should flow through sediment trapping pond before the final step. Record 125 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Effect of chronic Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) infections on survival of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to salinity stress AU: Author Lesber Salazar, A; Soto, AM; Lotz, JM SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. p. 564. 2001. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture; Husbandry diseases; Viral diseases; Infectious diseases; Survival; Biological stress; Temperature effects; Temperature tolerance; Article Taxonomic Terms: Taura syndrome virus; Litopenaeus vannamei; Article Geographic Terms: USA, Mississippi AB: Abstract Taura syndrome virus (TSV) is one of the most important shrimp viruses affecting farmed shrimp in the Western Hemisphere. Infected shrimp go through an acute phase in which most mortality is observed. In the ensuing chronic phase shrimp remain infected but otherwise appear normal. If chronically infected shrimp resume normal functions they should be as likely to survive a stress test as naive shrimp. Therefore we undertook this study to determine if chronically infected shrimp can withstand salinity shock as well as naive shrimp. All shrimp were obtained from the SPF program of the United States Marine Shrimp Farming Program. Chronically infected shrimp were shrimp that had survived a previous TSV laboratory per os challenge. Two experiments were conducted that compared survival of chronically infected and naive L. vannamei subjected to different salinity shocks. In the first experiment, shrimp were transferred from tanks containing 24 ppt seawater individually into jars containing either 6, 12, 18, or 24 ppt seawater. The second experiment consisted of transferring chronically infected and naive shrimp from 24 ppt into seawater of 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 ppt. Figures and show percent survival of chronically infected and naive shrimp from the different salinity shock treatments from experiments 1 and 2. In both experiments there was a statistically significant difference in survival between chronically infected and naive shrimp at the salinity shock of 6 ppt. (Pearson Chi-square test, alpha = 0.05). These results suggest that chronically infected shrimp are not as likely to resist stress as naive shrimp. Record 126 of 500

DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Penaeid shrimp culture: Think globally AU: Author Scarpa, J SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. p. 579. 2001. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Historical account; Aquaculture development; Shrimp culture; Animal diseases; Aquaculture economics; World; Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae AB: Abstract As for many aquacultural enterprises, shrimp farming accounted for a small share of the world market for many years. In 1975, farmed shrimp accounted for about 2% of the world market, but now accounts for 24.5% or 737,000 metric tons (1997). Within the United States, there are 42 farms producing about 1900 metric tons with a value of just under US $12 million (1997). This is a small share of the 320,000 metric tons that the U.S. imports yearly with a value of approximately US $3 billion. As can be seen, a majority of shrimp come from overseas, especially Central America, South America and Asia. How has this industry grown so rapidly? Primarily by advances in all facets of culture: hatchery to harvest. Early culture relied upon Mother Nature for postlarvae that were stocked in coastal ponds at low densities with little management (i.e., extensive aquaculture). As shrimp nutrition and pond culture was studied, feeds and aeration systems were developed leading to semi-intensive and intensive culture scenarios with production greater than 5,000 kg/ha. As in many agricultural systems, as densities increased the threat of disease becomes a reality. For shrimp farming this came in the form of a multitude of viruses (e.g., B.P., IHHN, Taura, Whitespot, Yellowhead) over the last two decades, for which there was little recourse but to sell at a small size or lose a crop. The disease threat has lead to a renewed effort in water reuse, or zero water exchange, for pond or tank culture, as well as efforts in health management, vaccines, and genetic selection. Efforts by the U.S. Marine Shrimp Farming Program have led to the development of Specific Pathogen Free broodstock and health management guidelines to limit the spread of viruses through infected broodstock, postlarvae, and poor culture practices. Record 127 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Relative susceptibility of Litopenaeus vannamei (Kona stock) to white spot syndrome virus and Taura syndrome virus AU: Author Soto, MA; Lotz, JM; Shervette, VR SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. p. 602. 2001. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Disease resistance; Survival; Immunity; Viral diseases; Fish diseases; Article Taxonomic Terms: White spot syndrome virus; Taura syndrome virus; Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract We used an experimental procedure that is based on a mathematical epidemiology model to study the survival rate of Litopenaeus vannamei from exposures to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Taura syndrome

vannamei are as susceptible to TSV as to WSSV. 2001. 630. Cody. most animals died between 48 and 96 h post-exposure. The paper presents the major findings of the project to date on the nutrition and feeding of L. Conquest. the mean survival rate from a WSSV exposure was 0. L. However. zero-water exchange production systems have shown that shrimp can also derive a substantial portion of their nutrition from microorganisms endogenously produced within these culture systems. L SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. J. and then isolating the exposed shrimp individually to determine the number of infections and deaths. In both experiments. In experiment one. A statistical difference was not detected in final mean survival rates between the WSSV and TSV exposed groups from either experiment (chi-square test). Forster. p. The L. I. for the WSSV exposed shrimp. vannamei used in the experiments are from the original unselected population of shrimp (Kona stock) that have been maintained by the United States Marine Shrimp Farming Program. Conventional pond or tank-based growout farming practices for marine shrimp generally employ the use of high quality (and therefore high cost) nutritionally complete. In experiment two. In this study. Water quality. and for the TSV exposed shrimp. and in particular. biosecure. The experimental procedure involves exposing 12 susceptible shrimp to a single infected shrimp cadaver for a specified period of time. studies conducted by the project at OI with shrimp reared under experimental. Artificial feeding. and from a TSV exposure was 0. that optimizes economic returns while minimizing deleterious effects on the environment. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture.virus (TSV). Record 128 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The nutrition and feeding of marine shrimp within biosecure zero-water exchange aquaculture production systems: A status report AU: Author Tacon. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei. Dominy. Obaldo. The resident microorganisms also play .62.60.55. Article Geographic Terms: ISE. studies have shown that these production systems behave as living aerobic bioreactors. Our results suggest the original unselected population of L. these aquafeeds are usually formulated to satisfy all of the known essential dietary nutrient requirements of the cultured species. A. most animals died between 24 and 48 h post-exposure. O. Divakaran. USA. and from a TSV exposure was 0.52. Recirculating systems. similar in many respects to an activated sludge wastewater treatment facility. S. Nutrition. artificially compounded diets or aquafeeds for the duration of the production cycle. In fact. The overall goal of the five-year project is to develop second generation feeds technology and management for the intensive culture of Pacific white shrimp. the mean survival rate from a WSSV exposure was 0. focuses on the role of microorganisms within these production systems. Decamp. susceptible shrimp are exposed to the infected cadaver for 14 h and isolated for five days. W. vannamei in outdoor experimental zero-water exchange production systems. Litopenaeus vannamei. Hawaii AB: Abstract The paper describes the research activities of an ongoing USDA-ARS funded project implemented by the Aquatic Feeds and Nutrition (AQUAFAN) Program at the Oceanic Institute (OI) in Hawaii.

Particular emphasis is placed in this project on the development of a more holistic. approach to aquatic nutrition and health management. effluent management. Shrimp harvesting was done in October 2000. and maintaining ecosystem health and stability. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. shrimp health management. Animal Feed Mill Association) under initial support from the World Bank. S. 643. which it is hoped will be widely accepted among the shrimp farmers in Thailand. more locally specific manuals have been prepared in small local workshops with groups of volunteer shrimp farmers. or systems-oriented. and with technical inputs from universities and the Department of Fisheries. although operational costs are less. Aquaculture techniques. feeding. Based on the guidelines. rather than just to the cultured shrimp. Frozen Food Association. farming area. harvesting. shrimp fry stocking. chemical and drug usages. The pond preparation. a trial has been started at these two locations to demonstrate intensive marine shrimp farming using the principles of the Code of Conduct. M. Aquaculture Business Club. The yield is still high in comparison with previous crops (normal operation without using the Code of Conduct manual). and on the need to reduce feed costs by developing and better tailoring new second generation feeds and feed management practices to the intended farming system and aquatic ecosystem. effluent treatment. social responsibility. Record 129 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Implementation of the Thai Code of Conduct for Shrimp Farming: preliminary results from demonstration studies in Thailand AU: Author Tookwinas. After preparation of the manuals. social conflict observation and documentation checking was carried out by staff of Department of Fisheries. Guidelines on the farming methods based on the Code of Conduct were prepared in a consultation workshop among the farming associations in various coastal locations. p. Buyer and Seller Club. Songsangjinda. The paper presents the results of the demonstration trials which indicate that implementation of the Code of Conduct can lead to more profitable farming. Canning Food Association.an essential role in biological waste treatment by harnessing and removing potentially toxic fecal wastes and metabolites from the culture system. The trials were started in the early 2000 at two farming sites in Songkhla and Rayong. These manuals have been prepared in Songkhla and Rayong provinces in early 2000. Chankaew. Phillips. Aquaculture regulations. P. culture technique. Policies. water management. Yang. Marine Shrimp arming Association. farm sanitation. Article Geographic Terms: Thailand AB: Abstract The mission statement on the environment policy basis for the Code of Conduct for Sustainable Marine Shrimp Farming in Thailand was signed in 1998 by government and shrimp farm industry representatives (Department of Fisheries. These favorable results provide a basis for further dissemination of management practices following the Code of Conduct for shrimp farming. Manuals. . SS SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. K. 2001. A monitoring program for water quality in the culture pond. training and documentation have been carried out following the Code of Conduct.

Analytical techniques. J SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. L. P. the embryos were treated in 0. This paper reports techniques for obtaining high qualitative somatic and meiotic chromosome from embryo to adult stages of marine shrimp. Xiang. P. Xiphopenaeus kroyeri(2n = 78) and Sicyonia ingentis(2n = 64). One reason for this is due to the relatively small size and large number of chromosomes. 712 p.5hr and then placed in 0. The testis lobes contained both meiotic and mitotic cell.04% colchicine for 1-1. Pond culture.0) were microscopically observed. M SO: Source Aquaculture 2001: Book of Abstracts. aztecus(2n = 88). WA. Among these species. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae AB: Abstract Progress in penaeid genetics and biotechnology research has been slow because of a lack of knowledge on fundamental aspects of their biology. P. setiferus (2n = 90). 753 p. P. Viral diseases. P. branchia. P. Metapenaeus ensis (2n = 78). Chromosomes. ovaries and testis. vannamei(2n = 88). Intensive culture. monodon (2n = 88). Shrimp culture. semisulatus(2n = 90).Record 130 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Studies on the chromosome of marine shrimps with special reference to different techniques AU: Author Zhang. esculentus (2n = 88). Royo. duorarum(2n = 88). Bray. 11 species are the first estimates of the number of chromosome. 2001. but the majority of the chromosomes in testis and ovaries were the "dot" shape. P. There has been relatively little research undertaken on the chromosome number. Zhou. Article Taxonomic Terms: . japonicus (2n = 86). merguiensis (2n = 88). Trachypenaeus curvirostris (2n = 70 =42m+10sm+12st+6t). Record 131 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Successful intensive culture of Litopenaeus vannamei on a white spot syndrome virus-contaminated farm in Panama AU: Author Lawrence. Meiotic chromosomes were prepared from testis lobes. The somatic chromosomes were obtained from embryo. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Karyotypes. Air-drying preparation stained with 2-5% Giemsa solution with a phosphate buffer (pH=7. Disease control. P. Phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy proved to be useful tools for the purpose of observation. P. The gastrula provided the best chromosomes. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Vectors. P. These techniques were successfully applied to study 16 species of penaeid shrimps: Penaeus chinensis (2n = 88). fixative was change twice in the course. 2001. X. Shrimp culture. other larvae and adult tissues including antennal gland. stylirostris (2n = 88). nauplius larvae. More.7%(w:w) KCl 30-50min and fixed with fresh Carnoy's solution (methanol: acetic acid =3:1) for 2hr. penicillatus(2n = 88). structure and composition in the penaeidae. so diploid and haploid chromosome can be obtained. AL. P. W.

of Houston. IHHN virus and NHP (necrotizing hepatopancreatitus) are also present and affecting crop production. including both design and operational considerations. this test was designed to avoid most contamination from these venues. Aquat. However. Food Prod. S. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture.440 pounds per ha. owned by North American Agrisystems. Water content AB: Abstract . use of pond liners. was conducted in newly constructed ponds beside existing contaminated earthen ponds. Sri Lanka. Panama AB: Abstract Panama. has been profoundly affected by White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV or "White Spot" virus). The zero water exchange. intensive ponds averaged 80% survival in contrast with 8. 2001. and comparison of postlarvae sources. 2. the superior growth potential of domesticated stocks. Since a broad range of potential vectors have been implicated in white spot infectivity. 10. The USDA program-derived stocks averaged production of 29.White spot syndrome virus. Aquaculture techniques. while the wild broodstock derived stocks averaged 24. pp. but the growth of the USDA program stocks was 42. RK SO: Source Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology [J. Indeed. Rout. conducted during the second half of 2000 under a Memorandum of Agreement between and Texas Agricultural Experiment Station and the oldest shrimp farm in the Western Hemisphere. Record 132 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Aquafeed Extrudate Flow Rate and Pellet Characteristics from Low-Cost Single-Screw Extruder AU: Author Bandyopadhyay.]. through water filtration to approximately 25 micron level. two sources of postlarvae were stocked into the intensive ponds: domesticated high health postlarvae derived from the USDA Marine Shrimp Farming Program and wild broodstock-derived postlarvae.1% higher. and postlarvae sources on a farm with concurrently stocked conventional earthen ponds known to be heavily contaminated with white spot virus. shrimp culture production virtually came to a complete halt in 1999 and 2000 in Panama due to this virus.1 ha lined ponds in Panama in a test designed to exclude viruses from soil. Results indicate that management techniques. water. was demonstrated. can overcome white spot virus contamination even in the most heavily infected areas. Additionally. Litopenaeus vannamei. The test.. Pellet feeds.192 pounds per ha (per crop). Feeding equipment. Both groups achieved 80% survival in the intensive ponds. Thailand. Indonesia. and through organisms ranging from copepods and crabs to many microorganisms. even in a virus-contaminated environment. However. and shrimp-borne. Agromarina de Panama. and numerous other shrimp producing countries worldwide. Eighty percent average survival of Litopenaeus vannamei was achieved in 18 intensive 0. soil-borne. while white spot is the major reason for decimated production in Panama. Vol. Article Geographic Terms: ASW. like Ecuador. including water-borne. no. 3-15.34% survival in 600 ha of traditional earthen ponds on the same farm harvested within 30 days of the intensive ponds. Aquaculture equipment. Technol. Texas. the test ponds were uncovered and adjacent to infected conventional earthen ponds. Additionally. Inc.

Decapoda AB: Abstract Diseases are a major threat to the sustainability of the aquaculture industry. barrel temperature (60-100 degree C) and moisture content of feed mix (20-60%). All the variables were highly significant having positive linear relationship (r super(2) = 0. Shrimp culture. Animal diseases. Prediction improved with increased L/D ratio. and barrel temperature. increasing importance is being placed on understanding the mechanisms that make nutrition a key factor in host defense against pathogens. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus japonicus. AU: Author Peterson. Harris. Record 133 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Nutrition and Fish Health SO: Source Food Products Press. Nutrition and Fish Health is the first book to provide comprehensive information on nutrition as a means to improve fish health and defend against infection.Extrudate flow rate and effects of extrusion variables on extrudate properties were studied in a laboratory (small-scale) single-screw. no. and 1347. JA SO: Source Aquacultural Engineering [Aquacult. Ponds. 2001.99 expansion ratio. Modelling. Wadhwa. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Sediments. and 92-94 rev/min was the optimum speed for water stability and true density. The combined effects on water stability. Eng. Record 134 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Arrangement of aerators in an intensive shrimp growout pond having a rectangular shape. 51-65. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Disease resistance.]. Aeration. Q sub(Theo) calculation from the simplified flow model. mosture content. LC. Simulation. Vol. Recirculating systems. as well as marine shrimp. Barrel temperature showed optimum values within 68-94 degree C. however. Penaeus monodon AB: Abstract . Fish culture. The most desirable values of the properties were 90.99) with the experimental flow rate Q sub(Exp). screw speed. Nutrition and Fish Health offers state-of-the-art information on diseases affecting cold-water and warm-water fish. Article Taxonomic Terms: Pisces.3% water stability. cooking extruder by extruding a marine shrimp feed mix. 0. Animal nutrition. EL. pp. 2001. Because antibiotics have many drawbacks. Fish diseases. 10 Alice Street Binghamton NY 13904-1580 USA. Immunity. Shrimp culture. 1. Response surface design was followed to examine the effect of screw speed (20-140 rev/min) L/D ratio (8-16). over-predicted Q sub(Exp) within 9 to 89%.9 kg/m super(3) true density. 25. expansion ratio and true density of extrudate showed that L/D 12-14 and moisture content 30-35% were optimum for the three properties.

Simulations have been conducted to suggest general principles for the arrangement of aerators within a rectangular pond used for the growout of marine shrimp such as Penaeus monodon and Penaeus japonicus. and 'dead spots' (sediment traps). Technologies for treatment of effluents include sedimentation. 2001. and mechanical and biological filtration. nontoxic decomposition of waste. Technical innovations have focused on reducing effluent volume and on discharge treatment. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. improving the outlook for controlling disease risks. 'green zone' (desirable). natural food availability and nutrient recycling rates. Computational fluid dynamic models were produced for three schemes that were identified in a survey of Australian Prawn Farming Association members. Recent studies have demonstrated very high production rates in biosecure systems designed for and managed without water exchange and incorporating water reuse between crops. The pond microbial community plays a major role in pond dissolved oxygen dynamics. selective habitat expansion. Nutrients (mineral). techniques are emerging for community manipulation through supplementation of limiting nutrients. 29. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. A comparison of results indicates that conventional aerators should be arranged diagonally or in parallel. Disease control. A growing volume of scientific research and industry experience confirms that water exchange may be reduced or eliminated. With appropriate aeration rates and optimal pond carbon to nitrogen ratios. and culture additions. Record 135 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Emerging technologies for reducing environmental impacts and improving biosecurity for shrimp aquaculture AU: Author Browdy. Based on an improved understanding of pond microbial ecology. and 'diagonal' (diverting apart). Decapoda AB: Abstract The environmental sustainability of aquaculture in general and shrimp farming in particular has received increasing attention in recent years. Aeration. p. Efficiency and cost effectiveness of treatment can be improved through the reduction of exchange volumes and emphasis on drain harvest effluent. Infectious disease remains one of the most important risks constraining marine shrimp culture worldwide. Biodegradation. It is also apparent that low-speed operation would be advantageous. Model results were assessed on the basis of benthic shear stress by classifying regions of pond bottom as 'red zone' (excessive stress). Further research along . Culture effects. CL SO: Source 6th Asian Fisheries Forum Book of Abstracts. Water filtration. Biogeochemical cycle. Aquaculture effluents. Biofilters. Nutrient cycles. Environmental impact. Discharge of nutrient rich effluent from intensive culture systems can contribute to eutrophication of receiving waters potentially impacting both natural biota and local culture operations. These arrangements are 'in-line' (series). These recommendations are consistent with the long-established practice of establishing pond-wide circulation. bacterial biomass may provide efficient. 'parallel' (side by side). reducing total nutrient discharge while improving natural productivity in the pond.

Water Quality Control. Shrimp fisheries. 2001. Due to their highly harmful effects. Pesticides. Article Geographic Terms: ASW. Record 136 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Studies on water quality criteria of pesticides for farming black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon AU: Author Chen. 152 pp. The document also contains ten Management Reports. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine fisheries. Fourth Workshop on the Assessment and Management of Shrimp and Groundfish Fisheries on the Brazil-Guianas Shelf. Guyana. Cumana. Toxicity. the present paper continued to provide similar information on criteria with other important pesticides for protection of shrimp culture. Trinidad and Tobago and eastern Venezuela) and one on environmental aspects of the area. Aquaculture. Brazil. Finfish fisheries. BPMC and Diazinon being the least. Suriname. French Guiana. Acute toxicity and chronic effects of pesticides on juvenile shrimp were carried out. ASW. Water Pollution Effects. Venezuela and during previous meetings of the stock assessment experts of the WECAFC Ad Hoc Working Group on Shrimp and Groundfish Resources in the Brazil-Guianas Shelf. Article Geographic Terms: Taiwan AB: Abstract In establishing water quality criteria of pesticides for black tiger shrimp farming. ASW.these lines will improve the outlook for more profitable and sustainable production technologies. 2-13 October 2000. Conferences. followed by Toxaphene and Endosulfan. this marine shrimp has been extensively cultured in freshwater area where many kinds of pesticides were intensively used. Venezuela. Record 137 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Regional reviews and national management reports. Venezuela. Shrimp. 651. Suriname. Trinidad and Tobago AB: Abstract This document assembles three reviews of the marine shrimp and groundfish fisheries of the Brazil-Guianas shelf (northern Brazil. Fishery management. a concentration that can support normal life of shrimp was drawn out as a biologically safe concentration and can be considered as a criterion. French Guiana. Rep. no. Pollution effects. prepared by fishery scientists for presentation at the Meeting of Fisheries Managers and Ministers of . only few pesticides were listed in the previous study. SO: Source FAO Fish. Guyana. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Toxicity tests. Water quality. 46. Shrimp culture. ASW. Nowadays. 2001. with Butachlor. ASW. It is found that Malathion was the most toxic among many pesticides tested. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon. ASW. Hon-Cheng SO: Source 6th Asian Fisheries Forum Book of Abstracts. Stock assessment. p. The resources reviews are based on technical reports prepared prior to and during the Workshop in Cumana.

Promotion de l'aquaculture commerciale durable en Afrique subsaharienne. aquaculture is an important activity inasmuch as a lot of local personnel are employed in farms or packing plants.the WECAFC Ad Hoc Working Group on Shrimp and Groundfish Resources in the Brazil-Guianas Shelf. from 26-29 March 2001.. ISE. no. 261-293. Annex 2 contains a list of references on shrimp and groundfish species and environmental issues of the area. in particular in the four Workshops sponsored by CFRAMP and FAO and WECAFC and funded by CIDA. Experiences of selected developing countries. CA: Corporate Author FAO/Western Cent. These Management Reports are the culmination of stock assessment work carried out since the establishment of the WECAFC Ad Hoc Working Group on Shrimp and Groundfish Resources in the Brazil-Guianas Shelf in 1988. Fish culture. AU: Author Morales. pp. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture systems. DANIDA (GCP/INT/575/DEN) and Norway (GCP/INT/648/NOR).. Rome (Italy) Record 139 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Shrimp and prawn farming development in West Bengal: present status. Aquaculture development. 971. Article Geographic Terms: Honduras. Rome (Italy) Fishery Development Planning Serv. Peches]. Rome (Italy) Record 138 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Commercial tilapia and shrimp culture in Honduras. [FAO Fish. Each report contains a number of recommendations for fisheries management. Atlantic Fishery Comm. Article Taxonomic Terms: Oreochromis. Circ./FAO Circ.. Aquaculture economics. AS SO: Source . Trinidad and Tobago. only shrimp is cultured. Shrimp culture. Honduras. constraints and strategy AU: Author Upadhyay. Fonseca Gulf AB: Abstract Two main aquaculture areas have been developed in Honduras: freshwater aquaculture and marine shrimp culture. 2001. Freshwater aquaculture includes tilapia culture projects countrywide. The historical development and the current situation of tilapia and shrimp culture are given. CA: Corporate Author FAO Fisheries Dep. For marine species. held in Port of Spain. used in the various Workshops. L SO: Source Promotion of sustainable commercial aquaculture in Sub-Saharan Africa. Factors determinant of success or failure of these two cultures in Honduras are listed. Abstracts of the various papers included in the document are cited individually in this issue of ASFA. As an employment source. Experiences de certains pays en developpement. further research and international co-operation in data collection and assessments. on the Gulf of Fonseca coast (Pacific Ocean).

feeding. harvesting. fertilizing. no. Cavite (Philippines) Record 141 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title African aquaculture: A regional summary with emphasis on Sub-Saharan Africa AU: Author Machena. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Agropisciculture.rice-freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and freshwater prawn or marine shrimp (Penaeus monodon) monoculture in the dry season. Prawn culture. Suggestions have also been reported for stepping up production of shrimp through aquaculture. 341-355. land preparation and transplanting for rice. International Inst. 10-11.523 ha of area are presently being used for traditional farming. Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium rosenbergii.]. freshwater prawns and other commercially important fish. 91-98. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. FAO fisheries technical paper [FAO Fish. CA: Corporate Author FAO. Securing the second position next to Andhra Pradesh. West Bengal AB: Abstract West Bengal. Vietnam AB: Abstract A description is given of 2 systems of rice field aquaculture that farmers in coastal areas of southern Viet Nam use to increase their incomes . The shrimp production through farming during 1999-2000 was 19. Various constraints that face the shrimp culture have been highlighted. pest control. predator prevention. Marine aquaculture. pp. Tech. Fish consumption. of Rural Reconstruction. 2001. Chimes]. Aquaculture systems. Aquaculture enterprises. Oryza sativa. Aquaculture development. stocking. International Cent. dike and trench construction. pp. Moehl. Shrimp culture. Silang. West Bengal. Record 140 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Rice-prawn and rice-shrimp culture in coastal areas of Viet Nam AU: Author Hung. Food fish. Aquaculture development. India. Article Geographic Terms: India. care and maintenance. Aquaculture techniques. J SO: Source Aquaculture in the Third Millennium. ISW. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture systems. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Rice field aquaculture. 81-84. Pap. Penaeus monodon. Vol. 2001. Article Geographic Terms: . and. Plant culture. pp. The following aspects are covered: site selection. Vietnam. 20. for Living Aquatic Resources Management. Makati (Philippines). LT SO: Source Integrated agriculture-aquaculture: A primer. India 34.960 t. 2001. C.Fishing chimes [Fish. no. India with rich resources for aquaculture has vast potential for commercial farming of marine shrimp. 407. Fish culture. Rome (Italy). Prawn culture.

However. Rural development. There is little reporting of production from the region's many reservoirs. and access to credit for commercial-scale enterprises. CA: Corporate Author Network of Aquaculture Cent. Zimbabwe. oysters. Kenya and South Africa being important producers. availability of nutrient inputs. sound policies at the national level. 73-81. Fish consumption has been decreasing as supply decreases relative to a growing population: from 9 kg per capita in 1990 to 6 kg per person at present. although the range is wide. Mussels. The 1997 combined aquaculture production of the region was 40 300 mt. Rome (Italy) Record 142 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Integrating aquaculture into rural development in coastal and inland areas AU: Author Haylor. Cote d'Ivoire. from less than a hundred to more than 10 000 kg/ha/yr. with fish ponds integrated into the mosaic of agricultural activities. Three quarters of aquaculture production comes from low-income countries. high demand for fish and a climate that favours a year-round growing period. Integrating aquaculture into the rural economy can bring benefits. Lessons must be learnt from the case of uncontrolled expansion of . as well as environmental and social risks. The largest producer is Nigeria (17 700 mt) followed by Madagascar (5 100 mt) and Zambia (4 700 mt). within which Chinese production predominates. while Clarias yields can exceed 20 mt/ha/yr. Bland. although these are often exploited by nearby populations. Marine shrimp culture is concentrated in Madagascar. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture development. with Nigeria. Developing countries AB: Abstract Aquaculture has an important role in rural development. the key region being Asia. strong public institutions. Bangkok (Thailand). optimal use of these resources has frequently been curtailed by poor infrastructure and lack of production inputs. 2001. The attributes of Sub-Saharan Africa include under-utilized water and land resources. conducive investment policies to attract increased private-sector participation. pp. especially in coastal areas. but requires several enabling factors that include: a positive perception of aquaculture.Africa AB: Abstract The African Region consists of 48 countries and five island nations. although a few farms are found in Seychelles. available and inexpensive labour. Over half the countries report producing less than 100 mt annually. often at a very low level. in Asia-Pacific. Mean yield is approximated as 500 kg/ha/yr. A typical scenario would be a 300 m super(2) pond producing 15 kg a year relying on family labour and on-farm inputs. FAO. Commercial tilapia farms report pond yields of 10 to 15 mt/ha/yr. Resource management. most of which are practising some form of aquaculture. The potential for expansion is nevertheless considerable. Commercial finfish culture is fresh or brackish water. Aquaculture is estimated to be 95 percent small scale. Mozambique and Kenya. S SO: Source Aquaculture in the Third Millennium. abalone and seaweed are also marine cultures in some countries. G.

in Asia-Pacific. . Brazil. Brazil. no. where the objective is the development of remote rural economies. Borges. 7. Bays. The toxicity of the sediments was evidenced with exposures of 28 d or longer. The tested sediments were collected in contaminated sites of Guanabara and Sepetiba Bays and at the reference site of Ilha Grande inlet in Rio de Janerio. Campos. Special attention is required to empower and link stakeholders to policy decisions. Marine pollution. and fish-in-rice systems have wide application. Estuaries. paulensis. RBC. Testing Procedures. Bioassays. affecting its survival after 28 d of exposure. Guanabara Bay. Marine organisms. Brazil.intensive marine shrimp production. developed through wide-ranging public involvement and. Test organisms. 19. Sediment chemistry. Pfeiffer. Sediment pollution. reforestation can benefit coastal defences and aquatic resource production. The tests were conducted in aquariums with a water feedback system and a sediment layer of 2 cm. which build management capacity. In developing economies. JRD. The sediment from Saco do Engenho (Sepetiba Bay) was the most toxic. Shrimp. schmitti. Penaeus paulensis. WC. Regulation and policy should aim to internalise the external effects of aquaculture (e. the 'polluter pays' principle). FAO. benefit from participatory approaches. CA: Corporate Author Network of Aquaculture Cent. where necessary. fry nursing networks represent low-risk entry points for rural development. the stability and environmental impact of aquaculture should be key considerations in any future planning. peoples' livelihoods. Guimaraes. and 52 d. which include aquaculture. ASW. Effective rural development comes through sound governance. Chem. Bioassay. schmitti and P. Toxicity. affecting the survival of both P. Rio de Janeiro. Article Geographic Terms: ASW. Rio de Janeiro. Sepetiba Bay. Rio de Janeiro. In more developed countries. Toxicol. Pollution effects. Pollution surveys.]. pp. 28. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Toxicity testing. Toxicity tests. 1881-1884. In inland areas. Brazil. ASW. In coastal areas.g. people-centred integrated sustainable development and a multi-sectoral agenda. Jul 2000. Policy coherence must be a primary objective. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus schmitti. whilst integrated pond-dyke cropping systems in delta areas have demonstrated complementary resource and energy flows. AN SO: Source Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry [Environ. Ilha Grande Bay AB: Abstract A methodology to test the toxicity of marine and estuarine sediments was developed using postlarval organisms of the marine shrimp Penaeus schmitti and P. Rome (Italy) Record 143 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Development of sediment toxicity test with tropical peneid shrimps AU: Author Moraes. Sediment Contamination. Vol. Much greater emphasis on advocacy (outside of the subsector) is required to raise awareness of the role for aquaculture in rural development and to raise the stakes for institutional change. ALN. participation at all stakeholder levels. The sediment from Guanabara Bay was toxic to P. paulensis. Bangkok (Thailand). The postlarvae exposure time to the sediments was 10. through the promotion of effective representative organizations. Sediments.

Article Taxonomic Terms: White spot syndrome virus. respectively.3% and 53. This virus failed to produce mortality with any of the methods of infection applied in M. respectively. indicus and P. It will continue to grow as an industry and to provide a higher percentage of the world's needs for fishery products. Macrobrachium idella. lamerrae and M. monodon. Reasons for this are increasing demand for fish worldwide. Cage culture. Prawn culture. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture. Fish farming has demonstrated extremely rapid growth during the last . Susceptibility. M. by oral route. Record 145 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Aqualculture AU: Author Lovell. and attractive investment opportunities in aquaculture. M.7% mortality in M. Marine aquaculture. 207-213. Macrobrachium lamerrae. Aquaculture enterprises. rosenbergii. M SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture]. rosenbergii to WSSV is not known at present and the possibilities for this tolerance are discussed. Moribund animals were screened for the presence of WSSV by western blot or histopathology. rosenbergii. The exact mechanism of tolerance of M. no. Macrobrachium rosenbergii. MX. oral route and intramuscular injection. 3-4. 183. Shrimp culture. lamerrae and M.3% mortality in M. diminishing supplies and increasing costs of sea-caught fish. pp. The results indicated the susceptibility of marine shrimp and freshwater prawn to this virus except M. especially in the more developed countries. 847-858. AS. rosenbergii to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was tested by immersion challenge. Fish culture. pp. Vol. monodon when the animals were injected WSSV intramuscularly. The WSSV caused 43.3% and 66. Penaeus indicus. lamerrae. 15 Mar 2000. Viral diseases. Anilkumar. Charles. greater consistency in supply and quality of cultured fish. Disease resistance. Penaeus monodon AB: Abstract The susceptibility of Macrobrachium idella. by immersion method and 53. RT SO: Source Marine and Freshwater Products Handbook. This virus caused 100% mortality in M. idella. lamerrae and M.Record 144 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Tolerance of Macrobrachium rosenbergii to white spot syndrome virus AU: Author Sahul Hameed. Pond culture AB: Abstract Aquaculture is the fastest-growing food-producing industry in the world today. Their susceptibility to WSSV was compared with that of Penaeus indicus and P. 2000. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture development. utilization of resources unsuitable for other types of food production. idella. idella. P.

where it provides 90 percent of the salmon consumed in that area and is a valuable export commodity. Shrimp culture. Mortality causes. Batch Ia. zoea and nauplii of artemia (>10 super(6 ) CFU/g). zoea. shrimp nauplii.29 x 10 super(5) CFU/g. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Vibriosis. Northeast AB: Abstract Microbiological analyses were carried out at a larviculture facility in Northeastern Brazil in order to identify the agent causing increased mortality in larvae and postlarvae of the shrimp species Litopenaeus vannamei. Gesteira. and its bearing on marine shrimp larviculture. Martins.000 tons in 1993 (USDA. Susceptibility tests proved nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol to be the most effective antibiotics against this vibriosis.is the fastest growing aquaculture enterprise worldwide. Vol. hybrid. such as sea bream and turbot.two decades. containing disencapsulated cysts of artemia. Article Geographic Terms: Brazil. yielded SPC values of 1. The following strains were isolated from the samples: Vibrio alginolyticus. PCC. Mar]. Among the many marine and freshwater species emerging in commercial importance in the United States and around the world are redfish. Aquaculture is more than a science in its infancy. and tilapia. shrimp postlarvae and nauplii of artemia). 2000. The cysts of artemia had MPN values for Vibrio under 10/100g.76 x 10 super(4) CFU/g.100/100g (zoea. Record 146 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Vibrio spp. AU: Author Vieira. Disease control. TCV. while batch Ib with chorion yielded an estimated <10 super(3) CFU/g. It has grown from almost obscurity in 1970 to an annual production of over 180. Farming of penaeid (marine) shrimp . and subsequently studied. The MPN for Vibrio in the water sample was 40/100 ml while that for the remaining samples exceeded 1. Cienc. Marques. CM. Monteiro. The standard plate counts (SPC) of aerobic bacteria performed with the water from the tanks yielded mean values of 3. it is now recognized as a viable and profitable enterprise worldwide. 33. 107-112. Ocean pen culture of salmon is a thriving industry in Norway. are being cultured on a large commercial scale in Europe and Japan. cysts of artemia and nauplii of artemia. Six samples were collected and processed from the different steps of culture process such as: water from the larviculture tanks. Chile. striped bass. Crustacean larvae. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei. Similar figures were obtained for batch 2. 1994). These values were lower than those obtained from the samples of postlarvae. Vibrio. Bacterial diseases. and areas of Western Europe. shrimp postlarvae. Channel catfish farming in the United States is an example of the rapidly growing aquaculture industry. RHSdos F. also with chorion. supplying approximately 25 percent of the world's consumption of shrimp. Carvalho. pp. High-value marine species. Vibrio fluvialis and Vibrio spp. LC. Rde L SO: Source Arquivos de Ciencias do Mar [Arq.primarily in Central and South America and Asia . Record 147 of 500 .

imported more than $8 billion in seafood in 1998. This potential exists in three main areas: for the production of bait shrimp for its many avid sports fishermen. and DMSO (5%) and trehalose (0. for production of penaeid shrimp postlarvae to supply growout farms in the state or elsewhere in the U. S SO: Source Journal of Aquaculture in the Tropics [J. AD. Vol. 1.S. Int. and China. mostly from Canada. Spermatophores. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Cryopreservation. Viable spermatozoa was preserved successfully for a period of 60 days at -35 degree C and -196 degree C temperatures. 26. p. Milne Edwards AU: Author Diwan.]. 1. USA. or overseas. no. because the U.25M) showed best viability rate (75 to 80%) in freeze thawed spermatozoa. 15. Rearing.S. pp. 1. Vol. pp. a combination of DMSO (5%) and glycerol (5%). Jan 2000. The importance of cryogenic storage of spermatozoa is discussed. no. Trop. This potential has important implications for Florida. Vol. Seed (aquaculture). Shrimp culture. Among several cryoprotectants used. 27.S. 26. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. DE: Descriptors . Thailand. Record 149 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Taiwan's offshore potential: first symposium outlines country's cage culture SO: Source Fish Farming International [Fish Farm. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus indicus AB: Abstract Attempts on cryopreservation of spermatozoa have been made in penaeid shrimp Penaeus indicus. Record 148 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Cryopreservation of spermatophores of the marine shrimp Penaeus indicus H.].]. Trade. Joseph. and for growout to market size.DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Shrimp: Potential For Development of Marine Shrimp Farming in Florida AU: Author Jory. 35-43. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Bait culture. Mag. Jan-Feb 2000. Activational changes in spermatozoa during acrosome reaction after induction with egg water have been mentioned. Aquacult. DE SO: Source Aquaculture Magazine [Aquacult. no. Aquaculture development. Florida AB: Abstract Florida probably has the best shrimp culture potential in the continental U. 72-79. Feb 2000. Article Geographic Terms: ASW.

Article Subject Terms: Cage culture. Phytoplankton. Hiroshima Bay AB: Abstract The predominance of bivalves affects the cycle of materials in the coastal ecosystem. However. Culture effects. In the present study. no. the role of suspended oyster culture on the nitrogen cycle was demonstrated for the northern Hiroshima Bay. Faecal pellets. Article Taxonomic Terms: Crassostrea gigas. N. The results show that about 26% of N productivity was supplied to process by cultured oysters in the OC system. P.3 ton N/d. Although Taiwan has been at the forefront of intensive marine shrimp farming in Asia. This process varies seasonally due to the seasonal variations of PON. Yamamoto. Environmental impact. Aquaculture enterprises. Shrimp culture. The amount of N harvested as oyster product was about 1. is now a top priority in the national aquaculture plan. Particulate organic nitrogen. Off-bottom culture. Harvesting. According to the N cycle developed in the present study. Hajime SO: Source Journal of Oceanography [J. The biodeposition and excretion of N in the OC system are 3. Marine molluscs. Primary production. 223-231. sustainable marine aquaculture practices. Excretory products.].3 ton N/d which is about 10% of daily N loading in north Hiroshima Bay. Article Geographic Terms: INW. over-abstraction of ground water and degradation of coastal zone waters. physiological activities and biomass of oysters. disease and the eventual collapse of the industry in the early 1990s. held in its aftermath at the beginning of November at Tungkang Marine Laboratory (TML) of the Taiwan Fisheries Research Institute.. Aquaculture development. Taiwan AB: Abstract The most devastating earthquake recorded in Taiwan's history did not discourage 200 participants from 15 countries from discussing current developments at the first international symposium on cage aquaculture in Asia. Vol.3 and 18. its uncontrolled and rapid expansion has led to problems of land subsidence. Honshu. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Oyster culture. pp.0 ton N/d which indicates that the PP system is a major system regenerating N in the water column. Osamu. Tamiji. 56. 2. The release of total dissolved N from the bottom to the water column is about 8. Japan. Matsuda. Hiroshima Prefect. Maeda. Record 150 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The role of suspended oyster culture on nitrogen cycle in Hiroshima Bay AU: Author Songsangjinda. The nitrogen cycle was considered as two systems. Rajendran. Biogeochemical cycle. Mollusc culture. Biogenic deposits. the results suggest the . Oceanogr.1 ton N/d while the natural sedimentation rate and N regeneration in the PP system are 8. which aims to switch production from inland to the sea. 2000. the government fisheries agency has devoted time and resources to developing alternative. Excretion.0 and 2. Biomass. (1) the primary production (PP) system and (2) the oyster culture (OC)system. The N processing rates were found to be high in summer and low in winter. The strategy. The result was self-pollution. Nitrogen cycle. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW.

nipponense in China. some diseases comprise marketability of the final product by rendering poor flesh quality (muscular necrosis) or undesirable aesthetic changes (black spot or heavy fouling by epibionts). reported that. 239-257. pp. 2000. Various biotic or abiotic factors within intensive systems challenge the health of cultured populations and failure to control them usually leads to feeble or even disastrous production results. Some suggest that infectious diseases. prophylaxis and therapeutics has been reviewed in this chapter. Intensive culture. Recently. Apart from the obvious negative impact that diseases may pose to prawn production. Record 151 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Health management AU: Author Johnson. the composite is small in comparison to that available for many other aquaculture animals. rosenbergii and M. diseases have already jeopardized the development of freshwater prawn culture. Important diseases have also been associated with freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) culture which could seriously affect commercial production but virus diseases that would threaten the industry on a large scale have not been reported. Macrobrachium nipponense AB: Abstract Intensive prawn farming is characterized by the confinement and husbandry of the population in artificially constructed production systems. In addition. Fish diseases. though they are not as serious as those for penaeids. This may be partly due to the growth in the importance of penaeid culture during the 1980s and 1990s. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Prawn culture. Though the body of literature concerning prawn disease contains many excellent scientific works. SLS SO: Source Freshwater Prawn Culture. Disease control. suggesting that oyster culture could probably be used as a tool to remove N from Hiroshima Bay. in a paper describing the culture of M. mainly viruses. These authors particularly noted that mortalities of broodstock occurred during the overwintering period and that "white shrimp disease" occurred during the grow-out period. AU: Author . Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium rosenbergii. a circumstance that attracted the attention of most of the active crustacean health specialists. Before describing the specific diseases and other problems that have been found to affect freshwater prawns. Record 152 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Study on the endoplasmic reticulum variation during spermatogensis in Penaeus chinensis. have been responsible for the collapse of many marine shrimp farming ventures in the past few years. such as hatchery tanks and grow-out ponds. SK. Bueno.significant role of suspended oyster culture on the nitrogen cycle in Hiroshima Bay. relevant information on health and defence mechanisms diagnosis. our results indicate that oyster production was efficiently harvested.

Changwat Smut Sakhon AB: Abstract One hundred and six shrimp farms were sampled from 1. endoplasmic reticulum vesicles are abundant. Kasetsart Univ.18 Baht per rai per year respectively. In each type of culture the samples were further divided into three groups according to the farm size. Xianjiang. The results of cost and earning analysis revealed that the intensive farm had the highest production cost followed by semi-intensive and extensive which account for 71. 47..100 farms from the shrimp in Amphoe Muang Samut Sakhon.578.701.26 and 18. Changwat Smut Sakhon (Thailand) in this study. the RER becomes smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). Wang. At middle stage of the spermatid.74 Baht and extensive farm got loss for 14. rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) appears around the nucleus and parallels the nuclear membrane.12 Baht for large farm. 54. 6. Ultrastructure. At the early stage of spermatid. In the spermatocyte I. Cell membranes. namely small (< 50 rai). The spermatogium has more endoplasmic reticulum vesicles.46.085. Xiamen Univ. 2000.054. In the spermatocyte II. The samples covered three types of culture.88 Baht respectively. Yield per rai per year of small medium and large farm were 525.01.020. Some endoplasmic reticula fold at one side of the nucleus and 2 annular lamellae bodies form on the cytoplasm. Thailand. AU: Author Malinee Smithrithee SO: Source Abstracts of Master of Science Theses (Fisheries Science) 1985-1990. There are 1-3 big circular granules composed of endoplasmic reticulum vesicles. p.173. pp.88 and 68. Article Geographic Terms: Thailand.5982. Penaeus chinensis was studied.e. Amphoe Muang Samut Sakhon.51 and 426. Lai.129. in terms of return from .909.99 Baht for small farm. Du.60 Kg. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Spermatogenesis. The analysis on cost and earning of intensive farms showed that total cost per rai per Year of small. 2000. Fish. (Nat.54 Baht followed by semi-intensive farm 7. The RER of the sperm in the thelycum of the female shrimp concentrates to form a granular shape.580. Investments. Changwat Samut Sakhon. 68. Suo'an. 849-854. Sci. extensive.Kang. Intensive culture.808. However. Record 153 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine shrimp culture development approach in Amphoe Muang Samut Sakhon. 515. Vol.679. 39. i. medium (50-100 rai) and large (> 100 rai). Extensive culture. no. Developmental stages. Labour costs. Aquaculture development.)/Xiamen Daxue Xuebao. However.18 Baht. [Notes Fac. 31. There is developed RER in the cytoplasmic band of the main body of the sperm in male shrimp. semi-intensive and intensive. endoplasmic reticula are less. Economic analysis. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. in term of the earning per rai intensive farm gave the highest earning 38.99 Baht for medium farm and 18. Nanshan. medium and large farms were 72. Wei SO: Source J.11. The net profit per rai was 36.]. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus chinensis AB: Abstract The endoplasmic reticulum variation during spermatogenesis in the marine shrimp. Cost analysis.

From the regression analysis of input and output. ASW. it includes a discussion on future management measures. ASW. Section 20 contains a report on a meeting where the results of assessments were presented to the fisheries managers and recommendations were drafted for follow-up activities. CA: Corporate Author Kasetsart Univ. The names and addresses of the various authors can be obtained from the section headings and the list of participants in Section 22. ASW. held in Belem. Atlantic Fishery Comm. Caribbean Sea. There was not any input that affected the production for extensive farm. Section 3 deals with fisheries management practices in the area in the context of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries.276).10 June 1999. Guyana. Trinidad and Tobago and eastern Venezuela prepared for and during the third Workshop on the assessment of shrimp and groundfish fisheries on the Brazil-Guianas Shelf. 2000. 206 pp. Trinidad and Tobago. Brazil. French Guiana. 628. no. CA: Corporate Author FAO/Western Cent. Fishery management. Stock assessment. Shrimp fisheries. SO: Source FAO Fish. the labor cost had high correlation with the production for semi-intensive farm (R 2 = 0.6 percent. There is an extensive list of references in Section 21. and total invested capital affected to the changes of production for 46. Bangkok (Thailand) Fac. Belem. 24 May to 10 June 1999. AU: Author . French Guiana. Suriname. Sections 4 and 5 contain papers on stock assessment methodology applicable in the region. Suriname. for the intensive farm. Fishery resources. Section 19 is a report of a task group on snapper fisheries of the Brazil-Guianas Shelf.11 percent of total cost.. Rome (Italy) Record 155 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title (Present state of aquaculture in the northeastern region of Brazil). Trinidad. Section 2 includes papers dealing with overviews of important shrimp and groundfish resources and their fisheries. Brazil. ASW. Section 17 also deals with the bio-economics of shrimp fisheries in general and in particular with seasonality. Sections 6 to 18 deal with national or sub-regional assessments of selected shrimp and groundfish fisheries. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine fisheries. of Fisheries Record 154 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Western Central Atlantic Fishery Commission.investment the medium semi-intensive farm gave the highest profit of 91. Guyana. Article Geographic Terms: ASW. Fishery economics. Brazil.18 percent of total cost followed by medium intensive farm which gave profit 69. Rep. stocking density. ASW. Caribbean Sea. Conferences. Report of the Third Workshop on the Assessment of Shrimp and Groundfish Fisheries on the Brazil-Guianas Shelf. Trinidad and Tobago. Tobago AB: Abstract This document assembles the reports on the marine shrimp and groundfish fisheries of northern Brazil. risk and uncertainty. 24 May ..

Fundacao Banco do Brasil (FBB). a research program should be organized in order to meet the real demand of the activity. Grumann. Several organizations act in the region on education. financial support and regularization. Mollusc culture. All northeastern state universities offer courses in aquaculture. 2000. Aquaculture annual production in the region is about 11. Borghetti. The financial support is provided by Conselho Nacinal de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq). Article Geographic Terms: ASW. Research institutions. Aquicultura no Brasil: Bases para um desenvolvimento sustentavel. Banco do Nordeste (FUNDECI) and state foundations for science and technology. JR SO: Source Aquaculture in Brazil: Basis for sustainable development. Aquaculture development. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture. Aquicultura no Brasil: Bases para um desenvolvimento sustentavel. Brazil. Article Geographic Terms: Brazil. tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) and carps (common and the Chinese). CR. USA and Japan. extension classes.5 billion of marine shrimp post-larvae. 14 million of freshwater prawn post-larvae and 5. The aquaculture statistical data are very scarce. Shrimp culture. However. Brazil. Brazil. The main crustacean species are marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. plus the lack of data brought difficulties to the present work. A. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture. pp. pp. in order to make the work as representative as . as well as to provide an extension service to improve the aquaculture technology in the region.000 tons of freshwater fishes. therefore it is difficult to present the real situation of the region. they are not enough to support the demand of the region. Record 156 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title (Present situation in the southern region of Brazil). Fish culture. Correia. Spain. The production capacity is about 233 million of freshwater fish fingerlings. 15. Brazil AB: Abstract The northeastern region of Brazil shows great potential for developing aquaculture. as well as research and extension in the area. 323-351. Shrimp culture. Rio Grande do Sul. Most of the production is sold on the domestic market. AU: Author Poli. 2000. Aquaculture economics. ALNda. Santa Catarina and Parana (Brazil) display a large number of environments suitable for developing Aquaculture. Aquaculture economics. Fish culture. JA. Ede S SO: Source Aquaculture in Brazil: Basis for sustainable development. Parana AB: Abstract The southern states of Rio Grande do Sul. without focusing on the characteristics of the activity. 267-288. On the other hand. except for marine shrimp with 30% of the production exported to France. red tilapia (hybrid of Oreochromis spp).Pereira. Therefore. The main cultivated fish species are Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).000 tons of marine shrimp and 62 tons of freshwater prawns. Santa Catarina. This deficiency. Silva.

The species production is carried out in Santa Catarina and Parana states and corresponds to 326 tons. it needs intervention in the production chain in order to solve problems that compromise the area. AU: Author Ponnuchamy. P SO: Source Reviews in Fisheries Science [Rev. The data show a promising activity. tilapias. The majority are native. Shrimp culture. It is the most significant activity in mariculture and is typical in the coast of Santa Catarina. Record 158 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Some Recent Issues and Innovations in Marine Shrimp Pond Culture AU: Author Fast. but exotic species such as carps. Shrimp culture.275 tons carried out in small production units. Pond .possible of the aquaculture status in the southern region. its operational aspects and problems are also highlighted. operating commercially in the south part of the country since the beginning of the nineties as an alternative for sustainable use of sea and continental waters. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture development. among others. Project estimate for setting up a scampi hatchery. 8. 131-137. 19. Marine shrimp culture is being commercially implemented as small family projects introducing the species Litopenaeus vannamei. information was gathered from institutions involved directly or indirectly in the area. however.034 tons. there are important issues that need to be addressed. India. production systems. 3. Article Geographic Terms: ISW. Chimes]. no. besides those relating to tiger shrimp for the benefit of entrepreneurs including new comers. Menasveta. Sci. Fish farming includes 29 species and is the most diverse group in southern Brazil aquaculture. Mollusc culture is responsible for a production of 8.5 ha. Andhra Pradesh AB: Abstract The overall situation and the measures necessary to improve the quality of seed produced at marine shrimp hatcheries are described in this write-up. no. pp. 10-11. with an average production area smaller than 0. Total production sums up to 48. 151-233. with promising perspectives. pp. This species has shown better results than the native ones. treatment unity. installed larvicultures. In spite of advanced development. Hatcheries. The results show an increasingly developing activity in marine and continental waters. AW. Fish. The document also presents the number of producers. Record 157 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Present status of marine shrimp and freshwater prawn hatcheries. and consumer sales price. Vol. Vol.]. 2000. Visakhapatnam [Fish. R SO: Source Fishing chimes. 2000. and trouts are still produced in larger scale. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Seed production.

231-235. 21. a temperature range of 25--28 degree C and incubation in a normal atmosphere. shrimp culture at inland locations away from coastal influences.]. 15% shrimp meat extract. Seed (aquaculture). In addition. Boonyaratpalin. 4. environmental awareness and concerns about shrimp culture sustainability became increasingly important with the informed public during the 1990s. Ekpanithanpong. The most serious diseases were viral. development of probiotics and immunostimulants to reduce disease susceptibility. use of water recycling and reuse growout systems. for which there are still few certain solutions. 1% glucose. Article Geographic Terms: Thailand AB: Abstract Primary shrimp cell cultures were developed from lymphoid organ and ovaries of black tiger shrimp. in double-strength Leibovitz's L-15 medium supplemented with 15% fetal bovine serum. development of biosecure systems to prevent disease access during shrimp's entire culture cycle.01% cholesterol could enhance good growth and cells performance initiated from lymphoid organ. Biotechnology. no. Ovaries. Lymphocytes. and genetic selection and improvements through closed. or about 25 to 30% of total shrimp supply. The primary reason for this shortfall was shrimp disease. reduced or zero water exchange during pond growout. Record 159 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Progress in the development of shrimp cell cultures in Thailand AU: Author Kasornchandra. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon. which effected shrimp yields worldwide. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae AB: Abstract World cultured shrimp production increased from 0. R. Lymphoid cells.like cells were observed from those organs within 2 days incubation. reduced biodiversity. pond culture practices changed to reduce disease incidence.8 MMT in 1999. Cell culture. Disease control. and exotic shrimp introductions. life-cycle culture. Cell lines. Culture media. These changes included: use of specific pathogen free (SPF) and specific pathogen resistant (SPR) shrimp seed. S SO: Source Methods in Cell Science [Methods Cell Sci. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Media (culture). World. Increased production was well below 1. pp. U. Dec 1999.2 MMT predicted 10 years earlier.4 million metric tons (MMT) in 1990 to about 0. Within 3 days. Aquaculture techniques. The optimum conditions for primary culture in vitro were obtained in L-15 medium with an osmolality of approximately 730 plus or minus 10 mmol/kg. 5 g/L NaCl. Herein we review developments with these culture innovations and environmental issues that have occurred during the last 10 years. J. As a result of shrimp disease problems. basal medium supplemented with 0. Environment management. Husbandry diseases. Vol. Only cells from lymphoid organ could be subcultured and confluent monolayers achieved within 10 days . Cultures were maintained for at least 43 days.culture. This included concerns about habitat degradation and destruction. Khongpradit. Laboratory culture. However. Penaeus monodon. 80% confluent monolayers were obtained from the lymphoid organ while cultures from other tissues required 5 days. Both epithelial-like and fibroblastic.

vannamei and P. Mexico and previous nutritional studies have demonstrated that red crab meal (RCM) is a good alternative ingredient for fish or soyprotein meals used in marine shrimp feeds. 287-291. buscaria encausar los esfuerzos de los empresarios y el posible apoyo del Estado. Vol. E. Aquaculture techniques. Feed composition. pp.post-spilt. Angarita. pp. M SO: Source Acuicultura '99. Shrimp culture. gremio creado por los camaricultores desde la iniciacion de la industria y entidad que habia contribuido con la adopcion de medidas de apoyo muy utiles y pertinentes en sus respectivos periodos ya habia creado en 1993. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Diets. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture '99. Aquaculture '99. even when 100% of the fish or soy meals have been replaced. and their amino acid profile was not significantly different. el Centro de investigaciones de la Acuicultura de Colombia. la Asociacion Nacional de Acuicultores de Colombia. 1. Record 161 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Nutritive value of protein and lipid fractions for red crab (Pleuroncodes planipes) and white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) AU: Author Goytortua-Bores. Vol. CENIACUA. Animal nutrition. 2. Feeding experiments. The inclusion of RCM in the diet increases the growth of L. R SO: Source Acuicultura '99. Nutritive value. Nov 1999. Nov 1999. Rearing. Aquaculture development. californiensis. Application of these primary shrimp cell cultures for studying pathogenic viruses of shrimp in vitro will be discussed. Article Taxonomic Terms: Pleuroncodes planipes. . Civera-Cerecedo. JA. The diets used in these studies were isoproteic and isolipidic. MR. in Colombia AU: Author Suarez. T. Healthy cultures of the lymphoid cells did not persist beyond the third passage. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Record 160 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title First results of the program of genetic selection of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. ACUANAL. Rye. The major objectives of the present research were to obtain two fractions from red crab (protein concentrate and lipid extract). Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract The red crab Pleuroncodes planipes is a very abundant crustacean in Baja California. Gitterle. so it is plausible to think that red crab contains a growth promotor. de forma paralela al gremio. Rocha-Meza. Yield. la cual. Article Geographic Terms: Colombia AB: Abstract Original Abstract: En el ano de 1993. entidad que inicio sus actividades de investigacion de forma virtual y con timidas acciones. SG. 246-257.

Biol. most of the increase in levels of ovarian lipids during ovarian maturation was associated with an increase in triacylglycerol levels in the floating fat fraction and of phospholipids in the infranatant fraction. 1819-1829. For these purposes.5%) were prepared: the reference diet (DR) contained fish meal as main protein source and fish oil as lipid source. E. In fractions obtained by centrifugation of ovarian homogenates. While 16. Most of the lipids found in the female haemolymph (64. Vitellogenesis AB: Abstract By the end of oocyte development. Boehm. The phospholipids consist mainly of phosphatidylcholine (75-80%) and phosphatidylethanolamine (20-25%). indicating that the high-density . the ovaries of Penaeus semisulcatus have accumulated almost equal amounts (approximately 16 mg lipid g super(-1) protein) of phospholipids and triacylglycerols. Khayat. red crab protein concentrate (diet DCPL). 202.8%) that could be removed by further sequential centrifugation at a higher NaBr density. Record 162 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Lipid accumulation in the ovaries of a marine shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus (De haan) AU: Author Ravid. E SO: Source Journal of Experimental Biology [J. respectively. fresh red crab was submitted to a Soxhlet extraction with petroleum ether. T. The two fractions obtained were included in different diets and evaluated in a feeding trial with juvenile white shrimp. M.to include them in practical diets in order to determine their effect on the growth of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles. fish protein concentrate (diet DCPP). these lipoproteins carried only 64-89 mu g lipid mg super(-1) protein compared with 538. R. A. no. pp. The fish meal was partially replaced with red crab meal (diet DHL). Vol.9 mu g lipid mg super(-1) protein in the high-density lipoprotein fraction. The presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the ovaries indicates the occurrence of lipid transport to the ovary during oocyte maturation. leaving less than 0.9% of the total haemolymph lipids associated with this fraction. Eight isoproteic (40%) and isolipidic diets (6. The gradual decrease in the relative abundance of polyunsaturated fatty acids as the ovaries matured supports previously published results suggesting intra-ovarian synthesis of saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids.2% of the lipids were recovered from the very high-density lipoprotein fractions. Approximately 30% of the total fatty acid content of both phospholipids and triacylglycerols is made up of polyunsaturated fatty acids. and to elucidate the nature of the growth promotor.]. and a last diet with fish protein concentrate and red crab oil (diet DAL). Haemolymph. Lubzens. Michelis.8%) were recovered in the high-density lipoprotein fraction after density ultracentrifugation. Tietz. freezed dried red crab (diet DLL). replacement of fish meal and fish oil of the DR by red crab protein concentrate and lipid extract (diet DCP+EL). 13. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Lipids. The fish oil from the DR was replaced by red crab lipid extract (diet DELL). The haemocyanin fraction recovered from this stage of fractionation contained substantial amounts of lipid (16. Jul 1999. Exp. Then the remaining solvent in the liquid and solid phases was evaporated under vacuum and at room temperature under a hood.

Jun 1999. Poonsuk. In the late 1960s. Davis Power Plant near Corpus Christi. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Fish culture. DA SO: Source World Aquaculture [World Aquacult. which is still strong today. we present two models for lipid transport to the ovary based on the abundance of phospholipids and triacylglycerols in the haemolymph and on the amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids accumulated within the ovary during vitellogenesis. Article Taxonomic Terms: Rotifera AB: Abstract Group/genera and density of zooplankton and phytoplankton in 4 shrimp ponds at Trat Province were studied. 24-26. May 1999. assisting in the development of commercial shrimp farming worldwide. However. Eventually that project grew to include a research facility in Port Aransas that continues as The Texas A&M University System Shrimp Mariculture Research Laboratory. Zooplankton. 246-251. The studied period of 130 days was started from the first rearing day which sampling plankton by . Texas has a long and rich history in the aquatic sciences and mariculture. 2. K. Texas delved into marine shrimp culture research with pioneering work undertaken by Corny Mock and Harry Cook at the Galveston Laboratory. Texas A&M University excavated shrimp grow-out ponds at the Barney M. Niyomthamm. The University of Corpus Christi developed a marine biology program in the early 1950's. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture enterprises. S. In this study. Pond culture. Record 163 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The aggie mariculture program AU: Author McKee. no. Texas AB: Abstract Corpus Christi. In addition to Texas A&M facilities. the contribution of very high-density lipoproteins to lipid transport cannot be ruled out at this stage. In 1968. V SO: Source Proceedings of the 37th Kasetsart University Annual Conference. the Fisheries and Mariculture Laboratory of The University of Texas. Shrimp culture. Phytoplankton. 30. Three ponds were shrimp rearing pond the other control pond had no shrimp.]. Education establishments. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department-Corpus Christi are active in mariculture development. USA. pp. adding much to the knowledge of marine fish and shrimp culture.Port Aransas and the Coastal Conservation Association/Marine Development Center. Record 164 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Zooplankton and Phytoplankton in Marine Shrimp Pond between Rearing AU: Author Rungsupa. Article Geographic Terms: ASW. Vol. pp.lipoproteins are more likely to be the main transporters of lipids to the ovary.

4. Group/genera. 17-25. Average density of blue green algae in rearing pond was 8.51 . Fish. and including several allele-diagnostic insertions and deletions. Population genetics.filtered rearing water with 32 micron mesh size and preserved with 4% formalin. pp.m control pond was 0.25 x 10 super(6) individuals/cu. 1999. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus vannamei. Bull. However.86 x 10 super(6) cells/cu. Among 44 individuals analyzed. SR SO: Source Marine Biotechnology [Mar. but we observed up to four alleles per individual. Record 165 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Intraspecific Genetic Diversity in the Marine Shrimp Penaeus vannamei: Multiple Polymorphic Elongation Factor-1 alpha Loci Revealed by Intron Sequencing AU: Author France.006 x 10 super(6) cells/cu. suggesting that we have identified two separate. density and most observed time between rearing pond and control pond was compared.71x10 super(6) individuals/cu. High heterozygosity contrasts with low genetic variation at allozyme loci.4 x 10 super(6) cells/cu.m control pond was 0.26 . dinoflagellate and diatom. Blue green algae was only one group that growth in the opposite direction compared to the other group. The first maximum group found was Rotifer. Vol. Record 166 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Estimation of the carrying capacity for marine shrimp farming area at Kung Krabaen Bay AU: Author Siri Tookwinas SO: Source Thai marine fisheries research bulletin [Thai Mar.m control pond was 2.m . N. the alleles are so similar to one another that a phylogenetic analysis does not cluster them into monophyletic groupings. polymorphic loci.9. 1999. 7. pp. we found 13 alleles varying by up to 7. Average density of Rotifer in rearing pond was 1.25 x 10 super(6) cells/cu.m . . Average density of dino-flagellate in rearing pond was 8.36. Genotypes. Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract Intron sequences from the elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1 alpha) gene from the marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei reveal extensive variation even among inbred populations of hatchery-raised shrimp. Shleser. Biotechnol.13 . the second order was blue green algae. A possible explanation is that concerted evolution is acting to homogenize genetic variation among these two putative loci. 3. RA. SC. Duda. Res.m control pond was 1. 261-268. Palumbi. 1. Tachino.69 x 10 super(6) cells/cu. no. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Genetic diversity.]. We partitioned the observed alleles into two groups representing hypothetical duplicated loci.9 x 10 super(6) cells/cu.m. Vol.5% sequence differences.]. TF Jr.86-26.m and average density of diatom was 0.

Polyculture. successful mass culture will require refinement of techniques used in my study. (4) Assess the utility of a new species evaluation protocol. p. I reviewed physical conditions in Central Arizona and compared them to known requirements for culture of M. pressures to find more lucrative and water efficient crops are increasing in arid regions. the objectives of my research were to: (1) Determine if the physical conditions for prawn culture occur in Arizona.039 mg/1. Arid environments.62 ha in 1997. the larvae were collected and the fecundity of the adult females determined. alkalinity. Kung Krabaen Bay AB: Abstract The carrying capacity for marine shrimp farming area at Kung Krabaen Bay. periodic high hardness and . Arizona AB: Abstract Recent declines in the availability of large marine shrimp reinvigorated the market for the freshwater prawn M. Article Geographic Terms: USA. However. & Eng. Mitigation measures should be taken in order to reduce the impact on coastal environment. Record 167 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The Potential for Macrobrachium rosenbergii Culture in Arid Regions AU: Author Brooks. Overexploitation. 3789. Thailand. Chanthaburi. Therefore. contaminants and low winter water temperatures.DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Vol. Simultaneously. (2) Investigate the feasibility of inland larvae culture. Agriculture. Using a specific farming region in Arizona as a model of arid land systems. safe for aquatic organisms. hardness. 59. My results suggest M. Thailand. After spawning. To meet these objectives. rosenbergii. rosenbergii likely can be cultured seasonally in ponds filled with surface water within the representative region. However. Culture effects. developed a model larvae culture method and stocked postlarvae from the larvae culture experiments into ponds where they could grow to maturity and spawn. rosenbergii. Pond culture.Sci. Abst. The maximum water quality criteria in Kung Krabaen Bay in terms of total ammonia was 0. In 1994 the carrying capacity for marine shrimp farming was estimated at 167. (3) Raise to maturity and spawn M. Aquaculture development. Pt. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Prawn culture. Environmental impact. rosenbergii. Larvae culture is possible within the representative region. Constraints to culture include high ambient pH of surface waters. no. GB SO: Source Dissertation Abstracts International Part B: Science and Engineering [Diss. it can be concluded that the shrimp farming area is over the carrying capacity of the bay. Constraints to culture include high source water pH. Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium rosenbergii.]. B .09 ha. Irrigation water. Feb 1999. Thamai. The integration of a highly valuable crop such as Macrobrachium with irrigated agriculture could be of benefit to arid land farmers. Crustacean larvae. Aquaculture techniques. 8. the shrimp farm around the bay has been expanded to 170. which was just equivalent to the farming area in 1994 (142. Int. Wastewater aquaculture. was estimated in 1994 by the mass balance model. Freshwater crustaceans. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW.76 ha).

alkalinity levels and low winter temperatures. Improved filtration techniques in the incubator and a consistent availability of Artemia for food are also issues of concern. Prawns hatched and grown in Arizona spawned readily, were as fecund as other cultured stocks and produced viable larvae up through stage 2. the protocol I used was appropriate for evaluating a species for aquaculture at a new location. Overall, M. rosenbergii shows potential as a candidate for integration with irrigated agriculture systems within arid farming regions. Record 168 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Bio-Modulation of the Non-Specific Immune Response in Marine Shrimp with Beta-Glucan AU: Author Dugger, DM; Jory, DE SO: Source Aquaculture Magazine [Aquacult. Mag.]. Vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 81-86. Jan-Feb 1999. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture; Pathogenic bacteria; Antibiotics; Immunology; Disease control; Viral diseases; Therapy; Reviews; Immunostimulants; Immune response AB: Abstract The development of commercial culture of marine shrimp species has not occurred without incidences of both infectious and non-infectious diseases. In recent years several disease outbreaks have caused major problems and decimated the shrimp farming industries in several countries, including the top producing countries during the last ten years (China, Thailand, Indonesia, Taiwan and Ecuador). Virus diseases, for example, have severely affected the shrimp farming industries of many countries, causing significant production and economic losses. We now know there are 20 distinct viruses, or groups of viruses, which we are certain can infect penaeid shrimp. Other pathogens are also very important in marine shrimp farming, particularly various infectious bacteria. Shrimp farmers will undoubtedly need new weapons to fight back, and immunostimulants particularly betaglucans - are one of the potential weapons shrimp farmers may use effectively in their fight against shrimp diseases. Record 169 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Water Quality and Phytoplankton Communities in Intensive Shrimp Culture Ponds in Kung Krabaen Bay, Eastern Thailand AU: Author Tookwinas, S; Songsangjinda, P SO: Source Journal of the World Aquaculture Society [J. World Aquacult. Soc.]. Vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 36-45. 1999. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture; Water quality; Phytoplankton; Intensive culture; Article Geographic Terms: ISEW, Thailand, Kung Krabaen Bay AB: Abstract

Water quality and phytoplankton communities were studied in 20 intensive shrimp culture ponds and in the inlet and drainage canals at Kung Krabaen Bay, Eastern Thailand during the first shrimp crop of 1992. The grow-out ponds were categorized into two groups: low stocking density (<60 PL/m super(2)) and high stocking density (>60 PL/m super(2)). The results showed that there were no significant differences in water quality between the two stocking density groups. Phytoplankton collected using a 60- mu m mesh net consisted of 79 genera with concentrations ranging from 1,822 to 72,527 cells/L from the first month up to the time of shrimp harvesting. Water quality deteriorated in high and low stocking density shrimp ponds, which had an influence on abundance and diversity of net phytoplankton communities. Biochemical oxygen demand and ammonia-nitrogen were most closely related to abundance of net phytoplankton communities during the shrimp grow-out period. Salinity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen appeared to play an important role in phytoplankton community variation in inlet and drainage canals. Phytoplankton community structure in drainage canals showed more variation than in ponds. The management implications of the results and recommendations for further studies are also considered. Record 170 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Composition and Abundance of Macrobenthos in Intensive Tropical Marine Shrimp Culture Ponds AU: Author Shishehchian, F; Yusoff, FM SO: Source Journal of the World Aquaculture Society [J. World Aquacult. Soc.]. Vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 128-133. 1999. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Community composition; Zoobenthos; Shrimp culture; Pond culture; Abundance; Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon AB: Abstract The macro and meio-faunal benthic communities in shrimp ponds play a major role as natural food for shrimps. Earlier works indicated that penaeid shrimps are omnivores feeding mainly on live prey. Recent literature on shrimp feeding behavior in nature and in culture ponds shows that the diet of penaeid shrimp consists of crustaceans, fish, mollusks, polychaetes, radiolarians, sponges, nematodes, foraminifers, rotifers, copepods, insects, vegetable matter, algae, mud and sand particles. However, the significance of each food item has not yet been determined. Benthos forms one of the major food sources for shrimp in intensive and semi-intensive culture, in addition to artificial feed. Despite its importance as food, little information is available about the variation, composition and abundance of macrobenthos in culture of Penaeus monodon. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the composition and abundance of macrobenthos in P. monodon pond culture, the variation in macrobenthic community within the culture period, and the relation of this variation, with the fullness of the shrimp gut. The pond facilities were located at 2 degree 49' North and 101 degree 22' East on Carey Island, Peninsular Malaysia. Record 171 of 500

DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Chemoreception studies in relation to feeding responses in the marine shrimp H. Milne Edwards (Penaeus indicus) and Miers (Metapenaeus dobsoni) AU: Author Fernandez, CH SO: Source Naga [Naga]. Vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 20-21. 1999. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Feeding behaviour; Chemoreception; Chemical stimuli; Shrimp culture; Marine aquaculture; Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus indicus; Metapenaeus dobsoni AB: Abstract A study of chemoreception in relation to feeding and other factors involved showed that feeding behavior in shrimps can be triggered by chemical stimuli. However, Peneaus indicus and Metapenaeus dobsoni differ significantly in their chemotactic response to different stimuli. Record 172 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Application of water quality data to estimate the cultured oyster biomass in Hiroshima Bay AU: Author Songsangjinda, Putth; Matsuda, Osamu; Yamamoto, Tamiji; Rajendran, N; Maeda, Hajime SO: Source Fisheries science. Tokyo [Fish. Sci.]. Vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 673-678. 1999. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Oyster culture; Growth; Mortality; Water quality; Biomass; Modelling; Article Taxonomic Terms: Crassostrea gigas; Article Geographic Terms: INW, Japan, Honshu, Hiroshima Prefect., Hiroshima Bay AB: Abstract The cultured oyster biomass was estimated using biomass model, which was composed of the variables of growth, mortality, oyster fresh meat weight (FMW) and oyster numbers. Oyster growth and mortality were estimated using multiple linear equations composed of water quality variables. Results of the present study showed that actual growth was best modeled using an equation composed of difference values between two successive months of chlorophyll a, salinity and dissolved oxygen. The cumulative mortality estimated by the equation, which was composed of the variables FMW, annual minimum values of temperature, DO and chlorophyll a, also well simulated the observed mortality. The cultured biomass of oysters in different oyster culture areas (Atada, Miyajima, Hiroshima and Ondo) were estimated according to the culture techniques (Ikisu, Yokusei and Nokoshi). The results showed that the cultured biomass in all areas increased up to the maximum at the beginning of harvest season, and dropped sharply due to harvesting. The estimated growth and cumulative mortality of oyster were not much different between areas, indicating that a difference of oyster biomass in each culture area was significantly depended on the number of cultured oysters. Thus, this approach provides quantitative information of the cultured biomass of oysters in Hiroshima Bay which

has been difficult to monitor directly in the culture area. Record 173 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title On farm quality assurance for shrimp production in Thailand AU: Author Tookwinas, S; Boonyaratpalin, M; Choongam, C; Poongern, J SO: Source Papers presented at the Bangkok FAO Technical Consultation on Policies for Sustainable Shrimp Culture. Documentos presentados a la Consulta Tecnica FAO/Bangkok sobre Politicas para el Cultivo Sostenible del Camaron. no. 572, suppl., pp. 111-122. [FAO Fish. Rep./FAO Inf. Pesca]. 1999. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture; Intensive culture; Culture effects; Water quality control; Aquaculture regulations; Article Geographic Terms: ISEW, Thailand; ISW, Thailand AB: Abstract Intensive marine shrimp farming has been practised in Thailand for some 10 years during which period shrimp culture expanded rapidly along the coastal provinces of the country. Aquatic pollution due to effluent discharges and encroachment of culture areas into various ecosystems have been associated with the deterioration of coastal environment and mangrove destruction. Drug (and antibiotic) residues in shrimp flesh have also been found from time to time, causing in a few cases the rejection of products by importers. Mass mortalities caused by water pollution and diseases have occurred in many culture areas which have led to decrease in production and crop failures. Department of Fisheries (DOF) has had many programmes for marine shrimp farming sustainability. First, mobile units for technical services and disease inspection at farming sites have been organized and deployed by coastal aquaculture stations and centres. Water quality, red tide and farm sanitation monitoring programmes have been organized and scheduled in line with EU regulations. DOF has been appointed by the Government as the competent authority for export quality control of fisheries products to the EU markets. Raw materials as well as finished products are being inspected for quality and safety to consumers. Environmentally sustainable farming systems such as water recirculation, semi-closed water systems and biological treatment procedures have been studied and demonstrated by DOF. It is hoped that these measures could help in ensuring the sustainable farming of marine shrimp and producing high quality products. CA: Corporate Author FAO, Rome (Italy) Record 174 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Study on number and karyotype of a marine shrimp Trachypenaeus curvirostris AU: Author Zhou, Linghua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Jianhai SO: Source Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica/Haiyang Yu Huzhao [Oceanol. Limnol. Sin./Haiyang Yu Huzhao]. Vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 250-254. 1999.

DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans; Chromosomes; Karyotypes; Article Taxonomic Terms: Trachypenaeus curvirostris AB: Abstract The chromosomal number and karyotype in a marine shrimp Trachypenaeus curvirostris which is an important commercial species for the Chinese fisheries were studied using the materials of testicular tubules, embryos and nauplius larvae. The shrimps were collected from the coastal areas of Shilaoren, Qingdao, Shandong Province in April to July, 1990, 1994 and 1997. This tissue treatment process is as follows. Embryos: They were collected in a beaker and immersed with colchicine solution. 1-1.5 hours later, the embryos were treated by hypotoniclysis firstly with seawater (50%) for 20 min and then with KCl solution (0.075 mol/L) for 10-20 min. Another method is to undertake the hypotonic treatment with sodium citrate solution (0.3%) for 20-30 min. Nauplius: They were placed in a beaker and immersed with colchicine solution. 2-2.5 hours later the larvae were hypotonized with KCI solution for 20-30min. Adult shrimp: Colchicine was injected (1.5 mu g per body weight g) into the muscle of the first or the second abdominal segment, and kept alive in seawater for 4-6 hours. Individual shrimps were then sacrificed, the testis dissected out and cut into 2-3mm p ieces.They were hypotonic with KCI solution (0.075mol/L) for 20-30min. All tissues were fixed with fresh Carnoy's solution (methanol:acetic acid = 3:1) three times. Chromosome preparation and observation: Embryo, larvae or pieces of testicular tubules were placed on a clean slide and spread using a forcep. The samples were stained with 5% Giemsa solution (pH = 7.0). The spread plates were observed and photographed with an Olympus microscope. Classification of chromosome was based upon the methods of Levan et al (1964). The testicular tubules from the shrimp were used was the experimental materials for determining chromosome complements of meiotic bivalents. The somatic cells from the embryos and nauplius larvae were applied for both of karyotypes and the number of diploidy chromosome was determined. The results indicate that the chromosomal number of shrimp Trachypenaeus curvirostris is: n = 35 (2n=70). According to Levan's standard, the chromosomal karyotype of Trachypenaeus curvirostris is 2n = 42M + 10SM + 12ST + 6T. No sex-chromosome in the complements was observed. Record 175 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Separation of shrimp haemocytes (Penaeus monodon) and the opsonic effect of serum on phagocytic activity AU: Author Ekpanithanpong, U; Supamattaya, K; Boonyaratpalin, S SO: Source Asian fisheries science. Metro Manila [Asian Fish. Sci.]. Vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 337-342. 1999. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans; Haemolymph; Phagocytosis; Serum; Immunity; Disease resistance; Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon AB: Abstract Two cell types of shrimp (Penaeus monodon) haemocytes were separated by continuous gradient centrifugation. Granular haemocytes and hyaline cells were demonstrated in vitro for their phagocytic activity using glutaraldehyde-fixed sheep red blood cells (SRBC super(f)). The

Decapoda AU: Author Mourente. 4. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans. Article Geographic Terms: ANE. Biochem. 405-416. the mechanisms that may result in the deposition of age-pigments in relation to the physiological age of this species in its natural environment were investigated. cerebrosides increased significantly from size-age class I to III in males but no significant differences were observed in females. pp. Antioxidants. Polyunsaturated fatty acids. The antioxidant enzyme activities showed clearer patterns . Article Taxonomic Terms: Aristeus antennatus. Diaz-Salvago. 124B. Moreover. The fatty acid composition showed increases in monounsaturated fatty acids (particularly 18:1 and 24:1 isomers) and dimethyl acetals. Vol. Brain. The concentration of vitamin E (ng mg super(-1) brain) did not show significant differences between different size-age classes within the same sex and showed a molar ratio of one molecule of vitamin E per approximately 200 molecules of PUFA in brain membranes. suggesting that opsonin in serum is one of the factors that play a role in the enhancement of shrimp phagocytosis. but decreases in PUFA (primarily 22:6(n-3)) with increasing size-age in both sexes. Oxidation. Physiol. However. oxidation status and lipids in brain of wild-caught size-class distributed Aristeus antennatus (Risso. Spain AB: Abstract The objectives of the study were to characterize the enzymic antioxidant system (free radical scavenging enzymes such as catalase. Lipids. superoxide dismutase. G. increasing significantly in males but decreasing in females. In contrast. when expressed as % fluorescence brain super(-1) ( lambda sub(ex/em) 350-445 nm and lambda sub(ex/em). 1999. when expressed as % fluorescence mg super(-1) brain total lipid. trawled off the south coast of Spain. 400-455). fluorescence intensity showed increasing trends in both sexes with increasing size-age. Enzymatic activity. the oxidation status (malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and the fluorescence intensity of lipid-soluble fluorescent products (LSFP)) and lipid composition (lipid classes and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) as pro-oxidants) in neural tissues from males and females of wild-caught size-class distributed blue and red marine shrimp Aristeus antennatus. B]. B [Comp. The proportion of polar lipids (primarily phosphatidylcholine. The concentration of MDA (nmol g super(-1) brain) did not present any marked trend with size-age in both sexes. Haemocytes opsonized by shrimp serum increased phagocytic activity compared to the normal one. Enzymes. 1816) Crustacea. E SO: Source Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. glutathione transferase and glutathione reductase). Three different size classes were defined for males and four for females. However. phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine) predominated over that of neutral lipids. glutathione peroxidases. and differences were observed for the different variables measured between sexes.phagocytic activity of granular haemocytes was two times greater than that of hyaline cells.. Record 176 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Characterization of antioxidant systems. dietary antioxidants (vitamin E). only males presented an upward trend with size-age ( lambda sub(ex/em) 400-455). no.

Embryo cryopreservation and in vitro fertilization have not been developed. Special publication. 101-110. hormonal control of maturation. with catalase and glutathione transferase presenting downward trends and superoxide dismutase and total glutathione peroxidase showing upward trends. Results showed that the most suitable area for marine shrimp culture was in the southern Gulf of . Thailand AB: Abstract Seventeen coastal zone characteristics were selected as criteria in a compatibility analysis used to evaluate sites suitable for marine shrimp culture in the Gulf of Thailand and along the Andaman coast. Vol. Kwanruethai. Thanomkiat. It was found that controlled reproduction of shrimp is a commercial activity. 1999. and techniques for commercial gamete production and spawning in Costa Rica. 20. Phuket [Spec. ISEW. 1999. Suitability of sites for shrimp culture was judged on a scale of 1-4 related to degree of compatibility. however the genetic model for sex determination and sex reversal have not been established. AU: Author Alfaro Montoya. Aquaculture techniques. pp. Article Geographic Terms: ISE. Sex determination. 19-24 January 1998. AU: Author Siri. J SO: Source UNICIENCIA. Biol. Coastal zone. but serotonin treatment could be an alternative. The fluorescence analysis of brain LSFP was not a useful tool to separate the population into different size-age classes. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. no. Article Geographic Terms: ISW. The advance on spermatophore production is a new contribution for the controlled reproduction of shrimp. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Andaman Sea. although the different patterns encountered between sexes for the variables measured points to males as better subjects for this type of study. pp. Warraporn. Cent. Site selection. Tookwinas. 87-92. Heredia [UNICIENCIA]. Record 177 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title (Reproduction control of marine shrimp). Eyestalk extirpation. Costa Rica AB: Abstract The current knowledge on shrimp sex determination. is reviewed. Publ. Record 178 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Using multiple-use criteria for coastal zone planning for marine shrimp culture in Thailand. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. fertilization. Induced breeding. Phuket Mar. Prompoj SO: Source Proceedings of an International Workshop on the Rehabilitation of Degraded Coastal Systems. Biotechnology.with increasing size-age in males than in females. 15-16. Marine aquaculture. Hormones.]. Phuket Marine Biological Center. Eyestalk ablation is still the only hormonal technique for female maturation.

It has been estimated that suitable areas for shrimp farms can be found in 17 coastal provinces with a total area of 62.195 ha. Marine crustaceans. 1999. a combination of DMSO (5%) and glycerol (5%). especially in Samutpakarn. Milne Edwards. Phylogenetics. 159-166. Jianhai. and the third most suitable area was on the north eastern Gulf of Thailand with an area of 16. India AB: Abstract Attempts on cryopreservation of spermatozoa have been made in penaeid shrimp. Penaeus indicus H. Genomes. (Thailand) Record 179 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Cryopreservation of spermatophores of the marine shrimp. 1. The second most suitable area was on the south-west coast of Thailand with an area of 6. Samutsakorn. Samutsongkarm and some parts of Petburi provinces are not suitable for marine shrimp culture. Zhang. Liu. Sin. Linghua.25M) showed best viability rate (75 to 80%) in freeze. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus indicus. 30. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Population genetics.. Viable spermatozoa could be preserved successfully for a period of 60 days at -35 C and -196 C. The importance of of cryogenic storage of spermatozoa is discussed./Haiyang Yu Huzhao. Fish. Article Geographic Terms: ISW.. S SO: Source Indian J.809 ha. no.Thailand with an area of 39. Shandong Prov. Ruiyu SO: Source Oceanol. DMSO (5%) and trechalose (0. People's Rep. 62-67. Biopolymorphism. Parapenaeopsis tenella. Vol. Linsheng. CA: Corporate Author Phuket Marine Biological Cent. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Spermatophores. thawed spermatozoa. pp. pp.111 ha. 2. DNA. Vol. Zhou. AD. Article Geographic Terms: INW. Among several cryoprotectants used. Genetic diversity. 1999. Chemotaxonomy.. 46. Freezing storage. Xiang. Limnol. China. AU: Author Diwan. Shrimp culture. AU: Author Song. Sperm. Marine crustaceans. Joseph. Activational changes in spermatozoa during acrosome reaction after induction with egg water have also been recorded. Jiaozhou Bay AB: Abstract Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was applied to study the polymorphism of genomic DNA of six marine shrimps in different . Shoulin. Record 180 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Studies of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers on genomic DNA polymorphism in six species of marine shrimp. Metapenaeus joyneri. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus chinensis. Penaeus indicus. The central Gulf of Thailand.894 ha. no. Trachypenaeus curvirostris.

1999. families. And followed by 45 cycles of 1 min at 94 degree C.25ngC/(ind times h). The phylogenetic trees were constructed with the method of bootstrap on the basis of the presence and absence of the amplified polymorphic DNA fragments. The results and in good overall agreement with classical taxonomy.72% of it was grazed by zooplankton in the period of 6 hours. Amplifications with 20 primers under predetermined optimal reaction conditions (samples were first heated at 94 degree C for 5 min. 217-222.3913. and the relevant selection indices were 0. The results showed that the total clearance rate of zooplanktonic community is 80. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Zooplankton. Vol. Shandong Province.7331. As far as the abundance of the major algal species.6717. 19. Platymonas cordiformis and Cyclotella sp. and 2 min at 72 degree C. Zooplankton grazed most effectively on phytoflagellates such as Cryptomonas ovata. 2. Exopalaemon carinicauda and Crangon affinis. etc. Sin. Phytoplankton.. 0. and the relationships indicated by the phylogenetic trees show the difference between orders. genus and species. i. which were collected from Jiaozhou Bay. The results from the three methods of cluster analysis are similar in general. Guocai SO: Source Acta ecologica sinica/Shengtai Xuebao. no. Qingdao in Oct. 11.46%. Metapenaus joyneri. Wen. 1996.22% and 32.68%. Trachypenaeus curvirostris./Shengtai Xuebao]. Record 181 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title In situ grazing capacity of zooplankton grazing on phytoplankton in marine shrimp ponds. The amplified fragments were scored as present (1) or absent (0) for each DNA sample and an index of degree of band sharing (F) was calculated by using Nei and Li' s matching coefficient method. On the basis of numbers per liter. The value of (1-F) was used to evaluate genetic distances between species. 36. then held at 72 degree C for 10 min. Parapenaeopsis tenella.) gave 282 reproducible amplified fragments ranging between 230 and 2800 bp. respectively in 6 hours. Record 182 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Development of a bath challenge for the marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei Boone.56%. and with the methods of UPGMA and NJ on the basis of genetic distances. the selective feeding rates on them were 92. 1. 0. 1 min at 36 degree C. e.38ml /(L times h). Liu. Navicula sp. Beijing [Acta Ecol. 72. 1931 . AU: Author Zhao. pp.50 mu gC /L times h).13 mu l/(ind times h). It is suggested that random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) approaches are as useful in providing markers for marine animal genetics as they have been for other species.4345 and 0.the total grazing rate is 10. Grazing AB: Abstract A direct counting method was used to estimate in situ grazing capacity of zooplankton grazing on phytoplankton in the marine shrimp ponds located in Haiyiang city. e. 35. i.families or genus Penaeus chinensis.

Pathogenic bacteria. pp. (2) shrimps were only wounded. Shrimp culture. Nov 1998. In shrimp. due to the lack of controlled breeding programs within the industry. no. Hybrid culture. Mortality. parahaemolyticus. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Genetics. The breeding program relies not only on heritability estimates for fast growth and resistance to Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) disease but also on using genetic markers to assist in broodstock management and ensure the best quality of the program. 74. Bacterial diseases.AU: Author Roque. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus vannamei. 0 to 13% for the third. a selective breeding program is being developed by the U. MV SO: Source Aquaculture [Aquaculture]. 1 Dec 1998. Aquaculture techniques. Gomez-Gil. 169. Escalante. All the mortalities occurred within four days and the cumulative mortalities were significantly different between treatments: varying from 37 to 52% for the first treatment. JF. Alday-Sanz. and 0 to 3% for the control. no reliable laboratory model has yet been developed for this disease. Record 183 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Genetic markers: A basic tool for genetic seletion programs in shrimp aquaculture AU: Author Alcivar-Warren. p. Vol. Therapy. 283-290. shrimps were neither wounded nor challenged. and (4) control. The experiment was repeated four times to verify the reproducibility of the technique. Currently. Aquaculture. B. (3) shrimps were only exposed to V. Four different treatments were applied to the shrimp: (1) shrimps were wounded on the third abdominal segment and were immediately exposed to a bath of Vibrio parahaemolyticus afterwards. Turnbull. Marine Shrimp Farming Program (USMSFP) based on cultured specific-pathogen free (SPF) and resistant (SPR) Penaeus vannamei stocks which originated from populations of various geographic regions in Mexico and Ecuador. Vibriosis.S. A reproducible experimental model is therefore urgently required for further study. Vibrio parahaemolyticus AB: Abstract Despite the major financial losses caused by vibriosis in shrimp culture. In this study. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus vannamei AB: Abstract Marker-assisted approaches for selective breeding of aquaculture species may lead to controlled genetic manipulation that can strategically enhance the growth performance and disease resistance characteristics of the species. 12 to 22% for the second. a bath challenge technique was developed for juveniles of the marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei. Record 184 of 500 . Disease control. 3-4. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. A SO: Source Abstracts of the First Annual Northeast Aquaculture Conference and Exposition. limited information is available on the optimization of economically important quantitative traits. G. A.

Vol. a technique for chromosome morphometric measurements newly applied in crustaceans. Drying. resulting in considerable quantitative and qualitative . No sex chromosomes could be identified. 49. The beetle Dermestes frischii was found to infect the shrimp in large quantities. handling. sea sand or bare ground. WA. Curing. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Chromosomes. 8 to 15 submetacentric (SM). Le Dean. no. No telocentric chromosome or secondary constrictions were observed. The most common marine shrimp species (Penaeus notialis) was smoked in traditional ovens. [FAO Fish. no. Diter. 1998. 2. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus notialis. Rapport et contributions de la sixieme Consultation d'experts FAO sur la technologie du poisson en Afrique. Quality control. revealed variations in the karyotypic formula. Imaging techniques. Peches]. Fish spoilage. Rep. and 1 to 4 subtelocentric (ST) pairs. 574.DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Karyotype of the marine shrimp Penaeus indicus (Crustacea. 27-30 August 1996. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus indicus AB: Abstract A cytogenetic study was carried out in the shrimp Penaeus indicus using semi-automatic image analysis. M. Analytical techniques. Kenya. 83-95. V. Karyotypes. Fishery industry. NT SO: Source Report and proceedings of the sixth FAO Expert Consultation on Fish Technology in Africa. Drying involved spreading the shrimps in the open sun on mats. Article Geographic Terms: Ghana AB: Abstract Traditional shrimp processing sties and marketing centres in Ghana were surveyed to evaluate the effectiveness of traditional methods of processing and storage. Kisumu. Plahar. not only due to differences of chromosome condensation between metaphases. Annan. Nauplii. Kenya. storage and marketing procedures were found to lead to massive economic and financial loss to the processors and retailers alike as a result of high contamination of the shrimps. MA. Kisumu. Crustacean larvae. The chromosomal analysis of nauplii revealed a modal diploid chromosome number of 2n = 88. confirmed by the modal haploid chromosome number of n = 44 found in adult testis. In eight metaphases karyotyped were counted 27 to 35 metacentric (M). Improper and unhygienic management. A SO: Source Ophelia [Ophelia]. Record 185 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Post-harvest management and spoilage of tropical shrimps (Penaeus notialis) AU: Author Hodari-Okae. L. pp. Developmental stages. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp fisheries. 38-44. pp. Processing fishery products. Decapoda) established by using an image analysis system AU: Author Morelli. Vonau. Storage effects. Nov 1998. 27-30 aout 1996. Smoking and sun-drying were found to be the only methods used in shrimp processing in this country./FAO Rapp. The chromosome pairing. automatically performed by a software application.

Various bacteria and fungi were isolated in the processed shrimp. Record 187 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Requirements of juvenile marine shrimp. Arginine. 29. the shrimp were found to contain 3. The natural protein was supplied by casein and gelatin. 2. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture.. B SO: Source Journal of the World Aquaculture Society [J. With storage. MN. CA: Corporate Author FAO. antibiotics. with resultant increase in free fatty acids as compared to the smoking process. Bacteriocides. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon AB: Abstract Feeding experiments were conducted using amino acid test diets to determine the dietary requirements of juvenile Penaeus monodon for lysine and arginine. Nutritional requirements.12 mu g OTC/shrimp. Reyes. Soc. pp. Lysine. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Disease control. World Aquacult. A. Packaging is done by loading the fish in sacks and paper-lined baskets in large quantities such that stacking during transporation leads to fragmentation and spoilage. no. Rome [Italy] Record 186 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Delivery of Bioencapsulated Oxytetracycline to the Marine Shrimp Penaeus monodon AU: Author Roque. Feeding experiments. 1 May 1998. Crystalline l . enriched with oxytetracycline (OTC). Juveniles. 95-104. pp. A SO: Source Aquaculture [AQUACULTURE]. Two sets of the test diets were prepared. Jun 1998. The process of sun-drying exposed shrimps more to deterioration due to oxidation. 1-4. Vol. both microbial counts increased correlating with a decrease in sensory quality. Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) for lysine and arginine AU: Author Millamena. After 8 d of being fed OTC-enriched Artemia sp..]. The recommended therapeutic dose for treatment of bacterial infections is four times the MIC. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon.losses. Artemia. Amino acids. Kanazawa. OM. Vibrio AB: Abstract Post larvae of shrimp Penaeus monodon were fed Artemia sp. Vol. and the water of the experimental system were measured by radial diffusion bioassay. Animal nutrition. OS. Fish diseases. The amounts of this antibiotic in the Artemia sp. which is twelve times greater than the average minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) cited in the literature for sensitive strains of Vibrio spp. 164. Gomez-Gil. no. although no pathogen of public health significance was isolated. Turnbull. JF. 249-251. The results indicated that 11% of the OTC was taken up by the Artemia sp. Bautista-Teruel. Shrimp culture. the shrimp.

Seed (aquaculture). Stock assessment. Aquaculture techniques. there is a generally accepted perception among hatchery managers and growers that performance of nauplii and postlarvae derived from wild matured spawners is superior to captive matured or pond reared animals. The amino acid mixture was pre-coated with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and diets were further bound with CMC.28% of the diet and another set contained arginine at 0. Presently. CL SO: Source Aquaculture [AQUACULTURE]. in areas with readily available indigenous stocks of species of choice. the process of vitellogenesis in penaeid shrimp and the mechanical and physiological processes involved in fertilization. 1-4. monodon for lysine was estimated to be 2. with mean weight of 21 plus or minus 0. Record 188 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Recent developments in penaeid broodstock and seed production technologies: improving the outlook for superior captive stocks AU: Author Browdy. 1 May 1998. In many areas. Vol. The requirement of juvenile P.5 mg. Growth. However. Lysine and arginine requirements were determined from relationships between weight gains and dietary lysine and arginine levels as analyzed by the broken-line regression method. To stabilize seed supplies and expand to new areas. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Pond culture. survival and feed conversion efficiency were determined at termination of feeding trials and signs of nutritional deficiency noted. As we approach the 21st century. The future success of shrimp farming will depend upon increasing supplies of healthy. One set of experimental diets contained graded levels of lysine at 1. much of this production continues to rely on nauplii derived from wild gravid spawners collected at sea. and K-carrageenan to prevent leaching losses of amino acids.18-3. PL20. development of probiotics and immunostimulants and improvement of artificial feeds promise better postlarval fitness while reducing cost and improving reliability of production. Reviews. Seed production.-amino acids were added to provide an amino acid profile similar to shrimp muscle protein except for the test amino acid.08% of the diet or 5. Improved hygiene and biosecurity. serious gaps remain in the basic understanding of the hormonal control of reproduction. fry are still collected from the wild for stocking into ponds.0% of the diet. were randomly distributed at 10 shrimp per tank in 40-l fiberglass tanks and reared on the diets for 50-56 days. 164. Although techniques for captive maturation and spawning have been well defined. Brood stocks.85% of the diet or 5. high quality seed for stocking ponds.3% of dietary protein. 3-21. hatchery production technologies have improved slowly over the past 20 years. cornstarch. Hatcheries AB: Abstract Pond culture of marine shrimp currently accounts for about 30% of world supply and production continues to expand.2% of dietary protein while the requirement for arginine was 1. Shrimp postlarvae. Challenges associated with disease control and reducing reliance on natural feeds are being met through research efforts in the private and public sectors. no. wild stocks are facing increasing pressure and shrimp farming continues to . This information is crucial in formulating cost-effective practical diets for juvenile tiger shrimp. pp.6-3.

Additionally.e.05) indicating that either seawater or Ca-free saline can be used as the homogenate medium and as the storage medium for gonadal tissue to be used in gross morphology determinations. Freezing storage.93 were obtained.. 1 Apr 1998. 12. away from traditional sources of wild seed. There were no significant differences between the freshly ejaculated spermatophores and spermatophores stored up to 36 h at 15 degree C for either total sperm counts or percent abnormal determinations. The present paper is a review of recent developments in penaeid broodstock and seed production technologies focusing on current limitations while defining the significant potential offered by emerging developments. AL SO: Source Aquaculture [AQUACULTURE]. Thirty additional males were sacrificed and their carapace sections (without hepatopancreas and tail section) were placed into either seawater or a Ca-free saline solution in an incubator at 15 degree C for 3. disease resistance and improved growth have been reported. Vol. There were no significant differences in either sperm counts or percent abnormal sperm observed at each time period ( proportional to =0. 1-2. and mean abnormal sperm of 32. encouraging results illustrating the potential for disease control.24 s. Spermatophores. significantly impacting industry viability. 6. 24 and 36 h. A baseline sample of P. n =9) was taken with freshly ejaculated spermatophores and evaluated for sperm counts and percent morphologically abnormal sperm. The development of healthy. genetically improved shrimp stocks represents a tremendous economic opportunity while potentially improving the outlook for long term industry sustainability. vannamei males (48. Record 189 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Male viability determinations in Penaeus vannamei: evaluation of short-term storage of spermatophores up to 36 h and comparison of Ca-free saline and seawater as sperm homogenate media AU: Author Bray. no. Penaeus vannamei . Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus vannamei AB: Abstract Short term storage up to 36 h was evaluated for male gonad tissue of the marine shrimp.75 s. Temperature tolerance.09% plus or minus 9. New viral disease epidemics continue to arise and spread quickly across entire regions. seawater was compared with Ca-free saline solution as the medium for tissue storage and for sperm homogenization. Lawrence.expand into new areas. Sperm. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Sea water. 160. Record 190 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Nutritional Requirements of the Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium . Baseline values of mean sperm of 52. WA. Shrimp culture. Gonads. pp. While significant limitations remain. In addition. 63-67. Research and development efforts aimed at closing the life cycle of several commercially important species are underway. samples taken at each time interval were compared with the baseline sample.3 g plus or minus 2.d. for use in sperm gross morphology evaluations.00 x 10 6 plus or minus 8.

DV SO: Source Journal of Aquatic Animal Health [J. Mar 1998. particularly phosphatidylcholine. In contrast to marine shrimp. BT*. no. of its dietary energy requirement from carbohydrates and lipids. but dietary phytosterols are not as effective as cholesterol in promoting growth. LL. pp. 1-2. Absence of dietary 18 degree C n-3 or n-6 PUFAs does not affect growth but is associated with a reduction in the weight of the midgut gland expressed as a percent of whole body weight. Fatty acids. both classes of n-6 and n-3 PUFAs with more than 20 carbon atoms [>20C] are equally effective in producing maximum weight gain responses. GD. Vitamin C. A requirement may be age dependent. if any. Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium rosenbergii. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Prawn culture. Vol. The dietary requirement for PUFAs appears to be lower than that of penaeid shrimp. 153-163. Penaeid species require sterols. 6. There is still a level of uncertainty about whether M. rosenbergii. Brooker. no. 10. Mar 1998. Qualitative and quantitative fatty acid requirements of the freshwater shrimp are reflective of the lower n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio found in the body tissue. pp. Penaeidae AB: Abstract The nutritional requirements of the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii are reviewed and compared with those reported for several species of marine shrimp genus Penaeus. Crustacean larvae. Lightner. JH. differences in requirements of essential amino acids exist. rosenbergii has been identified and estimated to be 100 mg/kg.6% for juvenile M. Sci. Using water-stable sources of dietary vitamin C. Aquat. Anim. as suggested for larval and juvenile forms of penaeid species. Vol. rosenbergii and penaeid shrimp appear to use the same biosynthetic pathway for the production of the carotenoid astaxanthin from dietary beta -carotene and canthaxanthin. a vitamin C requirement for M. Nutritional requirements.]. A comparison of essential amino acid proportions [A/E ratios] between M. 1. 83-88. Record 191 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Isolation and identification of Mycobacterium peregrinum from the Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei AU: Author Mohney. rosenbergii and penaeid species suggests only minor. Cage. Protein sparing is maximized when the dietary lipid: carbohydrate ratio is 1:4. Most of the information has been derived from experiments with juveniles. thus sparing protein.rosenbergii: Comparisons with Species of Penaeid Shrimp AU: Author D'Abramo. DE: Descriptors . Fish. The levels of different ingredients used in the manufacture of diets will ultimately depend on relative digestibilities and nutrient requirements as influenced by the age of the animal and the system used for culture. rosenbergii requires dietary phospholipid. M. A combination of dietary phytosterols is equally effective as cholesterol in satisfying a dietary sterol requirement of 0. Poulos. The freshwater prawn obtains most. Amino acids. Health]. LR SO: Source Reviews in Fisheries Science [Rev. if not all.

]. Human diseases. using time-lapse video observations on mating in pairs of "female-phase" (FP) individuals. were rare and overlapped completely in size with FP and larger MP individuals. and a female incubatory character. pp. appendices masculinae. no. Vol. It is suggested that not all MPs transform into FP hermaphrodites. Port Aransas AB: Abstract Simultaneous hermaphroditism with outcrossing. Reproductive behaviour. melanized nodular lesions in the carapace of the cultured marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei. Cultured organisms. Carapace. GJ SO: Source Marine Biology [Mar. which spawn eggs and incubate embryos. ejaculatory ducts. Copulations between FPs resulted in successful spawning and development of embryos. Processing fishery products. 132. New records. 223-235. Holt. Pathogenic bacteria. Bacterial diseases. wurdemanni. Record 192 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Simultaneous hermaphroditism in the marine shrimp Lysmata wurdemanni (Caridea: Hippolytidae): An undescribed sexual system in the decapod Crustacea AU: Author Bauer. expanded pleopod flanges. also had male gonopores and an ovotestis terminating in ejaculatory ducts containing sperm. Microbial contamination. a previously unconfirmed sexual system in decapod crustaceans. female-phase hermaphrodites maintained in isolation were unable to self-fertilize spawned eggs. The lesions appeared to be the result of opportunistic infections in otherwise healthy animals. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans. and cincinnuli on the first pleopods. Social interactions may mediate MP change into FP hermaphrodites in L. Article Geographic Terms: ASW. Smaller size classes of the population were composed only of MPs while larger size classes consisted of both MPs and FPs. the gonad of these male-phase (MP) individuals was an ovotestis with an undeveloped ovarian partion. wurdemanni and other Lysmata may determine the exact form of the sexual system in these species. Hermaphroditism. showed a greater relative size. The social system of L. USA. Body size. The presence of M. All smaller individuals possessed characters typical of caridean males. . Texas. Seafood. In FPs. including male gonopores. Biol. Videotape recordings. 2. Lesions. Article Taxonomic Terms: Mycobacterium peregrinum. RT. Microbiological analysis." individuals with MP characters but an ovotestis containing vitellogenic oocytes. However. "Transitionals. FPs. However. The potential for accidental infections of shrimp farm or packing plant workers from handling infected shrimp is of concern since nodular skin lesions induced by the bacterium are difficult to treat. Penaeus vannamei AB: Abstract Mycobacterium peregrinum was isolated from multifocal. male pleopod characters were absent or reduced. 1998. This is the first identification of this species of Mycobacterium in shrimp.Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Article Taxonomic Terms: Lysmata wurdemanni. peregrinum in cultured shrimp has a direct negative impact on the marketability of shrimp because it causes obvious black lesions. is documented in the shrimp Lysmata wurdemanni.

Synthesis of a 14-kDa periplasmic protein was increased when they were grown in presence of 10 mM Cu super(2+). Sundarbans AB: Abstract Marine shrimp of the species Penaeus monodon were collected from the coastal region (Haroa) of the deltaic Sundarbans of West Bengal. These strains were able to grow in the presence of silver (Ag super(+)). and copper was encoded by a 3. and penicillin (100 IU). India during the premonsoon period in 1996. copper (Cu super(2+)). Vol. J. Kumar. 44. Penaeus vannamei. pneumoniae.]. Marine aquaculture. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Genetic variance.. 2. We have found that the rRNA genes are polymorphic within and between individual shrimp and between selectively bred families. CAN. no. Quiel E. MICROBIOL. cobalt. JC. and zinc (Zn super(2+)) at concentrations up to 10 mM. 333-343. such repeated . Article Taxonomic Terms: Klebsiella pneumoniae. P. cobalt (Co super(2+)). West Bengal. Feb 1998. 3-4. 1 Jan 1998.and metal-resistant strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from Penaeus monodon of the coastal waters of deltaic Sundarban AU: Author Choudhury. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Pathogenic bacteria. RNA. India. 159. All 10 isolated strains were resistant to erythromycin (30 mu g/mL)./REV. pp. nickel. Vol. Biological resistance. Biopolymorphism. Record 194 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Structure and polymorphism of ribosomal RNA genes in the marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei AU: Author Bagshaw. Shrimp culture. nickel (Ni super(2+)). Article Geographic Terms: ISW. Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated from the alimentary canal and gills of the shrimp as the sole isolate. furazolidone (100 mu g/mL).5-kb plasmid of K. cadmium (Cd super(2+)). Penaeus monodon.Record 193 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Multidrug. JA SO: Source Aquaculture [AQUACULTURE].8 to 120 kb. R* SO: Source Canadian Journal of Microbiology/Revue Canadienne de Microbiologie [CAN. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus vannamei AB: Abstract We have examined the structure and polymorphism of the genes that encode ribosomal RNA in the Pacific whiteleg shrimp. In other organisms. Therapy. no. MICROBIOL. 186-189. Resistance to lead. ranging in sizes from 1. ampicillin (100 mu g/mL). The polymorphism suggests the presence of repeated DNA sequence elements in the intergenic spacer region upstream from the promoter for transcription of the rRNA genes. pp. All the strains showed similar plasmid profiles. lead (Pb super(2+)). Aquaculture techniques.

]. pond aeration systems have been developed which will sustain large quantities of fish and invertebrate biomass. Results from multi-phase growouth are most promising and indicate that this may be a suitable mechanism to optimize biomass loading of the culture system. CR SO: Source Aquacultural Engineering [Aquacult. respectively. Record 195 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The design. . Aquaculture systems. If the same is true in P. 1. The use of high density.]. management and production of a recirculating raceway system for the production of marine shrimp AU: Author Davis. 17. low water usage and ease of waste management are encouraging and warrant further economic and marketing evaluations. vannamei) have been produced with final biomass loads as high as 10 kg/m super(3) utilizing 100-120-day and 160-175-day production cycles. the observed polymorphism might be linked to traits important for shrimp aquaculture. Raceway culture. Both bait shrimp (Penaeus setiferus) and food shrimp (P. DA. Arnold. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aeration. 18. 1998. no. Intensive culture. Recirculating systems. CE SO: Source Aquacultural Engineering [Aquacult. 1998. vannamei. Eng. no. This paper reports on techniques which have been developed for the production of marine shrimp in recirculating raceway systems and typical results which have been observed over a 6-year production period. Although the economic viability of recirculating production systems for bait and food size shrimp have yet to be proven. Ponds AB: Abstract During the past decade. Record 196 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Pond water aeration systems AU: Author Boyd. Penaeus vannamei AB: Abstract Despite continuing problems with disease outbreaks and environmental concerns over effluent pollution and land usage. world shrimp farming continues to expand. the consistent results of production. water reuse systems is one alternative to conventional pond production systems which addresses restrictions associated with environmental regulations and user conflicts of coastal land and water usage. Although traditional pond production systems will continue to be the dominant driving force in aquaculture expansion. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus setiferus. 193-211. Vol. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Eng. Vol. 9-40. pp.elements have been shown to serve as alternative promoters or enhancers for transcription. 3. pp. there is continued interest in alternate production systems.

Newsl. Aeration-performance testing has been important in selecting design features to provide cost-effective yet efficient aquaculture pond aerators. Amounts of aeration vary from as little as 1-2 kW ha super(-1) in some types of fish culture to as much as 15 or 20 kW ha super(-1) in intensive culture of marine shrimp. Water circulation devices also enhance DO supplies in ponds by mixing DO supersaturated surface waters with deeper waters of lower DO concentration. additions of compounds which release oxygen through chemical reactions. or other source. and accumulation of sediment piles in central areas of ponds where water currents are weaker. with various re-stocking programmes for the Caspian Sea and other inland water bodies. To promote aquaculture as an independent economic activity. Aquaculture development in the country started in the early 1970s. Record 197 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Iran promotes aquaculture development AU: Author Rana.These aeration systems are modifications of standard wastewater aeration equipment. These methods include exchanging part of the oxygen-depleted pond water with oxygenated water from a well. Automatic devices to start and stop aerators in response to daily changes in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations are improving. no. Paddlewheel aerators and propeller-aspirator-pumps are probably most widely used. Bartley. Article Geographic Terms: Iran AB: Abstract Recent developments in the aquaculture sector in Iran are outlined. DM SO: Source FAO aquaculture newsletter. management and conservation of aquatic resources for fisheries and aquaculture. pond. K.]. pp. Freshwater aquaculture. Augmentation of natural supplies of DO in ponds often is necessary to prevent stress or mortality of fish and crustaceans when DO concentrations are low. application of fertilizer to stimulate oxygen production by photosynthesis of aquatic plants. The culture of carp. Several procedures have been used in attempts to increase DO concentrations in ponds. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture development. trout and marine shrimp currently form the basis of Iranian aquaculture. Recent studies suggest that the use of heavy aeration to provide the greatest possible production is less profitable than moderate aeration to improve water quality and enhance feed conversion efficiency. but they are expensive and not completely reliable. Aerators usually are positioned in ponds to provide maximum water circulation. The Iranian Fisheries Company SHILAT is involved in developing national programmes for development. This reduces the loss of oxygen from ponds by diffusion. Iran has taken several initial steps to encourage private sector involvement. Fishery management. Rome [FAO Aquacult. Inland fisheries. Stocking (organisms). release of pure oxygen gas into pond waters. and aeration with mechanical devices which either splash water into the air or release bubbles of air into the water. This practice can result in erosion of pond bottoms and inside slopes of embankments. 26-30. Calculations suggest that about 500 kg additional production of fish or crustaceans can be achieved per kW of aeration. 1998. which include: making the private sector solely . 19.

Socioeconomic aspects. Issy-les-Moulineaux (France). Aquaculture development. through the following tasks :(i) improve site selection and study the impact of aquaculture on marine environments presenting a variable sensitivity to organic sewage. Socio-economic aspects. the temporal variation during the course of the project (3 years) and the relation between the ecological structure and farm productions. (ii) analyse the socio-economical aspects and profitability of the aquaculture industry and of common resources (iii) use remote sensing and geographical data bases for diagnosis and monitoring of site degradation (iv) reinforce the capacity of Asian scientists through training. using hydrobiology. particulate organic matter. mounting effective public promotion initiatives to increase fish consumption. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. providing low priced or free land with service. Remote sensing. Site selection.responsible for fingerling production for ongrowing. Lastly. GIS. New Caledonia. An evaluation of the relationship existing between productivity and characteristics of each ecosystem has been conducted by correlating ecological indicators data (concentration of total suspended matter. and. providing low price fisherlings from state hatcheries. J SO: Source Ifremer. Martin. chlorophyll. The current situation and capacity are outlined. Populus. percentage of pheopigments in total pigments and cyanobacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria in water and sediments) with the average production of the farms. providing low interest loans. CA: Corporate Author IFREMER Paris. JLM. Mekong R. all geographic data originated from the various compartments of the study have been geo-referenced and loaded into a geographical information system. 263 pp.. Sustainable development. ecology and remote sensing as helping tools for diagnosis" was initiated in 1994. Aquaculture effluents. Environmental impact. ecology and remote sensing as helping tools for diagnosis AU: Author Fuchs. The study concerned the spatial structure and seasonal influence of these ecosystems. subsidizing feed ingredients for feed production. Article Geographic Terms: Asia. with the aim to study the sustainability of marine shrimp aquaculture in tropical areas. J. Productivity. Developing countries. granting 25 year tax exemption for farms. mainly Indonesia and Vietnam. Aquaculture. such as roads and canals for shrimp farms. Record 198 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Assessment of tropical shrimp aquaculture impact on the environment in tropical countries. 1998. Indonesia AB: Abstract The STD3 project titled "Assessment of tropical shrimp aquaculture impact on the environment in tropical countries using hydrobiology. indicating also potential for future development. Issy-les-Moulineaux (France) DRV/RA Record 199 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts .

Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei.. and their biochemical characteristics determined. Vol. Similarities in the color of the proteins and the molecular mass were noted. 121B. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Antibiotics. 3.TI: Title The use of commercial probiotics in the production of marine shrimp under no water exchange AU: Author Samocha. SO: Source . Prophylaxis. Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus californiensis. For a detailed comparison. Lipids. Vargas-Albores. 1998. Romo-Figueroa. G SO: Source Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Malaysia AU: Author Anon. F. Both proteins from each of the shrimp species are monomeric with approximately the same molecular mass in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis ( approximately 100-112 kDa) and contain carbohydrate and lipid. they are recognized by antibodies prepared independently. Shrimp culture. Recirculating systems CA: Corporate Author Virginia Sea Grant Record 200 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Shrimp plasma HDL and beta -glucan binding protein (BGBP): comparison of biochemical characteristics AU: Author Yepiz-Plascencia. pp. Furthermore. pp. Nutritional requirements. These results reveal that BGBP and HDL in shrimp hemolymph are the same protein. Ruiz-Verdugo. Proteins. 373-376. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Serological studies. 1998. F. no. Penaeus californiensis AB: Abstract A high density lipoprotein (HDL) and beta -glucan binding protein (BGBP) have been found in the hemolymph of marine shrimp. The amino acid composition is similar and there is a high degree of similarity in the N-terminus. Physiol. Biochem. These proteins are involved in the transport of lipid and the recognition of foreign matter. LM. et al. Jimenez-Vega. respectively. Record 201 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The national prawn fry production and research centre in Kedah. SO: Source Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Recirculating Aquaculture. HDL and BGBP were purified from two shrimp species. B]. B [Comp. 309-314. Haemolymph. suggesting that there is a close relationship between the ability to respond to foreign matter and the diet as a provider of essential nutrients. G.

DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Fish culture. Aquaculture. 3-4. Fry. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae.110 in Kung Krabaen Bay and 1. The average transparency was 0. Canals. Total area of the farms engaged in intensive marine shrimp farming at Kung Krabaen Bay was around 142.680m plus or minus 0. Khung Kraben Bay.530 in the surrounding coastal areas.012 in the water supply canal. which . Bays. Record 202 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The environmental impact of marine shrimp farming effluents and carrying capacity estimation at Kung Krabaen Bay. no. 1998. 1. no. Thamai District.001 in the bay. Sci.120 mg/l plus or minus 0. Carrying capacity. 2) to mass produce fish and shrimp fry for supply to small scale farmers and also for stock enhancement programme.81 kg/ha/crop. Seed production.012 mg/l/ plus or minus 0. The total effluent discharge loading into the bay was around 67. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Environmental impact.0012 in shrimp ponds. 0. Culture effects. Vol. 3. Hatcheries. Biochemical oxygen demand.425m plus or minus 0. East Thailand. S SO: Source Asian fisheries science.001 in coastal waters and 0. and. which was set up with the following objectives: 1) to develop and refine hatchery technology for brackishwater fish and crustacean species with culture potential. Khung Kraben Bay AB: Abstract Water quality parameters in marine shrimp farms around Kung Krabaen Bay. Aquaculture effluents. Bangkok [Aquac.33 in the discharge canal. Malaya.017 mg/lc} . 34-36.401 mg/l plus or minus 0. were surveyed from 1989-1994.60 kg/ha/crop and 12. Asia].008m plus or minus 0. 6) Alternate use of shrimp ponds. 0. Total ammonia-nitrogen was 0. Chanthaburi.Aquaculture Asia. pp. Chanthaburi. respectively. Total bacterial plate count was 19. Research institutions. Developing countries. Aquaculture techniques.032 mg /l plus or minus 0. Pollution effects. Water quality. Pond culture. pp.024 in shrimp ponds.801 CFU/ml plus or minus 17.002 in the water supply canal. Thamai District. eastern Thailand AU: Author Tookwinas. Aquaculture development. and.]. Bacteria. 3) Larviculture of mudcrab and swimming crab. 1998. Effluents. Shrimp culture. Metro Manila [Asian Fish. Details of major achievements made are outlined. 0. Current research projects include: 1) Refinement of hatchery technology for marine shrimp. Thailand. 2) Development of hatchery technology for marine fish.635m plus or minus 0. Kedah AB: Abstract An account is given of the activities of the National Prawn Fry Production and Research Centre in Kedah. Nutrients. Nitrogen. Article Geographic Terms: Malaysia. Malaysia. 1. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. 303-316. 4) Breeding and culture of cephalopods. The BOD and ammonia loading were 699. 11. Ammonia. Thailand. 5) Feed formulation.002 in discharge canals.003 CFU /ml plus or minus 15. 3) to provide training in brackishwater aquaculture to ensure effective transfer of technology to the target groups for sustainable aquaculture development.400 ton/ha /crop.4 in the bay and 23.76 ha. Vol. 0. Carrying capacity of Kung Krabaen Bay.

7 cm were used in the experiments. Fishery biology.1 mg/l. Ivo. Article Geographic Terms: China. Regeneration. 1998. Kong. Sun. Rio Formoso [Bol. The water balance model for carrying capacity and water quality prediction in the bay were discussed in detail. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. 1. Ammonia-nitrogen in receiving water or in the bay was set as the optimum safe concentration for sea water standard at 0. Unmated male and female shrimp were stocked separately in indoor tanks and employed for experiments after one week acclimation. and supplementary experiments were carried out in 1994 and 1995. Tec. Initial observations were made in 1987. pp. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. AU: Author Wang. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus chinensis.93 ha. Males. Jie. 29. Unmated cultured shrimp with body lengths of 13. Record 203 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Catch of marine shrimp with single and double trawling in the Piacabucu/AL and Pirambu/SE municipalities AU: Author Santos. Yang. Marine crustaceans.2% in Pontal do Peba and Pirambu. 22-28. Record 204 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Studies on the mating ability and spermatophore regeneration in marine shrimp Penaeus chinensis.19. 6. Sin. no. pp.0% and 74. Xiutao. CTC SO: Source Boletim tecnico cientifico do CEPENE. Cultured organisms. The increase in the fishing effort was considerable after the replacement of single by double trawl. Conghai SO: Source Oceanol. the fishing power index (FPI) of double trawl was slighthy superior to single trawl and the conversion fishing power index from single to double was of 1. Vol. AB: Abstract This paper deals with the mating ability and spermatophore regeneration of marine shrimp Penaeus chinensis under laboratory conditions. Population dynamics.has a total water surface area of 640 ha. Sexual behaviour. 1998. was estimated using a mass balance model. Fishing effort AB: Abstract The indexes of the prawn fisheries in the Sao Francisco mouth from 1986 to 1988 were analyzed. respectively. Spermatogenesis. Limnol. MCF. Jian. Li. CEPENE]. 17-34. production increased in 15. CPUE (Kg/hour of trawling) of the fleet based in Pontal do Peba was higher between April and August but in Pirambu no such tendency was verified. People's Rep. Cient. Trawling. The carrying capacity for intensive marine shrimp farming loading at Kung Krabaen Bay can be allowed up to 543. Vol.5-15./Haiyang Yu Huzhao. 1. Female:male = 5:1 and 2:1 were arranged to test the effects of different sex ratio . no. Qingyin.

Even though higher ratio of female might induce more mating of the male in the short term. AMR in the two trials of female:male = 5:1 were 2. but depended on the relative number of the males and females available for mating selection. 601-624. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture. The daily mating rate is defined as the number of mated females divided by that of males in the tank. light intensity.13 and 1. and socioeconomic impacts. chinensis were the shrimp's state of health. and so might induce and/or promote the male's mating ability and spermatophore regeneration. One view of sustainable aquaculture is that it uses . Stocking density. the natural mating ability of male P. indicated that in this period.. Coastal areas.43. The factors which influenced the mating ability and spermatophore regeneration of male P. temperature. Culture effects. 5. water use. is obtained by summing up the daily mating rate of the trial during the mating season. However. chinensis to mate. which indicated that the potential mating ability of male P. respectively. energy consumption. Sociology. Tucker. Environment management. chinensis was determined by its biological characteristics. The accumulated mating rate (AMR). (2) The average time needed for males to regenerate new spermatophores after mating and again with mate females was around 3 days. (1) In laboratory conditions. In business terms. Water quality control. The word sustainability is used so often and in such varied contexts that it is essentially meaningless. CS SO: Source Pond Aquaculture Water Quality Management. chinensis might attain 3-4 times. Resources. Food (see also Animal foodstuffs). Some male shrimp might regenerate new spermatophores and mating was observed again in the very next day. (DBO) Record 205 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Sustainability and Environmental Issues AU: Author Boyd. environmental effects. Pond culture. Resource management. while molting of the female is an absolute necessity for P. Water use. (3) The finding that in the 5 day frequent mating period. Factors usually included in discussions of sustainable agriculture are land use. feed utilization. it could not enhance the male's potential mating ability. Aquaculture effluents. a sustainable project is one that can continue to make a profit for a long time. 1998. more females were available for mating selection. etc.on mating ability and spermatophore regeneration in male P. chinensis. sex ratio. (4) There were no significant differences between the AMR sub(S) obtained from the whole mating season for trials of female:male = 5:1 and those of female:male=2:1. sustainable projects are those that do not cause serious environmental and social impacts and do not deplete the resource base. male's maturity. in environmental and socioeconomic considerations. Environmental impact. Economics.60. Fishing and fisheries. Coastal zone management. pp. Environmental management AB: Abstract It is popular to talk about sustainability of agricultural and industrial activities. Marine aquaculture. CE. Main results were as follows. is used to indicate the average mating ability of the males in each trial. These same factors should be included in considerations of sustainability in aquaculture. Aquaculture economics. while AMR in the two trials of female:male = 2:1 were only 1.

These issues originated mainly from concerns over the expansion of marine shrimp farming in the coastal zone. Pond culture. but this is not a practical view because low-input aquaculture is seldom very profitable. Substrata. recent environmental and social complaints related to aquaculture could greatly influence its future course. According to data from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 1998. Article Taxonomic Terms: Chaetoceros gracilis. it appears doubtful that aquacultural production can continue to increase fast enough to meet the rising demand for fisheries products (Csavas 1993). Nevertheless. the annual catch of fish.minimum inputs. Smyth. T. but they apply to aquaculture in general. The present study explores strategies for more biosecure growout technologies.1 ha pond was covered with a plastic roof and walls of fine mesh shade cloth to . Water filtration. Pathogenic bacteria. Most authorities think that there is little chance of increasing the catch from natural sources. Aquaculture systems. so the future should be promising. and the only hope of supplying the increasing demand is through aquaculture. Bacterial diseases. good environmental stewardship. Chlorination. Since 1984. The growth of shrimp farming has been particularly rapid during the past decade. outbreaks of viral disease continue to cause crop failures in Texas and South Carolina. and the current annual production of near 20 metric million tons is around 18% of total world fisheries production. Aquaculture has grown rapidly during the second half of the 20th century. The tested system reduced the likelihood of pathogen contamination by disinfection of intake water and physical exclusion of some possible vectors which could carry disease. The situation described above will ensure a good market for aquacultural products. and environmentally friendly growout technologies to provide a basis for the profitable controlled production of healthy shrimp. p. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss sustainability issues related to aquaculture and to suggest some possible courses of action. and avoidance of negative social impacts. and other fisheries products has stabilized at between 80 and 90 metric million tons. Phytoplankton. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Disease control. Sustainable aquaculture should involve the wise use of resources. Article Geographic Terms: USA AB: Abstract The US Marine Shrimp Farming Program has developed fast growing. 71. Nitrification. Bratvold. This expansion was possible because of the growing demand for fisheries products and the failure of the global catch fishery to keep up with the demand. Nevertheless. and 30% of the shrimp placed on the world market today come from aquaculture. Biomass. there has been a consistent growth of aquacultural production of 8-14% per year (Anonymous 1996). CL. Disinfection. Oxygen consumption. Water quality control. A greenhouse structure erected over a 0. Record 206 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Preliminary development of a biosecure shrimp production system AU: Author Browdy. but inputs do not necessarily have to be minimal or profits low. Ammonia. However. high health and genetically improved shrimp stocks. D SO: Source Aquaculture '98 Book of Abstracts. disease diagnosis and control protocols. shrimp.

The biosecure pond was stocked at a density of 100/M super(2) on Day 16. Disinfection success was assessed by colony forming units (CFU) on nutrient media and direct bacterial counts by fluorescence microscopy. Two days after residual chlorine reached undetectable levels. p. 330. making nitrifiers the last group to stabilize. CK. Incoming seawater was disinfected with chlorine at a CT of 1200 to 2000 min x ppm by pumping sand filtered seawater and a concentrated chlorine solution into a raceway contact chamber and then into the pond over a nine-day period. destruction of pathogens may not require complete disinfection. The study provided hands on experience in designing and managing a biosecure production strategy providing useful basic information for future development efforts. Feeding trays were used to monitor consumption but feed was offered at a constant rate from stocking to harvest. At least 99% of the bacteria and yeast present in the filtered seawater were destroyed by this disinfection procedure.allow air exchange. Survival was 70%. indicating a lack of sediment disinfection. Marine pollution. Coastal waters. and residual chlorine concentrations dropped rapidly. JB. the pond was fertilized and inoculated with a pure culture of Chaetoceros gracilis (Day 13). However. The initial modest C. mean size at harvest was 13g. oxygen consumption and nitrification rates. of which C. Culture effects. The initial very large fluctuations in phytoplankton and appeared to reach more normal fluctuation levels by Day 50. Marine aquaculture. CFU were abundant on all plates from the sediment site. J SO: Source Aquaculture '98 Book of Abstracts. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. The following parameters were measured weekly: bacterial abundance.5% bleach solution was poured over a small section of the sediment near the drain that did not dry completely. 1998. gracilis was a small component. and likely contamination of the interstitial water with water column water during the sampling process. for a production rate of 9109 kg/ha/crop. Overall the food conversion ratio was 2. This was followed by a sharp increase in water column bacterial abundance. Szyper.2:1. Man-induced effects. A 5. The microbial community was monitored throughout the season. despite significant residual chlorine in the overlying water column. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus. The initial bloom and stabilization of nitrifying bacteria lagged about 20 days behind the other measured groups. phytoplankton and zooplankton abundance and biomass. Article Geographic Terms: Tanzania AB: Abstract In recent years the marine shrimp farming has been expanding rapidly along the coasts of many Asian and Latin American countries. causing alteration or deterioration of many natural habitats and resources as . Environmental impact. Eutrophication. Chlorinated water additions ceased on Day 9. The sediment was dried and limed. and total ammonia concentration. Hambrey. These results suggest the difficulty in achieving sediment disinfection. gracilis bloom (Day 16) was followed by a large bacterial bloom and then a large mixed algal bloom (Day 30). Record 207 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Environmental impact assessment for a shrimp farm project in Tanzania: A case study AU: Author Lin. however.

but also to establish a model to serve the future shrimp farming expansion in Tanzania and possibly in other parts of African continent. feeds for several species of freshwater and marine finfish are available. Asian multinational companies. In the race for finding new territory for shrimp farming. Malaysia. where physiographical conditions are favorable and natural shrimp stocks abound. 364. some aspects of feed technology and raw material utilisation as well as the future roles of the industry in the development of aqauculture in the region. 1998. the adverse environmental impact has repeatedly led to unsustainable shrimp culture in most of so-called advanced shrimp culture countries. Record 208 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Recent trends in aquaculture feed manufacturing in the Asian region AU: Author Merican. However. The paper will present information on the feed manufacturing activities and production volumes based information from official and industry sources. flatfish. Besides feed for the marine shrimp. Special attentions are needed to promote and develop aquaculture in harmony with the environment and socio-economic settings. There are also changes in their research and development priorities as well as the technical field services provided to farmers. integrated environmental impact assessment should be regarded as a standard requirement. For sustainable development of any large-scale project in aquaculture. carp. Eventually. A great potential for shrimp farming development exists along the coasts of East Africa. common carp. Shrimp culture. yellowtail. Aquaculture development. Distribution. mainly from Thailand. Since 1993. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Feed preparation. African continent is a new frontier.well as socio-economics of coastal communities. rockfish. seabass and grouper. Feed manufacturers have shifted to the production of feed for freshwater and marine finfish and towards the integration of feed production with marine shrimp farming. there was an expansion in the manufacture of feeds for the marine shrimp to meet the demands of the expanding shrimp aquaculture industry. . Industrial production. It will also discuss the marketing and distribution network. Fish culture. freshwater prawn. p. crucian carp. mudfish. gourami. the technical preparedness and environmental awareness for large-scale aquaculture projects are relatively under developed in this part of the world. Taiwan AB: Abstract In the early 1990's. We will present a preliminary Environmental Impact Assessment for a proposed shrimp farming project in Tanzania. Taiwan and Malaysia also expanded and set up feed mills near the marine shrimp culture areas. Economics. The environmental impact assessment of this project was not only aimed to safeguard the environment around the proposed shrimp farming area. This decline has resulted in the closure of several less efficient local feed manufacturers and the consolidation of others. These include extruded floating and pellet feeds for the culture of tilapia. most of the marine shrimp producers have suffered production losses due to a multitude of problems. ZO SO: Source Aquaculture '98 Book of Abstracts. Marketing. catfish. Article Geographic Terms: Thailand. trout.

S. While . Penaeus vannamei. G.S. and 3. Selective breeding. 1998. p. In the last few years. Natural populations. Shrimp will be stocked into 12 0. Marine Shrimp Farming Program. Article Geographic Terms: Honduras AB: Abstract The use of high health and genetically improved shrimp stocks provide significant opportunities to advance the shrimp aquaculture industry by improving growout performance. Recirculating systems. In addition.25-ha ponds (4 replicates/treatment) at a commercial shrimp farm in Honduras that previously experienced outbreaks of TSV. The performance of selectively-bred shrimp will be evaluated by comparing survival of P. Water hardness. viral disease outbreaks have caused erratic production and crop failures at some farms. Acclimation. 473. J SO: Source Aquaculture '98 Book of Abstracts. DE SO: Source Aquaculture '98 Book of Abstracts. Shrimp culture. whereas juveniles will be fed TSV-contaminated shrimp tissue. G. Pruder. disease challenge tests will be performed on postlarvae and juvenile shrimp from the three different sources. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract The Pacific white shrimp accounts for 85-90% of production in the Western Hemisphere. 1998. 377. Espinoza. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Penaeus vannamei.postlarvae produced from hatchery-reared nauplii obtained from captive broodstock from Panama. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Freshwater aquaculture. S. Penaeus vannamei. Vaughan. Magnesium. vannamei obtained from three different sources: 1. J. Culture media. in freshwater AU: Author Scarpa. 2postlarvae produced from hatchery-reared nauplii obtained from gravid females collected from the wild in El Salvador. Norris. Experimental culture. Cultured organisms. Survival.postlarvae produced from hatchery-reared nauplii obtained from OI's breeding program. Results from the pond trial and disease challenge tests will be discussed. Wigglesworth. Record 210 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Culture of the marine shrimp.Record 209 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Comparative field survival trial between selectively-bred and wild white shrimp. the Oceanic Institute (OI) has established a selective breeding program to enhance disease resistance to Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) and improve growth. using specific pathogen free (SPF) white shrimp. Through the U. Initial stocking density will be 20 shrimp/m2 and % survival will be determined after about eight weeks. Arce. p. in Honduras AU: Author Moss. Comparative studies. Postlarvae will be exposed to four different concentrations of a TSV-challenge filtrate. J.

although lethargy was apparent. It was determined that: 1) postlarval shrimp could survive direct transfer from 28-30 ppt salinity to 10 ppt salinity with no mortality and 5 ppt salinity with 20% mortality. Aquaculture techniques. 5) postlarval shrimp acclimated to freshwater could survive total ammonia-nitrogen concentrations of 3. Future research areas include further delineation of nutritional and environmental requirements of these shrimp in freshwater. This was tested on the Pacific white shrimp. Rhodes. With dense phytoplankton blooms. However. CL. PA. One such alternative system is the use of freshwater to grow a marine species. Experiments were performed to examine environmental factors known to affect acclimation of marine species to freshwater and the grow-out performance of the shrimp. It is apparent that the Pacific white shrimp can be acclimated and grown to a commercial size in certain freshwaters. but could not survive direct transfer to similar to 0 ppt salinity. added to low-hardness freshwater increased survival of freshwater-acclimated postlarval shrimp. Sandifer. Cox. indicating that a hardness level of greater than 150 mg/L as CaCO sub(3) may be necessary for culture waters. were applied at a commercial shrimp farm in South Carolina. 2) freshwater-acclimated postlarval shrimp could survive freshwater diluted with distilled water to 1/2 strength with 10% mortality and to 1/3 strength with 33% mortality.75 mg/L up to 24 hrs. 1998. at the Waddell Mariculture Center to minimize negative impacts of effluent to coastal estuaries. AD. Article Taxonomic Terms: Decapoda. p. an alternative method of removing phytoplankton was . WA. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shellfish culture. RJ SO: Source Aquaculture '98 Book of Abstracts. Record 211 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Commercial scale application of sustainable aquaculture practices on a shrimp farm in South Carolina AU: Author Stokes. Shrimp culture. Penaeus vannamei. Article Geographic Terms: ANW. Aquaculture enterprises. USA. JM.disease resistant and high health strains are being developed for the industry. but not calcium. Hopkins. South Carolina AB: Abstract Sustainable aquaculture practices developed over the past 5 years. One of the primary goals of the Waddell Mariculture Center's sustainable aquaculture research is to significantly reduce or discontinue water exchange as a method of reducing phytoplankton density. The environmental factors were tested on postlarval shrimp because this is the common stage for grow-out facilities to utilize for stocking their ponds. Whetstone. alternative culture systems are also being explored. there are a host of factors that need to be understood before marine shrimp culture in freshwater becomes standard. because preliminary investigations established that the shrimp could withstand a freshwater environment. 4) the longer postlarval shrimp spent in freshwater after initial acclimation (acclimation time) increased survival of those shrimp when transferred to low-hardness freshwater. and 6) shrimp could be grown to 15 grams whole weight in similar to 4 months in freshwater recycle systems. resulting from the addition of large amounts of feed in intensive shrimp ponds. Browdy. 3) magnesium. 522. JS.

spawning and nauplius production of Penaeus vannamei AU: Author Sylvester.000 post larvae weekly to support the production of 2000 to 3000 pounds of 100-200 count shrimp per week. 1998. Mercenaria mercenaria. Sustainable aquaculture may also help growers avoid specific permit restrictions regarding farm effluent.000 post larvae per week with occasional spikes exceeding 400.000/ha. Sato. this practice was discontinued and the bag clams bottom planted.000. Garvey. therefore. the clams average 34. This paper describes trials that were conducted to evaluate enriched adult brine shrimp as a bloodworm substitute and problems encountered in the production of broodstock in a greenhouse system.45ha in size. Feeding experiments. One bag was placed on the pond bottom and the other suspended in mid water. J. The oysters. Because of the poor growth performance in the bag.9mm in 320 days.200/ha. D. were planted directly on the sandy pond bottom. survival rates are expected to be high. It often represents the highest cost feed item of a commercial hatchery. p. Spawning. Smith. In testing potential substitutes a number of system problems were discovered at the Kahuku Shrimp Company. By the spring of 1995 the low and inconsistent production along with a . 528. One rigid polyethylene shellfish culture bag was stocked with clams and placed on the sandy pond bottom for comparison. and oysters. . Crassotera virginica. Diets. feed becomes as a significant nutrient source causing dense algal blooms. The commercial bivalve production pond demonstration is still ongoing and will be harvested in the fall of 1997. Brood stocks. After 342 days in the shellfish production pond.) are commonly used in the maturation of marine shrimp. were divided and sealed in two rigid polyethylene shellfish culture bags.41ha in size. Two ponds. The clams that were bottom planted increased in size by 12. The use of shellfish to reduce phytoplankton densities could potentially reduce pumping costs and provide an additional crop for sale while reducing the potential negative impact of pond effluent on receiving waters. Nauplii. The third pond was stocked with hard clams. Few dead shell have been found during sampling. Article Taxonomic Terms: Glycera. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture.5mm during the same time. The clams.5 mm. 25mm singles. 12-15mm. Kawahigashi. Water recirculation rates through the shellfish pond was adjusted according to phytoplankton density in the pond. Artemia AB: Abstract Bloodworms (Glycera spp. The oysters placed at mid water increased in size by 24. VT. were stocked with marine shrimp. Through 1994 hatchery production varied between 100. Sexual maturity. The two shrimp ponds were connected to a third pond. by a piping system that was designed to recirculate water among the three ponds. CB SO: Source Aquaculture '98 Book of Abstracts.4mm in 287 days while the clams in the culture bag increased in size by 5. Because very little of the feed goes into shrimp tissue. J. Record 212 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Impact of a bloodworm substitute on maturation.000 and 250. at a rate of 1. The oysters placed on the pond bottom increased in size by 26. The Kahuku Shrimp Company requires approximately 400.developed for intensive shrimp management systems.3mm during the same period. . at a rate of 865.

665 to 1. S SO: Source Aquaculture '98 Book of Abstracts. phytoplankton could be divided into six main clusters.7 PL/m super(2). #65129).05. 547. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. .435 to 0. transparency. p. In pond C2. Test diets consisted of 50% and 100% replacement of bloodworms with enriched Artemia (San Francisco Bay Brand Omega Enriched Brine Shrimp. Nauplii were counted to determine fecundity.335 in pond A3.899 in pond A4. vannamei.131 to 1. Chanthaburi. phytoplankton in pond A1 could be devided into eight main clusters. Duplicate maturation trials using in-house broodstock were terminated within seven weeks because of low production.need to reduce operating costs led to trials testing the standard diet with bloodworms against two levels of substitution with enriched Artemia. Results from Trial #1: Trial #1 data suggests that the 50:50 diet results in production similar to the 100% bloodworm diet. Most of water quality parameters was increased along the culture period progression. The results from cluster analysis of sampling data shown the Bray-curtis similarity of phytoplankton communities at the level 36%. Record 213 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The relationship between water quality and phytoplankton in intensive marine shrimp ponds. depth. In pond B1. Thailand AB: Abstract Five experimented ponds of average area 0. 1998. 0. at the level 50%.466 to 1. 0. Normal feeding (100% Bloodworm) consisted of bloodworms. phytoplankton could be divided into six main clusters.128 in pond C2. A 100% substitution with enriched Artemia resulted in drastically reduced production. setiferus. 0. Mated females were placed in individual spawning tanks.233 to 1. Intensive culture. Broodstock were maintained according to standard protocols.039 in pond B1 and 0. In pond A3. at the level 46%.174. Phytoplankton. total ammonia and total nitrogen at the maximum harmonic rank correlation (HRC) of 0. water depth and total phosphorus were significantly different at p<0. P. Broodstock in Trial #2 were produced at the Kahuku Shrimp Company. phytoplankton could be divided into six main clusters.6 days with food conversion ratio of 1. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Article Taxonomic Terms: Decapoda. Broodstock in Trial #1 were obtained from commercial suppliers. Pond culture. The 50:50 diet produced fewer spawns but more nauplii on a per spawn basis. fertilization rate and to determine stocking into larval rearing tanks. This phenomenon was observed in previous and subsequent maturation efforts with P. Algae.692 in pond A1. stylirostris and P. The culture period was 162. Only alkalinity.70. eastern Thailand AU: Author Tookwinas. The Shannon's diversity index of phytoplankton range from 0.84 ha were stocked with shrimp fry (PL15) 49. at the level 50%. This suggests that the growout environment can have detrimental effects on the reproductive performance of shrimp and that broodstock source and history can be important factors in evaluating broodstock performance and changes in management protocols. squid and maturation pellets. The linkage of water quality data of phytoplankton communities structure data indicated that the variation of phytoplankton communities were correlated with the variation of salinity were correlated with the variation of salinity.

Record 214 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title An environmentally isolated. closed. AL. Watts. After acclimation. Recirculating systems. Aquaculture systems. Biofilter acclimation was extremely slow because the initial stocking of 200 g of shrimp postlarvae supplied all of the bacteria introduced into the system.600 L system has been constructed and operated for 15 months. viruses) have had a serious negative economic impact on marine shrimp farming world-wide. raw squid and bloodworms. shared facilities and shared personnel.7 m super(3) submerged oyster shell biofilter. recirculating marine shrimp culture system AU: Author Turk. Lee. DE: Descriptors . and 15 ppm.e. p. nitrite-nitrogen and nitrate-nitrogen concentrations remained below the intended limits. using a combination of commercial and research pelleted feeds as well as thawed. and transparency (HRC = 0. The latter is more difficult to accomplish because of possible sources of contamination from influent sea water. p. a 1 m super(3) bead filter. The establishment of commercial. respectively. Record 215 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Behavioral (feeding) responses of the crayfish.05. a 0.1. salinity (HRC = 0. the nitrite peak required over 60 d to disappear and denitrification required a preconditioning period of >150 d. PE. a 2. 0. 1998. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. SA SO: Source Aquaculture '98 Book of Abstracts.However. A prototype 5. the individual parameters are considered able to explain variation of phytoplankton was total nitrogen (HRC = 0. The need for specific-pathogen-free (SPF) broodstock that are either geographically or environmentally isolated from common diseases has become a priority. 0.05 m super(3) activated carbon filter.052). ammonia-nitrogen. PG SO: Source Aquaculture '98 Book of Abstracts. The system is composed of 2-1.082). a protein skimmer. The tanks and filters were sterilized before construction and freshly prepared artificial sea water was used. environmentally isolated broodstock also necessitates the use of totally. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus vannamei AB: Abstract Production losses from disease (i. closed recirculating water filtration systems to contain the costs of water replacement due to declining pH and nitrate accumulation.900 L shrimp culture tanks. C. As a result. to natural dietary items and common components of formulated crustacean feeds AU: Author Kreider. ultraviolet sterilizers and a denitrifying bioreactor. Lawrence. Procambarus clarkii. Zuercher.105). Two populations of the marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei were reared to adulthood in the system. 552. 1998. JL. 571.

live fishes. which can be either synergistic or suppressive. Soymeal was the most stimulatory of the feed components. The feeding response by P. whole-animal bioassay that included the following behaviors: (1) movement of the maxillipeds for longer than three seconds. Crayfish culture. (2) increased movement of the walking legs with dactyl "probing". Feed composition. have been observed to alter the level of feeding responses shown by crustaceans in a number of chemoreception studies. The C sub(18) water fraction of the soybean meal bathwater before size fractionation (containing molecules both < and >10. live fishes and fish eggs. insoluble proteins and ash). Chemical stimuli have been shown to elicit feeding responses in crustaceans such as the marine lobsters Homarus americanus and H. We hypothesize that the primary compounds in soybean meal responsible for eliciting a feeding response in P. Similarly. Article Taxonomic Terms: Procambarus clarkii AB: Abstract Crayfish are primarily raised in earthen ponds with a forage-based feeding system that relies on the growth of cultivated crops such as rice. Carr and Derby observed that two stimulatory chemicals presented in a single solution evoke a much stronger response than that predicted by additive effect calculations based on the individual stimulatory activity of the two chemicals. alfalfa meal and corn. clarkii was determined using an ordinally ranked. Feeding behaviour. the ability to detect and locate food. supplemental and formulated feeds have been suggested to intensify the crayfish aquaculture industry. 4% soluble protein and 45% unknown (assumed to be insoluble carbohydrates.e. and size fractions of bathwater containing either molecules less than or equal to 10. (3) movement of walking legs to the mouth. water and methanol fractions of bathwater eluted through a C sub(18) resin flash chromatography column. mixture interactions. and volunteer terrestrial and semi-aquatic plants such as alligator weed and other detritus to provide food. Numerous studies have indicated that amino acids are the most stimulatory chemicals for eliciting feeding behavior in crustaceans considered to be largely carnivorous. and fish eggs) and common components of formulated feeds used in the aquaculture industry (soybean meal. In recent investigations.000 d. gammarus. Peptides have also been well documented in stimulating important behavioral activities.000 d or molecules >10. 51% soluble carbohydrate. All fractions tested were significantly stimulatory. Feeding behavior was determined in response to intact items. corn meal. the marine shrimp Palaemonetes pugio. including feeding. in aquatic animals. Moreover. little is known about the dietary and nutritional requirements of crayfish. followed by fresh-killed fishes. alfalfa meal and vitamin C). and that sugars are the most stimulatory chemicals for eliciting feeding behavior in crustaceans considered to be largely herbivorous. . and (4) orientation of the entire body towards the odor source.000 d) was the most stimulatory of the common feed components and more stimulatory than the C18 water fraction of zooplankton. fish meal. Feed. Their variable diets include nearly all taxonomic groups within the plant and animal kingdoms.. and the semi-terrestrial fiddler crab Uca pugilator. Proximate analysis indicated that the compounds present in this soybean fraction were ca. We have examined the behavioral (feeding) response of Procambarus clarkii to natural dietary items (zooplankton. i. dead fishes.Article Subject Terms: Diets. Despite the potential for the use of formulated feeds in crayfish culture. followed by fish meal. Zooplankton was the most stimulatory of the natural dietary items tested. bathwater containing aqueous leachates from intact items. little is known about crayfish feeding behavior.

Intensive culture. Physicochemical properties. Shrimp culture. Water quality control. the ponds with water exchange released more total suspended solids and as reported by Hopkins et al. ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus during the drain harvesting process than did the ponds with routine water exchange. dissolved oxygen was higher in ponds with recycled water.C. CL SO: Source Aquaculture '98 Book of Abstracts. digest. and produced intensively in water retained from the previous growout season with no major water quality differences. mineralize and deposit much of the nutrient mass to pond sediments or release it as gas. with support and funding from the S.clarkii are soluble carbohydrates and/or glycoproteins. the pond system should be able to assimilate. Waste utilization. Production methods were similar to those used in 1996. Without routine water exchange with the estuary. According to Hopkins et al. while total suspended solids and salinity were higher in ponds with first season water. Record 217 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The economic feasibility of environmentally-friendly shrimp aquaculture waste management techniques . Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus AB: Abstract A research focus of the Waddell Mariculture Center. There was a trend towards larger harvest size in the ponds with recycled water but the total production and survival were similar for both treatments. However. p. ponds with a no-exchange management strategy discharged more BOD. Sludge removal and partial water recirculation with a "filter" pond was utilized in the recycled water treatment. However. first season water. JS. Pond culture. has been the development of production systems which discharge little or no water and recycle waste material. Water exchange practices are usually not based on nutrient monitoring. Browdy. Recirculating systems. (1993). but on fluctuating environmental conditions or a set schedule. Sea Grant Consortium. Based on these observations. JD. Richardson. 247. Hopkins. Water quality parameters were monitored throughout the season and most parameters measured were similar between treatments. 1998. These results indicate that marine shrimp can be produced intensively with no water exchange from the estuary. Comparative studies. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine aquaculture. Record 216 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Results of a no-water exchange management strategy utilizing new and recycled water for the intensive culture of marine shrimp AU: Author Holloway. JR II. (1996). the total load of nutrients discharged through the whole production process is higher when routine water exchange is utilized. while the first season water treatment had no sludge removal or water recirculation. the objective for the 1997 production season was to intensively culture shrimp in recycled water retained from the 1996 production season and compare this to intensive shrimp culture in ponds with new. Production characteristics were similar for both treatments.

The feasibility analysis also includes the comparison of the projected net present value (NPV) of an environmentally-friendly waste treatment system of this marine shrimp farm compared to the NPV for such a commercial farm without a treatment system.]. Record 218 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Freezing of viable embryos and larvae of marine shrimp. Shrimp culture. the generation of revenue from waste treatment by-products will be critical in offsetting the fixed and variable costs of effluent treatment techniques and perhaps in maintaining the long run financial viability of South Carolina's small shrimp farming industry. Pond culture. Wastewater disposal. RJ. Intensive culture. mainly Mercenaria mercenaria. for waste management of shrimp pond effluent from the farm's grow-out ponds. USA. Penaeus semisulcatus de Haan AU: Author Diwan. 28. Freezing storage. Projected costs include bivalve depuration expenses and a substantial increase in labor costs. Aquaculture. Waste disposal. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. If government regulations mandate that marine shrimp farms not produce any significant pond discharge. Whetstone. the technology is still not at the . In response. particularly in some teleost fish and also shellfish. Crustaceans (Decapod) (Shrimps and prawns). Nauplii. 1998. USA. Vol. a technique discouraged by SC aquaculture permitting policies. 436-437. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus semisulcatus AB: Abstract Although sperm cryopreservation has been carried out successfully in a number of commercially important aquatic species. pp. Waste management. Kandasami. intensification has been accompanied by increases in water use for pond flushing into adjacent receiving streams. Dec 1997.AU: Author Rhodes. Developmental stages. an economic feasibility analysis study was conducted to estimate the incremental private costs and benefits of using a treatment pond with bivalves. K SO: Source Aquaculture Research [Aquacult. pp. 947-950. Larvae. Clam culture. Mercenaria mercenaria. Economic feasibility. Cryopreservation. While intensive shrimp aquaculture techniques can minimize land costs. Economics. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture techniques. AD. Shrimp culture. Stokes. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Wastewater aquaculture. Article Geographic Terms: ANW. Embryos. 12. no. Based upon data from a demonstration project at a SC commercial shrimp farm. South Carolina AB: Abstract High coastal land costs and a short grow-out season have stimulated the development of intensive production techniques for marine shrimp in South Carolina (SC). Projected revenue sources include the sale of bivalves and pond sludge. Storage effects. South Carolina. Res. AD. applied research has been conducted in SC to develop commercial techniques that minimize potential negative environmental impacts of marine shrimp farming. JM SO: Source Aquaculture '98 Book of Abstracts.

Consideration must be given to the causes of production failure. 425-435. of aquatic animals however. and technical constraints. A number of shrimp ponds consequently are unproductive and lie idle. Habitat improvement. The case for restoration.stage of advanced commercial application that is seen in domestic mammals. and pond disuse lead to alterations to the physical and chemical properties of soil. poor environmental conditions. and disease. unofficial estimates have suggested that as many as 70% of ponds may be disused after a period in production. Mangrove swamps. NJ SO: Source Coastal Management [Coast. shrimp culture. Manage. Pond construction. In recent years some attempts have also been made to cryopreserve the embryos and nauplii of shrimp Penaeus indicus H Milne Edwards. overstocking. Production in many regions has proved to be unsustainable. or rehabilitation to a sustainable use. Vol. hydrological conditions. 4. Construction. Management Planning AB: Abstract Associated with the rapid increase in the production of cultured marine shrimp has been large-scale conversion of mangroves to shrimp ponds. Accurate assessments of pond disuse are difficult to obtain. Coastal zone management. and the flora and fauna composition of the pond area. Diseases. The present study was carried out with a view to developing a method for the successful freezing of viable embryos and larvae of marine shrimp. From a review of the literature it appears that studies on the cryopreservation of embryos and larvae of fish and shellfish is still in a rudimentary phase and much remains to be done. the needs and preferences of pond owners and coastal managers. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Pond culture. Later Zell (1978) and Erdahl & Graham (1980) have reported preliminary attempts to freeze the eggs of rainbow trout. Hydrology. The first successful attempt at the cryopreservation of embryos of sea urchin was reported. largely due to inappropriate construction methods. Environmental impact. no. Record 219 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Disused shrimp ponds: Options for redevelopment of mangroves AU: Author Stevenson. Shrimp. using the experimental protocol now described.]. pp. Cryopreservation of eggs and embryos. however. is a virgin field in cryobiology and has not yet received any appreciable amount of attention. Record 220 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Genetic susceptibility of cultured shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) to infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus and Baculovirus . Shrimp culture. the environmental conditions remaining following disuse. rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum and zebra fish Brachydanio rerio Weber & de Beaufort. 25. Nature conservation. Ponds. Aquaculture. Oct-Dec 1997. Studies have been carried out to cryopreserve the embryos of Japanese medaka Oryzias letipes Schlegel. is strong.

RM. On the other hand. 70. Dhar. and cross III was developed using a female from the high-growth family 1. 3. A. 53. Gene regulation. Record 221 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Effect of host size on virulence of Taura Virus to the marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei (Crustacea: Penaeidae) AU: Author . JM Source Journal of Invertebrate Pathology [J. Pathol. The prevalence of BP infection at Day 4 was highest (100%) in cross IV.]. Invertebr. were 43. Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Gene expression. Lotz. The random amplified polymorphic DNA polymorphisms for crosses I. DNA. Despite 100% prevalence of BP infection in cross IV at 4 days. Infectious hypodermal and hematopoetic virus. Astrofsky. II. Vol. On the basis of prevalence of infection and mortality rates. it was concluded that the susceptibility to BP in penaeid shrimp is governed by the genetic background of the parental crosses. III. Baculovirus penaei Abstract Offspring of four crosses (I.6. Sweeney. Fish diseases. had the lowest (68%) prevalence at Day 4 postexposure. Bacterial diseases. Shrimp culture.and low-growth families were challenged with infectious hypodermal and hematopoetic necrosis virus (IHHNV) and Baculovirus penaei (BP) to compare their susceptibility to these viral agents and examine the genetic component involved in disease resistance or susceptibility. K.AU: SO: DE: AB: penaei: Possible relationship with growth status and metabolic gene expression Author Alcivar-Warren. respectively) showed low survival at Day 18 (19 and 24%). WH. respectively. pp. and IV.S. 45. The prevalence of IHHNV infection was highest in cross I and lowest in cross III.6. growth status. Penaeus vannamei. Baculovirus. animals from this cross and cross II exhibited high survival by Day 18 (85 and 77%). Viral diseases. showing no clear relationship between IHHNV and BP prevalence of infection and levels of nuclear genetic diversity. Overstreet. Mitochondrial DNA. The possible relationship among disease susceptibility. and expression of mitochondrial 12s rRNA is discussed in the context of a complex nuclear-cytoplasmic genetic system involved in the regulation of gene expression. major differences were observed in both steady-state levels and patterns of expression of the mitochondrial 12s rRNA in offspring obtained at various early developmental stages from each of the four crosses. which was developed using a female from the low-growth family 1. Cross I was developed using male and female broodstock from the low-growth family 1. no. Disease resistance. Disease control. crosses I and III (with 88 and 68% prevalence at Day 4. III. The reciprocal cross. AK. Article Taxonomic Terms: Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus. Family crosses were made using broodstock from five families developed by the U. and 51%. Though the mtDNA haplotypes in offspring from the different crosses were the same. Nov 1997. J.5. Infectious diseases. II. Carr. cross III. and IV) of Penaeus vannamei from known high. Marine Shrimp Farming Program. Both crosses I and II had 88% prevalence of infection at Day 4.4 and a male from the high-growth family 1.3 and a male from the low-growth family 1. 190-197.

The Taura Virus in all experiments originated from infected farm-reared shrimp collected during a 1995 Taura Virus outbreak in Texas. The first type occurs during grow-out phase of shrimp culture. This study consisted of 4 experiments designed to test the hypothesis that P. however. mortality causes. husbandry. vannamei becomes more tolerant of Taura Virus infections as it becomes larger. Jul 1997. Record 222 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Aquafarmer Information Sheet: Prevention of Black Gill Disease in Marine Shrimp AU: Author Silva-Krott. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. All shrimp used in experiments were Specific-Pathogen-Free Penaeus vannamei derived from the United States Marine Shrimp Farming Program Population 1. viral diseases. no. disease resistance. the effect was only statistically significant in 2 of the 4 experiments. JM SO: Source Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. caused by Taura Virus (Taura Syndrome Virus). Article Taxonomic Terms: taura syndrome virus AB: Abstract Taura Disease (Taura Syndrome). 1. Black gills may . Mortality causes. is the most important disease of the farmed penaeid shrimp Penaeus vannamei in the Western Hemisphere. vannamei increases its tolerance to Taura Virus as it increases in size from 1 to 30 g. Jul 1997. The fouling organisms may become numerous and problematic when shrimp are weak and environmental conditions not good.Lotz. Pacific. I. Brock. aquaculture. Guam AB: Abstract Recent studies in Guam indicate two types of black gill disease may occur in marine shrimp ponds. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. pond culture. Fungal diseases. Lankamer. Experiments were done in either 100 1 glass aquaria or 4000 1 cylindrical fiberglass tanks. Vol. In the 4 experiments 9 to 14 d survival ranged from 0 to nearly 60%. Fouling organisms. USA. pp. 30. Gills. Experimental shrimp were inoculated with virus either per os by allowing shrimp to feed on triturated infected shrimp tissue or intramuscularly by injection of a cell-free suspension of infected shrimp tissue into the abdominal musculature. protozoa and bacteria settle on gill surfaces and cause inflammation of tissues which then turn black. The results of the experiments tailed to support the hypothesis that P. One possible tactic to offset Taura Virus-induced mortalities is for culturists to use larger shrimp for stocking ponds. 45-51. Gill fouling causes slow growth and lowered survival of shrimp. Fouling organisms. 2 pp. Marianas. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. This makes shrimp look unattractive to buyers and lowers product value. 126. The second type of black gill occurs in shrimp after harvest. no. host-pathogen interactions. mortality. husbandry diseases. D SO: Source Center for Tropical and Subtropical Aquaculture. J. Analysis of each of the 4 experiments by logistic regression revealed a consistent trend for larger shrimp to be more likely to succumb to infection. Pathogenic bacteria. ponds.

The first feasibility study and development project. 16. 320. USA. this problem can be solved by proper handling of shrimp during and after harvesting. One possible tactic to offset Taura Syndrome Virus-induced mortalities is for culturists to use larger shrimp for stocking ponds. shrimp culture. The study consisted of 4 experiments designed to test the hypothesis that P. near Bandar Abbas. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: disease resistance. no. a laboratory. the government administration responsible for fisheries in Iran. body size. plus a programme for manpower training. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus semisulcatus. Construction began in 1991 on a national shrimp culture development centre in Kolahi. pp. Iran is a late entrant into marine shrimp farming. viruses. vannamei becomes more tolerant of TSV infections as they become larger. Experiments were done in either 100-L glass aquaria or 4000-L cylindrical fiberglass tanks. Penaeus indicus. 6ha of grow-out ponds. It included a five-million post-larvae (PI) capacity shrimp hatchery. Vol. Article Geographic Terms: Iran AB: Abstract Shilat. Experimental shrimp were inoculated with virus .000 hectares of low-quality agricultural land have been allocated for shrimp farming in the southern provinces. has financially encouraged development of marine shrimp farming using Asian technologies adapted by the Institute of Fisheries Research (IFRTO). In most cases. Article Taxonomic Terms: taura syndrome virus AB: Abstract Taura Syndrome (TS). Aquaculture. Record 224 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The effect of host size on virulence of Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) to the marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei (Crustacea: Penaeidae) AU: Author Lotz. aquaculture development. in 1989. Viral diseases. More than 200. Jun 1997. C DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. Record 223 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Iran aims to be big in shrimp AU: Author Nash. was funded jointly by United Nations Development Programme and Shilat. JM SO: Source Journal of Shellfish Research. and was carried out with the help of Asian experts contracted through the UN Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO). 1. All shrimp used in experiments were Specific-Pathogen-Free Penaeus vannamei derived from United States Shrimp Farming Program Population 1. is the most important disease of the farmed penaeid shrimp Penaeus vannamei in the Western Hemisphere. Penaeus monodon.be caused by unhealthy animals at harvest time and poor post-harvest handling. The TSV in all experiments originated from infected farm-reared shrimp collected during a 1995 TS outbreak in Texas.

entitled "Turn of the millennium aquaculture: navigating troubled waters or riding the crest of the wave?". I will also attempt to project the requirements for aquaculture production into the early part of the next century and mention some of the issues which we must face to meet the challenges. Vol. That paper. commercial species. held in Puerto Rico. the annual meeting of the World Aquaculture Society. vannamei increases its tolerance to TSV as it increases in size between 1 g and 30 g. pp. the effect was only statistically significant in 2 of the 4 experiments. I will be excluding the production of aquatic plants and concentrating on the production of commodities for direct human consumption. economics AB: Abstract Six years ago I gave the keynote address at World Aquaculture '91. no. In the four experiments 9-14 d survival ranged from 0% to nearly 60%.]. Record 225 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Aquaculture and the capture fisheries . 2. Record 226 of 500 .either per os by allowing shrimp to feed on macerated infected shrimp tissue or intramuscularly by injection of a viral suspension into the abdominal musculature. however. The results of the experiments failed to support the hypothesis that P. MB SO: Source World Aquaculture [WORLD AQUACULT. not only in its official documents but also in its newsletter. for popular consumption.2 % by weight in 1994) of the global output and therefore skews the picture for the rest of the world. Those who want to examine the trials and tribulations which occurred between 1985 and 1994 (for example. I simply want to highlight the differences between the situation in 1985 and in 1994. fishery statistics. Since then there have been many similar analyses and prognoses. In discussing global aquaculture output and comparing it to capture fisheries production I have chosen to concentrate on the differences between 1985 and 1994 (the most recent year for which detailed FAO statistics are currently available). Since the aquaculture production of China forms such a large proportion (57. Jun 1997. It also was a pioneering attempt to analyse FAO aquaculture production data in graphic form. the rise and fall in marine shrimp production in China) will need to look at FAO data in more detail. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: aquaculture economics. aquaculture statistics. Except where specifically mentioned. 11-30. A helpful development is that FAO has also started to publish its own analyses of production trends.Balancing the scales AU: Author New. capture fishery economics. 28. It is now standard practice for the FAO Fisheries Department to introduce its own annual aquaculture and fisheries statistical tables with graphic summaries. Analysis of each of the 4 experiments by logistic regression revealed a consistent trend for larger shrimp to be more likely to succumb to infection. was one of the first attempts to predict the global requirements for aquaculture production up to the year 2025. I will also present some data with and without China.

3. 24. May 1997. 1. This requirement for growth conforms with the threonine level in the shrimp muscle. Penaeus monodon postlarvae. 1. threonine. May 1997. PL20.12 g per 100 g diet or 1. pp. Bautista.2. Relationship of weight gain with dietary threonine level was analyzed by the quadratic regression method to derive the threonine requirement. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: nutritional requirements.in rearing facilities that can also withstand the rigours of seasonal monsoons. Article Geographic Terms: Taiwan AB: Abstract Taiwan was a forerunner in intensive marine shrimp farming in Asia and the major producer in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Government fisheries agencies have since devoted much time and resources to developing alternative sustainable marine aquaculture practices.28. and 2. 10. The establishment of modern offshore fish farming technology is a top priority in the national aquaculture plan. amino acids. aquaculture development.8.9. 1. 1-4. OM.56.84. no. resulting in the collapse of this industry. soon led to a degradation of the coastal zone. causing self-pollution and disease. A SO: Source Aquaculture. D SO: Source Fish Farming International. diets. however. They were fed amino acid test diets (40% protein) with casein-gelatin as natural protein sources and supplemented with crystalline L-amino acids to simulate the amino acid profile of shrimp muscle except for threonine. Vol. MN. Reyes. Graded levels of threonine were incorporated to obtain 0. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: fish culture.72.3% of dietary protein. 4. were stocked in 30-l fiberglass tanks at ten shrimp per tank arranged in a completely randomized design with six replicates per treatment. 5. Results showed that the quantitative threonine requirement for growth is 1. The uncontrolled rapid expansion in the number and size of the farms. 151. cage culture.6. The configuration of Taiwan's coastline does not offer many sites for traditional cage farming. no.DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Tension leg tested in Taiwan AU: Author Lisac. pp. Record 228 of 500 DN: Database Name . 9-14. Vol. and any appreciable production can take place only in the open sea environment . 1.5. and 5. 2. Record 227 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Threonine requirement of juvenile marine shrimp Penaeus monodon AU: Author Millamena. shrimp culture. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon AB: Abstract The threonine requirement was determined for juvenile marine shrimp. 3.4% of the diet or 3.0. OS.5% of dietary protein. Kanazawa.

aquaculture development. whose disease status is unpredictable and therefore difficult to sustain for the long-term. marketing. R SO: Source Fish Farming News [FISH FARM. NEWS]. shrimp culture. feeding behaviour. 5 p. p. 1-2. Goddard. Apr 1997. aquaculture economics.]. Mar 1997. shrimp culture. brood stocks. Today France Aquaculture is little more than a portfolio of old projects and misty memories. pp. such as Aquatic Farms. 3. Mar 1997. no. Like a handful of big companies dominating the consulting field a decade ago. viral diseases. the French company responsible for much global expansion of marine shrimp farming and aquaculture through the 1980s. 24. breeding. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: feeding experiments. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: fish diseases. 5. no. and Taura syndrome.ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Steps to keeping shrimp healthy AU: Author Getchell. KCM International and Fisheries Development Ltd. hatcheries AB: Abstract ITHACA. Part of the reason is that the industry is based on wild-caught broodstock. seed (aquaculture). Vol. S SO: Source Aquaculture. 5. Gesteira. nutritional requirements. 121-136. it thrived and grew on large investment projects of international banks and of governments eager to benefit from export earnings resulting from new farming technologies. Article Taxonomic Terms: . yellow head. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: fish culture. no. the US Marine Shrimp Farming Program (USMSFP) is addressing this challenge by developing reliable sources of quality seed stock through its high health shrimp systems. NY . SO: Source Fish Farming International [FISH FARM. INT. Article Geographic Terms: France AB: Abstract France-Aquaculture. Vol. shrimp culture. AJP. Record 230 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Food ingestion and assimilation by the southern brown shrimp Penaeus subtilis under semi-intensive culture in NE Brazil AU: Author Nunes. 149. Vol. TCV. Record 229 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Decline of the big consultancies marks new era AU: Author Anon. However. has all but disappeared.The world's shrimp farmers have been caught in a game of "Twister" trying to keep one step ahead of shrimp diseases like white spot.

The prawns . 1. The investigation focused on the analysis of stomach contents and stable carbon isotope ratios. with the remainder attributed to natural food (average 75. attempts to increase productivity in extensive marine shrimp farms has focused attention on semi-intensive cultivation methods with native species. a benthic omnivorous opportunist feeding behaviour was observed. a close relative of the giant fresh-water prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). The present study was initiated to investigate the diet of Penaeus subtilis under semi-intensive conditions over a complete growth cycle. Somers. Gabon and Congo (Zaire) (Holthius. streams. four constructed fish ponds (22%).55% of the total food consumed). J.000 tonnes in 1990 (Chamberlain. They were grouped into two forms.61% of the stomach contents (5.S. Record 231 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Assessment of the African river prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (Herklots. representing 80. subtilis displayed pronounced detritivorous feeding behaviour. 1991). Mar 1997. length-weight relationships. The present decline in the marine shrimp production as reported by Adetayo (1982) gives room for alternative ways of increasing shrimp production to reduce the overfished marine species.83% of all prey ingested (32. 1980). vollenhovenii showing the highest occurrence in eighteen (72%) fresh water bodies made up of seven rivers (39%). aquaculture. subtilis observed throughout the study. ponds and reservoirs (lakes). MJ SO: Source African journal of ecology. Article Geographic Terms: Nigeria AB: Abstract Macrobrachium vollenhovenii is a tropical crustacean endemic to the eastern Atlantic. As the shrimp grew.91% of the carbon growth. ECOL. Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium vollenhovenii. freshwater crustaceans. Macrobrachium species were found in 25 with M. three reservoirs (17%) and four streams (22%). Article Geographic Terms: Brazil AB: Abstract In recent years in NE Brazil. consisting of rivers. Its fishery has been reported in Senegal.99% of stomach volume).09%). which has not been fully developed in the manner of M. Ivory Coast. Formulated food constituted 15. lentic or standing (ponds and reservoirs) water and lotic or running water (rivers and streams).A. shrimp fisheries. A twelve month survey was carried out. 1857) in some lentic and lotic environments in Nigeria AU: Author Bello-Olusoji. Macrobrachium vollenhovenii. In the initial growth stages. Nairobi [AFR. 35.]. accounting for 24. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: freshwater environments. has commercial potential (Ajuzie & Fagade. Overall. Vol. Liberia. 1992). rosenbergii that is now being cultured commercially in SE Asia and in developed countries including the U. Polychaetes were the most important food type. no. Naturally occurring pond biota was the major food source for P.Penaeus subtilis. prey organisms were consumed in greater amounts. P. on 42 freshwater bodies. The experiment was conducted at a commercial shrimp farm on the NE Brazilian coast. French Guinea. pp.166 tonnes in 1983 to 120. stock assessment. Its production in Indonesia is being described as the second most productive industry in the world with an increase in yield from 26. revealing a more carnivorous habit. OA. 80-81.

1 mu g DHA/mg dry weight] and nonen. Survival. Record 233 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts . vollenhovenii was randomly sampled from the total catch. Cultured organisms. general performance and disease resistance. These were separated according to their sizes. 289-298. P. Artemia AB: Abstract A two-way ANOVA experiment was designed to study the effects of salinity and dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. pp. Dry weight.3 mu g DHA/mg dry weight]. The maximum total length and weight recorded was 16. Shrimp were reared from 1. Carbohydrates.0 cm (135 g) and 14.riched Artemia [14. Dietary DHA content did not affect either total length or survival but influenced the nutritional status represented by condition indices (triacylglycerol/total polar lipid and triacylglycerol/free cholesterol) of 8-d-old postlarvae at the end of the experiment. Lipids. no. Biol. 13 females and 7 males.0 cm (125 g) for the lotic and lentic groups. Fatty acids. although (n-3) HUFA-enriched diets may also enhance osmotic stress resistance. Rodriguez. Rearing.]. survival and nutritional condition when reared at 35 ppt S and when fed on Kelko-enriched Artemia but the differences with postlarvae from other treatments were very poorly marked. Vol. kerathurus 8-d-old postlarvae showed better growth. A SO: Source Marine Biology [Mar.to 8-d-old postlarvae at 35 and 25 ppt S with Kelko-enriched Artemia [20. Ash content.2 cm for M. Record 232 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Effects of salinity and dietary DHA (22:6n-3) content on lipid composition and performance of Penaeus kerathurus postlarvae AU: Author Mourente. In ponds. Culture salinity affected final total length and condition indices but did not show any effect on survival in the different experimental treatments. body length (cm) and pincer length (cm) were measured. In the Laboratory samples were grouped into those from lotic environments and those from lentic environments.2 mu g (n-3) HUFA/mg dry weight. 128. 2. Proteins. On each trip M. 1997. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus kerathurus. The weight (g). 9. Crustacean larvae. Salinity effects.were caught using traps and nets set by fishermen on the relevant rivers and streams. G. vollenhovenii.0 mu g (n-3) HUFA/mg dry weight. they were collected after draining the pond or caught alongside fin-fishes during harvesting. Nutritional requirements. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans. Holithus (1980) reported maximum length of 18. 22:6n-3) on lipid composition and performance of postlarvae from the marine shrimp Penaeus kerathurus. 0. The results demonstrate that 8-d-old postlarvae may have sufficiently developed osmoregulatory capabilities to resist 25 ppt S under good conditions. Body size. Twenty samples were picked randomly from each environment as shown in Table 1. The interaction of dietary DHA and culture salinity was not significant for total length and survival but was significant for both condition indices used.

DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Vol.01) due to different bacterial cultures or postlarval stages. La prueba se realizo por triplicado con postlarvas entre los estadios 3 y 12. It was noted that this activity gradually rises its production reaching a total of 185. Mar 1997. as well as degeneration in the walls of the tubules. Vol. tissue samples of both infected and uninfected postlarvae were preserved in Davidson's fixative. and three replicas of postlarvae in stages 3-12 with a density of 60 postlarvae/L.000 metric tons in 1996. Vibrio sp. cut into 5 mu sections.] AU: Author Berger. Biol. and problematics of the marine shrimp culture in Latin America are reviewed. inoculados con suspensiones bacterianas diluidas. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Pathogens. Degeneration and presence of bacilli in infected abdominal muscle tissue. Penaeus vannamei AB: Abstract The present work describes the histopathological effects produced by cultures of Vibrio sp. Shrimp culture. marine pollution. se fijaron . 2. Bacterial diseases. Aquaculture. embedded in paraffin. The assays consisted of 12 randomly chosen Vibrio sp. the obtention of good quality seed. 1997. pp. marked vacuolization. Record 234 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Histopathological effects produced by Vibrio sp. Aquaculture economics.TI: Title [A summary on the marine shrimp culture in Latin America. economic and social aspects. Conroy. infiltration of hemocytes. Las muestras de tejido de las postlarvas se tomaron a las 24 horas de iniciado el ensayo. perspectives. Cent. is present within the shrimp as well as in the sea water samples of the culture station. 64. Developmental stages. Histopathology. Inoculations were made with diluted bacterial suspensions. 31.Original Abstract: Se describen los efectos histopatologicos producidos por cepas de Vibrio sp. (Maracaibo)]. en postlarvas de Penaeus vannamei. tomadas al azar. Invest. Marine organisms. in postlarvae of the marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei. H. cultures and a control. La densidad poblacional fue de 60 postlarvas/L. and presence of bacilli in infected tissue of the hepatopancreas were observed. culture techniques. 23-25. 3-4. Para el ensayo se utilizo un blanco y 12 cepas de Vibrio sp. Philippi. Article Taxonomic Terms: Vibrio. 135-149. After 48 hours. D SO: Source Boletin del Centro del Investigaciones Biologicas [Bol. reduction of production costs and improvement of marketing practices. C SO: Source Pesca. Article Geographic Terms: Latin America AB: Abstract The actual state. Fishery development. Infected specimens did not present any significant histopathological differences (P < 0. Some of the main problems ocurring are the disease prevention. Thus. in postlarvae of Penaeus vannamei AU: Author Urdaneta. and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (Mayer's modified method). no. The histological effects seen by us in this study are similar to those of other investigators. pp. A. no.

7 respectively. The experiment was repeated three times. Los cambios histologicos manifestados en los especimenes infectados no presentaron diferencias significativas (P < 0. Vol. pp. Survival was not significantly different among the experiments. and 7 kg mussel per ton effluent. no. Stocking density. 3. Thailand Record 236 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Court ruling threatens future of Indian shrimp farming AU: Author Anon. . indicando la existencia de cepas de Vibrio sp. Perna viridis AB: Abstract Green mussel Perna viridis were exposed 10 days to effluents from an intensive marine shrimp farm (0. Asimismo.. Los resultados obtenidos fueron similares a los observados por otros investigadores. It is concluded that 1 kg green mussel is a suitable stocking density for the treatment of 1 ton of stagnant waste water per 10 days. salinity.01) al considerar tanto las cepas bacterianas como los estadios de las postlarvas. Effluents were monitored for chlorophyll alpha . se incluyeron en parafina. Pollution control. Phuket Mar. Average temperature. Aquaculture effluents. LIPI. nitrite-nitrogen. [Spec. One control without mussels was included.55 ha.. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Mussel culture. Wastewater aquaculture. 17. S. Publ. T SO: Source Proceedings of the seventh Workshop of the Tropical Marine Mollusc Programme (TMMP) on Central and West Java. 1. Los analisis histopatologicos permitieron observar degradacion y presencia de bacilos en el tejido muscular abdominal infectado. Cent.]. 5. a nivel del tejido de hepatopancreas infectado se aprecio degradacion de las paredes de los tubulos. Thiraksapan. and pH were 26-29 degree C. Article Taxonomic Terms: Mytilidae. and 1 month old) for biological treatment of the water. alta vacuolizacion y presencia de bacilos. Biol. tanto en el interior de los camarones como en el agua de mar de la estacion de cultivo donde se tomaron las muestras. Densities of green mussel were 1. 31-33 ppt and 7. Indonesia conducted at IPB.en solucion Davidson. Wastewater treatment. 1997. and total suspended solids before and after each experiment.9-8. Aquaculture systems. 11-22 November 1996. ammonia-nitrogen. se realizaron cortes y se tineron co el metodo modificado de hematoxilina y eosina de Mayer. but there was a tendency toward increased mortality at higher stocking densities. CA: Corporate Author Phuket Marine Biological Cent. Shrimp culture. UNDIP. Record 235 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Application of green mussel (Perna viridis) in biological treatment of effluents from an intensive marine shrimp farm AU: Author Tookwinas. infiltracion de hemocitos. 141-144. Part 1. orthophosphate. stocking density 34 shrimp m super(-2).

Griffin. But. From 2 super(nd) through 7 super(th) cleavages. To determine if specific spindle orientations were intrinsic properties of individual blastomeres. Article Taxonomic Terms: Sicyonia ingentis AB: Abstract During early cleavages of Sicyonia ingentis embryos. SW. Then. cell differentiation. Linear embryos were constructed by dissociating 4-cell embryos and recombining the blastomeres in a linear array. will hit corporate investors hard. We suggest that the reorientation of mitotic spindles during early cleavage of S. spindles. no. we altered blastomere associations and asked how mitotic spindle orientation was affected in successive cleavages using laser scanning confocal microscopy. embryonic development. legal aspects. Feb 1997. Vol. 773-780. environmental impact. shrimp culture. pollution control. subsequent spindle orientations were not like those observed for intact 8-cell linear embryos. by Justices Kuldip Singh and Saghir Ahmad on December 11. marine crustaceans. these results in conjunction with observations of non-manipulated embryos suggest that spindle poles . 4. aquaculture development. the Supreme Court of India handed down its 111-page judgement for the future of the marine shrimp farming industry along the country's coastal margins. When 8-cell linear embryos were separated into linear half-embryos. The ensuing cleavage (3 super(rd) embryonic cleavage) of these linear embryos was parallel to the long axis of the embryo. the industry is already fighting back. Thus. which will be popular among India's small farmers and environmentalists. and the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD). but rather is cell contact related. spindles orient at a 90 degree angle with respect to the spindle of the parent blastomere. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: cell cycle. The surprising decision. pp. mitotic spindle orientations differ between blastomeres and change in a predictable manner with each successive mitosis. Further. backed by intervention petitions and appeals by the Ministries of Commerce and of Agriculture. Article Geographic Terms: India AB: Abstract After almost two years of deliberation. Record 237 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Cell-cell association directed mitotic spindle orientation in the early development of the marine shrimp Sicyonia ingentis AU: Author Wang. aquaculture regulations. spindle orientation is parallel to the cleavage plane that formed the blastomere. WH Jr* SO: Source Development. in preparation for 5 super(th) cleavage. ingentis is neither an intrinsic property nor age dependent.DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shellfish culture. spindles oriented at a 45 degree angle (not parallel as in normal development) with respect to the previous cleavage plane. FJ. 124. resulting in four parallel pairs of blastomeres which lay in a common plane that was parallel to the substratum. aquaculture economics. The 4 super(th) cleavage produced a linear embryo with the 16 blastomeres arranged in four parallel quartets. but rather regressed to the orientation seen in 4-cell linear embryos. several state governments. Clark.

(centrosomes) avoid cytoplasmic regions adjacent to where there is cell-cell contact during early development. Record 238 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title A novel satellite/microsatellite combination in the genome of the marine shrimp, Penaeus vannamei AU: Author Bagshaw, JC; Buckholt, MA SO: Source Gene. Vol. 184, no. 2, pp. 211-214. Jan 1997. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: microsatellites; DNA; genetics; marine crustaceans AB: Abstract In our studies of repeated sequences in the genome of the marine shrimp, Penaeus vannamei (Pv), we have discovered a novel combination of sequence elements. We inserted restriction fragments of genomic DNA into a plasmid vector and screened for recombinant plasmids containing repeated sequences. Ten of the resulting isolates contained representatives of the same repeated element, a satellite sequence present in one or more blocks of tandemly repeated units. The cloned repeat units range in size from 139 to 188 bp. Embedded within each cloned repeat unit are 6-15 copies of a tandemly repeated pentanucleotide microsatellite. The genome of Pv contains approx. 1000000 copies of this satellite/microsatellite unit. Sequences that cross-hybridize strongly with this structure were found in the genomes of lobster and crayfish, but not in other species of the genus Penaeus. Record 239 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Need for professional manpower development to augment Indian marine shrimp aquaculture industry AU: Author Diwan, AD; Suseelan, C; Thakur, NK; Biradar, RS; Sontakki, BSrho eds SO: Source CENTRAL INSTITUTE OF FISHERIES EDUCATION, VERSOVA, MUMBAI (INDIA). 1997. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: aquaculture enterprises; shrimp culture; aquaculturists; Article Geographic Terms: ISW, India AB: Abstract India passing through a stage of rapid development of shrimp aquaculture industry. With a long coastline of about 7500 kms and an estimated brackishwater area of 2.6 million hectares, it has been identified that 1.2 million heactares are available immediately for mariculture. However only a small fraction of this is being used at present. Hence there is a vast scope for further development. In order to a develop this activity, the anticipated requirement of manpower is estimated in the present paper. Record 240 of 500

DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The global emergence of tropical aquaculture AU: Author New, MB SO: Source Aquacult. Eur. Vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 41-49. 1997. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Tropical environment; Aquaculture development; Fish culture; Shrimp culture; Aquaculture statistics AB: Abstract Following a brief historical account of tropical aquaculture, an examination is made of the current status of aquaculture production in tropical countries. Cyprinids form the largest proportion of all species groups cultured in tropical countries, with milkfish and tilapias being the next most important groups. In contrast to finfish, the production of crustaceans in tropical countries expanded very much faster than average. The explosive expansion of marine shrimp farming is discussed in detail. Record 241 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Chromosome studies on the marine shrimps Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus californiensis (Decapoda) AU: Author Campos-Ramos, R SO: Source J. Crust. Biol. Vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 666-673. 1997. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans; Chromosomes; Karyology; Eggs; Analytical techniques; Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus californiensis; Penaeus vannamei; Article Geographic Terms: ISE, Mexico AB: Abstract Chromosome numbers were obtained from eggs of Penaeus californiensis. They had 2n=88 chromosomes. This was confirmed by the haploid chromosome number of n=44 in testes. No evident karyological difference was observed between these species, in which 4 metacentric, 10 subtelocentric, and 18 acrocentric chromosomes were observed. To obtain mitotic metaphase chromosomes from marine shrimp eggs, 2 methods are described. The effect of colchicine incubation for chromosome condensation was investigated. Record 242 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Aquaculture feed and fertilizer resource atlas of the Philippines AU: Author Cruz, PS SO: Source FAO fisheries technical paper. Rome [FAO Fish. Tech. Pap.]. no. 366, 259 pp. 1997. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture development; Feed; Fertilizers;

Directories; Aquaculture enterprises; Feed preparation; Article Geographic Terms: Philippines AB: Abstract The paper is based on a comprehensive survey conducted by the author in 1995/1996 concerning the feed and fertilizer resources of the Philippines and their availability and use by the resident aquaculture sector. Presented in the form of an illustrated atlas, the report compiles information on the fertilizer and feed resources of the Philippines, where they are geographically located, how much is available and when, who is currently using this resource and how, the composition and cost of this resource at source and with transportation, together with an assessment of the status of the existing animal feed manufacturing industry and its regulations, together with information on the feeding strategies employed by the aquaculture sector. It was estimated that approximately 45-75% and 85-95% of the feed ingredients currently used within commercial aquafeeds for fish (i.e. mainly tilapia and milkfish) and marine shrimp were composed of imported feed ingredients, respectively, as compared with only 20-30% for livestock and poultry feeds. CA: Corporate Author FAO, Rome (Italy) Record 243 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Spawning and larval culture of three ornamental marine shrimp, Stenopus hispidus, Stenopus scutellatus, and Lysmata wurdemanni. AU: Author Zhang, D DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Spawning; Rearing; Larval development; Crustacean larvae; Aquarium culture; Shrimp culture; Aquaria; Coral reefs; Article Taxonomic Terms: Stenopus scutellatus; Lysmata wurdemanni; Stenopus hispidus CA: Corporate Author Florida Sea Grant Record 244 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Enteroviruses in shrimp harvested from contaminated marine waters AU: Author Botero, L; Montiel, M; Porto, L SO: Source International Journal of Environmental Health Research. Vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 103-108. Jun 1996. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: marine organisms; seafood; food contamination; viruses; wastewater discharges; water pollution; sewage; contamination; pathogens; sewage disposal; pollution effects; public health; food-borne diseases; wastewater pollution; shrimp; enteroviruses; human diseases; shrimp fisheries; viral diseases; Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus schmitti; enterovirus; poliovirus 1; echovirus; Article Geographic Terms: ASW, Venezuela, Zulia, Maracaibo L. AB: Abstract

Marine shrimp (genus Penaeus) live primarily in tropical and subtropical coastal locations, sometimes contaminated by domestic sewage. However, sanitary quality and importance of shrimp as a potential vehicle for enteric disease transmission have not been reported previously. The shrimp Penaeus schmitti were either collected directly from Lake Maracaibo, in western Venezuela, or obtained from local seafood outlets. Of a total of 33 pooled samples, 16 (49%) yielded virus. Six types of enteroviruses were isolated during this study: polioviruses 1 and 2, and echovirus types 20, 21, 27, and 29. Viruses not typeable with the pools of specific antiserum used during this study were isolated from seven samples. Analysis of the results indicate that enteroviruses may be present in shrimp populations present in sewage-contaminated marine and estuarine waters. Record 245 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Shrimp diseases AU: Author Anon. SO: Source Center for Tropical and Subtropical Aquaculture. no. 121, 2 pp. May 1996. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture; Mortality causes; Disease control; Brood stocks; Epidemiology; Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei; Penaeus stylirostris; Article Geographic Terms: ISE, USA, Hawaii AB: Abstract In May 1994, an outbreak of a relatively new and serious shrimp disease killed more than 95% of the Penaeus vannamei at an aquaculture farm in Kahuku, Hawaii. The malady that ravaged this farm and decimated its shrimp stocks was Taura Syndrome, an illness that previously caused more than $100 million worth of damage to shrimp farms in South America but had not previously attacked shrimp farms in Hawaii. While the severity of this bout of Taura Syndrome is somewhat atypical, the shrimp farmer's experiences in coping with the disease underscore the devastating impact that illness can have on the larval and growout production of marine shrimp, and the need for practical, cost-effective tools for disease management. Scientists working at the University of Hawaii, The Oceanic Institute, and the State of Hawaii's Aquaculture Development Program are seeking to learn more about Taura Syndrome and the Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis (IHHN), two major diseases that endanger the growout and broodstock production of Penaeus vannamei and P. stylirostris in Hawaii. While some important strides have been made in developing new preventative methods to combat these illnesses, additional research needs to be done, especially on methods to control the disease. CA: Corporate Author Aquaculture Development Program; University of Hawaii Sea Grant Extension Service Record 246 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Aquaculture in the Philippines

AU: Author Guerrero, RD III SO: Source World Aquaculture. Vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 7-13. Mar 1996. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: brackishwater aquaculture; marine aquaculture; fish culture; aquaculture development; Article Geographic Terms: Philippines AB: Abstract In 1993, the Philippines produced 772 082 tonnes of aquaculture products - roughly 26% of total fisheries production. Sea-weeds are farmed in open coastal waters. Milkfish are produced in brackishwater ponds and freshwater pens. Nile tilapia are grown in freshwater ponds and cages. Marine shrimp are being cultured both extensively and intensively in brackish water ponds while mussels and oyster are cultured in marine bays. The future for additional development in the Philippines is brighter for aquaculture than for the marine capture fisheries. Sustainable growth of the aquaculture industry, however, will need additional appropriate support for farmers. In addition, research and the development of regulations are needed to address the problems of inadequate fingerling supplies, diseases, and adverse environmental impacts from aquaculture. Record 247 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title (Monitoring culture ponds wastes of the IFREMER aquaculture station of Saint-Vincent (New Caledonia)) AU: Author Lemonnier, H; Bonnet, S SO: Source Conv. Sci. Mer Biol. Mar. Cent. Noumea ORSTOM. no. 8, 27 pp. 1996. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture; Intensive culture; Stocking density; Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus stylirostris; Article Geographic Terms: ISEW, New Caledonia AB: Abstract In New Caledonia culture of the marine shrimp species Penaeus stylirostris is highly developed. Yields of 878 tons for 358 ha was reached in 1995. It is a semi-intensive culture which needs food supply to complete natural production which, on itself, cannot entirely satisfy animals trophic needs. This food supply leads to an enrichment of water and sediment in organic and mineral matters which are partly dragged along outside while water exchange. The influence of stocking densities on waste production and on shrimp yields are partly known. Results of chemical analysis are presented. Record 248 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Brazil develops its marine shrimp farming industry AU: Author Goddard, S; Campos, AA SO: Source Fish Farming International [FISH FARM. INT.]. Vol. 23, no. 1, vp. 1996.

97-106. size distribution and individual mean size. MAG. Brazil AB: Abstract Shrimp farming in Brazil is in the early stages of development. Article Geographic Terms: ASW. and shrimp biomass. feed AB: Abstract The objective of feed management at the farm level is to make available to the animals the best quality artificial feed. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon. Satisfying this objective requires experience and knowledge of shrimp behavior and feedings habits and a continuous pond sampling program that provides accurate and timely data on pond environmental parameters. 1996. handling and storage. and the highly-valued kuruma (P. in the required amounts and at the right times and places.DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. marine shrimp farms have now been established in states extending from Para in the north to Santa Catarina in the south and considerable expansion is forecast. no. aquaculture economics. the giant tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). marine aquaculture. trade. Vol. DE SO: Source Aquaculture Magazine [AQUACULT. Compared with other South American countries.]. 86-97. and adjustments to feeding rates. Record 249 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Management of commercial and farm-made feeds in marine shrimp ponds AU: Author Jory. While in the past emphasis has been on the culture of freshwater prawns. 22. growth of the industry has been slow even though Brazil has an 8000 km coastline and vast natural resources. Article Geographic Terms: Thailand . notably Ecuador. Vol. It includes feed selection. DE SO: Source Aquaculture Magazine [AQUACULT. pp. feed application methods. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. shrimp culture. only as strong as it weakest link. 22. japonicus). 1. MAG.]. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon. feeding regimes. 1996. aquaculture development. pp. Management of artificial feeds is a sequential process. The importance of proper feed management can not be emphasized enough: the best artificial feed will be worthless if not stored. handled and used properly. no. 3. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: marine aquaculture. Record 250 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine shrimp farming in the Kingdom of Thailand: Part 1 AU: Author Jory. Penaeus japonicus. The first commercial attempts to farm marine shrimp in Brazil were conducted in the early 1970s with introduced species.

Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae AB: Abstract Most of the potential and realized adverse environmental effects of shrimp farming are associated with routine water exchange. Vol. JD SO: Source Journal of Shellfish Research. including being the largest exporter of both marine shrimp and canned tuna. biological production. respectively.444 kg/ha per crop. MAG. The ponds operated without water exchange had higher nutrients and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) at the end of the study and. 2. PA. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture.].AB: Abstract Seafood production is an integral and important component of Thailand's economy. no. pond culture. 15. Thailand is now the seventh largest seafood producer and the top seafood exporter in the world. thus. environmental effects. pond culture. DE SO: Source Aquaculture Magazine [AQUACULT. Differences in harvest size and survival also influenced food conversion efficiency. No statistical differences were detected in growth or survival among treatments. aquaculture techniques." the development of shrimp farming in Thailand was addressed and pond management was introduced. although there was a trend towards slightly smaller mean size at harvest and lower survival in the ponds operated without water exchange. Vol. aquaculture development.888 and 5. Record 251 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine shrimp farming in the Kingdom of Thailand: Part 2 AU: Author Jory. However. Part II continues with the pond management discussion. Browdy. 1996. CL. Record 252 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Comparison of exchange and no-exchange water management strategies for the intensive pond culture of marine shrimp AU: Author Hopkins. Holloway. survival. 1996. This study compared shrimp production and water quality in triplicate ponds operated with and without water exchange. Marine shrimp comprise approximately 32% of the total value of Thai seafood exports. the continuous discharge from the ponds operated with water exchange probably resulted in a much larger total . pp. pp. 22. discharged more nutrients and BOD in the drain harvesting process. The ponds operated with and without routine water exchange had average production of 5. "Marine Shrimp Farming in the Kingdom of Thailand. 4. Jory's column. Article Geographic Terms: Thailand AB: Abstract In Part I of Dr. The paramount aquaculture activity in Thailand is the production of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). 71-78. Sandifer. intensive culture. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. JS. 441-445. water quality. no. water exchange.

Record 253 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Reproduction of the marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei in closed systems AU: Author Tirado. Heavy precipitation resulted in higher turbidity and total suspended solids in ponds with water exchange near the end of the study. The overall reproductive parameters of P.6-8. vannamei in sites where seawater resources are limited. spawns/females/night 0.5% higher for the ponds operated with water exchange than for the no-exchange ponds. Activated carbon was included in the biofilters. vannamei were within considered acceptable levels in shrimp maturation facilities. Commercial maturation facilities for Penaeus vannamei. vannamei can be successfully reproduced in a complete recirculating system. and 30-31 ppt. hatching rate from fertile eggs 89. vannamei reproduction.68% for females and 94% for males.858.1 ppm. light was maintained during all the study. spawn size 118. Advantages of working with recirculating systems include: location versatility. Ogle. Sixty days after ablation survival was 90. marine aquaculture. Results show that this recirculating system was able to maintain an adequate water quality for P. Closed maturation systems may represent an asset for the commercial reproduction of P. WD. while representing an environmentally sustainable form of aquaculture. Broodstock were fed a standard maturation diet up to satiation (Rangen maturation pellets:squid:polychaete ratio. JT DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. Flow rate through the maturation tanks and the biofilters was 9 gpm. and average naupliar production per spawn 41.710. Average ammonia-N was below 0.1271. salinity and pH were controlled between 27-30C.05 ppm. Temperature.nutrient and BOD load to the adjacent estuary. vannamei has been examined at the Gulf Coast Research Laboratory shrimp maturation closed facilities. and 7. 1:1:1).2 respectively. Record 254 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title . water quality AB: Abstract The increasing environmental regulations on the use of coastal land and seawater resources for aquaculture are bringing about the need to develop alternative technologies based on closed systems. average nitrite-N below 0. Average mating rate/night was 12. and nitrate-N increased up to 68 ppm. fertilization rate 34%.5%. No males presented melanized spermatophores. No water was replaced. MC. recirculating systems. Reproductive performance of P. Two maturation tanks were initially stocked with 50 broodstock each (female:male ratio. This document reports that P. All the females were able to mature and were mated at least once. 1:1). reduced seawater requirements and controlled waste water treatment. Youngs. generally rely on open systems with substantial seawater requirements. Lotz. and a photoperiod of 14 h. Females were checked for spermatophore presence 3 times /week (alternate days) and mated females were transfer to spawning tanks. Energy costs were 31. Immature females were unilaterally ablated after 15 days of acclimation to the diet. among others.69%. JM.

CA: Corporate Author FAO Fisheries Dep. Rome [FAO FISH. China contributed 60. Major constraints are lack of seed and technological demonstration. ROME (ITALY).4% to the total world aquaculture production. Yulin SO: Source FAO fisheries technical paper. In order to find an effective solution to prevent disease outbreaks. The conversion of existing carp ponds to prawn monoculture would be more profitable than the establishment of new ponds. People's Rep. Rome [Italy] Record 255 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title A review of traditional and innovative aquaculture health management in the People's Republic of China AU: Author Jiang. the concept of "putting prevention first" has now been introduced. Rome [Italy] Record 256 of 500 . marine shrimp culture suffered serious losses due to disease outbreaks. Article Geographic Terms: Pakistan Abstract The results are presented of a consultancy conducted during the period November 1995-January 1996 to determine the feasibility of establishing freshwater prawn farming in lower Sindh province of Pakistan. disease control. Descriptors Article Subject Terms: prawn culture. Based on the use of a monoculture system for Macrobrachium rosenbergii in a single 1-ha pond and on the cost data collected during the consultancy. Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium rosenbergii. husbandry diseases. it was concluded that prawn farming would be viable in Sindh. Article Geographic Terms: China. It has been said that these outbreaks of virus disease are partly management oriented. aquaculture development. Programme. the Marine Fisheries Department marine shrimp and finfish hatchery site at Hawkes Bay. Although freshwater and marine fish production increased rapidly over the past decade. M Source FAO. aquaculture development. Various options for siting government hatchery and demonstration facilities for prawn farming are provided. 1996. PAP.AU: SO: DE: AB: CA: Feasibility study on establishing freshwater prawn hatchery. fish diseases..]. or adjacent to. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: fish culture. Corporate Author FAO Technical Coop. aquaculture economics. A recommendation is made for the establishment of a prawn hatchery within. TECH. hatcheries. and this paper describes the current health management strategies that are being practiced in Chinese aquaculture. Preliminary descriptive designs and a technology package for government facilities are included. 1996. Technical report: feasibility of freshwater prawn hatcheries in Sindh Province Author New. site selection. AB: Abstract In 1994. Pakistan. shrimp culture.

1. Asia. Vol. pp.DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Use of chemicals in aquaculture AU: Author Tonguthai. no. and subsequently in the Philippines. 1996. and to design responses that are environmentally and culturally appropriate. in Thailand. the CRSP focuses on improving the efficiency of aquaculture systems. Article Taxonomic Terms: Oreochromis niloticus. The PDA/CRSP began work in 1982 in Thailand. the US and. 19. especially for marine shrimp. At all the sites. Integrated into a good management practice. pp. no. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Fish culture. Lovshin. A list is given of some of the commercial chemical products available in the Thai market. LL. Thailand AB: Abstract The Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture Collaborative Research Support Program (PDA/CRSP) is a global research network to generate basic science that may be used to advance aquaculture development. the Philippines and Thailand AU: Author Molnar. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Fish culture. Impact of the network's investigations with tilapia is examined in this article. Honduras. JJ. Rwanda. TR. The cost of chemical use in 1995 is considered briefly and an examination made of hazard and adverse impacts. Aquaculture techniques. Good farm management can help avoid abuse and overuse of chemicals. Pond culture. Circa. the goal is the same: to identify constraints to aquaculture production. 42-45. Disease control. 1996. One of a family of research programs funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). Aquaculture regulations. Record 257 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title A global experiment on tilapia aquaculture: impacts of the Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP in Rwanda. although some sites have devoted attention to marine shrimp and other locally significant species. until recently. 2. The research network's global experiment has focused on tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Environmental impact. Article Geographic Terms: Philippines. AV SO: Source Naga [Naga]. Honduras. 12-17. Honduras. Vol. . chemical use is becoming increasingly a part of management. K SO: Source Aquac. chemical usage can be cost-efficient and would contribute to higher profitability without adverse impacts on product quality and the environment. Rwanda. Hanson. Aquaculture development. 1. The chemicals are used mainly to treat diseased animals and to a lesser degree improve water quality. Article Geographic Terms: Thailand AB: Abstract As a consequence of the expansion of aquaculture. Shrimp culture. National regulations on the use of chemicals in aquaculture are detailed and various recommendations to limit the use of chemical and their adverse effects are included. Chemical control. Freshwater aquaculture.

20. Font. 1967) with restocking purposes in Cuba. L SO: Source Rev. Cuba AB: Abstract The nursery growth of the species Penaeus notialis in pens during 1992 (January-August) and results are analyzed. Preliminary length-weight and total length-Cuban length relationships are presented. pp. Cub. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Sperm. 3. Observation with optical microscope. it is best that artificial or natural seawater is diluted with 10% DMSO and 5%-10% Glycerol. L. Record 259 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Larval growth of marine shrimp (Penaeus notialis Perez Farfante. stock density. Ca super(2+). Cai. In cryopreservation of spermatozoa from thelycum. Yafu. 15-17. 27. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus notialis. Vol.9 mm/day is within the interval found by other authors. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus chinensis AB: Abstract Cryopreservation (-196 degree C) of spermatozoa from the marine shrimp Peneus chinensis was studied from 1991 to 1993. Growth rate. no. Caribbean Sea. J. 187-193. Freezing storage. pp. Mg super(2+). Vol. Limnol. breaking at the nuclear body.39 mm/day) between the two working stages under analysis is discussed. Stocking (organisms). Cage culture. Naner SO: Source Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica/Haiyang Yu Huzhao [Oceanol. The freezing injuries prevent acrosome filament formation. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Crustacean larvae. K super(+) are necessary for cryopreservation of Chinese shrimp spermatozoa./Haiyang Yu Huzhao]. AU: Author Paez. Shrimp culture. The highest fertility rate of the spermatozoa from thelycum is 59%. Article Geographic Terms: ASW. Las postlarvas (12-29) fueron mantenidas .Original Abstract: Se analizan los resultados de la precria en corrales de Penaeus notialis durante 1992 (enero-agosto). Successful artificial insemination was observed after thawing of spermatozoa preserved in liquid nitrogen (LN sub(2)) for 94-138 days. no. acrosome breaking off. Induced breeding. 1996. Greater Antilles. Postlarvae (12-29) were held in these structures for a period of about 30 days where they reached some 32 mm Cuban length and 308 mg of weight which is considered suitable for restocking purposes. Pesq. Fernandez.Record 258 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Cryopreservation of spermatozoa from the marine shrimp Penaeus chinensis AU: Author Ke.43-1. Possible relationships between age. 1. and growth are evaluated. 1996. Sin. The wide range of value (0. Invest. scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed several types of cryopreservation freezing injury such as snapping of "spike". The growth rate of 0. size.

en las que alcanzaron unos 32 mm de largo cubano y 308 mg de peso. Se discute el gran recorrido de los valores (0. no. algae. aunque si entre el peso y esa edad. Greene. Se presentan relaciones preliminares largo-peso y largo total-largo cubano. Financing. A. Rodriguez. 85. talla y densidad de siembra y la tasa de crecimiento. Browdy. lo que se considera apropiado a los efectos de la repoblacion. John D Jr. Tetraselmis chui. Craig L. Marine crustaceans. La tasa de crecimiento de 0. S. USA.]. fatty acids. Artemia AB: Abstract Lipid class and fatty acid contents. Record 260 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Production Effects of a Greenhouse Enclosed Nursery System on the Projected Financial Performance of a South Carolina Marine Shrimp Farm AU: Author Rhodes. Raymond J. Se evaluan posibles relaciones entre edad.43-1. 3. Economic benefits. 1995. Resour. tampoco se encontro relacion entre la tasa de crecimiento (durante la precria en corrales) y el largo o la edad de siembra. no encontrandose relacion entre el largo y la edad de siembra. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus kerathurus. feed composition. 187-199. animal nutrition.9 mm/dia esta dentro del intervalo encontrado por otros autores. 2. G. Tzachi M SO: Source Technical report. they must maximize production during this limited growing season. Isochrysis galbana. 1995. Production cost. Carol. [np]. Sureshwaran. Growth. Nursery grounds.C. survival and nutritional status . Article Geographic Terms: ANW. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. Brachionus plicatilis. Holloway. Aquaculture development. Vol. South Carolina AB: Abstract South Carolina's climate restricts marine shrimp growing to one season of five to seven months. Mar. Marine aquaculture. Cent. pp. S. For South Carolina shrimp producers to be competitive and recover capital cost. Record 261 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Variations in lipid content and nutritional status during larval development of the marine shrimp Penaeus kerathurus AU: Author Mourente. marine invertebrates. Medina. A SO: Source Aquaculture.en estas estructuras por un periodo aproximado 30 dias. S. which is only long enough to produce one crop per year. South Carolina Marine Resources Center [Tech. 130. Rep. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shellfish culture. larval development.39 mm/dia) entre las dos etapas de trabajo analizadas. biochemical composition. Samocha. Gonzalez. no. This is considerably less than in the Latin American and Southeast Asian countries where two or more crops are grown each year.

In addition. ISEW. MAG. Dry weight and free sterol contents increased and correlated positively (r = 0. environmental quality. reared on a a mixture of the marine microalgae Tetraselmis chuii and Isochrysis galbana (clone T-ISO). ISW. MANAGE.05) during development. Record 262 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Global situation and current megatrends in marine shrimp farming AU: Author Jory.]. pp. 74-83. Record 263 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine shrimp aquaculture and natural resource degradation in Thailand AU: Author Flaherty. Article Taxonomic Terms: Decapoda. intensive culture. C SO: Source Environmental Management [ENVIRON. were studied throughout development. 1995.). 4. commercial species. Article Geographic Terms: Thailand.91. 1.]. marine environment. world. 21. DE SO: Source Aquaculture Magazine [AQUACULT. Thailand. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: environmental degradation. Spain). shrimp. P < 0. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus AB: Abstract It is appropriate that the first column in this series is a short and quick overview of the global state of marine shrimp farming (genus Penaeus spp. aquaculture. the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and Artemia (parthenogenetic strain from Cadiz. Vol. environmental impact. 1995. aquaculture statistics. 27-37. marine aquaculture. Fatty acid contents at different larval stages reflected fatty acid content of foods.of Penaeus kerathurus larvae. aquaculture development. no. Vol. no. Karnjanakesorn. pp. marine pollution. whereas the ratio of triacylglycerol/free sterol (an indicator of the nutritional status of the larvae) decreased as did survival. there is considerable recent and ongoing research in many parts of the world on several subjects that pertain to shrimp farming. The content of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) remained constant during the mysis and first postlarval stage and a low bioconversion rate from its precursor. environmental effects. or megatrends that currently characterize the industry and which will shape the development and determine the immediate future of shrimp farming. eicosapentenoic acid (20:5n-3) (very abundant in Artemia food) was observed. 19. Thailand . Relevant research as well as major trends and developments will be topics discussed in more detail in subsequent contributions to this column. aquaculture development. aquaculture effluents. M. shrimp culture. and an introduction to some of the major trends. pollution effects.W. S. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture.

which is especially applicable to copper. stylirostris spends part of its life-cycle in estuarine/lagoon environments where it is more likely to be exposed to higher levels of bioavailable trace metals (natural and anthropogenic contributions) and/or (2) different metabolic requirements of young and older specimens. bacteriology. Penaeus stylirostris. trace elements. Suppl. 514. C SO: Source Estuarine. pp. estuaries. Ni. Fe. Article Geographic Terms: ISE. 40. crustaceans. heavy metals. I. This paper reviews the development of Thailand's marine shrimp culture industry and examines the nature of the environmental impacts these have for rural poor and the long-term viability of the culture industry. marine shrimp aquaculture is now an important earner of foreign exchange. The growth in production has been achieved through the expansion of the culture area and the adoption of intensive production methods. brackish water. Cu. Mexico. 1. Rome [FAO FISH. Record 264 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Comparative bioaccumulation of trace metals in Penaeus stylirostris in estuarine and coastal environments AU: Author Paez-Osuna.AB: Abstract Rising demand for shrimp in the developed rations has helped to foster a dramatic growth in marine shrimp aquaculture. Cr and Cu. 35-44. Co. is proving to have many consequences that impinge on the environmental integrity of coastal areas. Karunasagar. Article Taxonomic Terms: Decapoda. SHELF SCI. F. Cd. Estuarine individuals (juveniles) had higher concentrations of Fe and Mn than marine individuals (adults). DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. In marine adults a positive slope was observed for Cd. stylirostris collected in the Pacific coast of Mexico. however. no. COAST. Record 265 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Microbiology of cultured shrimps in India AU: Author Nayyarahamed. Mexico AB: Abstract Trace metal concentrations (Fe. no. life cycle. 1995. body size. while for Cu the opposite tendency occurred.. I SO: Source FAO fisheries report. Coastal and Shelf Science [ESTUAR. 1995. coastal waters.]. particularly in South America and South Asia. These findings may be due to two factors: (1) that P. Vol. Mn.]. Co. trace metals. Ruiz-Fernandez. Size-dependent relationships were observed and differed among the elements examined. In Thailand. Cr and Zn) have been measured in estuarine and marine shrimp P. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: bioaccumulation. A negative slope was found for Co. pathogenic . REP. marine crustaceans. The conversion of near-shore areas to shrimp culture. Mn and Ni in estuarine juvenile shrimps.

Salmonella. Listeria. 261-271. Qingyin. and . Browdy. Article Taxonomic Terms: Vibrio cholerae. sediment and cultured shrimp (Penaeus monodon) was studied. WORLD AQUACULT.parahaemolyticus. Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Article Geographic Terms: India AB: Abstract The microbial load of water. Salmonella could be isolated from the gut of marine shrimp in the region suggesting that Salmonella species could survive in coastal sediments and could be present in shrimp before any preprocess handling. sperm. pp. Results suggest that potentially pathogenic vibrios could be normal inhabitants of the gut of cultured shrimp. 1995.]. CL* SO: Source Journal of the World Aquaculture Society [J. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. nutritional requirements AB: Abstract Reproductive performance was evaluated for sexually mature male Penaeus vannamei fed one of four diets: 1) commercial 40% protein shrimp growout diet.vulnificus. BATON ROUGE. Thailand AB: Abstract With an estimated current annual shrimp production of thousands of metric tonnes. Record 267 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Egg water induced reaction and biostain assay of sperm from marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei: Dietary effects on sperm quality AU: Author Wang. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon. Analysis was made for potential pathogens like Vibrio cholerae. bioassays.bacteria. Bangkok (Thailand) Record 266 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Progression of intensive marine shrimp culture in Thailand AU: Author Kwei Lin.. SOC. V. CQ. Misamore. Penaeus monodon. aquaculture products. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. diets. 13-23. 1995. Salmonella. Jiang. LA (USA). C SO: Source WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY. The dramatic increase in production of Penaeus monodon within a brief six-year period has been attributed to improvements in the production and management technologies and the efficiency of small scale farms. 25% bloodworms. 3) 50% squid. intensive culture. no. M. 26. Listeria and for indicator organisms on shrimp surface and in shrimp gut. quality control. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. 2) 100% squid. pp. V. CA: Corporate Author FAO Indo-Pacific Fishery Comm. Vol. 3. Salmonella paratyphi could be isolated from the sediment of a shrimp culture pond even when faecal coliform count in the water and sediment were low. Vibrio vulnificus. Thailand has become a world leader in intensive shrimp farming.

a graduate of Tokyo University. costs. 2) trypan blue stain (TB). spermatophore weight. REP. 1941. 1995. and 4) starvation. succeeded in spawning the kuruma shrimp (Penaeus japonicus). He cultured larvae through to marketable size in the laboratory.859. traces its origins to Southeast Asia where for centuries farmers raised incidental crops of wild shrimp in tidal fish ponds. . ponds and tanks. Modern shrimp farming was born in the 1930s when Motosaku Fujinaga.01). Fujinaga generously shared his findings and published papers in 1935. Spermatophores were ejaculated manually from tagged males at stocking and every 12 d thereafter. hatcheries.25% Artemia. and 4) egg water induced reaction (EW). 109-120. life cycle. 3) acridine orange stain (AO). the production of marine shrimp in impoundments. P. and were immediately fluorescing light green when stained with AO. and he succeeded in mass producing them on a commercial scale. Many morphologically abnormal sperm did not stain with TB. Although a significant decline in body weight. no. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus japonicus AB: Abstract Shrimp farming. Tec. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. 1. and sperm count were observed in the starvation treatment as compared to maturation and squid diets. WORLD SHRIMP FARM. Ferrao Santos. diets. CEPENE. pp. Record 269 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title [Results of biological samplings in the marine shrimp fishery of Ilheus. For most of the spermatophores evaluated. were unstained with TB. sperm from these apparently good quality spermatophores yielded mixed results. historical account. SO: Source Annual Report on World Shrimp Farming [ANN. M. no significant differences were observed in any of the sperm quality assays. SO: Source Bol. Four methods were used to assay the sperm quality: 1) gross morphology (GM). The analysis of dietary effects on spermatophore quality were equivocal. The reaction induced when P. P < 0. Brazil] AU: Author Alves Coelho. Vol. animal diseases.]. weight and sperm count were determined. Little correlation was found between spermatophore weight and sperm count. vannamei sperm are exposed to conspecific egg water is grossly similar to that observed in vivo at the surface of the freshly spawned eggs from naturally mated females. aquaculture techniques. For each half of the compound spermatophore. over 80% of the sperm were morphologically normal. 1995. Cient. 1942 and 1967 which contributed greatly to the development of the industry. BA. When exposed to egg water. 3. Record 268 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title About shrimp farming AU: Author Anon. The best correlation was found between GM and AO (r super(2) = 0.

Record 271 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine shrimp fisheries off Sao Francisco's river mouth AU: Author Coelho. Catch composition. sex and size were determined. Brazil. The species Penaeus schmitti. Xiphopenaeus kroyeri. Species catch. and biological data were collected from the shrimps captured by one randomly chosen fishing boat at Pontal do Peba. 141-148. AL. 3. Article Geographic Terms: ASW. Fed. 149-161. are presented. Sao Francisco Estuary AB: Abstract The shrimp fisheries off the mouth of the Sao Francisco River. Biological data. Brazil. Xiphopenaeus kroyeri. Brazil. MC. Univ. Tamandare AB: Abstract The shrimps caught by the artisanal fisheries at Tamandare. Sex ratio. P. 1995. Tec. Pernambuco]. Alves Coelho. Estuarine fisheries. Recife. Under the "large" category were the shrimps Penaeus schmitti and adults of Penaeus subtilis. Pernambuco. Santos. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp fisheries. MCF SO: Source Trabalhos oceanograficos da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. Penaeus schmitti. a total of 30. Oceanogr. Brazil. Coastal fisheries. are classified by size in two categories: small and large. 23. was studied. fishing effort and . The total catch of all fishing boats was recorded at Pirambu.DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp fisheries. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus subtilis. pp. CEPENE. Brazil] AU: Author Ferrao Santos. pp. By means of a research program established by the CEPENE-IBAMA in May 1986. 1995. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus schmitti. Penaeus subtilis. Bahia. Article Geographic Terms: ASW. Cient. Brazil. 1. PA. Record 270 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title [Catch composition of the marine shrimp artisanal fishery at Tamandare. SE and Pontal do Peba. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Artisanal fishing. But the mean anual length for females was smaller than for males. Species. Catch composition. Recife [Trab.000 individuals were analyzed. Shrimp fisheries. subtilis. Bahia AB: Abstract Monthly data collected from May 1988 to December 1993 in the shrimp fishery operating at Ilheus. Size distribution. Under the "small" category were the shrimps Xiphopenaeus kroyeri and juveniles of Penaeus subtilis. Pernambuco. P SO: Source Bol. Vol. Vol. Pernambuco. Article Geographic Terms: ASW. Marine crustaceans. no. and Xiphopenaeus kroyeri were identified. The mean sex ratio was 1:1 for the three species. PE. Fishing effort.

tail muscle . and 10 obtained from second. Garcia. 6. Carr. b) tail muscle of twelve third-generation individuals each from five families of Population I and from twelve individuals of Population 2. (Cracow)]. JN SO: Source Aquaculture a95 u Book of Abstracts. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture development. 111-120. 4. Vol. 8. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei. USA AB: Abstract Our long-term objective is to correlate the expression of metabolically important genes with shrimp performance. protozoea stages I and 3. ISE. Estuaries. Limiting factors. Shrimp culture. Article Geographic Terms: ANW. tail muscle from secondand third-generation crosses of Population I families. DE SO: Source Acta Hydrobiologica (Cracow) [Acta Hydrobiol. COI mRNA expression was examined by Northern blotting after hybridization with either a PCR-amplified or a cloned COI probe specific for Penaeus vannamei. DK. RNA. Several factors that could potentially limit the future growth of this industry.and thirdgeneration crosses of Population I families. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Cytochromes. Tissues. Central America. Mutations. Shrimp culture. Brood stocks. are discussed along with the present situation of marine shrimp culture in Honduras. Article Geographic Terms: ISE. Population number. 5. Genes. The specific objectives of this study were to examine in SPF Penaeus vannamei the levels of expression of the COI mRNA gene in: a) nauplii stages 3 and 4. 37. 1995. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. which has annual sales of 100 million USD. Honduras AB: Abstract Marine shrimp culture has developed rapidly on the saltflats bordering the estuaries that flow into the Gulf of Fonseca. 2. vp. Preliminary results showed differential expression of a ~61. 0 Jan 1995. mysis stages I and 3. Record 273 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The Expression of the Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) mRNA Varies During Development of Penaeus vannamei Shrimp AU: Author Alcivar-Warren. Sweeney. Population structure. Fonseca Gulf. 3. and c) somatic and germinal cell tissues from broodstocks of Population I.8 kb COI mRNA transcript in secondand third-generation developmental stages.production were presented. Biological development. A. pp. Record 272 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine shrimp culture development in southern Honduras AU: Author Meyer. and postlarvae (PL) stages I.000 ha of ponds have been built on land that previously had no commercial value. Total RNA was extracted from SPF shrimp developed and maintained by the us Marine Shrimp Farming Program. During the past 10 years more than 11. Shrimp fisheries. W.

Harlingen Shrimp Farm Hatchery and South Texas Hatchery. the US Marine shrimp Farming Program initiated a project to develop reliable supplies of specific Pathogen Free (SPF) Penaeus vannamei for the U. All broodstock were tagged for identification. LA (USA).. Industry. Fish Culture Sect. Bethesda. Browdy. number of nauplii per spawn.S. At these facilities SPF broodstock were similarly shipped in and used for 1994 springtime hatchery production. Four maturation tanks were stocked. and average number of nauplii harvested per spawn between the three stocks (P>0.. and broodstock tissues. average nauplii per female and survival are compared between facilities. Data reporting average percent females mating per night. MD (USA).05): Data was also collected from two Texas hatcheries. CL. Baton Rouge. Article Geographic Terms: USA. K. World Aquaculture Soc. ME. Brood stocks. Texas AB: Abstract In 1989. CA: Corporate Author American Fisheries Soc.8 kb was detected at various levels in samples of third-generation developmental stages and tail muscle. Yates. hatchery season at the Waddell Mariculture Center (WMC). Furthermore. three stocks of SPF Penaeus vannamei were compared in the WMC maturation system: Group 1) Mexican stock raised from SPF post-Larvae at the Waddell Multiplication Facility. In summary. Comparisons of reproductive performance of the different stocks have been made between all three facilities.05). Spawning. the levels of COI mRNA expression differ during growth and development and also between and within tail muscle of individuals from the SPF populations. vp. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Reproductive behaviour. Significant differences were found in the average spawn size. Each tank was stocked with 13 females and 16 males from each of the three groups.. U. Two-way ANOVA test showed there were no differences in average percent females mating per night. hatcheries. Part of this program has supplied broodstock for maturation production at U. Broodstock were sourced four nights per week for two months. or in tank survival between the three stocks (P>0.S. Hatcheries. F SO: Source Aquaculture a95 u Book of Abstracts. Sexual maturity. Pathogens. Jaenike. 1995. National Shellfisheries Assoc. Data indicated a high degree of variation in stock performance between facilities as well as variations between maturation tanks within the .S. average percent fertilization. Breeding. An additional transcript of ~60. Group 3) Ecuadorian stock raised at the Oceanic Institute multiplication facility in Hawaii. Data. Group 2) Mexican stock raised at the Oceanic Institute Nuclear Breeding Facility in Hawaii. (USA) Record 274 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Comparisons of Reproductive Performance Between Specific Pathogen Free Penaeus vannamei Stocks AU: Author McGovern-Hopkins. average spawn size. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei. Stocks.from individuals of Population 2. Tagging. the levels of COI mRNA expression varied throughout development according to the genetic background of the parental crosses. We are currently examining the possibility that differences in the expression of mitochondrial genes are related with shrimp performance..

MD (USA). RNA. This 820 clone was used as a probe for Northern blot hybridization analysis and the results confirmed the presence of two mRNA transcripts of ~61. DNA.0 kb... Juveniles. Population structure. Bethesda. Marine Shrimp Farming Program. Alcivar-Warren. 30 from population 2. We examined the steady state levels of expression of the 820 mRNAs throughout development of Penaeus vannamei shrimp. Sequencing and Expression of a Unique Population Specific Marker for Specific Pathogen Free Penaeus vannamei AU: Author Garcia.S. Genes. Bethesda. LA (USA). vp. Baton Rouge. National Shellfisheries Assoc. and 24 from population 4 were examined. We are currently examining the possibility that the function of the B20 genes relates to Penaeus vannamei shrimp performance. Population density.. The two B20 mRNA transcripts were present in PL9 and PLI0.same facility. Fish Culture Sect. respectively. DK.. Preliminary sequence information from 600 base pairs revealed a 154 base pair embedded microsatellite with significant homology to microsatellites found in human chromosomes. The sequence data also indicated that there are two genes amplified by this primer. World Aquaculture Soc. PL4 and PL5 stages of development. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Cloning. PL2. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract The random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to evaluate the genetic diversity of two specific pathogen free (SPF) populations (1 from Mexico and 2 from Ecuador) and one candidate SPF population (4 from Mexico) of Penaeus vannamei developed and maintained by the U. This 820 marker was then cloned into pCR Script and sequenced using the fmol sequencing kit. A SO: Source Aquaculture a95 u Book of Abstracts. LA (USA). CA: Corporate Author American Fisheries Soc. Pathogens. Fish Culture Sect. Shrimp fisheries. The levels of expression in PLI0 samples were similar to those found in tail muscle of juveniles.5 and ~62.. A total of 60 individuals from population 1.. National Shellfisheries Assoc. The expression levels of B20 mRNA transcripts varied significantly between and within individuals from 10 families of population 1. (USA) Record 276 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts . PL3. CA: Corporate Author American Fisheries Soc... 1995. World Aquaculture Soc. (USA) Record 275 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Cloning. Baton Rouge. A unique population-specific DNA marker (~61200 base pairs) was found in population 2 using a ten base pair primer (820). MD (USA). but were undetected in M3. Shrimp culture. Further research needs to explore these performance variations both within stocks and between facilities to maximize production potentials. from mysis stage 3 to postlarvae stage 10 (PL10). Variable levels of expression was also found between populations 1 and 2. PL1.

Further experiment showed that survival of shrimp was indeed increased when packed in oxygen rather than in an air atmosphere (29. Marine fish. To develop practical techniques for dry shipment. Browdy. Shrimp fisheries. Marketing. Deltas. 1995. After shipment terminated. vp. National Shellfisheries Assoc. Marine fish. Penaeus vannamei Without Water AU: Author Jiang. Higher survival rates achieved at low shipping temperature in an oxygen atmosphere may be related to lower metabolic rates.6% to 56. C. CA: Corporate Author American Fisheries Soc. Swamps. CQ. Shipment in air and/or shipment at higher temperatures resulted in declined blood pH. Industrial production. Acclimation. increased total CO sub(2) and increased lactic acid levels (P<0. acclimation rates. Following acclimation from 27 degree C to 14 degree C. reduced respiration and decreased handling. 12~614 degree C and 16~618 degree C. Shrimps were packed in boxes with absorbent paper and kept in refrigerated chamber. L SO: Source Aquaculture a95 u Book of Abstracts.. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. Thailand . Crustacean fisheries. The present study explores techniques for practical dry live shipment of P. shrimp reacted well when reacclimated from 14 degree C to 27 degree C at a rate of 3~64 degree C/hour (up to 96% survival). CK SO: Source Aquaculture a95 u Book of Abstracts. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon.. Oxygen also increased resistance of the shrimp to lower temperature. post-shipment survival was inversely related to the rate of chilling (1~62. shrimp internal acidosis was reduced. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shipping.6% to 93. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Intensive culture. Baton Rouge.05).0%. respectively (P<0. Shrimp culture. Shrimp culture. Water quality. 12.4% to 77. An initial increase or decreases in temperature of up to 7 degree C for acclimation had no negative effect on survival (P>0.6%. vannamei. (USA) Record 277 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Progression of Intensive Marine Shrimp Culture in Thailand AU: Author Lin.05).05). Live shrimp markets could offer a more profitable outlet for some domestic farm production. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract Significant quantities of crustacean products are marketed live in the US each year. Water. blood samples were collected from the pericardial sinus following 3.05). MD (USA). and 24 hours' shipments at 8~610 degree C. Resource management. Mangrove swamps. packing and shipping stresses.. World Aquaculture Soc. 1995. 3~64 and 5~66 degree C/hour) from 86. shipment temperatures and use of oxygen were studied. Crustacean culture. At lower temperatures in an oxygen atmosphere. vp. To define the blood acid-base status during shipment in air or oxygen atmosphere at different temperature.TI: Title Live Shipment of the Marine Shrimp. Burnett. LA (USA). P<0. Bethesda. Fish Culture Sect..

An SPF-based shrimp culture industry is composed of three streams. The HHS stream is composed of stations that produce seed for commodity shrimp growout. The Commodity Production Stream is the growout component of the industry and is excluded from coverage by the Surveillance Project.. National Shellfisheries Assoc. Baton Rouge. To make shrimp culture more environmentally friendly and sustainable the private and public sectors have made efforts to mitigate the pollution loads of pond effluents through public awareness and governmental legislation. There are a large number of potential pathogens on the SPF-list of pathogens and the pathogen status of the SPF stream is assured by intensive surveillance of NBCs combined with strict founder population development protocols. USA AB: Abstract The Pathogen Surveillance Project of the US Marine Shrimp Farming Program is designed to monitor the pathogen status of components of the SPF (Specific Pathogen Free) . Article Geographic Terms: ANW. vp.S. and HHS larval rearing stations. Shrimp culture. Shrimp farming areas in Thailand are distributed among various physiographic settings. The SPF stream consists of Nucleus Breeding Centers (NBCs) and founder population development. LA (USA). the SPF stream. Bethesda. Population structure. 1995. The carry capacity and management strategies of the shrimp farming also vary under those environmental conditions. Fish Culture Sect. The HHS stream consists of a large number of operations and facilities and a much larger flow of animals.based U. There are three production stations in the HHs stream: HHs broodstock multiplication stations. CA: Corporate Author American Fisheries Soc. and the Commodity Production stream. the HHS (High Health Status) stream. Adverse environmental conditions have prompted farmers to minimize water exchanges. There are a smaller number of organisms on the HHS list of pathogens. advancing in-pond water treatment methods and adopting recycle systems. Surveillance and enforcement. Shrimp fisheries. ranging from the shallow muddy delta. Deterioration of coastal water quality and out-breaks of viral disease known as 'yellow head' have recently threatened the shrimp farming industry. and the surveillance intensity is more restricted than for the SPF stream. shrimp culture industry. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Pathogens.S. Produced Shrimp Broodstock and Seed AU: Author Lotz. Seed (aquaculture). Founder populations are generated by an extensive quarantine protocol that result in an SPF F1 generation derived from wild parents. Breeding.AB: Abstract With an estimated current annual shrimp production of 150.. reclaimed mangrove swamps to open sandy beaches. World Aquaculture Soc. The dramatic increase in production of predominantly Penaeus monodon within brief six years (1988-1994) has been attributed mainly to proliferation in small scale farms. (USA) Record 278 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The US MSFP's Pathogen Surveillance Project: Toward Assuring the Pathogen Status of U. Brood stocks. Thailand has been a forerunner of intensive marine shrimp farming in the world. HHS maturation stations. JM SO: Source Aquaculture a95 u Book of Abstracts.000 tons.. .. MD (USA).

Ultimately the best solution to these issues will be the development of stocks that are Specific Pathogen Resistant (SPR) as well as SPF. SR. Bethesda. Fish Culture Sect. In addition. biotechnological-based. USA AB: Abstract The widespread occurrence of the IHHN virus in cultured stocks of Penaeus vannamei has caused major problems for the marine shrimp aquaculture industry in the United States over the last several years and stimulated the identification. However. (USA) Record 279 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Issues Regarding the Genetic Improvement of High Health Marine Shrimp: Specific Disease Resistance (SPR) AU: Author Malecha. Indeed. impact on commercial production especially if the animals are being farmed it an area where the specific disease is already present.e. MD (USA). World Aquaculture Soc. isolation. Population structure. Pollution legislation. Sandifer.. Article Geographic Terms: ANW.. Shrimp culture. vannamei by the USDA-funded US Marine shrimp Farming Program (Gulf Coast Research Laboratory Consortium). able to detect minute quantities of intact pathogenic organisms. World . Shrimp fisheries. D SO: Source Aquaculture a95 u Book of Abstracts. vp. industry-wide standards. may legally restrict the sale of product into certain market areas and could be unwarranted. Indeed. derived from 'positive' hatchery populations could be essentially. When followed correctly. or only a minimum. compliance levels and assessment procedures must be developed and implemented. Brood stocks. 'free' of disease virions which have no. the current state-of-the-art ease detection technology may well be far ahead of ability of commercial hatcheries to remain 100% 'free' of all disease pathogens. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Genetics. PA. quantitative diagnostics are needed.CA: Corporate Author American Fisheries Soc. the detection techno will soon be. Baton Rouge. a marketing nightmare for commercial hatcheries. if it is not already. Bethesda. MD (USA). The Consortium's effort is based on strict quarantine and very sensitive. LA (USA). populations are judged 'free' of a particular pathogen such as IHHN virus).. 1995. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei. The 'positive' moniker. National Shellfisheries Assoc. but not entirely. their nucleic acids and antigens regardless of whether the quantities of this material are sufficient to warrant the hatchery under test to be referred to as 'positive' for the pathogen let along cause a 'disease'.. Hedgecock. To help overcome the ever increasing disparity between the ultra sensitive 'high tech' diagnostics and the rather 'low tech' quarantine programs. testing and distribution of 'specific pathogen-free' ('SPF' also termed 'high health') stocks of P. populations (i. diagnostic procedures to detect pathogens... quarantine-based programs generally result in 'clean'. CA: Corporate Author American Fisheries Soc. This paper reviews the genetic principles and other issues surrounding the development of SPR/SPF stocks and makes recommendations for future private and public sector R and D programs. grow-out populations. Fish Culture Sect. reproduction.

the relative contribution of additive and non additive gene action as well as the roles of genetic and environmental control of variation in important production traits. individual selection. Shrimp culture. Resource management AB: Abstract Traditional genetic breeding designs and techniques. line breeding and other programs because each program requires different resources and effort. (USA) Record 281 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title High Health Shrimp System Seed Supply: Theory and Practice AU: Author Pruder. and methods to correct the situation. a commercial penaeid hatchery. as well as state-of-the-art (biotechnological-based) procedures. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Brown. vp. Knowledge of the gene action is essential for deciding among breeding programs such as family selection..Aquaculture Soc. Principles underlying genetic improvement programs include avoidance of genetic deterioration because of small effective population size. Fish Culture Sect. Shrimp fisheries. the complex life cycle of the organism. Hedgecock. SR.. LA (USA). Recommendations are made for genetic improvement and management programs in commercial marine shrimp culture. Population structure.. are presented along with theoretical considerations. has instituted a program to manage and improve SPF broodstock. are not widely used in commercial marine shrimp hatcheries for genetic improvement of grow-out stocks and maintenance of genetically healthy broodstock. Carr. Seed . Marine fish. (USA) Record 280 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Breeding Designs for Genetic Improvement and Broodstock Management in Marine Shrimp Hatcheries AU: Author Malecha. incomplete understanding of shrimp genetics and other factors. 1995. Genetic principles and respective breeding programs as well as some common misconceptions regarding the genetic control and management of important traits in marine shrimp culture are discussed. vp. GD. Reasons for this. Baton Rouge. Examples of actual cases. WA SO: Source Aquaculture a95 u Book of Abstracts. Brood stocks. Genetics. National Shellfisheries Assoc.. Shrimp fisheries. CL. from marine shrimp and other species. Hatcheries. National Shellfisheries Assoc. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Breeding.. D SO: Source Aquaculture a95 u Book of Abstracts. Sweeney. World Aquaculture Soc. JN. LA (USA). are varied but include difficulty in isolating specific pathogenfree (SPF) stocks. CA: Corporate Author American Fisheries Soc. Hawaii AquaSeed. cross breeding. Bethesda. Design. Baton Rouge. MD (USA).. 1995.

poultry. $2. Stokes. sophisticated disease prevention and treatment procedures. disease monitoring and clean-up. unsophisticated and counterproductive breeding practices. Resource management AB: Abstract Sustainable and profitable modern food production industries (dairy.S. world marine shrimp farming to date is primitive. the parallels between historical agricultural development and the development of emerging aquaculture high health systems and seed supply principles of disease exclusion.: What Have We Learned About Marketing U.30 during 1989-93 period. Bethesda.. Required technologies. (USA) Record 282 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Made in the U. Shrimp fisheries. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marketing. Allelles. Browdy. the USMSFP has established captive populations of high health and genetically improved shrimp. In addition. Breeding. potatoes.S. Environmental protection. Article Geographic Terms: ANW. under the umbrella term 'High Health Shrimp Systems'.. advanced disease diagnostic. The primitive technologies that worked in the past are not working today. products and services for these industries are readily available in the marketplace and are applied rigorously as best management practices.. However. Farmed Shrimp? AU: Author Rhodes. National Shellfisheries Assoc. Average . $2. Indonesia. A SO: Source Aquaculture a95 u Book of Abstracts. tomatoes. led downward by major shrimp producing countries (China. CL. Patterning itself on other successful food production industries. Baton Rouge. pig.(aquaculture). salmon.. a high degree of environmental control and advanced culture methods. etc. very often in deteriorating coastal environments. and preliminary data on the performance of high health seed.S. RJ. Ecuador. Population structure. advanced shrimp production technologies have been under development by the US Marine Shrimp Farming Program (USMSFP). limited disease control programs and common property water use. LA (USA).A. The primitive technology underpinned development of a highly profitable $4 billion industry. Niches. Ponds. 1995. Although sales are generally dominated by a large (65-ha) farm. USA AB: Abstract Average ex-pond prices for whole (heads-on) produced by South Carolina (SC) commercial shrimp farms have ranged between U.) are wholly dependent on high health and genetically improved (domesticated) seedstocks. several market trends are apparent. In stark contrast. Production platforms. This paper describes the principle of high health shrimp systems. Fish Culture Sect. vp. Costs. For the past several years. prevention and treatment technologies are now integrated with environmental control and progressive pond management strategies. MD (USA).S. World Aquaculture Soc.71 and U. The world shrimp farming industry is in decline.). rice. Shrimp culture. Potential yield. Coastal zone. etc. The vast majority of production is dependent on the capture of wild animals. CA: Corporate Author American Fisheries Soc. it now appears that long-term sustainability has been sacrificed for short-term profits.

decreasing to 0. Crassostrea virginica AB: Abstract Experiments were conducted to characterize the culture performance. Similarly. as a live feed for marine shrimp and bivalves. Potential yield. weissflogii.S. Petri. Nutrient cycles.. Thalassiosira weissflogii.. The selling of live marine shrimp to Asian restaurant distributors (a.a. In general./day. 1 m super(3) and 4 m super(3) tanks in the greenhouse. CA: Corporate Author American Fisheries Soc. Litopenaeus vannamei. Biochemical composition.0 doubl. Growth rate. Again. Bethesda. it is apparent that 'poor' yields and quality can not be mitigated in the U.. All three nitrogen forms (nitrate. Growth. JR SO: Source Aquaculture a95 u Book of Abstracts. weissflogii becomes quickly limited by reduced silicate concentrations. however growth rates in these treatments were 20-28% higher than control treatments with F/2 media. 8:4:8. vp. Batch cultures were grown in 20 I carboys indoors and in 200 I fiberglass tubes. Oyster fisheries.ex-pond prices are generally influenced by regional wholesale prices. ammonium and urea) are suitable for T.3 doubl.35 mg N/I as in F/2 media). Baton Rouge. Juveniles. 20:20:20) were tested. (USA) Record 283 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Thalassiosira weissflogii ./day. during first day. there was no significant difference between growth rates of each fertilizer treatment. So it is no surprise that SC producers are price-takers. by increasing the initial silicate concentration to 120 mg/l.a Subtropical Diatom with Mariculture Potential AU: Author Spektorova. MS. marketplace. Shrimp culture. Mercenaria mercenaria. Regardless of the marketing strategy. Article Taxonomic Terms: Thalassiosira weiflogii. but harvesting costs are significant and shipping logistics can be frustrating at best. LA (USA)./day) . Clark. National Shellfisheries Assoc. with emphasis on nutrient conditions. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Diatoms.8-3.3-0.4 doubl. growth rates and growth dynamics varied little between treatments. In addition pond price variability between SC farms is not only due to harvested shrimp size differences. a high growth rate (> 1. Biochemical cycles. An additional 30 mg/l silicate added to 1-2 day old cultures increased the growth rate to 0. cost-effective production techniques coupled with niche marketing tactics of high quality shrimp will remain the best strategy for sc farms to survive financially. Also. in batch cultures.9-1. but may also be attributable to efforts by farmers to diversify their market outlets.. 12:6:8. Fish Culture Sect. Additional experiments revealed that. Shrimp fisheries. rapid growth of T. not just local supplies. Marine aquaculture. LV. Nutrient experiments were conducted indoors using a consistent level of nitrogen (12./day the second day. MD (USA).0 doubl. four different commercial agricultural fertilizers with differing N:P:K ratios (16:4:8. of the centric marine diatom. The silicate concentration in F/2 medium (30 mg/l Na sub(2)Si sub(2)O sub(3)) provided the following growth dynamic: the highest growth rate was 2. 1995. 'live haulers') yields the highest price. World Aquaculture Soc.k. Penaeus monodon.

and larval and juvenile bivalves (Mercenaria mercenaria and Crassostrea virginica) suggests the potential for its widespread use in commercial mariculture. monodon)./day in 200 I tubes and 0.0x10 super(6) cell/ml. shrimp deprived of food had a TAG concentration of 0. TAG concentrations were significantly lower (p=.5 doubl. CA: Corporate Author American Fisheries Soc. After 6 days of starvation./day). Postlarvae were separated into two groups. Successful use of T.7 mu g/mg dry . growth rates of mass cultures decreased with increasing culture volume: 1. Shrimp used in all experiments were from US Marine Shrimp Farming Program Population 1. In the second experiment. Shrimp fisheries. By the time of exposure to BP. factors other than silicate concentration (light.8-1. In the first experiment. Baton Rouge.8 and 0. Overstreet. Population structure. RM SO: Source Aquaculture a95 u Book of Abstracts. the relationship between energy reserves and susceptibility to infection was investigated. Article Taxonomic Terms: Baculovirus penaei.. vp. Pacific AB: Abstract There is a relationship between nutritional status of post-larval Pacific white shrimp and the response of the shrimp to infection by Baculovirus penaei (BP). and it is able to utilize all nitrogen sources. one replicate out of each group was administered BP and another. served as negative control.05)in BP-infected compared to uninfected postlarvae 3 to 7 days after initial exposure to the virus. Nutrition. the relationship between energy reserves and BP under conditions of nutritional stress was investigated. When cell densities reached 0. World Aquaculture Soc. Replicated groups of BP-infected and uninfected shrimp were deprived of food for a total of 12 days.. Article Geographic Terms: IE.. Samples from both groups were periodically collected and analyzed for triacylglycerol (TAG) content. no lag-phase. T. Additionally. After 48 hours. and a biochemical composition that is nutritionally valuable for several marine species. Fish Culture Sect. National Shellfisheries Assoc. KC. 1995. weissflogii on the pilot scale.could be sustained over three days. each consisting of two replicates: one group fed ad libitum and another deprived of food. Energy resources. weissflogii has a high growth rate (up to 3 doubl. as a food for larval penaeid shrimp (Penaeus vannamei and P.7 respectively in 1m super(3) and 4 m super(3) tanks.. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate that relationship. In the greenhouse. Experiments indicate that T. a group of postlarvae was exposed to BP and a second group which served as a control was not exposed. a tolerance for high temperature (up to 42 degree C). Stuck. survival of the uninfected group was 91% compared to 26% in the infected group. weissflogii has an appropriate cell size (10-14 microns). Pathogens. LA (USA). Shrimp culture. Larval development. At that time. nitrogen) limited growth. Bethesda. samples were collected for TAG analysis. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Symbiosis. In the third experiment. (USA) Record 284 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Relationship Between Energy Reserves in Posclarval Pacific White Shrimp and Pathogenicity of Baculovirus penaei AU: Author Stuck. Infectious diseases. LM. MD (USA).

firstly. water) using the well known' green-water' technique for prawn larvae culture. Initially we planned for outdoor reservoirs for the culture of the 'green-water' (ie. Hawaii Aquaseed's physical plant design had to accommodate. Bigger.. SR. Article Geographic Terms: ASW.. World Aquaculture Soc. Macrobrachium rosenbergii. contemporaneously (side-by-side) or contiguously (one after another). including a state-of-the-art. the penaeid life cycle. This study corroborates histological evidence that lipids are utilized during BP replication.6 mu g/mg in fed shrimp. 1995.. Because of the differences in the complexity of the larvae life cycles of the two species.. Baton Rouge. MD (USA).. Results from both penaeid and prawn larvae rearing cycles are reported in this paper which describes the multiple-use algae cultures system and includes a discussion of certain issues. DT. Viral polyhedra characteristic of a BP infection appeared in shrimp with high TAG levels at 18 hours post-exposure compared to 30 hours in the group with 10 TAG levels. Shrimp fisheries. Bethesda.weight compared with 14.. a commercial marine shrimp (Penaeus sp. Hatcheries. World Aquaculture Soc. Algal culture. From experience we soon successfully used the penaeid algae culture physical plant for the axenic culture of the preferred dominate algal species in the 'green-water' culture system. and successes relating to the design and operation of a commercial high health hatchery for both penaeids and freshwater prawns. Biological production. Fish Culture Sect. problems. algae-rich. but not axenic.. Baton Rouge. National Shellfisheries Assoc. fully enclosed. detached. Bethesda. Larvae. LA (USA). Malecha. USA. National Shellfisheries Assoc.) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) hatchery has a physical plant designed to raise. Hawaii AB: Abstract Hawaii AquaSeed. Freshwater fish. Post Larvae Using the "Green-water" Larvae Culture Technique AU: Author Zacarias. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Axenic culture. Fish Culture Sect. LA (USA). CA: Corporate Author American Fisheries Soc. axenic algae culture system. 'culture cycles' of approximately 5 million marine shrimp and 2 million prawn high health post larvae (Pls) per month for Hawaii AquaSeed's parent company's marine shrimp and freshwater prawn farm as well as out-side sales. Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium rosenbergii. MD (USA). vp. CA: Corporate Author American Fisheries Soc. DM SO: Source Aquaculture a95 u Book of Abstracts. (USA) Record 286 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title .. (USA) Record 285 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Use of an Axenic Penaeid Shrimp Hatchery Algae Culture System in the Production of Freshwater Prawn.

3. BIOL.).6 of population 1 and from population 2.6 of population 1. Site selection. A total of 114 individuals were tested.6 showing type B. Vol. pp. Alcivar-Warren. MJ Source DFW Technical Report. AA*. restriction fragment length polymorphism. Article Taxonomic Terms: Siganus. the percentage of polymorphic bands was: 55% for families 1.5 and 1. Oreochromis. random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). and 24 from population 4. no. 94-05. Chanos chanos. were used to evaluate the genetic diversity of two specific-pathogen-free (SPF) populations (numbers 1 and 2) and one candidate SPF population (number 4) of Penaeus vannamei developed and maintained by the U. and 77% for population 4. KM SO: Source Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology [MOL. Rhoades. Wyban. if DFW offices will be moved to the immediate vicinity.5 and population 2 showing type A and family 1. population genetics.5 and 1. DNA. family 1. DK. suggesting that population 4 is the most polymorphic of all three populations. and population 2. Two HhaI mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms (A and B) were found in all the animals examined. Record 287 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Genetic diversity of cultured Penaeus vannamei shrimp using three molecular genetic techniques AU: Author Garcia.67%.AU: SO: DE: AB: Report on the Characteristics and Potential of Echo Bay for Aquaculture Author Brotman. with family 1. was 6.). and allozyme variability.S. Aug 1994. Litopenaeus vannamei. hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis sp. The allozymic variation at 30 loci showed no fixed differences in isozyme genotypes between families 1.5 of population 1.]. Aquaculture facilities. 11 pp. The northern end of Echo Bay would be appropriate for aquaculture of rabbitfish (Siganus sp. under the criterion that the frequency of the most common allele was less than 0.6. random amplified polymorphic DNA. genotypes. Carr. Sweeney. JN. BIOTECHNOL. 3. milkfish (Chanos chanos) and possibly marine shrimp (Penaeus vannamei). DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: genetic diversity. The percentage of polymorphic loci. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW Abstract The southern portion of Echo Bay would not make a good aquaculture site due to the heavy sediment loads and an adjacent freshwater outlet.95 in each population. MA. respectively. After scoring 73 bands obtained with six different RAPD primers. Faggart. Ebert. which included 30 each from families 1. Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture development.023 . The area would also be a good location for demonstration and hatchery facilities. 48% for population 2. shrimp culture. no.67% for family 1.5 and 1. Hatcheries. MAR. Fish culture. 270-280. Shrimp culture. 5. 1994. restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs).33% and 16. Mean heterozygosities ( plus or minus SE) were 0. L. WH. JA. Marine Shrimp Farming Program. selective breeding AB: Abstract Three molecular genetic techniques.6 of population 1.

PN SO: Source Research Inst. Resource conservation. school shrimps (Metapenaeus monoceros. 1994. Distribution. indicus) and some black tiger shrimp (P. AB: Abstract The authors presented methods and results of the research of Penaeidae resources in coastal sea waters of Kien Giang province of Viet Nam and maesures to protect these resources. There yields fluctuated widely between 250 and 900 kilograms per hectare per year (kg/ha/yr).825 hectares and yielding some 3. There are no records from the early years. aquaculture techniques. 7. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: historical account. aquaculture products.January 1994) and resource protection measures. Hai Phong (Viet Nam). Geographical distribution. P. Many of these farms were converted salt ponds. and 0. which yielded a mix of fish and crustacean species. ensis). Indian white shrimp (P. however.064 plus or minus 0. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans. Record 288 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Resource of marine shrimp of family Penaeidae in coastal sea waters of Kien Giang province in Viet Nam (in December 1993. In 1980.018 plus or minus 0. distribution characteristics and output distribution of Penaeidae shrimp. cultured . 0. 9 pp. Dang.plus or minus 0. vannamei stocks. shrimp culture. there were already 1. in 1969.052 shrimp farms covering an area of 7. no. pp. Main shrimp species produced at that time were banana shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis). Article Geographic Terms: Thailand AB: Abstract "Shrimp culture started in Thailand in extensive trapping/growing ponds. and M.017. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW.440 tons of shrimp. AU: Author Thuoc. Metapenaeus. depending on the success in trapping wild seed. During the 1970s production techniques and volume of annual production did not change significantly. respectively. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. The low levels of allozyme polymorphisms indicate that mitochondrial DNA and nuclear DNA techniques are more useful for examining genetic diversity in order to follow individual stocks within a breeding program and to correlate genotypes with desirable growth and reproductive performance of SPF P. monodon). (DBO) Record 289 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The history of shrimp farming in Thailand AU: Author Csavas. Vietnam. I SO: Source Shrimp News International [SHRIMP NEWS INT. 19. Coastal waters. 12-14. Kien Giang Prov. Vol. Shrimp fisheries. for Marine Fishery. The research deal with composition strains and species. 1994.026.016. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus.].

but re-used the same water in the system again and again. Yields started to surpass those of other Southeast Asia countries using the same extensive trapping/growing techniques. Thailand has never relied upon wild seed. 1994. but the real breakthrough was brought about by the proliferation of small and medium-scale hatcheries that used a simplified. and other species. Record 291 of 500 . however. shrimp production increased rapidly and by 1991. did not require the continuous addition of new water. seed production. As domestic production of shrimp feed increased simultaneously and processing capacity expanded. When established clearwater and greenwater methods were tried on Guam. indigenous technology. In the early 1980s. Thailand became the world's leading producer of cultured marine shrimp with 162 thousand tons of production. The hatchery methods for producing M. no. pp. the GADTC currently produces seedstock of freshwater prawns. aquaculture development. Vol.]. Consequently. The lack of quality seedstock on Guam was a key factor that led to the creation of the Guam Aquaculture Development and Training Center (GADTC). The first large-scale hatcheries with imported technology started to produce postlarvae in the early 1980s. rosenbergii postlarvae were first developed by aquaculture researchers in the 60's and 70's. striped mullet. but local commercialization of this species has traveled a rocky road. Improved water supply made a considerable increase in stocking densities feasible. extensive farms began to increase the intensity of shrimp culture with the use of simple and cheap push-pumps [16. the larval prawns were dying before they reached the postlarval stage.1. the potential of prawn culture on Guam remains high. marine shrimp. Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium rosenbergii AB: Abstract Culture methods that have been developed for the giant Malaysian prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) are well suited to the climate. To this end. which has seedstock production as a primary goal. 60-63.4]. MAG. resources and markets on Guam. Although scarcity of seed hindered the expansion of shrimp culture in the half of the 1980s. seed production improved rapidly in the second half of the decade. and have been practiced and perfected in many facilities around the world since then. D SO: Source Aquaculture Magazine [AQUACULT. Suspecting that the problem might have to do with the hardness (particularly the calcium and magnesium) of the fresh water supplies on Guam. catfish.crustacean production was still not more than 8 thousand metric tons. in contrast to a flow-through system. recirculating systems. however. 20. the demand for shrimp seed expanded rapidly. For some reason. GADTC biologists designed a closed recirculating biofilter system using rainwater as a component of the brackish water system for larval rearing. The closed recirculating system. too. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: prawn culture. Under the right circumstances." Record 290 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Aquaculture on Guam: The potential for freshwater prawn production AU: Author Landkamer. however. water quality. they were not initially successful. 1.

emphasizing the importance of the correct removal and disposal of sediments between crops. The results derived from the nutrient budget provide data which may help define effective management techniques for reducing potentially harmful nutrient levels within intensive shrimp ponds. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus. shrimp culture AB: Abstract On the island of Guam. Japan. but not their relative proportions. SJ SO: Source Aquaculture Research [AQUACULT. Funge-Smith. Article Geographic Terms: Thailand AB: Abstract A mass balance was constructed for nutrient flow through intensive marine shrimp ponds in which budgets for nitrogen and phosphorus were determined for a series of ponds in southern Thailand over two or three culture cycles. such as China. Vol. and future product expansion looks promising. But local demand for fresh aquaculture products has provided Guam producers with a mosaic of strong. aquaculture effluents. no. and . local niche markets.DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Aquaculture on Guam: The success of marine shrimp AU: Author Landkamer. Of the N and P exported in this effluent. pond culture. nutrients (mineral). 20. Record 292 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title A nutrient budget of some intensive marine shrimp ponds in Thailand AU: Author Briggs. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: marine aquaculture. whilst increasing stocking density increased the quantity of nutrients.]. whilst the remainder was retained in the pond and ultimately exported to the surrounding environment. no. phosphorus. aquaculture development. nutrient cycles. 1994. Ninety-five per cent of the nitrogen and 71% of the phosphorus applied to the ponds was in the form of feed and fertilizers. 8. The effluent water contained 35% of the nitrogen and 10% of the phosphorus discharged. MAG. 789-811. nitrogen. the Philippines. a small but vibrant aquaculture industry has recently developed in the shadows of Asia aquaculture giants. environmental impact. 32-38. 3. FISH. Of the feed input (at a food conversion ratio of 2) only 24% of the nitrogen and 13% of the phosphorus was incorporated into the shrimp harvested. and Taiwan. MANAGE. Pond age (between two and six production cycles) did not markedly affect nutrient flows. pp. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. pp. at the southern terminus of the Marianas chain in the Western Pacific.]. 1994. 63-67% occurred during routine water exchange and the remainder during drainage on harvest. Vol. 25. MRP. A major portion of the nitrogen (31%) and most of the phosphorus (84%) was retained in the sediments. DJ SO: Source Aquaculture Magazine [AQUACULT.

9 mg/km). aquaculture statistics.for reducing the discharge of nutrients to the local environment. 655-659. Record 293 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Sensitivity of transketolase to the thiamin status of juvenile marine shrimp (Penaeus monodon) AU: Author Chen. while TPP effects decreased with increasing dietary thiamin levels. The TPP effect showed a significant increment when the dietary thiamin was reduced from 20 mg/kg diet to no supplement. Among all criteria examined. and the potential impact of its development on the environment. Feng-Cheng. vitamins.. 19. shrimp culture. The data may also assist in determining the carrying capacity of an area for shrimp farming. vitamin deficiencies. 1994. Thiamin requirement assessed by TPP effect as the criterion was lower than that by transketolase activity. Transketolase activity increased in response to increasing thiamin supplementation. H-Y. analytical techniques. disease control. 109A. 3. SO: Source Shrimp News International [SHRIMP NEWS INT. like vertebrates. 1994. PHYSIOL. 1. hemolymph and hepatopancreas transketolase activities and their thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) effects were assessed for their potential to determine the thiamin status of juvenile Penaeus monodon after a 9-week feeding trial. Record 294 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The United States marine shrimp farming program AU: Author Anon. Shu-Ying SO: Source Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology.3 mg/kg) was similar to that of the growth results (12. Record 295 of 500 . DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: vitamin B. Tang.]. A [COMP. measurement of the TPP effect in the tissues of the marine crustacean is a more sensitive indicator of thiamin status than measurement of transketolase activity. BIOCHEM. These data suggest that.3 mg/kg) and hemolymph (18. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon AB: Abstract Muscle. A]. the thiamin requirement estimated by the TPP effect of the muscle (13. Vol. 2-3. pp. Wu. no. no. the hemolymph TPP effect was the most sensitive and specific indicator of thiamin status. Vol. animal nutrition. Article Geographic Terms: USA AB: Abstract The Oceanic Institute in Hawaii submitted this article on the United States Marine Shrimp Farming Program. pp. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture.

O:20 and 0:3 serotypes (four isolates remained untyped).DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Pre-fusion events of sperm-oocyte interaction in the marine shrimp. Griffin. microbiological analysis. The ligand responsible for this binding is a carbohydrate moiety in the VE. marine crustaceans. Once bound to the VE. 11 isolates belonging to biotype I and the other six isolates to 6 different biotypes. 4. enterotoxins. TECHNOL. FJ. coagglutination. O:128 (three) and one isolate each of O:2. 324-326. BR. as demonstrated with anti-VE polyclonal antibodies. SB SO: Source Journal of Food Science and Technology (Mysore) [J. pp. fresh water molluscs. no. Histopathological examination of mouse foot pad test revealed massive . Vol. coli isolates could be biotyped into 7 biogroups. Out of these. acrosome reacted sperm do bind to surface coats via an externalized acrosomal granule. 7 were positive for enterotoxigenicity with the latex agglutination. undergo a primary binding to the vitelline envelope (VE) of the oocyte. (MYSORE)]. fishery products. biotyping and enterotoxigenicity evaluation AU: Author Singh. mixed with eggs by a spawning female. sexual reproduction. Record 296 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Incidence of Escherichia coli in fishes and seafoods: Isolation. FOOD SCI. biological pollutants. marine shrimp (13). Kulshrestha. food contamination. Vol. These were present in fresh water fishes. and secondarily bind to a surface coat that is closely associated with the oolemma. however. WH Jr. AH SO: Source Seminars in Developmental Biology. 1994. 1994. All the 17 E. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: microbial contamination. no. human food. coli isolated. Article Geographic Terms: India AB: Abstract Fresh water fish (97) marine fish (37). Out of 17 E. seafood. public health. fresh water prawn (12). 31. penetrate the VE. serotyping. pp. fish pakoda (20) and fish egg (6) samples have been screened for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli serotypes. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: sperm. Acrosome intact sperm will not bind to surface coats. mouse foot pad and vasopermeability factor tests. Article Taxonomic Terms: Sicyonia ingentis AB: Abstract The non-motile sperm of Sicyonia ingentis. molluscs (26) dried fish (19). Pisces. Unreacted sperm preincubated with solubilized VE components exhibit diminished binding to VEs in a concentration dependent manner. Sicyonia ingentis AU: Author Clark. marine shrimp. fish eggs and marine fish samples. Wikramanayake. 13 were typed as O:87 (seven). dried prawn (5). biological fertilization. 225-231. coli strains were isolated. sperm undergo exocytosis of the acrosomal vesicle. The ligand preferentially binds to the anterior tip of unreacted sperm. sexual cells. 4. Article Taxonomic Terms: Escherichia coli. A total of 17 E. 5.

Vol. intensive culture.1-ha. pathogens. coli.S. For practical purposes. Record 299 of 500 . no.but not a panacea AU: Author Pruder. In October 1993. 1994. Record 298 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title High health shrimp stocks: An advance. 25. 1994. coli isolates deserve serious attention.52 g/week. 26-28. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus AB: Abstract The term "high health" has been adopted by members of the U. Marine Shrimp Farming Program (USMSFP) to replace the term "specific pathogen free" (SPF) to describe shrimp stocks judged. pp. food conversion. an opportunity . pp. 3. The antibiotic resistance and public health significance of these E.363 kg/ha of 18. on a best-professional-efforts basis. Article Geographic Terms: ASW. Vol.5-g Penaeus vannamei in 85 days from a 10. induced by cell-free culture filtrate of enterotoxigenic E. disease control. protozoans and parasites. no. captive populations of selected shrimp maintained in the Oceanic Institute's nucleus breeding center are referred to as SPF. to be free of certain viruses. 6-13. However. aquaculture techniques. all animals derived from those SPF populations that have been appropriately protected from disease and found negative in periodic screening are referred to as high health. GD SO: Source World Aquaculture [WORLD AQUACULT. 3.]. 25. a Venezuelan shrimp farm produced a sensational harvest of 2. commercial shrimp growers can improve production by identifying and recreating conditions that contributed to elevated production in their own ponds. ponds. This article examines the methods and environmental conditions involved in that outstanding production cycle and discusses them in the context of conventional semi-intensive shrimp pond management.59 and an average growth rate of 1. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. A case study in marine shrimp pond management AU: Author Clifford.infiltration of polymorphs in dermis with moderate oedema in epidermis and dermis layers of skin. semi-intensive pond with a food conversion ratio of 0. HC III SO: Source World Aquaculture. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. Venezuela AB: Abstract In the absence of research facilities and controlled experimentation. Record 297 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Semi-intensive sensation. aquaculture systems.

pp. F.20 mg/l). BANGKOK (THAILAND). aquaculture effluents. Chanthaburi Province. The average shrimp production from 20 intensive cultured ponds was 4. Malem. water quality. effluents. marine aquaculture. wastewater discharges. 314. The objective was to determine whether PAA could minimize leaching of amino acids and also enhance the nutritional value of the feeds. This study indicates that substitution of PAA for CAA in shrimp feeds does not appear to provide any additional advantage.59*SiO sub(2) .697. 30-40. S. Record 301 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title . waste water.18*Salinity 4.4 tons/crop). 1994. feed composition. S SO: Source Aquaculture.30-21. 128.03 ppt. eastern Thailand AU: Author Tookwinas. NO sub(2)-N was 0. nitrogen compounds. shrimp culture. Vol. No reduction in leaching of amino acids and no significant improvement in growth rate were observed in shrimp fed the PAA diet when compared with the CAA treatment. the average soil organic matter was 7.33*DO + 2. 363-366. P SO: Source CHULALONGKORN UNIV.47 mg/l (range: 0.0. no.DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title An evaluation of polyamino acids as an improved amino acid source in marine shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) feeds AU: Author Divakaran. BOD was 8. BOD sub(5) super(20) value was also directly varied with the shrimp feeding rate (r super(2) = 0. Record 300 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Quality and quantity of discharged water from intensive marine shrimp farms at Khung Krabaen Bay. Songsangjinda. Article Geographic Terms: Thailand AB: Abstract The study of 20 shrimp ponds in Khung Krabaen Bay during the first crop of 1992 showed that the average water drainage was 16. nutritive value AB: Abstract Polyamino acids (PAA) prepared by thermal condensation were substituted for a crystalline amino acid mix (CAA) in shrimp feeds. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture.68 tons/crop (range: 2. feeding behaviour.09*Visibility (r super(2) = 0. environmental effects. pp. 1994. The average salinity was 35.. pond culture.23%. BOD sub(5) super(20) loading was 5. intensive culture. environmental impact.40).56).5 tons/pond. BOD had a significant relationship with other parameters as BOD sub(5) super(20) = 16. aquaculture.4-13. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: amino acids.118 kg/ha/crop.0. wastewater.64*NO sub(2) .02 mg/l.19 mg/l. NH sub(3)-N was 0.47 + 0. biochemical oxygen demand.

WJ Jr. sperm. 89-101. AL . ingentis oocytes. Isolated S. However. while complete deglycosylation with trifluoromethanesulfonic acid destroyed sperm binding activity. 36. before the acrosome reaction). Tamunina (Guam). pp. and immunolocalization of VE components demonstrated highly localized VE binding sites at the tip of the sperm anterior appendage by which sperm bind eggs. AU: Author Bray. Dept.Final report. The sperm penetrate the VE and become secondarily bound to the surface coat (SC). neither alkaline treatment nor enzyme digestion using glycosidases specific for asparagine and serine/threonine linked oligosaccharides affected sperm binding activity.e. Extensive Pronase digestion of VE components did not affect sperm binding activity of solubilized VE components.. Clark. DJ. shrimp culture. pacific aquaculture association: Market promotion for the development of culture marine shrimp on Guam AU: Author Landkamer. M DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: product development. Sperm bind to a thin vitelline envelope (VE) via their anterior appendage and within seconds are induced to undergo acrosomal exocytosis. WA. marketing CA: Corporate Author Government of Guam. Vol. AH. WH Jr SO: Source Development Growth & Differentiation. Fitzgerald. biological fertilization. Soluble fractions of isolated VEs inhibited primary sperm binding in a concentration dependent manner. of Commerce Record 302 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Two extracellular matrices from oocytes of the marine shrimp Sicyonia ingentis that independently mediate only primary or secondary sperm binding AU: Author Wikramanayake. 1994.. In this study. a glycocalyx on the oocyte surface. no. The two extracellular matrices differ morphologically and possess different polypeptide profiles. reproductive cycle. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: marine crustaceans. after acrosomal exocytosis). female Sicyonia ingentis simultaneously release ova and stored nonmotile sperm and mix them externally to initiate gamete interaction. Record 303 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The effect of four substrates on growth and survival of Penaeus vannamei at two salinities. Lawrence. while the isolated SCs mediated only secondary sperm binding (i. Bauerlein. ingentis VEs were used to characterize primary sperm binding activity. Isolated VEs mediated only primary sperm binding (i.e. 1. both extracellular matrices were isolated from S. Article Taxonomic Terms: Sicyonia ingentis AB: Abstract During spawning. enzymatic activity.

spawning. 13. two basic problems remain to be understood and solved in order to improve the performance of these long-term maturation systems. recirculating systems. dependable long-term maturation systems must be developed. coarse sand and clay) and an impermeable substrate (bare fiberglass tank bottoms). although the difference was not statistically significant in the higher salinity group. The achievement of maturation/reproduction in unablated shrimps under long-term captivity (26 months) was possible through the control of only a few exogenous factors. PONTEVEDRA (SPAIN). Ensenada [CIENC.1 g at 27 ppt. water salinity AB: Abstract The marine shrimp. Shrimp cultured on sand substrates had higher final weights than shrimp cultured on clay.94 g mean weight were stocked at 15/m super(2) in 1. Juveniles of 0. vannamei) has no soil substrate requirement for the 1 to 15 g size category. survival. clearing the way to its domestication. . no. the complete gonad maturation of both sexes was achieved resulting in numerous matings and spawnings. MAR. 229-244. substrate preferences. OJ SO: Source CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIONES MARINAS.77 g/week in the 27 ppt treatments and from 1. genetics. Significantly higher final weights were observed with impermeable substrate than with any soil substrate at both salinities tested (15. Vol.55 to 1. pp. 1993. Penaeus vannamei Boone. was cultured on four substrates at two salinities for 56 days. Results obtained in the present work showed that the marine shrimp Penaeus kerathurus can easily be adapted to long-term captivity conditions in enclosed recirculated sea water systems.33 to 1.2 g at 45 ppt). 2. 19. such as water temperature and diet. However. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. irrespective of how primitive the husbandry and genetic management of these undomesticated organisms are relative to livestock. salinity effects. growth. aquaculture techniques. On a continuous basis and along more than a one year period.SO: Source Ciencias marinas. juveniles. sexual reproduction. Test salinities were 45 ppt and 27 ppt.54 g/week in the 45 ppt treatments. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus kerathurus AB: Abstract With increasing interest in genetic improvement programs of cultured marine species. Average weight gain ranged from 1. Record 304 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Maturation and spawning of the marine shrimp Penaeus kerathurus: Performance under long-term captivity AU: Author Luis. Results indicated that P. 251-256.2 m diameter. Test substrates included three soils (fine sand.]. 1993. fecundity. outdoor tanks. pp. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. The first is the high specific mortality of maturing females during exuviation and the second the daily spawned eggs which were laid in low numbers (maximum of 20 000 eggs collected/day) and with a very low fertility rate most probably caused by low quality sperm of captive males.

Record 305 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title An experimental study on the bioaccumulation and turnover of polonium-210 and lead-210 in marine shrimp AU: Author Carvalho. sperm. SER. no. males. 125-133. Accumulation in internal tissues also occurred through the intake of seawater for osmotic regulation. Woods Hole [BIOL. Jun Min SO: Source Biological Bulletin. radioisotopes. reaching whole body concentration factors [CF = (Bq/g of shrimp wet wt)/(Bq/ml filtered water)] of 139 plus or minus 28 for super(210)Po and 682 plus or minus 149 for super(210)Pb. BULL. SW SO: Source Marine ecology progress series. 185. Article Taxonomic Terms: Lysmata seticaudata AB: Abstract The experimental accumulation of super(210)Po and super(210)Pb from seawater alone and from seawater and food was studied in the laboratory with the benthic shrimp Lysmata seticaudata. Shrimp accumulated both radionuclides from water for 21 d. tissue analyses revealed that radionuclide accumulation was mainly due to external adsorption. seticaudata. trace elements. 1-2. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: bioaccumulation. pp. was observed in L. Lead. It is concluded that in shrimp super(210)Po was mainly accumulated from food. polonium. sexual reproduction. Record 306 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Spermatophores and plug substance of the marine shrimp Trachypenaeus similis (Crustacea: Decapoda: Penaeidae): Formation in the male reproductive tract and disposition in the inseminated female AU: Author Bauer. 174-185. Turnover of super(210)Po in shrimp tissues is much slower than for super(210)Pb. Vol. adsorption. Marine Biological Laboratory. no.]. spermatophores. Lin. food organisms. sea water. Exposure of shrimp to radionuclides dissolved in water and labelled food produced a noticeable accumulation of super(210)Po in internal tissues which was not accompanied by an identical accumulation of super(210)Pb. BIOL. digestion. biological fertilization. Oldendorf [MAR. PROG. ECOL. FP. pp. This difference can account for the enhancement of super(210)Po: super(210)Pb ratios observed in the lower trophic levels of marine food chains. Fowler. osmoregulation. Vol. whereas super(210)Pb was largely taken up from the fraction dissolved in seawater. MAR. RT. LAB. Article Taxonomic Terms: Trachypenaeus similis . 1993. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: marine crustaceans. controlled conditions. 2. 102. a fact which also contributes to the enhanced super(210)Po: super(210)Pb concentration ratios observed in marine crustaceans. animal reproductive organs. 1993. A much higher digestive assimilation efficiency for super(210)Po. When uptake was from water only. WOODS HOLE]. about 5-fold that of super(210)Pb.

The most effective stimulus tested was shrimp-head offal extract. where sperm from ruptured spermatophores are stored. Record 308 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Requirements of marine shrimp. 1993. Direct insemination by an everted male gonopore is considered more likely than transmission of spermatophores and plug substance via the male gonopod (petasma). pp. Most of the ejaculatory duct is occupied by a chamber filled with a transparent. KN. and was independent of factors such as texture or size of feed pellets. A substance is intermixed with sperm in the proximal coils of the MVD. juveniles for phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol. 153-164. the mass of plug substance (mating plug) may act as a paternity assurance device that prevents subsequent inseminations by other males. followed by plug substance that quickly solidifies. AU: Author Holland." When males are artificially ejaculated. which serves as an antechamber to the apertures of the internalized seminal receptacles. feed composition.W. RJ SO: Source Aquaculture. indicating the best use of this material may be as a flavorant rather than as a source of nutrients. 109. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: palatability. This latter material fills and stoppers a space on the female. separating groups of sperm that will be ejaculated as spermatophores. was suitable for rapid screening of a wide variety of compounds. Houng-Yung SO: Source . Agar disc hardness and preventing the shrimp from placing their mouthparts directly onto the stimulus discs were important aspects of the bioassay design. Penaeus monodon . Vol. no. 2. shrimp culture. The palatability assay required only small amounts of stimuli.AB: Abstract Sperm are packaged into many small spermatophores of variable size in the median vas deferens (MVD) of the male. and an anterior exit for sperm release during spawning. Greatest biological activity was in the < 1000 M. Record 307 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title A palatability bioassay for determining ingestive stimuli in the marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei . spermatophores are emitted. AU: Author Chen. Borski. fractions of the extracts. stoppered by plug substance after insemination. The slit-like openings to the receptacles are functionally divided into a posterior aperture. viscous fluid termed the "plug substance. a closed mid-section. In addition to its hypothesized roles during insemination and sperm release. bioassays. the median pocket. food preferences AB: Abstract A feeding bioassay which uses agar discs was developed for evaluating chemosensory stimuli influencing ingestive behavior in Penaeus vannamei .

5% and 1. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon AB: Abstract The effects of dietary phospholipids and cholesterol on the growth. Nantes [AQUAT.25. cholesterol.5 and 5%) of phosphatidylcholine. lobster culture. L SO: Source Aquatic living resources/Ressources vivantes aquatiques. advances of marine biology and fast increase of marine fisheries enabled the development of large-scale production and release of larval stages of American and European lobsters in a fruitless attempt to restock natural populations. The effectiveness of cholesterol was not affected by the dietary inclusion of phosphatidylcholine and the inverse was also true. 0. 4. crab culture. diets. After the Second World War.25%. food composition. were tested in combination with four levels (0. respectively.14 g) were examined using purified soy phosphatidylcholine (80% purity) as the phospholipid. survival and body lipid compositions of juvenile Penaeus monodon (initial mean weight 0. A major breakthrough was achieved with the development of hatchery technologies for the penaeid prawn Penaeus japonicus and the caridean prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. shrimp culture. pp. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. environmental factors. prawn culture. 165-176. 1993. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: juveniles. diseases. 319-329.]. 109. which occurred during the first decades of the second half of this century. since the turn of the century. no. the increasing demand for crustaceans in United States and Japan was satisfied by opening new prawn fisheries all over the world. The aquaculture production of prawns mainly based on wild-caught juveniles increased in South-East Asia and Central America . A. pp. 0.45 plus or minus 0. The results of the 4-week growth experiment indicated that dietary supplementation of phosphatidylcholine or cholesterol significantly improved shrimp weight gain but not survival. Vol. Laubier. shrimp showed decreased phosphatidylcholine and increased free fatty acid levels in their muscle. world AB: Abstract In western countries. nutritional requirements. Together with the increasing market demand in developed countries for sea food. 6. Contents on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the muscle seemed to decrease with increased phosphatidylcholine supplement. no. this led to a considerable interest of both public agencies and private investors in marine shrimp and prawn culture. LIVING RESOUR./RESSOUR. Vol. 2.5 and 1%. 1993. while in response to increased dietary phosphatidylcholine supplement. The optimum supplemental levels of cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine for P. 2. monodon juveniles were estimated to be 0. Record 309 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine crustacean farming: Present status and perspectives AU: Author Laubier.Aquaculture. Total lipid content and lipid class compositions of the hepatopancreas were not influenced by the dietary supplementation of phosphatidylcholine or cholesterol. Three levels of supplemental cholesterol. 1. Increased supplementation of cholesterol resulted in increased total lipid content of muscle. VIVANTES AQUAT. marketing.

the major part of the world production of marine crustaceans relies on penaeid prawns and.7 g/wk were achieved in upper trays of both tanks. mean oyster growth rate (2 g/wk) and survival (79%) from seed (0. establishes the success of prawn farming. Record 311 of 500 . The balance between market demand and production is an important constraint which. pp. SOC. GD*. Oyster growth within and between tanks indicated a relationship between biomass and exchange rates.000 tons from penaeid prawn culture. 24. It was envisioned that this biculture could avoid cost and reliability problems associated with the mass production of algae as oyster feed. For both tanks. Oysters were reared in each of two flow through 310 L tanks receiving shrimp pond water from selected commercial semi-intensive shrimp ponds. Record 310 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Growth trial with the American oyster Crassostrea virginica using shrimp pond water as feed AU: Author Jakob. 1993. Data are provided to estimate optimum pond water flow rate and oyster biomass relationships. in turn. 3. During a 65 d controlled monitoring period mean oyster growth rates of 3. The economic aspects of marine crustacean aquaculture should be considered together with those of the fishing industry. JK SO: Source Journal of the World Aquaculture Society [J.04 g) to market size (55. on Macrobrachium species. Vol.during the 1980s. oyster culture. aquaculture effluents. juveniles and adults and to a better knowledge of diseases caused by bacteria and several viruses which have been identified from hatcheries and intensive farming ponds. no. Such problems contributed to the failure of previous attempts to commercialize oyster culture. to a lesser extent. aquaculture techniques. crustacean aquaculture has increased tremendously in both Asia and America: the world production for 1991 approximated 700. However. Following the early period of hatchery technology development. This overall positive trend should not hide important failures which occurred at a local scale. In each tank. pond water was delivered to the upper trays and flowed downward through each of two seven tray stacks. Wang. polyculture AB: Abstract This study was conducted to quantify the potential of Crassostrea virginica biculture using marine shrimp pond water. Additional new technological advances have emerged from recent research in the fields of physiology (endocrinology) and genetics. some other species of marine crustaceans have potential for aquaculture. 344-351. By far. shrimp culture. the major scientific achievements were related to food requirements and formulation of compound diets for larvae. GS.]. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: experimental culture. pond culture. WORLD AQUACULT. Pruder. wastewater aquaculture. Since the early 1980s. growth.0 g) compared favorably with previous reports and for the first time approximated the growth projected in a 1968 engineering study by American Cyanamid. with more than 600.000 tons. The prospects for shrimp and bivalve co-culture appear promising. such as the Taiwanese crisis of 1988 due principally to environmental degradation.

and occurrence of disfigurements (e. polyunsaturated fatty acids. Article Geographic Terms: ANW. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon AB: Abstract The food organisms commonly used in the Malaysian mariculture of penaeid shrimp Penaeus monodon. with an average stocking density of 56 shrimp/m super(2). EUR. Penaeus monodon AU: Author Shamsudin. SOC. prymnesiophyte Isochrysis galbana) and zooplankton species (rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. food organisms. 1993. runt deformity syndrome.. feeding experiments. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture.DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Development of intensive pond culture of marine shrimp in South Carolina: From research to commercial reality AU: Author Sandifer.g. yield. survival. Major findings of these studies are as follows: mean size of shrimp at harvest is affected relatively little by stocking density within the range of 20 to at least 200 shrimp/m super(2). PUBL. South Carolina AB: Abstract Experiments on the intensive pond culture of Penaeus vannamei were initiated in 1985 and have continued through 1992. PUBL. having high health animals is the most important ingredient for successful intensive pond culture. black spot disease) are directly related to the initial health status of the stocks and the pond management regime. The algae were fed to the . local copepod species (mostly Oithona nana) and brine shrimp (Artemia salina). lipids. stocking density. Commercial harvests exceeded 13. At 400 animals/m super(2) the system essentially collapsed. body size. Hopkins. intensive culture. growth. Stokes. survival. By 1992 there were 91. survival. South Carolina commercial shrimp growers have rapidly assimilated research findings into their business operations. AQUACULT. CR SO: Source Special Publication. European Aquaculture Society [SPEC. AD.000 kg/ha in some ponds and averaged about kg/ha overall for the state. EUR. SOC. consist of algae (diatom Chaetoceros calcitrans. Saad. standing crop biomass at havest increased directly with stocking density up to 200 shrimp/m super(2). 1993. Stocking densities in various experiments have ranged from 12 to 400 postlarvae/m super(2). USA. Record 312 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Live food organisms used in Malaysia for mass propagation of marine shrimp larvae. with major mortalities that appeared unrelated to dissolved oxygen levels. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. JS. L. PA. with the result that stocking densities and yields have increased steadily since 1985. Browdy. pond culture. AQUACULT. CL SO: Source Special Publication.4 ha of ponds in production in the state.]. European Aquaculture Society [SPEC. diets. biochemical composition.]. mean size.

developing countries. Sada. fishery data. Chowdhury. small scale aquaculture. West Java. 1993. production. sociological aspects AB: Abstract Aquaculture. The rotifer. MdS. AQUACULT. 65-78. Record 313 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Notes on socio-cultural factors which affected to intensive shrimp culture continuity: A case study at Serang. 2 freshwater prawns. Laboratory algal cultures were axenic and cultured in f-2 medium while outdoor cultures were grown in a commercial medium designed for optimum nutrition in tropical outdoor aquaculture operations. artisanal fishing. fishery economics. especially polyculture systems. The lipid and fatty acids of the various food organisms used in tropical Malaysian penaeid mariculture were also studied.]. Islam. Khan. intensive culture. TAMIL NADU (INDIA). Indonesia AU: Author Susilowati. polyculture. The survival rate of the penaeid shrimp larvae was 30-38% for larval stage Z(1)-Z(2) and 40-45% for stage Z(1)-M(3). MdZA SO: Source BOBP. Article Geographic Terms: ISW. pp. species composition and size ranges of the predominant species caught were determined. SOC. shrimp polyculture includes marine coastal fishes such as Siganus spp. European Aquaculture Society [SPEC. Lates carcarifer and Chanos chanos or milkfish for live bait fish. T SO: Source Special Publication. 18:3w3 and 20:5w3 acids. Recently. 1 sergestid .early stages of the penaeid larvae (Z(1)-Z(2)) while the later stages (M(1)-PL(3)) were given rotifer. MdSA. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. copepod species and Artemia salina. MdU. Record 314 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The marine set bagnet fishery AU: Author Quayum. EUR.. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: marine fisheries. The catch rates. because parts of owners behaviour is still highly oriented to social prestige. MdG. PUBL. gillnets. Bangladesh AB: Abstract The findings are presented of a study conducted to assess the level of exploitation of marine set bagnets in Bangladesh. Marine shrimp culture since 1980 has been modified from traditional extensive management using natural feeding into intensive culture with nutrition and artificial feeding. copepod species and brine shrimp species under investigation contained high amounts of 18:2w6. catch composition. Some 39 species/groups were identified in the catches: 5 marine shrimp. All the food organisms under investigation contained the necessary w-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid series necessary for the growth and survival rate of the penaeid larvae. MADRAS. has been developed and is well known to most coastal inhabitants in Indonesia. Improving culture technology seems not to guarantee a successful culture business. 1993.

Penaeus japonicus. BANGKOK (THAILAND). disease transmission. disease control. An economic assessment was also made of the fishery. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus. FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC. processing and marketing of the catch. Record 316 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Current issues in diseases of cultured penaeid shrimp: Results of an Asia/United States workshop AU: Author Main. Artemia.shrimp. artificial feeding. Penaeus chinensis. A wide range of viewpoints were presented by the participants. a total of 3852 units of gear are operated as approximately 250 operational units including fishing. In 1992 experts from Asia and the United States examined the occurrence. AQUACULT. New. The systems described may be used. however. Macrobrachium. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture.]. SOC. and 30 finfish. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon. It is estimated that some 10. CA: Corporate Author Bay of Bengal Programme for Fisheries Development. W SO: Source Special Publication. feed preparation. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. fish culture. Small-Scale Fisherfolk Communities in the Bay of Bengal Record 315 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title On-farm feed preparation and feeding strategies for marine shrimp and freshwater prawns AU: Author Boonyaratpalin. PUBL. 120-134. several common themes were discussed throughout the workshop. feed. European Aquaculture Society [SPEC. Those themes included: concern about the spread of . 1 solinoceran shrimp. literature reviews. with minor adaptations. pp. infectious diseases. husbandry diseases. Such aquafeeds include larval feeds.000 people are directly engaged in these activities. diagnosis and treatment of penaeid shrimp diseases during a four-day workshop in Hawaii. Article Geographic Terms: Thailand AB: Abstract A description is given of some examples of farm-made aquafeeds for marine shrimp and freshwater prawns currently in use in Thailand and methods of their manufacture. Artemia fattening feeds and grow-out feeds for Macrobrachium and Penaeus. Penaeus AB: Abstract Infectious and non-infectious diseases have had a significant impact on the production of cultured penaeid shrimp in recent years. prawn culture. MB SO: Source FAO REGIONAL OFF. 1993. EUR. 1993. M. prevention. Fulks. for producing farm-made fish feeds. KL. industrial production. Madras (India). The results were compiled and published later that year.

Ultraintensive culture was adopted by the establishment of high-quality pelleted diets. This handbook has five sections: Section I: Crustacean Larval Food Production. Section III: Marine Shrimp Growout Systems. shrimp culture. spawn. feeding. Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium rosenbergii AB: Abstract This handbook is a follow-up and companion volume to the first crustacean handbook that came out in 1983. brood stocks. and rear the crustaceans. BOCA RATON. the need for improved husbandry techniques. JP SO: Source CRC PRESS. the need for standardized diagnostic techniques. sexual maturity. pp. Article Geographic Terms: Japan AB: Abstract About a quarter of a century ago. mature. aquaculture techniques. we recommend the reader to the first volume for details on freshwater shrimp culture. and better environmental awareness. and Section V: Lobster Culture. lobster culture. chinensis and P. books. 1993. Section II: Marine Shrimp Maturation. The Table of Contents is organized so that papers are presented in a logical progression on the production of larval foods or the sequence of events that are required to obtain. FL (USA). FL (USA). However. The results as well as the diseases that affect three species of marine shrimp (Penaeus monodon. Therefore. rearing. fish diseases. Section IV: Crustacean Diseases. I SO: Source CRC PRESS. japonicus) will be presented. intensive culture. Volume 1. 1993. Very little new research is being done on freshwater prawns. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. The future of marine shrimp has eclipsed all other crustacean culture and is the primary focus of this volume. manuals. Crustacean aquaculture AU: Author McVey. BOCA RATON. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: marine aquaculture. P. prawn culture. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus japonicus. mass fry . Record 317 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title CRC handbook of mariculture 2nd edition. food organisms.pathogens by uncontrolled movement of shrimp stocks. ultraintensive culture of penaeid shrimp was first created in Japan. crustacean culture. Record 318 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Ultraintensive culture and maturation in captivity of penaeid shrimp AU: Author Yano. aquaculture techniques. this volume does contain an update on freshwater prawn diseases and overall health requirements. Hatchery Production and Juvenile Maintenance. The experts that have contributed to this volume have been asked to be as specific as possible about the techniques that they are presently using in their own facilities around the world. 289-313.

wild spawners caught in the sea are not readily available for the blooming shrimp aquaculture industry. shrimp were grown in raceways which were enclosed in air-inflated greenhouses. To do this. it was necessary to prevent excessive heat loss in the winter. To accomplish this. and production goals. Seawater was taken from wells located just behind the beach. providing a reliable year-round supply of fry. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae AB: Abstract The Environmental Research Laboratory (ERL) of the University of Arizona began work in shrimp culture research in the early 1970s. 315-348. The parent spawner (broodstock) is essential for fry production in penaeid shrimp culture. Record 320 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title . DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. At present. maturation in captivity is a major problem in the development of the commercial aquaculture of penaeid shrimp. japnicus do not mature easily in captivity. Emphasis was placed on development of an ultra-high-density controlled environment production system. FL (USA). female P. P. semisulcatus. Due to the relatively high capital cost of the greenhouse-enclosed raceways. BOCA RATON. vannamei. pp. it was important to maximize production. intensive culture. Brand. A high production yield (3 kg/m super(2)/year) for kuruma prawn by ultraintensive culture in Japan has stimulated the marine shrimp culture over the past several decades around the world. Record 319 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The culture of marine shrimp in controlled environment superintensive systems AU: Author Moore. Various investigations are underway to develop techniques which may lead to captive maturation. and help in developing selective breeding programs.production of the popular marine shrimp Penaeus japonicus (kuruma prawn). which are essential for further development of penaeid shrimp aquaculture. DW. management requirements. which would be of general usefulness in obtaining disease-free spawners. and tank design for ultraintensive culture. aquaculture techniques. In order to allow year-round production of shrimp in this climate. raceway culture. Therefore. P. monodon. The greenhouse covers retained heat and the seawater wells provided a source of clean water which had some of the extremes of temperature reduced by the tempering effect of the ground. A degree of environmental control was necessary because the facility was located in a desert environment with its associated wide swings in diurnal and seasonal temperatures. a number of innovations were added to the system. controlled conditions. Controlling maturation in captivity could help supply enough spawners for mass fry production. The system was designed to respond to a specific set of environmental constraints. and P. On the other hand. 1993. CW SO: Source CRC PRESS. The technology was first implemented in Mexico on the northern coast of the Gulf of California.

Vol. living on the pandalid shrimp Heterocarpus sibogae off northwestern Australia AU: Author Humes.]. pp. 1993. 39-45. Production data for these shrimp indicated improved survival. Vol. runt-deformity syndrome (RDS) is widespread. aquaculture techniques. WASH. Sweeney. Pruder. AG. genetics. GD SO: Source World Aquaculture [WORLD AQUACULT.S. no. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: taxonomy. parasites. brood stocks. GA SO: Source Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington [PROC. AB: Abstract Both sexes of Pseudonicothoe branchialis (Siphonostomatoida: Nicothoidae). improvements that translate into increased crop value and profitability for the shrimp industry. In Taiwan. Marine Shrimp Farming Program began developing Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) Penaeus vannamei for distribution to the U. Record 322 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts . Northern Terr. breeding. BIOL. Australia. 2. the male for the first time. 106. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. Article Taxonomic Terms: Heterocarpus sibogae. the 1987 production of 95 000 tonnes plummeted to only 30 000 tonnes the following year because of mass mortalities. pp. living on the marine shrimp Heterocarpus sibogae off the coast of northwestern Australia. Serious disease problems have plagued world shrimp farmers in recent years. JS. 1993. industry. Record 321 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Pseudonicothoe branchialis (Crustacea: Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Nicothoidae). In the Philippines. are described. reducing crop values. deformed and unmarketable Penaeus monodon are increasingly common.S. cultured organisms AB: Abstract Commercial trials indicate the progeny of SPF shrimp can dramatically outperform the progeny of wild shrimp in culture systems. The innermost element on the free segment of leg 5 is sexually dimorphic. In 1989 the U. enhanced production and increased feed conversion efficiency plus more uniform size distribution at harvest. aquaculture products. JA. Swingle.]. 24. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. Both sexes have hyaline flaps (suckers?) on the exopods of legs 1-3. Many of these disease problems are due to shrimp viruses.Specific pathogen free Penaeus vannamei AU: Author Wyban. JN. Pseudonicothoe is recognized as a valid genus. SOC. to which Paranicothoe procircularis (Carton) is transferred as a new combination. In Ecuador. Boxshall. 315-324. In 1991 more than 200 million high health nauplii and 75 million high health postlarvae were stocked into commercial production systems in the three regions of the United States where shrimp culture is practiced.

Caribbean Island nations contribute less than 1%. milkfish. turbot. Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) . tilapia. aquaculture systems. nutrition and health. 1993. extensive culture.TI: Title Aquaculture training manual. the white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) makes up over 90% of the production from farms. aquaculture development.S. CA: Corporate Author Ministry of Agriculture and Water. and also outlines the various methods of farming. P. with important volumes also exported to France and Spain. OXFORD (UK). native and non-indigenous. catfish. enlarged. oysters. mullet. carp. Record 323 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title An overview of marine shrimp farming in Latin America and the Caribbean AU: Author Jory. and will probably constitute over 50% of the production by the mid-1990's. aquaculture systems. Second edition AU: Author Swift. feed and fertilizers. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: aquaculture. eels. Extensive and semi-intensive methods predominate. their growth. This second edition has been reorganized. aquaculture techniques. The second part explains the husbandry of farmed aquatic animals. and scallops. Most of marine shrimp production from Latin American and Caribbean farms is marketed in the U. Article Geographic Terms: Latin America AB: Abstract Latin American and Caribbean Island nations produce about 98 percent of marine shrimp production farmed in the Western Hemisphere. Shrimp farmers will continue replacing shrimp fishermen as suppliers to the market. But other species. Further development of the industry will continue having positive social consequences in terms of employment and generation of hard currency. fish culture. reset and updated to reflect the new developments that have occurred worldwide. outlining all the major production systems. and yields increase rapidly from the artisanal to intensive method. The third part deals specifically in more detail with the farming of salmonids. semi-intensive and intensive. The first part covers the basic biology of those fish. DE DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. (about 70%). shellfish culture AB: Abstract The manual provides a practical introduction to aquaculture for those who are new to fish farming or have become involved in farming a different species. DR SO: Source FISHING NEWS BOOKS. extensive.000 MT. marine shrimp. mussels. Construction and production costs. manuals. vannamei will continue to dominate production in farms. input levels of water. marine aquaculture. freshwater prawns. In Latin America and the Caribbean Region. There are 4 growout methods: artisanal. South American nations produce about 85%. intensive culture. crustaceans and molluscs that are commonly farmed. Production will likely double within 10 years to around 250. small scale aquaculture. could become important as more research is conducted.

eight new farmers. intensive culture. prawn culture. The farm size is around one hectare and 2 meters in depth. pond culture. Central and South America and Africa. S DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. mostly small in scale. The top Hawaii-grown products (by value) included microalgae. Last year. joined the industry. The production can be reached up to 15 metric tons per hectare. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW.0. In addition. aquaculture systems. Hawaii AB: Abstract The new availability of land and water from the down-sizing of plantation agriculture can create opportunities for innovative resource-based enterprises. Aquaculture revenues are expected to grow in 1993. pond water circulation and metabolic rate of aquatic biomass in the pond. aquaculture facilities. An aeration technique is operated to increase dissolved oxygen supply. Aquaculture Dev. Program Record 326 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Preliminary Financial Feasibility Analysis of an Independent Marine . Hawaii's aquafarmers and researchers are regarded as leaders in the development and application of technologies for culturing a variety of aquatic plants and animals.5 to 2. Article Geographic Terms: USA. seed production. Thailand AB: Abstract Intensive marine shrimp farming on the species of Penaeus monodon has been developed remarkly since 1986 due to success in mass production of shrimp seeds and recent advance in culture technology. of Land and Natural Resources.Record 324 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Intensive marine shrimp farming techniques in Thailand AU: Author Tookwinas. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon. marine shrimp. and in Asia. such as aquaculture. HI (USA). Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) Record 325 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Hawaii Aquaculture Advisory Council 1993 report DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: aquaculture development. seaweed culture. Hawaii-based consultants continued to be active on the US Mainland. ogo seaweed and freshwater prawns. Scientific knowledge for intensive shrimp farming techniques is discussed in detail. The survival rate about 60 to 90%. CA: Corporate Author Dept. The initial stock density of shrimp fry can be up to 70 fry/m super(3). algal culture. The FCR is varied from 1. shrimp culture. annual reports. CA: Corporate Author Ministry of Agriculture and Water.

food consumption. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine crustaceans. mortality AB: Abstract . Total annual projected cash operating costs for a 75 million postlarvae (PL). per year output was $496.600 for the base case output of 75 million PL per year. not integrated with a SC shrimp grow-out enterprise) commercial hatchery operating in coastal SC. Financing. AU: Author Ostrowski-Meissner.].S.C. Record 327 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Mail Survey of the U.C.8-ton LR tanks housed in one large. Article Geographic Terms: ANW.60/1. S. Costs. Commercial species. toxicity tests. USA. Craig L SO: Source Technical report. [np].300 ft super(2). [np]. no. will desire information on the financial feasibility of operating a commercial penaeid shrimp larviculture facility located in South Carolina (SC). Shellfish culture. LeaMaster. Seafood Wholesale Market Channel with an Emphasis on Whole Farmed Marine Shrimp AU: Author Rhodes. Mar. Culture tanks. Nov 1992. J. The objective of this report is to present a preliminary projection of costs and income generated by an independent (i. S. Rep. Sexual maturity. Economic feasibility.e. Resour. USA. Hatcheries. Article Geographic Terms: ANW.690. hepatopancreas. feeding experiments. no. 80. Marine aquaculture. Marine crustaceans. Surveys. HT. diets. average cash cost per PL would be approximately $6. The annual. Raymond J. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Seafood. Cent. Shellfish culture. prefabricated steel building with on overall area of about 13. Valvy N SO: Source Technical report.Shrimp Hatchery Located in South Carolina AU: Author Rhodes.]. Channels. S. histopathology. antennae. Projected net income after taxes was only $94. Economics.000 PL for this output. Mar. USA. South Carolina Record 328 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Sensitivity of marine shrimp (Penaeus vannamei ) to aflatoxins. Kathleen. Browdy. South Carolina. Divakaran. The total initial investment for constructing. McGovern-Hopkins. Marine resources. glands. Dec 1992. Marine aquaculture.5-ton maturation tanks and 16. The hypothetical hatchery described in this report includes maturation and larval rearing (LR) systems consisting of ton 12. Rep. South Carolina Marine Resources Center [Tech. BR DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. South Carolina Marine Resources Center [Tech. 79. Grant. Construction. biological poisons. equipping and operating this facility would be nearly $1 million. Cent. Resour. South Carolina AB: Abstract It is anticipated that prospective investors and perhaps lending institutions.

I SO: Source Marine biology. 114. residues in tissues and excreta. which can not effectively utilize crystalline amino acids. Leu.5 and 36. were sampled for histopathology and for analysis of aflatoxin B sub(1). using microencapsulated arginine. Roelants.000 ppb dietary AF B sub(1). Berlin. body weight. 3000. AF-related histopathology was mainly in two organ systems. vannamei). growth. and those remaining at its completion. AU: Author Chen.7 g/kg protein). gut.000 ppb AF ( mu g AF B sub(1)/kg feed). dietary inclusion of AF B sub(1). Examination of the hemolymph 3 h after feeding revealed that the free arginine level in the hemolymph had not increased as a result of increasing levels of the dietary arginine. 1500. Record 329 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Quantification of arginine requirements of juvenile marine shrimp. the quantitative requirement for amino acid has been determined for the first time for a shrimp species. A preliminary trial was conducted on P. 2. experimental research. dietary deficiencies. or fecal samples tested.1 g/kg diet) of arginine. All shrimp which died during the trial.7. H-Y.1. above 50 ppb adversely affected shrimp growth and FCR. juveniles. 229-233. Penaeus monodon . Y-T. shrimp culture. haemolymph. juvenile (Penaeus monodon were fed casein-based purified diets containing one of six levels (13. Heidelberg [MAR. AF B sub(1). and live weight and feed consumption were recorded 7 and 21 days after the exposure of shrimp to their respective dietary AF B sub(1). The arginine level required for optimal growth was determined by broken-line model analysis of weight gain data to be 2. standard to produce levels of 0.3. Record 330 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Experience in rearing freshwater and marine shrimp AU: Author . pp. level.9.The degree of shrimp (Penaeus vannamei ) sensitivity to dietary aflatoxins (AF) has not been well defined. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: nutritional requirements. 1992. 31. the hepatopancreas and the antennal gland. 17. Mortalities were highest in shrimp receiving 15. thorax. 22. which is easily assimilated. 50. In an 8 wk feeding trial (199)). no. head. nutritive value. Aquaria were stocked with 15 shrimp. proteins. Vol.50 g/kg diet (= 54. BIOL. 250. were prepared with AF B sub(1). 100. In addition to the protein-bound arginine already present in the casein of the test diets. pure arginine was supplemented by L-arginine microencapsulated in cellulose acetate phthalate. amino acids.]. and 15. There was an abrupt increase of urea in the hemolymph when the arginine requirement of the shrimp had been met. Six levels of dietary AF B sub(1). was not detected in any of the shrimp tail muscle. artificial feeding. After 7 days of exposure. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon AB: Abstract Using microencapsulated L-arginine. 26.

Article Geographic Terms: El Salvador AB: Abstract As part of the technical assistance program provided for aquaculture . Article Taxonomic Terms: Crustacea. MODEL. 3-13. MAR.]. migratory species. The semi-Markov process model provides a better fit for the data with substantial increases in the precision of corresponding parameter estimates. The need for international cooperation and exchange of experiences with the Indochina group of countries is emphasized (DBO). marketing. 167-184. 1992. and demonstrates the utility of the model by fitting it to data on the migration of a marked population of shrimp. no. Vol. Miller. MORYA]. The prospects of such works in the USSR are indicated. Vol. prawn culture. Penaeus AB: Abstract This paper develops a semi-Markov process model for describing ecological data. Fernando. shrimp culture. vol. WE. pp. J. trade. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. shrimp fisheries. marine environment. 60. Gamma transit time distributions are selected for the model by reason of the qualitative properties of their transfer rate functions.Zgurovskii. Record 332 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Export market development efforts fo El Salvador aquaculture products. 123-129. TH SO: Source Ecological Modelling [ECOL. AU: Author Matis. no. 1992. pp. KA. models. These results are compared to those for a corresponding Markov process model which is widely used and was previously fitted to the same data. SR DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: aquaculture products. G SO: Source Russian Journal of Marine Biology/Biologiya Morya [RUSS. BIOL. aquaculture development. 3-4. JH. Record 331 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title A semi-Markov process model for migration of marine shrimp. pp.. Further generalizations of this compartmental modeling approach to other semi-Markov process models are also discussed. mean residence times and other related parameters are estimated from the data for the assumed semi-Markov process model. Grant. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: migration. 3. BIOL. AU: Author Malecha. world AB: Abstract Data on the artificial rearing of shrimp in different parts of the world are analyzed and the major trends in development of shrimp aquaculture are described. Occupancy probabilities. 17.

Record 334 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Preliminary financial feasibility analysis of an independent penaeid shrimp hatchery located in South Carolina. export marketing. U. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. trouble-shooting of processing and shipping problems. trouble-shooting.development in El Salvador. AU: Author Rhodes. trial shipments and sale of product to specialty export markets. SR DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: aquaculture development. the private non-profit and non-partisan Salvadoran Foundation for Economic and Social Development. RJ. South Carolina AB: Abstract South Carolina shrimp farmers have become apprehensive about the future availability and quality of penaeid postlarvae (PL) from other states. participation in restaurant and other trade shows to feature the Salvadoran product and develop "brand" interest and loyalty. provides a high degree of technical assistance for aquaculture development. extension. Article Geographic Terms: ANW. hands-on technical assistance for all phases of development and operation of marine shrimp and freshwater prawn hatcheries and farms.S. Article Geographic Terms: El Salvador AB: Abstract FUSADES. economic feasibility. A high level of technical assistance is thus available to anyone entering the aquaculture industry in El Salvador. and special promotional activities to market the opportunities for investing in aquaculture development in El Salvador. economic models. trade. CL DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. These have included: design of trade names and logos than emphasize the high quality and desirability of the Salvadoran product. Record 333 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The El Salvador Aquaculture Technical Assistance Program. state-of-the-art production technology. aquaculture economics. the authors have tried to demonstrate and develop export markets for marine shrimp and freshwater prawns cultured in El Salvador. prospective SC aquaculturists and investors will desire information on the financial feasibility of operating a commercial penaeid shrimp larviculture facility located in SC. rehabilitation of existing projects. hatcheries. USA. K. prawn culture. AU: Author Malecha. Included in the services are project design and operation assistance. Browdy. Three companies provide direct. marketing. shrimp culture. Services are provided by a combination of an experienced in-country team who are full-time in El Salvador and ex-country experts who travel to El Salvador on a regular basis.A. technology transfer. developing countries. The hypothetical hatchery analyzed in this study was based upon an expandable facility starting with 125 tons of maturation tanks and 128 . Consequently. training and promotion. McGovern-Hopkins.

spreading disease and environmental degradation combine to threaten the prosperity. equipping and operating this facility would be nearly $1 million. No data were found to document claims of transfer of water borne disease agents between farms. particulates. 235-239. JR SO: Source Diseases of Aquatic Organisms [DIS. Problems discussed probably refer to effluent in the third category. ORG. of marine shrimp (Penaeus spp. Where this process of reuse occurs it serves to further degrade the water and could provide the means to spread water borne disease agents from farm to farm. Redman. water column. AU: Author Lightner. These same receiving waters often serve as intake or influent water for neighboring farms. no. sedimentation. 13. pond culture.tons of larval rearing tanks housed in one large 2 prefabricated steel building with a floor area of over 1220 m super(2). DV.]. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus AB: Abstract Deteriorating stock quality. 3. The discharge of pond effluent is one activity associated with the environmental degradation of receiving waters. AQUAT. settled bottom solids resuspended by mixing or shrimp harvest. for the purposes of this review. and settled bottom solids purposefully flushed or scraped from the pond bottom as part of pond cleaning activities. Vol. even the survival. AU: Author Pruder. Data are presented which characterize only the effluent in the first category. Total annual projected operating costs for 50 million/yr PL output was > $400. Pond effluent. Since the ten-year internal rate of return (IRR) was less than the after-tax discount rate. environmental impact. includes the following categories: dissolved. pp. pollution control. aquaculture effluents. GD DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. 1992. Record 335 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine shrimp pond effluent: Characterization and environmental impact. RM. Bonami. disease control.) farming. The sensitivity analysis of selected variables indicates that the projected IRR and NPV is more sensitive to relative changes in PL market prices than increases in PL production or reduction in feed costs. Record 336 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Morphological evidence for a single bacterial etiology in Texas necrotizing hepatopancreatitis in Penaeus vannamei (Crustacea: Decapoda). Future research on SC shrimp hatcheries should include the financial feasibility of integrating a marine shrimp grow-out operation with a hatchery facility. The initial investment for constructing.000. the projected ten-year net present value (NPV) was negative. colloidal and suspended materials associated with the water column. .

AU: Author Duerr. Article Taxonomic Terms: Rickettsia. V DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. and a commercial control diet (Rangen 45). and the authors of both papers concluded that at least 2 distinctly different species of intracellular bacteria were present in the infected cells. and survival on the various diets. D SO: Source Journal of the Acoustical Society of America [J. C. diets. bacteria. aetiology. shrimp farms. morphology. aquatic bacteria. growth. aquaculture. food additives. Mahmoodi. FCR. USA. Record 337 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title An evaluation of commercial shrimp feed attractants in an attractability table and in growout diets. bacterial diseases. AU: Author Stanton. feeding experiments.DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. attractability was measured by behavioral responses in an attractability table. one in which regular anchovy fish meal was replaced with low-temperature-processed white fish meal. chemical stimuli AB: Abstract Each of ten commercial attractants was added individually to a base formulation at inclusion levels recommended by the manufacturer. ACOUST. EO. a rickettsia-like form and a helical form as previously reported. only 3 of the products actually yielded shrimp performance that made their addition to the test feeds cost-effective. organism morphology. Two descriptive papers have been published on the histopathology and ultrastructure of the hepatopancreas of shrimp with TNHP. are morphological variants of the same species of bacteria. Record 338 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Sound scattering by rough elongated elastic objects. Morphological evidence is presented in this paper that supports the contention that the 2 morphological types. and it has inflicted serious crop losses of 20 to 90% nearly every year in farms located in southern Texas. the disease has occurred seasonally. SOC. cost analysis. . chemoreception. AM. Article Geographic Terms: USA. helices. TK. relative to the standard feed containing no attractant. Groves. Texas AB: Abstract Texas necrotizing hepatopancreatitis (TNHP) is an economically significant disease of the marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei cultured in Texas. 2: Fluctuations of scattered field. Chu.]. A 6-week growout trial was conducted with marine shrimp (Penaeus vannamei ) to compare shrimp growth. attracting techniques. Although 8 of the 10 attractants demonstrated effectiveness on the attractability table. These ten attractant-containing diets were compared with the base formulation containing no attractant. Since first recognized in 1985. In addition. survival.

than nematodes grown on WF (4. 1. In addition.2%). AU: Author Rouse. such as its envelope level.9%) was significantly higher than the lipid content of nematodes grown on WF (2. CD. the nature of the fluctuations of the backscattered echo envelope of rough solid elastic elongated objects is investigated.3%). The total lipid content of nematodes grown on WFFO (14. DB. This study has shown that the nutritional value of nematodes can be influenced by the media on which they are cultured. especially 20. Record 340 of 500 DN: Database Name . The lipid of nematodes grown on WFFO also contained a higher percentage of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) (11. properties of the echoes. fatty acids. Record 339 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Enhancement of the fatty acid composition of the nematode Panagrellus redivivus using three different media.and Sommerfeld-Watson-transformation-based deformed cylinder solutions. A general formulation is initially presented after which specific formulas are derived and numerically evaluated for straight finite-length cylinders. WORLD AQUACULT. Total daily yield on nematodes was highest on WFY. no. especially desirable n-3 HUFA's. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: sound scattering. Nematodes grown on WFFO medium had similar lipids as Artemia . There are similarities shown between the fluctuations in the geometric region and those from rough planar interfaces. 1665-1678. will vary from realization to realization of stochastically rough objects.7%). Because of these interferences.Vol. IA SO: Source Journal of the World Aquaculture Society [J. 3. backscatter AB: Abstract Sonar echoes from unresolved features of rough objects tend to interfere with each other. This study evaluated the effect of the following 3 media on the fatty acid (FA) profile of nematodes: wheat flour (WF). 1992. In this article. 92.4%). in phase with the mean scattered field. pp. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: food organisms. elasticity. pp.]. Finally. no. wheat flour plus yeast (WFY). 5 (n-3) (7. Radwin. Webster. acoustic models. analytical expressions and numerical examples show that the fluctuation or "incoherent" component of the scattered field is random only in amplitude--its phase approaches a constant value. Article Taxonomic Terms: Panagrellus redivivus AB: Abstract The free living nematode Panagrellus redivivus has shown promise as a live food for marine shrimp and fish. and wheat flour plus yeast plus fish oil (WFFO). applications of the theory developed in this article to backscatter data involving live marine shrimp-like organisms are discussed. The study uses both the approximate modal-series. roughness. 23. SOC.8%) and WFY (5.4%) and 22:6 (n-3) (3. cylinders. which needed to be taken into account in the formulation.7%) and WFY (4. culture media. biochemical composition. 1992. Vol. 89-95.

post larval harvest. nutrition. aquaculture techniques. Record 342 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Effective supplementation of arginine in the diets of juvenile marine shrimp. Penaeus monodon . Article Taxonomic Terms: Sicyonia ingentis AB: Abstract In contrast to most systems in which oocyte activation is triggered by the fertilizing sperm. AU: Author Lindsay. bio-economics and marketing considerations. PL. oocytes. the timing of this second increase appeared to be independent of when the Mg super(2+)-induced wave was initiated. Subsequent to the initial Mg super(2+)-induced intracellular Ca super(2+) increase. sea water. books. AMSTERDAM (NETHERLANDS). dissolved chemicals. extracellular. nursery/juvenile pond systems. 152. magnesium. a second Ca super(2+) increase was observed at approximately 15 min postspawning. no. Vol. aeration technology. 1992. suggesting a role for the Mg super(2+)-induced Ca super(2+) wave in regulating sperm entry into the oocyte. 94-102. pp. intracellular. 1992. transport and planting. The volume concludes with specific overviews of the key nations and their contributions to the world shrimp aquaculture scenario. Hertzler. biological fertilization. Penaeid growout systems (intensive. pond harvest techniques. thus an event associated with spawning may be involved. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: sexual reproduction. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae AB: Abstract Professor Fast and co-editor have launched the first in-depth treatise on the husbandry of Penaeid shrimps. calcium. Professor Fast sets forth a comprehensive volume covering larviculture (both Gaveston and Taiwanese methods). WH Jr SO: Source Developmental Biology. Record 341 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Extracellular Mg super(2+) induces an intracellular Ca super(2+) wave during oocyte activation in the marine shrimp Sicyonia ingentis . LL. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. pond dynamics (physical and chemical). disease. ingentis oocytes were spawned into Mg super(2+)-free seawater and microinjected with the fluorescent Ca super(2+) indicator Fluo-3 to study the effects of added Mg super(2+) on intracellular Ca super(2+) levels. SO: Source ELSEVIER. Sicyonia ingentis oocytes are activated by seawater Mg super(2+) during spawning. those in Mg super(2+)-free seawater were polyspermic. 1. chemical stimuli. crustacean culture. hatchery design. While oocytes in normal seawater were monospermic. Clark. . S.ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine shrimp culture: Principles and practices. spawning. semi-intensive and extensive). marine crustaceans.

AU: Author Chen. nutritional requirements. A peptide factor from shrimp eyestalks inhibited yolk synthesis in vitro. 1992. Record 343 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Yolk synthesis in the marine shrimp. I SO: Source Aquaculture. 87-95. diets. There was no significant difference in the growth-promoting effects and feed conversion among the CAP. feeding experiments. pp. sex hormones. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: sexual reproduction. Houng-Yung. Juvenile P. and in particular removes the natural source of gonad inhibiting hormone. food conversion. GM and SAL groups. vitellogenesis. no. A [COMP. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. Record 344 of 500 . arginine. Yeong-Tai. Vol. Progesterone and estradiol stimulated yolk synthesis in vitro. testosterone and estrogen had no effect. Penaeus vannamei . or glycerol-monostearate (GM) microencapsulated L-arginine or salmine (SAL). amino acids. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon AB: Abstract Effective dietary supplementation of arginine was demonstrated in juvenile Penaeus monodon which can not effectively utilize crystalline amino acids in their diets. 711-714. Leu. 4. pp. eyestalk extirpation. 103A. 1992. In vitro yolk synthesis was measured in fragments of the ovary of developing shrimp. LS SO: Source Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. were significantly better than those fed the diet with no supplemental arginine or the diet supplemented with crystalline L-arginine. Vol. growth. Roelants. This operation removes the major neurohormone center in the animal. and possibly other crustaceans and fish. a natural protein high in arginine content. monodon were fed casein-based purified diets supplemented with different forms of arginine. Success with CAP and GM microencapsulation of arginine supplementation appears to hold the most promise as a technique for quantifying the amino acid requirements of shrimp. A peptide factor from the eyestalks of crayfish stimulated yolk synthesis in vitro. 1-2. no. biosynthesis. The weight gain and feed conversion ratio of the shrimp fed the diets supplemented with cellulose-acetate-phthalate (CAP) microencapsulated L-arginine.. There was no statistical difference in survival between dietary groups. The mean final weight of shrimp fed the crystalline-arginine supplemented diet was higher than that of the group fed the unsupplemented diet but the difference was not significant. BIOCHEM. The eyestalk ablated shrimp will respond to this operation with a rapid and unstoppable gonadal development. 108. crustacean larvae. Penaeus vannamei . PHYSIOL.]. shrimp culture AB: Abstract Current methods in penaeid shrimp culture use eyestalk ablation (removal) to induce yolk production in captive female shrimp. yolk. AU: Author Quackenbush. A. while ecdysterone. survival.

With shrimp production of 17. pp. aquaculture systems. 15. P. P SO: Source Journal of Shellfish Research. AU: Author Hung. for 1 tonne of fresh shrimp production.32 g/mussel/day.581 kg in 2 ha of total pond area the financial gain from the mussel harvest was meager. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: crustacean culture. 1992. respectively.DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Integration of crustacean aquaculture with coastal rice farming in Vietnam. including 764 kg of phytoplankton biomass.000 kg with an average weight increased from 7 to 43 g/mussel. Record 345 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Integrated culture of green mussel (Perna viridis ) and marine shrimp (Penaeus monodon ). Ruamthaveesub. 2. 11. agropisciculture.116 kg of solid organic matter. Freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii ) and marine shrimp culture integrated with coastal rice farming and crab (Scylla serrata ) culture in backyard ponds and ricefields are described. Record 346 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts . wastewater treatment. rice field aquaculture. Vol. Wanuchsoontorn. mussel culture. Le Thanh SO: Source Naga. Mussels colonized on bamboo poles were suspended in the canals that received wastewater daily from shrimp ponds. from the effluents. To recover resources from and improve water quality of the wastewater. no. aquaculture effluents. Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium rosenbergii. aquaculture systems. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon. Scylla serrata AB: Abstract Some examples are given of integration of crustacean aquaculture into coastal rice farming in Vietnam. but the mussel culture component played an invaluable role in sustaining shrimp-culture in the recycle system. AU: Author Lin. 201. 27-29. Perna viridis AB: Abstract The wastewater effluents discharged from intensive marine shrimp (Penaeus monodon ) culture ponds contained an average of 1250 and 132 kg of dry organic matter and phytoplankton biomass. The gross mussel production was approximately 2. 1992. pp. no. polyculture. It is estimated that the mussels removed approximately 2. however. or 0. CK. a mussel (Perna viridis ) culture component was integrated with intensive shrimp culture ponds in a pilot-scale recycle system for a 4-month culture cycle. prawn culture. 1. crab culture. Vol. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture.

no. pp. 1992. 153-160. exports. fishing vessels. However. Zelle. Sponsored by National Marine Fisheries Service. 12. the male copulated several times only on one side of the female. fishery economics. in several pairs.5 million tons of potential marine fish resources. Record 347 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title SPR 0404: Industry outlook report. trade. Vol. Exports increased a record 25.8 percent by quantity to 139. international agreements and fisheries investment. . In three pairs. One interpretation of these results is that in nature at least some females may mate with and be inseminated by more than one male. Washington DC. SW DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: commercial fishing. but multiple copulations by the male on each side of the female were often observed. The report describes the performance of the India fishing industry during 1990-1991 and its prospects for 1992. Silver Spring. Article Geographic Terms: India AB: Abstract The American Consulate General in Madras.419 t and 41 percent in value to $314 million.TI: Title Repetitive copulation and variable success of insemination in the marine shrimp Sicyonia dorsalis (Decapoda: Penaeoidea). which may enhance survival of dispersed planktonic larvae that settle in a mosaic or heterogeneous benthic environment.2 million tons. A male must copulate at least once from each side of the female in order to fill both seminal receptacles. Male success in inseminating females was determined by examination of female seminal receptacles for the presence of sperm. 2. MD. Multiple paternity might increase the genetic diversity of a female's spawns. and mating behavior was described. one of the two female receptacles remained empty in spite of often repeated copulations by the male on the unfilled side. fleet. The GOI has liberalized regulations to encourage joint ventures in the marine fisheries sector and tap the largely unexplored 4. The report contains an industry overview and sections on fisheries catch. Article Taxonomic Terms: Sicyonia dorsalis AB: Abstract Copulation was observed in 18 of 25 mating pairs of Sicyonia dorsalis whose activities were recorded with a time-lapse video system. reproductive behaviour. The Government of India (GOI) is actively promoting aquaculture in light of declining catch and concern about marine shrimp resource overexploitation. AU: Author Bauer. Catch held steady for the third consecutive year at 2. All females collected from the field which had mated previously had sperm in both seminal receptacles. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: sexual reproduction. fishing industry of India (1991) AU: Author Krishnan. Fishery exports are expected to rise further in value to $529 million in 1991-1992. SN. India has prepared a 22-page report on India's fishing industry in 1991. filling only the receptacle of that side. fishery statistics. fishery policy. RT SO: Source Journal of crustacean biology.

P & D. has brought stability and new opportunities for business development. Malecha. Madras (India) Record 348 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Aquaculture in El Salvador: Primed for expansion AU: Author Sandifer. Several other feed mills in the country are interested in producing aquaculture feeds. and the commitment by both sides to keep the peace. pp. prawn culture. Penaeus monodon.]. Shrimp can be processed into several forms. Article Geographic Terms: El Salvador AB: Abstract Despite 12 years of civil war. no. Shiu-Nan SO: Source INFOFISH. has been facing extinction in many areas as cultured shrimp are being threatened by either diseases or mass mortality in the last 2-3 years. There are 14 processing plants with a combined capacity of about 34 MT per day of shrimp. however.CA: Corporate Author American Consulate Gen. 2. There is a substantial interest in aquaculture among many segments of the private sector and government. 71-75. especially the giant tiger shrimp. Vol. Most of the current interest is targeted toward marine shrimp and freshwater prawns. farming of marine shrimp. pp. One feed mill in El Salvador currently produces shrimp feed. The industry. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon.000 MT of storage capacity and 154 MT per day of ice production capacity. PUD. 1992. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: aquaculture development. butterfly. which is supported by an established processing industry. infectious diseases. El Salvador and its people are progressive and optimistic. shrimp culture. Record 349 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Coping with diseases in shrimp farming AU: Author Chen. its capacity is about 400 MT of feed per month. Asia is recognised as the most important area for shrimp aquaculture since it produced more than 80% of the cultured shrimp for the world market for the last three years. 113-117. 1992. MAG. 3. A. El Salvador has an important marine shrimp fishery. aquaculture economics. Cotsapas. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. SR SO: Source Aquaculture Magazine [AQUACULT. has expanded tremendously. fishery economics. and appear poised to enter the market once the area under aquatic cultivation increases. L. bacterial diseases. viral diseases. 18.. disease control. Among the . The recent signing of the peace accords. process plants. and IQF (individually quick frozen). depending on the needs of the particular market segment. Article Geographic Terms: Southeast Asia Coasts AB: Abstract During the last decade. KUALA LUMPUR (MALAYSIA). such as block frozen tails or heads-on animals.

Body size. four caridean families and two stenopodidean families were compared. oxytetracycline. accounting for 59% and 55% of the variance. Improper management of shrimp aquaculture may also initiate diseases. JW SO: Source DISS. 193 pp. Parameters of reproductive output were compared using regression analysis of egg number. furazolidone and oxolinic acid were commonly used by shrimp farmers at hacthery and grow-out levels. Life history. Maintenance of water colour is regarded as indicative of successful shrimp culture. Fecundity. chlortetracycline. Egg size had a slight increase with increasing body size. Apr 1991. To cope with bacterial infections antimicrobials including chloramphenicol. & ENG. AU: Author Goy. and 62% of the variance in egg number. At the intraspecific level. A greater portion of the variance (63%) in egg number was explained by carapace length. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Sexual reproduction. Record 350 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Components of reproductive effort and delay of larval metamorphosis in tropical marine shrimp (Crustacea:Decapoda: Caridea and Stenopodidea). It has also been proven that the use of drugs may significantly reduce the quality of larvae. female weight explained 71%. Vol. Leucothrix mucor. 61%. Reproductive cycle. respectively. At the interspecific level. Biogeography. Sirolpidium sp. brood weight. and brood volume versus body length. and brood volume. 10. Fusarium sp. Stenopodidea AB: Abstract Components of reproductive effort were examined in eight species of caridean shrimps and four species of stenopodidean shrimps collected from tropical marine habitats. Evolution. Water quality is a major environmental factor in shrimp aquaculture and pond soil is a secondary or generative environment which affects water quality. respectively.SCI. female weight was the principal determinant of brood weight and volume. the use of drugs in shrimp farms may result not only in pollution and increased bacterial resistance. PT. Zoothamnium sp.pathogens found in diseased shrimp. There was a trade-off between egg size and the number of eggs in an egg mass. The paper attempts to discuss all the factors affecting the health of cultured shrimp. Larval development. The remedial technologies for coping with disease problems of cultured shrimp are also described. In the stenopodideans examined. 51. no. INT. B . specimens of Stenopus hispidus from the Atlantic were contrasted with specimens . Article Taxonomic Terms: Caridea. monodon-type baculovirus (MBV) and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (HHNV) have been identified as the important microorganisms and some of them may initiate mass mortality of the cultured shrimp. Lagenidium sp. carapace length and weight of the shrimps. ABST. Vibrio sp. In the carideans examined. Epistylis sp. but also in risk to human health from the drug residues. brood weight. environmental degradation and inferior quality post leavae are also major causes of mass mortality of cultured shrimp which have led to the closure of shrimp farms in some areas. Industrial and agricultural pollution. However. Metamorphosis.

no. Examination of reproductive effort and delay of larval metamorphosis allowed inferences to be formulated regarding the capacity of longdistance dispersal and the subsequent ecological. Heidelberg. ovaries. G SO: Source Biologiya morya/Marine biology. 3. Host specificity was demonstrated with host exudates. but declined slightly between Stages III and IV. whereas in the midgut gland the major classes were triacylglycerols and sterol esters. G. Record 351 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Variation in the lipid content of wild-caught females of the marine shrimp Penaeus kerathurus during sexual maturation. pp. no. 18:1n-7. Berlin. 1991. The shrimp were captured in the Gulf of Cadiz (southwest Spain) in 1990. Larvae metamorphosed into the decapodid stage in 34-69 days after XIII-XXV larval instars when provided with adequate food. Record 352 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Experience of freshwater and marine shrimp culture. Rodriguez.7% (by dry weight) and its fatty acid composition remained constant during the whole study period. 110. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus kerathurus AB: Abstract Changes in total lipids.]. 1991. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: lipids. The amounts of major fatty acids in ovaries (16:0. The total polar lipid content of the midgut was 5. DE: Descriptors . while those from the Pacific had a higher correlation of body size to brood volume. AU: Author Mourente. The length of larval growth in relation to survival ability of shrimp larvae for long periods until metamorphically competent was determined for three species of Lysmata. AU: Author Zgurovskij. pp. 18:1n-9. in relative terms. KA. 16:1n-7. A SO: Source Marine biology. biochemical composition. showing an overall shorter larval duration within fewer larval instars when exposed to exudates of the preferred anemone. lipid classes and their fatty acid contents were studied in the ovaries and midgut glands of Penaeus kerathurus females during sexual maturation. 3-13. Vol. 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3) increased with increasing maturity. Vladivostok [BIOL.from the Pacific. Three commensal species of Periclimenes were tested to determine if their larvae would metamorphose in the presence of host actinarians or host exudates. Those from the Atlantic showed a stronger correlation of body size to egg number and brood weight. Larval duration and total instar number were closely related to the geographical range of each species. increased during ovarian development. 21-28. Ovarian lipids were dominated by polar classes. 1. Fernando. BIOL. MORYA/MAR. zoogeographical and evolutionary implications for these tropical shrimp (DBO). The lipid content and fatty acids. The greatest changes occurred between Maturation Stages III and IV.

Article Subject Terms: freshwater aquaculture; marine aquaculture; shrimp culture; polyculture; monoculture; aquaculture development; literature reviews; Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae; Caridea AB: Abstract Available literature on the culture of Penaeidea and Caridea in different countries is analyzed and candidates for aquaculture in USSR waters are proposed. Record 353 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title A stochastic compartmental model for migration of marine shrimp. AU: Author Grant, WE; Matis, JH; Miller, TH SO: Source Ecological Modelling. Vol. 54, no. 1-2, pp. 1-15. 1991. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: coastal environments; population dynamics; kinetics; fisheries; marking; models; ecology; simulation; mathematical models; stochastic processes; time series; shrimp fisheries; migrations; Article Geographic Terms: USA, Texas; ASW, USA, Texas, Galveston Bay AB: Abstract This paper demonstrates the application of stochastic compartmental analysis to model migration of a marked population of white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus ) from an estuarine bay along the Texas coast. The authors first develop a stochastic continuous time Markov process model, and fit the model to time series data from a mark-recapture field experiment. The use of mean residence times and other related moments derived from the model in providing additional insight into the kinetics of shrimp migration is illustrated. Finally, the authors suggest extensions to this approach and discuss the general applicability of the approach to other types of ecological questions dealing with animal movement and mortality. Record 354 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Combined effects of dietary phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol on the growth, survival and body lipid composition of marine shrimp, Penaeus penicillatus . AU: Author Chen, Houng-Yung; Jenn, Jan-Shyong SO: Source Aquaculture. Vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 167-178. 1991. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: feeding experiments; diets; food additives; lipids; biochemical composition; growth; Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus penicillatus AB: Abstract A factorial experiment with four dietary phosphatidylcholine and three cholesterol levels was carried out using juvenile Penaeus penicillatus . The results indicated that diets supplemented with either phosphatidylcholine or cholesterol significantly improved shrimp weight gain. Supplementary cholesterol, but not phosphatidylcholine, significantly improved shrimp food conversion and survival. The

dietary cholesterol level to achieve significant shrimp growth was 0.5% or higher, while that for phosphatidylcholine was 1.25% or higher. The shrimp muscle lipid content increased with the increased supplement of cholesterol or phosphatidylcholine. The lipid class composition, however, was not influenced by the two dietary components. Record 355 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The Islamic Republic of Iran. Follow-up consultancy shrimp culture development. Report prepared for the Agricultural Sector Project Formulation Mission. AU: Author Kungvankij, P SO: Source FAO, ROME (ITALY). 1991. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture; aquaculture development; development projects; Article Geographic Terms: Iran AB: Abstract The report describes progress made during activities of the shrimp culture development project in Iran, including work carried out in all the established and suggested facilities and technical measures taken particularly on the breeding and larval rearing of marine shrimp. Recommendations regarding staff development, hatchery operation, grow-out pond, offices and training quarters and support facilities are given. CA: Corporate Author FAO Technical Coop. Programme, Rome (Italy) Record 356 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The ho-hum syndrome. AU: Author Munita Ortiz, C SO: Source Ceres. Rome [CERES.]. no. 131, pp. 32-34. 1991. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: aquaculture development; fish culture; shrimp culture; aquaculture economics; Article Geographic Terms: Chile; Ecuador; Latin America AB: Abstract A discussion is presented on the situation regarding aquaculture in Latin American countries, considering in particular the success shown by Chile and Ecuador regarding salmon and shrimp farming. In Ecuador, climate, topography and biological factors combine to create ideal marine shrimp culture sites - the country is the major Latin American producer. Chile is currently the world's third largest salmon producer and exporter; the country also produces oysters and mussels. The potential of Latin American countries for aquaculture is examined briefly; it is concluded that scholarships and funds are needed for training at both technical and professional levels. The need for an institutional organization capable of planning, assisting and guiding industrial growth is also stressed.

Record 357 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Egg production, release and activation in the marine shrimp, Sicyonia ingentis . AU: Author Clark, WH Jr; Pillai, MC SO: Source Crustacean Issues. 1991. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: sexual reproduction; oogenesis; eggs; biological development; ovaries; spawning seasons; fecundity; Article Taxonomic Terms: Sicyonia ingentis AB: Abstract The decapod Sicyonia ingentis reproduces from the middle of June to the middle of October, during which the females undergo ovarian development and spawning. Multiple spawning without an intervening molt commonly occurs among both field and laboratory held populations. While the details on the vitellogenic stages of oogenesis are largely unknown, post-vitellogenic stages of oocyte development have been characterized. Record 358 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Water quality and microbial dynamics in shrimp ponds receiving bagasse-based feed. AU: Author Visscher, PT; Duerr, EO SO: Source Journal of the World Aquaculture Society [J. WORLD AQUACULT. SOC.]. Vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 65-76. 1991. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture; pond culture; water quality; diets; manure AB: Abstract Pond water quality and associated microbial biomass were studied in relation to the type of feed applied during the culture of the marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei . The feeds tested included conventional feedlot manure as well as 2 feeds based on bagasse, a sugarcane waste product. Physical and chemical parameters were studied during a 100 day trial in 200 m super(2) earthen ponds. Both bagasse-based feeds supported a significantly larger microbial community as measured by specific biomass numbers, ATP content and amount of the particulate organic matter present on pond bottoms. For both bagasse-based treatments, the estimated bacterial cell number in the flocculent layer was 3.11 x 10 super(12)/m super(2), compared to the much lower cell number of 7.53 x 10 super(10)/m super(2) for control ponds. Harvest data suggest that bagasse forms a potential base for feeds when applied to extensive shrimp cultures. Record 359 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts

TI: Title An overview of disease of cultured crustaceans in the Asia Pacific region. AU: Author Brock, JA SO: Source ADB AGRIC. DEP. REP. SER. pp. 347-395. 1991. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: crustacean culture; infectious diseases; disease detection; disease control; Article Geographic Terms: Southeast Asia AB: Abstract The farming of crustaceans, particularly marine shrimp, has gained tremendous popularity in Asia over the past decade. However, disease losses have become a major factor limiting the success of many crustacean farming ventures. Viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nutritional, toxic and management factors have all been identified as problem areas. Diagnostics for crustacean diseases rely at present on standard methodologies. Advanced molecular techniques are, for the most part, in the research stage. Increased research emphasis on all aspects of crustacean diagnostics are needed, particularly in those regions where intensification of farms is anticipated. Specialists in crustacean disease diagnosis and control are in short supply. In the near term, professional staff in applicable sciences working in central laboratory facilities with other types of farm animals could be mobilized to contribute to problem solving in crustacean culture systems. Eventually, existing programs/facilities will need to be enhanced or aquatic animal research and service centers will need to be established to provide the support activities required by the crustacean farming industries. Control methods for crustacean diseases have evolved empirically and been borrowed largely from fish culture. Record 360 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title (Marine shrimp in Peru.). AU: Author Anon. SO: Source Pesca. Lima [PESCA.]. Vol. 54, no. 5-6, pp. 28-29. 1991. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp fisheries; commercial fishing; artisanal fishing; shellfish catch statistics; catch composition; shrimp culture; fishery development; aquaculture development; Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus; Xiphopenaeus; Penaeidae; Article Geographic Terms: Peru AB: Abstract A brief overview of the shrimp fishery industry in Peru is presented. The fishery is based on the following species: Penaeus stylirostris, P. occidentalis, P. californiensis, P. vannamei, P. brevirostris, Xiphopenaeus riveti , and Protachypene precipua . The fishery is operated at both the artisanal and industrial levels. It was noted that the artisanal fishing fishing operates without any control, this makes its evaluation difficult. Some aspects of the development of shrimp culture are analyzed. In Peru only Penaeus vannamei is cultured under a semi-intensive system, a progressive increase in the production was observed from 1983 (593 metric tons) to 1987 (2077 metric tons). Finally, a description of the actions taken towards

increasing the production of cultured shrimp is presented. Record 361 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Chilean shrimp culture. AU: Author Weidner, DM DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture; aquaculture development; aquaculture economics; economic analysis; marketing; Article Geographic Terms: Chile AB: Abstract Chile has not yet developed a shrimp aquaculture industry. A variety of factors suggest that the country has a limited potential to culture shrimp. Indigenous species are untried in pond culture. Climatic factors, especially low seasurface temperatures, as a result of the Humboldt Current, and arid conditions probably preclude the development of a competitive marine shrimp culture industry. Some observers believe intensive operations may be possible, but such assessments are highly speculative at this point. Chilean researchers have conducted considerable research on shrimp culture, especially freshwater species. Chile is developing the most important aquaculture industry in Latin America, based on salmon and other species. This developing industrial base could enable the country to play a role in the development of shrimp culture industries in other Latin American countries. CA: Corporate Author National Marine Fisheries Serv., Silver Spring, MD (USA) Record 362 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Dominican Republic shrimp culture. AU: Author Weidner, DM; Wells, RM DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: prawn culture; aquaculture development; aquaculture economics; economic analysis; marketing AB: Abstract The Dominican Republic has, after Cuba, the second largest shrimp culture industry among the Caribbean island countries. While Cuba has focused on marine species, the Dominican Republic has worked primarily with freshwater shrimp. Growers have thus far had some success at marketing their harvest, mostly to local restaurants and hotels engaged in the growing tourist industry. The Dominican Republic claims to be Latin America's leading producer of cultured freshwater shrimp. Many investors also optimistically predict expanded exports to the United States. At least one Dominican company has also developed a successful marine shrimp culture operation which may eventually eclipse the many small freshwater growers. A key aspect which growers are only beginning to address is the establishment of hatcheries to supply postlarval seedstock. Marine shrimp culture in the Dominican Republic, as with other Atlantic and Caribbean countries, has been hampered by the lack of an indigenous species suitable for pond culture. Major construction projects suggest that important harvest

marketing. The French have made considerable technical progress. shrimp culture. economic analysis. of International Affairs Record 364 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Whole marine shrimp usage and preferences in the U. Ecuador. SEA GRANT PROGRAM. Off. Cultured marine shrimp producers in the U. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus. Guadeloupe. market channels. FLA. South Carolina. They have focused almost exclusively on freshwater shrimp. mainly Penaeus spp. Guiana.. data processing.. DM DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture.S. marketing. pp. Silver Spring. AU: Author Rhodes.S. and Europe. The future of the industry is currently unclear. 449-463. AU: Author Weidner. although only small quantities are being harvested. Greene. surveys.g. Much of the domestic and imported marine shrimp. etc. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp fisheries. 1991.) and other countries (e. Panama. trade. 766. Texas. CA: Corporate Author National Marine Fisheries Serv.g. Silver Spring. PA SO: Source REP. Article Geographic Terms: ANW. Article Geographic Terms: Lesser Antilles.) have attempted to identify and develop whole (heads-on) shrimp market segments in the U.. South Carolina.. See also PB89-111801.S. VN. USA. MD (USA) Record 363 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Guadeloupe shrimp culture. wholesale market sector. The objective of this research was (a) to describe existing marine shrimp preferences in the wholesale market and (b) to identify critical product attributes in the wholesale market when selling heads-on marine shrimp.776 million pounds entered U. French. Data for a conjoint analysis of buyer preferences was also gathered during 1990 telephone . seafood wholesalers and distributors based on a 1989 mail survey. Sandifer.increases could be achieved in 1991. entering the wholesale market channels in the U. MD (USA). etc. consumers.S. seafood. USA. RJ. Use and preference data was collected on U. Most growers report marketing problems and difficulty competing with low-cost marine shrimp from Asia and South American farms. and Martinique. aquaculture development. aquaculture economics. was sold in various frozen headless product forms.S. (e. Guadeloupe AB: Abstract France is promoting a shrimp culture industry in its western hemisphere overseas department. CA: Corporate Author National Marine Fisheries Serv.S. The Guadeloupe and Martinique harvest is for the domestic market. Texas AB: Abstract In 1988. ASW. but the French Guiana harvest is exported.

]. . Sicyonia ingentis . 31. Due to low response rates. there appears to be some willingness in the wholesale seafood sector to purchase various heads-on products. Record 366 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Update on larviculture practices and production for penaeid species in Brazil AU: Author de Paiva Rocha. Although heads-off marine shrimp is one of the preferred product forms in the U.S. AU: Author Kidd. survival. shrimp farmers is consistent with the apparent latent demand for heads-on marine shrimp identified in this research. not size. ZOOL.S. The hatching process comprised osmotic. the authors are reluctant to estimate magnitude of whole shrimp usage at various levels in the wholesale sector. moulting. hatching. Lavens. P.5 blastula formation at hour 4. Additional research on the various heads-on market segments in the U. Camara. the nauplius assumed a brief period of quiescence before shedding the molted envelope and swimming away. Gainesville (USA). Vol. Sorgeloos. no. The larvae emerged either posterior or anterior-end first and were enclosed by an "exoskeletal envelope.. The ecological significance of the prehatch molt to larval survival is discussed.5 post-spawn. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: embryonic development. Article Taxonomic Terms: Sicyonia ingentis AB: Abstract Gravid Sicyonia ingentis were light cycled and spawned in the laboratory. thus reinforcing the notion of crustacean embryonic molting cycles and establishing their existence in Penaedae. mechanical and possibly enzymatic components. RJ SO: Source American Zoologist [AM. 1991." Transmission electron micrograph results suggest that this envelope is an exuvium of a prehatch molt. MR. Zygotes were cultured at a temperature of 20 degree C. CA: Corporate Author Florida Univ. Marketing experience by S. During the course of development the embryo secreted five successive envelopes and underwent three successive exuviations. molting and cuticle formation coincides with variations in embryonic ecdysteroid levels. 5. crustacean larvae. is needed including shell-on IQF shrimp. may be the next important attributed for heads-on shrimp in the 22-30 count range after price.5 and gastrulation at hour 5..C. 91A p. The conjoint analysis results suggest that product form.interviews. Abelin. P. Program Record 365 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Embryonic molting cycles and hatching in the marine shrimp. P. Sea Grant Coll. Once extracted from the hatching envelope. Polar body formation and hatching envelope elevation occurred within the fish hour. thus underwent three successive exuviations. I. The timing of envelope deposition. This was followed by the first (holoblastic) cleavage at hour 1.

highlighting effective management strategies that include aeration and circulation. The current practices and production results in Brazilian marine shrimp hatcheries are evaluated and discussed.Jaspers. The benefits are extended life of pond. mussel. Record 367 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Water quality management at selected European aquaculture farms: Case histories AU: Author Cohen. aquaculture facilities. F SO: Source Special Publication. C. improved pond conditions. Case histories of major European species are presented. 1991. E. oysters. aquaculture effluents. Aeration is the addition of supplemental air (oxygen) to the pond. with marine shrimp (Penaeus japonicus) also receiving attention. rearing. European Aquaculture Society. N. and salmon. and started to report better results. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: aquaculture systems. Circulation does not add oxygen directly to the pond but does influence oxygen levels by redistributing dissolved oxygen and affecting oxygen transfer. shrimp culture. Article Geographic Terms: Brazil AB: Abstract After initial slow progress with a variety of marine shrimp species. aquaculture techniques. aeration. G. Record 368 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Aquaculture in Puerto Rico: The coming decade AU: Author Nieto. RR SO: Source . J (comps) SO: Source Special Publication. Aeration and circulation are important considerations for water quality management and both affect aquaculture pond dynamics. water circulation. Brazilian hatcheries have finally selected fewer target species mostly represented by indigeneous penaeids. crustacean larvae. 1991. Ollevier. environmental protection. There is also a great deal of interest in production of sea bass and sea bream. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: pollution control. The major species of production include carp. This video describes the effect of both aeration and circulation on the natural aging process of pond sediments and improvement of water quality. hatcheries. videotape recordings. leading to optimistic prospects about this emerging industry in South America. and improved habitat for production. Rogers. The region is second only to Asia in total yield. reduced anoxic zones. Joyce. European Aquaculture Society. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus. Article Geographic Terms: Europe AB: Abstract European aquaculture has progressed rapidly in the past 25 years. DePauw. It provides aerobic conditions necessary to support aquatic production and to improve water quality. eel. uniform temperature and dissolved oxygen distribution.

it cannot meet market demands due to maximum sustainable yield limitations and to large yearly fluctuations in yield. So far. and it has made shrimp culture in ponds possible. The farm is located in the town of Dorado. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: marine aquaculture. People's Rep. Yang Ning SO: Source Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science [DEV.8 million tonnes. Chen Jia. 80% of which will be sold locally. 11 ponds have been constructed out of a projected 60. AQUACULT. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: marine aquaculture. 1991. FISH. Presently the only marine ornamental commercial aquaculture project is C-Quest which has completed the construction of an indoor hatchery and growout facilities on a 21 ha tract in Santa Isabel. Sheng. aquaculture enterprises AB: Abstract The aquaculture industry is rapidly becoming an important economic force around the world and these forces are beginning to be felt in Puerto Rico as well. Production projections call for 410 tonnes of shrimp annually. while the remaining 20% will be exported to Europe and the United States. twenty minutes from San Juan. AB: Abstract China has rich species diversity and abundance of marine shrimp. (DBO) Record 369 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Shrimp culture industry in China AU: Author Xin. SCI. which will be sold mainly in Puerto Rico. At the present time over 90% of the marine and 1% of the fresh water ornamental fish in the market are captured in the wild. 74-77.World Aquaculture [WORLD AQUACULT. The two most more important shrimp culture projects in Puerto Rico are Del Encanto Enterprises and Eureka Marine Enterprises. Vol. The annual world consumption of marine shrimp is estimated to be 1. 1991. 22. shrimp culture. In the United States the value of the ornamental fish industry reaches $677 millions annually. aquaculture economics. 40 of which have high commercial value. China has more than 100 shrimp species. This facility was capitalized with Taiwanese funds and utilizes Taiwanese expertise. Del Encanto Enterprises is growing the white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) on a 25 hectare farm located in Guayama. aquaculture statistics. on a 59 ha farm leased from the Department of Agriculture. (DBO) Record 370 of 500 DN: Database Name . aquaculture enterprises.]. pond culture. of which 25% is produced by aquaculture.]. 1. In Puerto Rico an estimated 1. most of which are imported as processed or frozen product. Article Geographic Terms: China. pp.4 thousand tonnes are consumed annually. Eureka Maine Enterprises is growing Penaeus monodon. This abundance and diversity has led to a sizable fishery for wild shrimp. no. While the wild catch fishery is valuable. Annual production from this facility is expected to reach 136 tonnes. It is estimated they will reach a production capacity of 1 million clown fish (Amphiprion spp) in about eighteen months. aquaculture development.

environmental conditions. 1991.ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title An overview of Asian marine shrimp culture AU: Author Fast. The information is based not truly on the authors' research and practical experience. DM. aquaculture development. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: marine aquaculture.]. AQUACULT. Article Geographic Terms: ASIA AB: Abstract In this chapter. composition and processing often make comparisons invalid. FISH. nutritional requirements. while the following chapters will present detailed descriptions of important shrimp culture industries in several Asian countries. source and physiological state of the shrimp. experimental design. Variables such as species. although I would emphasize that shrimp culture would not be where it is today without these contributions. Dominy. (DBO) Record 372 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title . SCI. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: marine aquaculture. Throughout this volume. nutrition. AW SO: Source Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science [DEV. SCI. I will not try to repeat these here. and diet form. shrimp culture. aquaculture statistics. experimental facilities. (DBO) Record 371 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Penaeid shrimp nutrition AU: Author Akiyama. size. However. It therefore will be of special relevance to the commercial feed industry. Comparisons of these with current studies are difficult due to differences in research methodologies and the absence of a standard research diet. WG. shrimp culture. references are made to important contributions made by Asian shrimp culturists and researchers to development of shrimp culture technology. This chapter provides basic information on marine shrimp nutrition to supplement the existing and rather limited published information. Lawrence.]. AQUACULT. FISH. these studies have been used to form the principal assumptions used in commercial feed formulations. 1991. I will give a brief overview of some aspects of Asian marine shrimp culture. but on analyses of commercial feeds and extensive discussions with other shrimp nutritionists. Its main limitation is the assumption that there are not major nutritional differences between individual species of shrimp. feed composition AB: Abstract Nutritional studies of shrimp were initiated in the early 1970's. AL SO: Source Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science [DEV.

FISH. aquaculture development AB: Abstract The history of marine shrimp culture is not well documented. FISH. AQUACULT. Nevertheless. shrimp. which date back thousands of years in the Mediterranean area. shrimp culture. These primitive ponds. Only temperature and salinity offer the opportunity to conduct simple experiments to isolate the effect of the environmental parameter. LJ. There are four parameters that are considered to be of primary importance in the culture environment: temperature. (DBO) Record 373 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Introduction [to marine shrimp culture] AU: Author Fast. and were then harvested. Its origin undoubtedly traces to the earliest brackishwater and marine ponds. dissolved oxygen and turbidity (or algal concentration). perhaps more properly termed "catch and hold" culture. MaJR SO: Source Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science [DEV. and to the 15th century A. historical account. salinity effects. 1991. there is a lack of information on how much variation a specific change in an environmental parameter can cause in survival or growth of shrimp in tanks or ponds. in Indonesia were typically stocked with fish. pond culture. Where land and labor costs are low. Eventhough a set of simple environmental parameters is monitored to alert the culturist to potential problems. AW SO: Source Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science [DEV. SCI. SCI. salinity. temperature effects.]. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: marine aquaculture. as well as unwanted predators and competitors were all carried into the pond with source waters where they grew for some time.]. the environment of a pond or tank is so complex that causal relationships are very difficult to determine. are still commonly used today. and other biota through passive flooding. this approach can still be profitable with low risk. (DBO) Record 374 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Reproduction of Penaeus species in captivity . Pante. Desireable seed. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: marine aquaculture. AQUACULT. and pond improvement costs have been largely depreciated. The latter two are largely dependent on the biological community in the pond or tank. shrimp culture. environmental effects AB: Abstract Marine shrimp culturists know that environmental conditions influence the survival and growth of shrimp during the culture cycle.D.Penaeid temperature and salinity responses AU: Author Lester. These culture methods. 1991.

Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus AB: Abstract Postlarval (PL) harvest at the hatchery. Some of these empirical approaches have proven to be highly reliable and efficient. and the Philippines.AU: Author Bray. and perhaps another 2. shrimp culture. The overriding concern during these operations is to avoid stress which could cause mortality or otherwise compromise PL survival. PG. acclimation and pond stocking are important aspects of marine shrimp culture requiring careful planning and attention to detail. Thailand. larvae. At the same time. WA. transport. especially in China. shrimp culture. SCI. which discourages development of reproduction technology when other options are available. acclimation and stocking AU: Author Olin. representing 663. SCI. aquaculture statistics. Failure to maintain optimum conditions during each step can result in low survival and low crop yield. Appropriate techniques will contribute to high survival. AL SO: Source Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science [DEV. reproductive cycle. AW SO: Source Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science [DEV.000 metric tons of heads-on shrimp entering world markets. Fast. FISH. but also in other tropical and sub-tropical areas worldwide. The world market share of cultured shrimp has grown from 2% in 1980 to 25% in 1989. hatcheries. AQUACULT. 1991. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: marine aquaculture. This explosive growth in shrimp culture has been accompanied by the construction of several hundred maturation/reproduction facilities. 1991. (DBO) . transport from the hatchery to the farm. FISH. True domestication (continued captive generations) of marine shrimp is still rare and accounts for only a handful of operations. transportation. complete reliance on captive populations by the shrimp culture industry has not occurred due to: 1) the regional availability of natural breeding stocks from wild populations. we will review some of the more reliable techniques and present some previously unpublished data from experimental trials.000 "hatcheries" which function only as spawning and larval rearing facilities for wild-matured females. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: marine aquaculture. AQUACULT. Although technically feasible. however. shrimp culturists possess a wealth of information concerning successful techniques established through experience. and optimal profitability for a given culture system.]. There is a scarcity of documented information on penaeid PL harvest. Ecuador. aquaculture techniques. good crop inventory control. and acclimation. Taiwan. Lawrence. Indonesia. brood stocks. (DBO) Record 375 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Penaeid PL harvest.]. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus AB: Abstract Striking growth in marine shrimp culture has occurred over the past decade. In this chapter. nutritional requirements. and 2) the often lower quality of larvae produced through captive reproduction.

aquaculture systems. intensive marine shrimp culture is a recent development which has taken place over the last 20 years. shrimp culture. (DBO) Record 378 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Penaeid ultra-intensive growout systems AU: Author Fast. AQUACULT. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: marine aquaculture. This practice dates back several thousand years in the Mediterranean area. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: marine aquaculture. aquaculture systems AB: Abstract Like semi-intensive shrimp culture. this means use of hatchery produced PL which have been nursed 20 to 60 days. intensive culture is only practiced where seed to stock the ponds are available when needed. FISH. (DBO) Record 377 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Penaeid intensive growout systems AU: Author Fast. For the most part. 1991.Record 376 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Penaeid growout systems: An overview AU: Author Fast. usually as incidental entrants along with fish. intensive culture. Egyptian artworks also depict pond culture. AQUACULT. SCI. intensive culture.]. SCI. pond culture. FISH. shrimp culture. AW SO: Source Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science [DEV. where Roman's practiced brackishwater pond culture. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus AB: Abstract Marine shrimp have been cultured in earthen ponds for many centuries. Article Taxonomic . aquaculture systems. shrimp culture. larvae. 1991. and of the preferred species. hatcheries. in adequate amounts. AQUACULT. pond culture. 1991. aquaculture techniques.]. AW SO: Source Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science [DEV.]. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: marine aquaculture. AW SO: Source Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science [DEV. SCI. Like ultra-intensive shrimp culture. FISH. The Romans undoubtedly learned their pond culture practices from earlier civilizations.

in-service training of national staff on methods used to quantify the levels of lipids. on Fish Nutrition and Aquaculture Diets. 47. fish culture. feed preparation. DO and water temperature were monitored overnight in marine shrimp (Penaeus vannamei and P. If extensive culture ponds can be compared with naturally balanced ecosystems. pp. RW DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. Article Geographic Terms: Thailand AB: Abstract The report describes the activities conducted during the consultancy which was carried out in order to formulate and initiate a research programme to develop optimum dietary feeds for freshwater prawns and marine shrimp in Thailand. respiration. water temperature. mathematical models. 1991. water quality. Ultra-intensive systems are impressive examples of bio-engineering achievements. nighttime. then ultra-intensive culture systems are comparable to factories. analytical techniques.Terms: Penaeus AB: Abstract Ultra-intensive marine shrimp culture systems are at the opposite end of the spectrum from extensive culture. CP SO: Source Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. culture media. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: pond culture. These shrimp factories produce large amounts of shrimp on very small land areas. monodon ) ponds: wind speed was also measured. Ultra-intensive culture "ponds" are little more than culture vessels through which large amounts of materials and energy are passed under the close attention of skilled attendants and business managers. CA: Corporate Author FAO/UNDP Proj. 180-183. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon AB: Abstract Two different models for the nighttime dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) dynamics in ponds were compared to determine which was more accurate. Vol. amino acids and vitamin C in fish feeds and fish tissues was provided. The Whole Pond Respiration-Diffusion (WPRD) model. feed composition. AU: Author Medenjian. 1990. 1. diets. AU: Author Hardy. was fitted to observations of DO at dusk and approximately 3 h after dusk to generate predictions of pond DO at . shrimp culture. in which night respiration rate of the pond system is a function of water temperature. Bangkok (Thailand) Record 380 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Nighttime pond respiration rate: Oxygen or temperature dependent?. In particular. (DBO) Record 379 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Fish nutrition consultancy report 27 September to 5 December. no.

Article Geographic Terms: Ecuador AB: Abstract A review is made of the development of marine shrimp culture in Ecuador. the culture industry and the impact of shrimp farming on the mangrove forests and salt flats in the country are discussed. . pp. In the present study. lectins were used as molecular probes to study the development of cortical vesicles subsequent to spawning and the role of these vesicles in formation and elaboration of the hatching envelope. Vol. the world's second largest producer. The respiration rate of the pond system at night was therefore better described as a function of water temperature than as dependent on pond DO. 1990. D SO: Source World Aquaculture. ova lack cortical vesicles at spawning. The data demonstrated that 1) the ring vesicles are formed by fusion of cisternal elements containing ring-shaped structures. 1990. and 3) the components of each type of vesicle contribute to different integral parts (the outer and inner layers) of the hatching envelope. no. MC. 1. hatching. Record 382 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Shrimp farming in Ecuador. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: aquaculture development. 78-89. 21. spawning. 2) the two species of cortical vesicles are chemically heterogeneous.12-16. 26. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: ovaries. An aquaculture success story. no. biological development. 1. Employment benefits. Record 383 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Patterns of oxygen production and consumption in intensively managed marine shrimp ponds. Record 381 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Development of cortical vesicles in Sicyonia ingentis ova: Their heterogeneity and role in elaboration of the hatching envelope. WH SO: Source Molecular Reproduction and Development. 7. pp. Article Taxonomic Terms: Sicyonia ingentis AB: Abstract In the marine shrimp Sicyonia ingentis . These vesicles undergo sequential exocytosis. AU: Author Pillai. Vol. Clark. Previous ultrastructural studies suggested that two different populations of cortical vesicles (dense vesicles and the ring vesicles) appear within 30 min post-spawning. AU: Author Aiken.dawn. environmental impact.

CP SO: Source AQUACULT. 1990. Despite showing a marked increase during grow-out. Vol. dissolved oxygen. over 40 are important commercial species. Pond sediments and water column were the chief consumers of oxygen in the pond. no. Article Geographic Terms: INW. Pond management strategies to maintain positive pond net production and to mitigate the impact of sediment respiration on pond DO were recommended. Penaeus chinensis . AU: Author Tookwinas. 2. Abundant natural resources have provided shrimp stocks for aquaculture. aquaculture systems. stocks. biological production. For example. People's Rep. CA: Corporate Author Oceanic Inst.AU: Author Madenjian. 4. People's Rep. 407-417. shrimp respiration rate was of relatively minor importance in the pond oxygen budget. Honolulu. There are more than 100 species of common penaeid shrimp. it is very difficult to meet the increasing demand for shrimp if their culture depends only on natural resources. China. ISEW. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. S SO: Source INFOFISH International. monodon Fabricius. . no. 38-40. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon. oxygen consumption. Asian Interchange Program Record 385 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Pen culture techniques of marine shrimp in Thailand. Of these. Kuala Lumpur. FISH. of the total pond oxygen consumed. HI (USA). pp. pp. aquaculture enterprises. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: growing ponds. accounting for 51% and 45%. oxygen depletion. Dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) and water temperature were monitored in four marine shrimp. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: cage culture. Penaeus vannamei Boone and P. MANAGE. However. 1990. Record 384 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Shrimp culture industry in the People's Republic of China. historical statistics show that the output of the most important commercial shrimp. in the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea has fluctuated dramatically. which are influenced by ambient environmental factors. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon AB: Abstract Temporal trends were determined for primary production and respiration in marine shrimp ponds. Jiaxin DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: aquaculture development. ponds during the grow-out. China. pond culture.. respectively. AB: Abstract Marine shrimp resources abound in China. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. AU: Author Chen. 21..

Record 386 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Semi-intensive shrimp farming in a "Valle" of the North Adriatic Italian coast. Penaeidae. Ricerche Sviluppo Agroindustriale Record 387 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Report on prawn hygiene project. Subagio. 1990. N. the experience carried out in a so called "Valle". Palmegiano. rearing techniques for marketable Penaeid shrimps. Inevitably requiring appropriate site selection. with particular reference to Italy. microbial contamination. where the two species Penaeus japonicus and Penaeus monodon have been reared using earthen ponds. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. valliculture.. E. Hariyani. an extensive fish farm. Retnowati. Indonesia AB: Abstract Determination of Enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella in the gut and on the surface of Indonesian marine shrimp was carried out. shrimp fisheries. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus japonicus. The reliability of the analytical method was confirmed by positive results of Enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella for inoculated shrimp samples with Salmonella . Ponticelli. Salmonella. AU: Author Sunarya. A. Herawaiti. Penaeus monodon AB: Abstract Marine shrimp farming is one of the most rapidly expanding branches of worldwide aquaculture. This result probably indicates that Salmonella is not found in the marine shrimp . 1990. Murtiningsih. The results of all samples (gut and surface) of the shrimp was negative for Enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella .Thailand AB: Abstract The concept of pen-farming of Penaeus monodon began only a couple of years ago at a river-mouth in Central Thailand and has since caught on with other fishing communities along the coast. of the North Adriatic Italian coast. the system nevertheless provides a cheaper and less risky alternative to the problem-ridden pond farming of the black tiger. E. per la Ricerca e per lo Sviluppo dell'Energia Nucleare e delle Energie Alternative. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: aquaculture systems. aquaculture development. S. pond culture. AU: Author Canese. Article Taxonomic Terms: Enterobacteriaceae.. D SO: Source FAO fisheries report. CA: Corporate Author Comitato Naz. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: quality control. This paper describes: state of shrimp culture in the various countries of the world. Rome (Italy). Dip. G SO: Source Quaderni Tecnici di Acquacoltura. B. Susilawati. rearing.

28. Article Taxonomic Terms: Salmonella.. experimental research. Thailand AB: Abstract Salmonella contamination was investigated for farm-raised shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis ) and marine shrimp (P. Salmonella weltevreden and S. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: quality control.. 1990. AU: Author Pongpen Rattagool. filth. Naruemon Sanghtong. SO: Source FAO fisheries report. derby were found on fresh and frozen white shrimp and peeled and cooked marine shrimp. hazardous microorganisms and other sub-standard characteristics. These studies used white shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis ) and tiger shrimp (P. All the samples that were found to have salmonella were rechecked.. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. Niracha Wongchinda. 1990. CA: Corporate Author FAO Indo-Pacific Fisheries Comm. Australia and Europe. AU: Author Pongpen Rattagool. SO: Source FAO fisheries report..naturally and any Salmonella in the marine shrimp is probably due to contamination during handling. Trachypenaeus. Some shrimp shipments were detained and rejected because of decomposition. Preeda Methatip. monodon and Trachypenaeus ) after harvest and at each step of processing and marketing. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: processing fishery products. merguiensis. Japan. The final product was headless shell-on 1 kg uniform frozen . Bangkok (Thailand) Record 389 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Hygienic processing of shrimp in Thailand. Shrimp from local markets. microbial contamination. but only the gut was collected for salmonella analysis. CA: Corporate Author FAO Indo-Pacific Fisheries Comm.. human food. microbial contamination. Penaeus monodon. Both species of shrimp were either treated or untreated (representing factory processing) by following the usual practices at the factory freezing plant.391 million was exported to USA. monodon ) from prawn raising farms at Samut Songkarm and marine shrimp. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. transportation or processing. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon. landing places and seafood factories were also tested. quality control. P. Thailand AB: Abstract In 1986. Niracha Wongchinda. Of 31 good and medium quality shrimp samples tested for salmonella only two were found to have salmonella in addition to 17 white shrimp from local markets in Bangkok which originated from Samuth Sakorn landing port and also farm shrimp...729 t of shrimp worth $4. Bangkok (Thailand) Record 388 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Salmonella contamination in Thai shrimp. Naruemon Sanghtong.

Akiyama. Bangkok (Thailand) Record 390 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Fish nutrition consultancy report. CA: Corporate Author FAO/UNDP Proj. treated shrimp were washed with cold clean (5 degree C) water 3:1 ratio of water and shrimp) then washed with chlorinated (30-50 ppm) water with 10% salt content. AU: Author Halver. Bangkok (Thailand) Record 391 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The aquaculture industry in Southeast Asia. Total aquaculture production in Southeast Asia is approximately 1 million metric tons. Results are given. This production is based on the "traditional" methods of culture which make limited use of fertilizers and feeds. One of the major limitations to the development of aquaculture is the lack of cost effective quality feeds. Efforts were focused upon training personnel to use the gas liquid chromatograph for fatty acid analysis in shrimp and fish feeds. feed composition. Record 392 of 500 . 12 September to 4 November 1991. diets. feed preparation. Indonesia currently has the most area in aquaculture production and the greatest potential for development. DM DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: aquaculture enterprises. Most of this expansion is due to the corresponding growth in the marine shrimp industry. shrimp culture. feed preparation. JE DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: fish culture. The aquaculture feed industry is expected to grow at 50% per year for several years. Approximately 50% of the total production is produced in the Philippines. CA: Corporate Author FAO Indo-Pacific Fisheries Comm.. analytical techniques. M. The feed industry is rapidly improving and expanding to meet the requirements for the development of aquaculture. demonstrations and training in vitamin C assays of feedstuffs and use of the high performance liquid chromatograph for amino acids standard mixtures. Article Geographic Terms: Southeast Asia AB: Abstract Aquaculture development in Southeast Asia is growing and has tremendous potential for expansion. shrimp culture. aquaculture development. on Fish Nutrition and Aquaculture Diets. AU: Author Boonyaratpalin. Article Geographic Terms: Thailand AB: Abstract The report describes activities conducted during the consultancy which was carried out in order to formulate and initiate a research programme to develop optimum needs for freshwater prawns and marine shrimp in Thailand.blocks.

monodon. proteins. diets. Least-cost feed formulations are considered briefly. solubilization and absorption. which involves mechanical breakdown. diets. and other nutrients which are present in the marine animal meals and not in soybean meal. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae AB: Abstract Information is provided regarding marine shrimp nutrition in order to help shrimp feed processors understand shrimp nutrition and nutritional principles so as to improve the nutritional quality and cost of shrimp feeds. 379-415. P.DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Penaeid shrimp nutrition for the commercial feed industry AU: Author Akiyama. is discussed and the following nutritional components examined: proteins. SINGAPORE (SINGAPORE). There appears to be little difference in soybean meal digestibility by 3 species of marine shrimp. DM.. artificial feeding. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. nutritive value. vitamins. 1990. minerals. SINGAPORE (SINGAPORE). japonicus. plant or animal. pp. and P. feed preparation. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. one needs to consider not only protein but energy. fatty acids. Record 394 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Farm management and techniques of marine shrimp culture in Thailand AU: Author Kongkeo. The digestibility of nutrients. The carbohydrate fraction of soybean meal appears to lower the total dry matter digestibility. artificial feeding. The origin of protein. carbohydrates. does not affect digestibility but the quality of protein is important. Several studies have successfully substituted fish meal and shrimp meal with soybean meal. fiber. WG SO: Source AMERICAN SOYBEAN ASSOC. lipids. A description is given of feed ingredients extensively used in commercial shrimp feeds and also feed additives. H SO: Source . 1990. and minerals. pp. 189-236. Dominy. When replacing these marine animal meals with soybean meal. Article Taxonomic Terms: Glycine max AB: Abstract Soybean meal appears to be highly digestible by marine shrimp and especially protein and amino acids. Record 393 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Soybean meal utilization by marine shrimp AU: Author Akiyama. DM SO: Source AMERICAN SOYBEAN ASSOC.. Penaeus vannamei.

Fed. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. pp. N. YC SO: Source FAO. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture development. States. These species appear to be the most promising for development due to simple culture technology.AMERICAN SOYBEAN ASSOC. Penaeus monodon accounts for the majority of the shrimp production. Aquaculture economics. no. Fiji AB: Abstract The document is presented in 2 parts. The second part details the findings of a preliminary economic evaluation of the culture of marine shrimp (Penaeus monodon and P. 37 pp. pp. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). red tilapia and seaweed (Eucheuma alvarezil). ISEW. Uziel. Browdy. food organisms. (DBO). 11-19. Suva (Fiji). the findings are presented of a study conducted in the Federated States of Micronesia to make a preliminary economic evaluation of the cultivation of sponge. upon survival and growth of larval marine shrimp. Jun 1989.Pohnpei. Kosrae. Future development prospects of the industry are considered briefly. Record 395 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title A preliminary economic assessment of aquaculture development in the Federated States of Micronesia and Fiji AU: Author Shang. nauplii of Artemia and rotifers. Thailand AB: Abstract Details are given of current farm management and techniques of marine shrimp culture in Thailand. Micronesia. 1989.. Brachionus plicatilis AB: Abstract The survival and growth of Penaeus semisulcatus postlarvae fed Artemia nauplii or rotifers. Artemia. Each of the 4 states were examined individually -. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. low capital requirement and available market. SINGAPORE (SINGAPORE). seaweed and giant clams.. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon. food preferences. Penaeus semisulcatus (de Haan). CA: Corporate Author FAO South Pacific Aquaculture Development Proj. 77. AU: Author Samocha. aquaculture systems. nutritional requirements. 127-133. 1990. growth. Brachionus plicatilis . TM. were studied in a . survival. In the first. CL SO: Source Aquaculture. Brachionus plicatilis (Muller). Suva [Fiji] Record 396 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The effect of feeding two prey organisms. Truk and Yap. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus semisulcatus. aquaculture techniques. Economic analysis. 1. Vol.stylirostris).

People's Rep. biochemical . DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: aquaculture techniques. AU: Author Knapp. Kuala Lumpur. aquaculture development. summarizing available information on the fishery. 1989. Yoshida. and by-catch. 2. Mvan der SO: Source BOBP. the world's top producer of cultured shrimp. Chang. The status of exploitation. fishery management AB: Abstract The marine shrimp fisheries in countries around the Bay of Bengal are described. T DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: hormones. rates and composition. stock assessment. Record 398 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Shrimp fisheries in the Bay of Bengal. Colombo (Sri Lanka) Record 399 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The distribution and characteristics of steroid binding proteins in fish and shrimp. MR. Thus Artemia nauplii alone may be a superior food for mass culture of penaeid larvae. Article Geographic Terms: China. MADRAS (INDIA). CA: Corporate Author FAO/UNDP Proj. 1989. but energy intake is apparently reduced as dry weight is lower. AB: Abstract New and improved culture techniques. stock assessment and management in various countries of the region is reviewed. a liberal government policy and high profits are largely responsible for the impressive expansion of shrimp farming in PR China. YH. no. high production costs and quality problems.small-scale bioassay system. High survival can be achieved with rotifers. CF. Lee. These include seed shortage. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: fishery statistics. AU: Author Chen. Record 397 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine shrimp farming in PR China. YC SO: Source INFOFISH International. For the industry to progress even further. AU: Author Shang. several impediments must first be dealt with. for Marine Fishery Resources Management in the Bay of Bengal. 16-17. pp. catch data. chemical extraction.

for Biotechnology Record 400 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Pond-raised shrimp thrive on sugarcane. 10. steroids. Tokyo (Japan). 71. 1989. M SO: Source Agricultural Research. 65. pond-raised marine shrimp (Penaeus vannamei ) grow well on small pellets of the experimental feed. Foundation for Advancement of International Science. feed composition AB: Abstract Results from a 12-week experiment indicate that young.9%. Vol. Record 401 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Yolk protein production in the marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei . progesterone (P4) and cortisol (C) were measured with RIA. respectively. The yolk protein content of the tissues increased shortly after eyestalk ablation and reached a maximum of 8% in ovarian tissue. Natantia AB: Abstract The objective was to investigate the distribution and characteristics of steroid binding proteins in different species of fish and shrimps. 37. P4 and C binding proteins. pp. 1989.5% of species had T. and minerals. LS SO: Source Journal of crustacean biology.7% of species had both T and E2 binding proteins. 10.6% of species had E2. no. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: pond culture. activity in both tissues increased. CA: Corporate Author Japanese Soc.analysis. Article Taxonomic Terms: Pisces. no. T. Vol. AU: Author Wood. The effects of unilateral eyestalk ablation on protein synthesis of the hepatopancreas and ovary were measured in vitro. fish. pp. but less than 1% in the hepatopancreas. Thirty eight species of marine and freshwater fish and 3 species of marine shrimp were collected. E2 and P4 binding proteins. ICSU Int. for Marine Biotechnology. Plasma binding proteins of estradiol (E2). testosterone (T).5% and 2. AU: Author Quackenbush. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: yolk AB: Abstract Yolk production of the marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei was measured using an antibody to a subunit of the yolk protein complex.0%. The pellets are made from bagasse--the crushed stalks that remain after sugarcane is processed--and from inexpensive forms of protein. 2. 21 days after eyestalk ablation activity levels in both tissues returned to levels equal to or lower than preablation levels. Steroid binding proteins were not detected in shrimps. fats. Washington DC. 4. 9. 509-516. The authors found that 78. Both intact controls and eyestalk-ablated shrimp had as much as 1 mg/ml yolk protein in the . Initially. 9. Scientific Comm. pellet feeds.

soy protein. Penaeus vannamei . feed preparation..]. Record 402 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title A standard reference diet for crustacean nutrition research. The purified feedstuffs were more efficiently digested than the practical feedstuffs. setiferus. Both of these diets. fish meal. corn starch. DM. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: diets. The ADMD values ranged from 91. 55. 91-98. Homarus AB: Abstract Details of the formulation. were compared with the usual control diets of several research teams from different countries in feeding trials with many different species of crustaceans including freshwater and marine shrimp. LR. 93-99. Robinson. JAP. brasiliensis. FISH. Coelho. which had been used to culture lobster. Kean. DE SO: Source Journal of the World Aquaculture Society. The dietary fillers (cellulose. crayfish and crab. JC. chitin. feed AB: Abstract The apparent dry matter digestibility (ADMD). artificial feeding. The preliminary data on growth and survival of Pandalus danae. rice bran. 3. AU: Author Castell. no. 1989. stylirostris. Lawrence. Penaeus.4%. apparent protein digestibility (APD). and apparent amino acid digestibility (AAAD) of thirteen feedstuffs used for marine shrimp diets were determined for the marine shrimp. P. and diatomaceous sand) were either poorly digested or not digested. JD. 1989. prawn. EH SO: Source Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi [NIPPON SUISAN GAKKAISHI/BULL. Vol. P. Article Taxonomic Terms: Pandalus. 1. P. shrimp meal. and diatomaceous sand. 20. pp. americanus suggest that either BML 81 S or HFX CRD 84 would be an acceptable SRD for these species. gelatin. SOC. Penaeus monodon. The feedstuffs evaluated were casein. D'Abramo.4% to -21. SCI. P. wheat gluten. SR. Homarus sp. species and experiments. P. chitin. squid meal. aztecus and H. AL. Conklin. Record 403 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Apparent digestibility of feedstuffs by the marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei Boone. cellulose. 1. lobster. no. pp. Evaluation of two formulations.hemolymph during ovarian maturation. Each feedstuff comprised 88% of the experimental diets. vannamei . preparation and proximate composition of 2 diets are provided. balanced rations. Vol. Use of an SRD will provide a more accurate assessment of non-nutritional growth factors and permit comparisons among laboratories. AU: Author Akiyama. soybean meal. Record 404 of 500 . DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture.

186. stylirostrus . 8-12 May 1989. AU: Author Arume. 6) marine shrimp culture. 7) investigations.0 x 10 super(2) to 3. 2) aquaculture and repopulation.). Ten shrimp (five per tank) were injected with appropriate concentrations of bacteria. Considerably fewer Vibrio bacteria were required to cause pathogenicity compared to E. The LD sub(50) of the Vibrio isolates ranged from 4. certain pseudomonad species show pathogenicity similar to that of the Vibrio isolates. and 8) planning and legislation. coli . 4) commercial aquaculture in freshwater. Record 406 of 500 DN: Database Name . BRASILIA (BRAZIL). The injected bacteria were recovered from the blood of moribund animals.0 x 10 super(6). 3) rural aquaculture. Different species of Vibrio and different strains of the same species of V. Caracas. 5) mariculture. 43. Vol. The Vibrio isolates were tested against Penaeus stylirostrus . Article Taxonomic Terms: Pseudomonas. Brasilia (Brazil) Record 405 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Determining the lethal dose (LD sub(50)) of Vibrio and Pseudomonas bacteria for marine shrimp. Escherichia coli had an LD sub(50) of 1. SO: Source FAO. The document provides summaries of the reports and syntheses of the round tables held at the meeting under the following major section headings: 1) inaugural conference. Heat-killed Vibrio) did not produce mortalities. C SO: Source Pacific Science. Vibrio AB: Abstract Eight Vibrio isolates were obtained from wild harvested marine shrimp and from marine shrimp aquaculture facilities. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: aquaculture development. Live cells are needed to produce pathological effect. However. development projects. planning. Venezuela. pp.3 x 10 super(4). CA: Corporate Author FAO Proy. alginolyticus have different levels of pathogenicity on P. Aquila. Article Geographic Terms: Latin America AB: Abstract The main objectives of the meeting were to make available pertinent information regarding the formulation of aquaculture development plans in Latin America.DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title (Technical meeting on aquaculture planning. no. 1989. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: disease resistance. A standard curve of dilution versus absorbance was made for each isolate. 2. Document prepared for the Project GCP/RLA/075/ITA Support to the Regional Aquaculture Centre for Latin America and the Caribbean. 1989. report literature. Two Pseudomonas) species had similar LD sub(50)'s. LD sub(50)'s of the Vibrio isolates were determined.

Billard. Musa. CA: Corporate Author ASEAN/UNDP/FAO Reg. Shrimp growth was correlated with variations in water quality among treatment. Ponds were enriched with cattle manure plus inorganic fertilizer. according to the soil features and water salinity of each pond. The final average weight of the individual varied between 33 and 49 g in ponds used fertilizer and artificial feed. Nde (comps) SO: Source Special Publication. pond culture. Small-Scale Coastal Fisheries Development Proj. Yield ranged from 360 to 864 Kg/ha in the ponds.. It also identifies some of the major steps needed to be taken by both the government and private sectors in order to ensure the development of marine shrimp and finfish feed industry. feed. Pauw. Article Geographic Terms: Malaysia AB: Abstract Feeds is one of the factors which plays an important role in determining the successful development of the aquaculture industry. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. Manila (Philippines) Record 407 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Commercial aspects of Penaeus japonicus farming in northeastern Nile Delta in semi-intensive ponds.5 g were stocked in 12 earthen ponds at an average density of 3 and 6 animals/m super(2). using organic and inorganic fertilizers. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus japonicus AB: Abstract A 5-acre pond operation with 12 ponds is used to describe the economics and operational considerations typical of marine shrimp (Penaeus japonicus ) farming conditions in Egypt. the result was between 28 and 40 g. whereas in fertilized ponds. Hanafi. IA. R.9% for ponds only enriched with fertilizer. AU: Author Sadek. aquaculture economics. The ponds were fed two to three times daily over the course of the 155 day study. Water exchange averaged 10% per day. CUBC. The average weekly weight gain and average survival were 1. CA: Corporate Author . European Aquaculture Society. Animals weighing an average of 0. AU: Author Hassan. HH.44 g and 59.ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Status of shrimp and finfish feeds in Malaysia. Pathmasothy. Each pond received similar water quality management. Different water fertilization programmes were designed.91 g and 68% respectively for ponds enriched with fertilizer and fed commercial feed and 1. pellet feeds. S DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. S. artificial feeding. This paper discussed briefly the present status of feeds for marine shrimp and finfish. aquaculture techniques. In marine shrimp and finfish culture it has been proven that more than 50% of cost of production goes to the feed for the cultured animals. the major issues faced by the feedmilling industry and the potential development of the feed industry in Malaysia. 1989. aquaculture development. The growth rate was significantly enhanced by the addition of post-larvae or more artificial feed.

but not year around. and operating a highly-efficient closed-system freshwater prawn hatchery are presented. diets. aquaculture economics. prawn culture. Fasham. Stocking densities of > 100 juveniles/m super(2) were used and production of > 10. aquaculture systems. European Aquaculture Society. no. Article Taxonomic Terms: Decapoda.000 kg/ha per crop can be achieved in earthen ponds. constructing. M. CA: Corporate Author European Aquaculture Soc. PA. Mississippi and Central America. Computer-based inventory control is described. Recent results in intensive and ultra-intensive grow-out tests applicable to southern European and north African conditions are detailed. Bredene (Belgium) Record 408 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Application to southern Europe and North Africa of recent advances in the culture of marine shrimp and freshwater prawns. RD. Parseval. SR. ER. L. L. AU: Author Heyraud. Heidelberg. A new technology for prawns was developed in Mississippi and Hawaii and implemented successfully in Hawaii. 1989. 4. Cherry. Sandifer. has improved considerably in the last 5 years. 507-519. Article Geographic Terms: ANE. T. along with new technologies sex-ratio control techniques and closed system prawn hatcheries which make inland prawn culture viable.European Aquaculture Soc.. Bredene (Belgium) Record 409 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Natural tracers in dietary studies: Data for 210 Po and 210 Pb in decapod shrimp and other pelagic organisms in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean. especially the white shrimp. Nde (comps) SO: Source Special Publication. Domanski. Lde. D'Abramo. Billard. Cotsapas. MacMichael. The technology for grow-out of marine shrimp. P. based upon a better understanding of prawn heterogenous individual growth rate and proper management of this growth variation using high density nurseries. polonium isotopes.. et al. Berlin. M major technical problems in designing. North Atlantic . size grading and more efficient harvesting systems. Penaeus vannamei . aquaculture development. Desmond. Pauw.. 97. MJR SO: Source Marine biology. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: radioactive tracers. AU: Author Malecha. Vol. R. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium rosenbergii AB: Abstract Until now freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii ) and marine shrimp (Penaeus yannamei ) grow-out technology worldwide has lacked innovative methods to increase production to economically successful levels in temperate climates where the growing season is favorable. lead 210. 1988. pp.

Valinomycin induction does. but does not induce exocytosis in unreacted sperm. Nigericin does not elicit filament formation at external pHs greater than or equal to 8. Particularly high levels of super(210)Po are not uncommon in certain penaeid shrimp. The inductively active portion of EW elutes as a high molecular weight complex (>690 Kd) on gel filtration and includes a 230 Kd glycoprotein(s) and a grouping of 66 Kd and 37 Kd proteins.5.AB: Abstract Measurements of the concentrations of the naturally-occurring radioactive nuclides super(210)Po and super(210)Pb in a large number of pelagic organisms from the Atlantic Ocean are reported. 8. whereas. valinomycin induces filament formation over a wide range of external pHs (5. These groupings are explained on the basis of variations in diet between the different categories. INT. (4) EW contains trypsin-like activity and this proteolytic activity is required for EW induction of filament formation. and posterior intestine plus contents. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Biological fertilization. Low external pH elicits acrosomal filament formation in sperm that have undergone acrosomal exocytosis. nigericin and valinomycin.0.0). stomach-contents. Sperm.75-8. Article Taxonomic Terms: Sicyonia ingentis AB: Abstract Unactivated sperm of the marine shrimp Sicyonia ingentis possess an elevated intracellular pH (pH sub(i)) of 8. (3) bovine trypsin induces filament formation in exocytosed sperm. The ionophores.0. PT. divide into four categories.8-8. ABST. two penaeid and two carid. & ENG. Feb 1988. and attention is drawn to the need for investigation of cytological and/or genetic effects which could possibly be caused by the very high natural radiation doses to which such organisms are exposed. as well as for whole individuals. 130 pp. The acrosome reaction is induced in vitro when sperm are incubated with egg water (EW). and (5) SBTI affinity . Vol. for example. no. As a result of the acrosome reaction (exocytosis of the acrosomal vesicle and formation of an acrosomal filament) pH sub(i) is decreased to 7. FJ SO: Source DISS. The wide ranges found in super(210)Po concentrations group into categories: the shrimp. (2) trypsin inhibitors (SBTI and PAB) block only formation of acrosomal filaments. enhance the % of sperm that form filaments in low pH sea water (pH < 8. B . but does not induce sperm to undergo exocytosis.5). 48.SCI. Record 410 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Induction and control of the acrosome reaction in the sperm of Sicyonia ingentis AU: Author Griffin. and in many cases data were obtained for shrimp hepatopancreas. however. Marine shrimp are particularly well represented. Several lines of evidence suggest that acrosomal exocytosis and filament formation are elicited by separate inducers or inducing activities and that a trypsin-like protease is the inducer of acrosomal filament formation: (1) the kinetics of induction differ for the two phases of the AR. become pH dependent at elevated levels of extracellular K super(+). These results demonstrate that acrosomal filament formation is associated with a pH sub(i) decrease and suggest that a K super(+) efflux is connected to the pH sub(i) decrease.

The method provides more information concerning the yield and requires less stringent assumptions than more traditional regression approaches.5 mu m in diameter and 10 mu m in length. Petals possess substructural elements that appear as incomplete TLS. harvesting. Production of freshwater shrimp and marine shrimp increase dramatically. aquaculture development. Record 413 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title . prediction. Miller. Record 412 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Forecasting commercial harvest of marine shrimp using Markov chain model. both of which course the length of the filament. the filament terminates in 12-15 radiating extensions (petals). 43. pp. population dynamics.chromatography separates the inductive activities of EW. marine environment. JH. mathematical models. WE. The Markov model provides forecast distributions of final crop yield depending on the state of the system at selected times prior to the end of the harvest season. Vol. AU: Author Saisithi. It contributes 17. shrimp culture. quality assurance. 183-193. Article Geographic Terms: Thailand AB: Abstract Aquaculture plays a significant role in the economic progress of Thailand. B-O DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: quality control. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: population levels. shrimp fisheries. Trends of important species of aquaculture production are described. The TLS are 30 nm in diameter and do not resemble tubulin containing microtubules. The filament is composed of granular regions and tubular-like structures (TLS). Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus AB: Abstract The ability to forecast harvest levels is a prerequisite for effective management of shrimp and other commercial fisheries. The acrosomal filament is a cylindrical structure 0.3-0. (DBO) Record 411 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Aquaculture and product grading. One of the more recent advances in crop yield forecasting is a method based on Markov chain theory.0% in terms of value to the total fish production of the country. AU: Author Grant. 3-4. no. 1988. Matis. Grading and inspection of both marine and freshwater shrimp are elaborated. aquaculture products. Anteriorly. W SO: Source Ecological Modelling. Quality requirements of some importing countries are highlighted.

73-84. Sicyonia ingentis . The WPRD model accurately describes the nighttime decline of dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) in both freshwater and brackish-water ponds. 3. 19. CM. Record 415 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Aquaculture in the West. 1988. 1842-1847. and wind speed were monitored overnight in marine shrimp (Penaeus vannamei and P. no. FJ. 1988. freezing storage. mathematical models. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon AB: Abstract The Whole Pond Respiration-Diffusion (WPRD) model was evaluated for brackish-water ponds. Oahu) during July through December 1986. Crowe. Vol. no. (Kahuku. No decrease in viability was seen in sperm samples stored in liquid nitrogen (-196 degree C) for 1 month. (1987). Vol. 25. The model has yielded accurate predictions of dawn DO for a variety of aquaculture ponds and meteorological conditions. AW SO: Source Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. The highest sperm survival (56%) was obtained with samples frozen at 1 degree C/min in a 5% (v/v) DMSO solution. sucrose. fish ponds. JH. 2. 1988. were frozen to -196 degree C using a variety of cooling rates and cryoprotectants. 45. GL. monodon ) ponds at Amorient Aquafarm Inc. a perspective. nighttime. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: sperm. WH Jr SO: Source Cryobiology. DO. Fast. Griffin.Cryopreservation of sperm from the marine shrimp Sicyonia ingentis . AU: Author Sandifer. prediction. pp. proline. AU: Author Madenjian. . cytology. 10. Rogers. pp. Record 414 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Predicting nighttime dissolved oxygen loss in aquaculture ponds. A cooling rate of 1 degree C/min resulted in minimal cell breakage. no. Sperm viability was assessed using the in vitro acrosome reaction technique of Griffin et al. 238-243. water temperature. AU: Author Anchordoguy. PA SO: Source Journal of the World Aquaculture Society. Oahu) and at the Mariculture Research and Training Center (Hakipuu. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. Article Taxonomic Terms: Sicyonia ingentis AB: Abstract Sperm from a marine shrimp. and glycerol. T. Clark. pp. Sperm samples were frozen in solutions of known membrane stabilizers--trehalose. These compounds were somewhat effective but a dramatic increase in sperm viability was seen when DMSO was present in the freezing medium. Vol.

70. namely Palaemon capensis. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: biological surveys. a discussion is presented on the state of capture fisheries and its relation to aquaculture. Vol. consumers. AU: Author Dominy. ecological distribution. H SO: Source Aquaculture. 23. 1. DIERKD. The known distribution range of P. Five species were found. 1988. Caridina nilotica. about 15 km further south-westwards. ZOOL. 1988. Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium rude. Some examples are given of successful farming ventures. rude. Major trends in the US food market are summarized. Article Geographic Terms: South Africa AB: Abstract During Feb 1983 to Nov 1986 a total of 38 rivers along the south-western. no. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: feeding experiments. Caridina typus./S. M. whereas M. pp. and P. namely salmon. capensis was extended eastwards to the Keiskamma River in the Ciskei. southern and eastern Cape coasts and Ciskei were investigated for the occurrence of freshwater shrimps. and C. Caridina nilotica and C. WG. the easternmost river in the study area. nilotica occurred south-westwards as far as the Gamtoos River. was collected in the Gqunube River.-AFR. typus . Record 417 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The utilization of blood meal as a protein ingredient in the diet of the marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei . An estuarine/marine shrimp species. typus only in the Nahoon River. concinnus . pp. TYDSKR. AU: Author Coetzee. another estuarine/marine species. 59-63. 3. nutritional requirements. AFR. Palaemon pacificus . Record 416 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Collections of freshwater shrimps along the southern coast of South Africa. Ako. was often found in the estuarine sections of rivers. M. Article Geographic Terms: USA AB: Abstract Following a brief historical review of aquaculture in Western countries. Macrobrachium petersii.DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: aquaculture development. DJ SO: Source S. petersii and C. channel catfish. 289-299. and it appears to be the only freshwater shrimp occurring in the often very acid dark brown ("black") waters of the south-western and southern Cape rivers. concinnus in the Cape Province. J. Vol. As far as is known this is the first published record of P. check lists. . no. Future development prospects for the aquaculture industry are also examined. American red swamp crawfish and marine shrimp. considering their implications for aquaculture. rude was found only in the Gqunube River.

In the second series the preference was as follows: shrimp tail > Enteromorpha = Sargassum. size. Vulnerable (molted) animals were subjected to cannibalism in crowded areas. cannibalism was related to density rather than food. The results suggest that blood meal products can replace marine proteins in grow-out rations for medium sized (3-4 g) Penaeus vannamei . ABST. food conversion efficiency. Carbohydrate levels were very low and did not vary with sex. F SO: Source DISS. Cannibalism . Cannibalism. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus stylirostris. are one of the commercially important species ranging from the upper Gulf of California to Peru. growth.. both increased with increase in body size. and cannibalistic behavior of P. stylirostris were studied in the laboratory in order to gain insight into the nutritional requirements and behavioral aspects of blue shrimp. and weight were measured fortnightly and growth rates of male and female blue shrimp were compared in each group. Carapace length. vp. In blue shrimp. Thus the blue shrimp can be considered a more carnivorous species of penaeid shrimp. Protein was higher in males while lipid was higher in females. followed by lipid. 48. Experimental groups were fed natural foods and a formulated diet was given to the control group. Penaeus stylirostris. total length. Offering a low amount of food (dry pellets. about 0. & ENG. PT.25% of the body weight) did not cause any cannibalism. INT. and cannibalism in the eastern pacific marine shrimp. Oct 1987. East Pacific AB: Abstract Blue shrimp. Food preferences. Penaeus stylirostris Stimpson AU: Author Mofidi. The biochemical composition. 4. no. protein was highest. Wild shrimp had higher protein and lower lipid content than cultured shrimp. Record 418 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Biochemical composition. Results also indicate that the blood meal product containing covalently attached methionine may be a potentially useful way to supplement limiting amino acids in shrimp diets. size. Shrimp fisheries. and type (cultured and wild stock). Vol. food preference.SCI. A 30-day growth study consisting of two experimental and one control group was conducted. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Commercial species. An electivity index study supported the laboratory measurements of food preferences. Mortality causes. growth AB: Abstract Four blood meal products were compared and tested as protein substitutes for a marine protein mix in grow-out rations for the marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei . In the third series it was Sargassum > Enteromorpha. B . Variation in the biochemical composition of the blue shrimp has been documented as a function of sex. Specific growth rates. Article Geographic Terms: IE. Biochemical composition. In general. Food preference was in the following order: fish > squid = shrimp tail > green alga (Enteromorpha) = brown alga (Sargassum) in the first series.amino acids. Nutritional requirements. and coefficient of condition (K) were also calculated. growth. food preference. The food preferences of three size classes of male and female blue shrimp were studied in three experimental series. proteins. and type of shrimp.

pp. P. Decapoda AB: Abstract Activation of the sperm of many invertebrate and some vertebrate species to undergo an acrosome reaction is accompanied by an increase in intracellular pH (pH sub(i)). In Central America.9-7. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: sperm. Barcelona (Spain) Record 420 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Intracellular pH decreases during the in vitro induction of the acrosome reaction in the sperm of Sicyonia ingentis AU: Author Griffin. Los Angeles. The main culture group are the Palemonidae Macrobrachium rosenbergi . stylirostris (white shrimps) are very important. Induction of the acrosome reaction (exocytosis of the acrosomal vesicle and generation of an acrosomal . In South-East Asia Penaeus monodon . Clark. [(Copies available exclusively from Micrographics Department.was a major factor in the death of shrimp. prawn culture. animal physiology. 311-323. 173. otherwise the health of shrimp was favorable. Japan AB: Abstract Crustacean culture is growing fast. marine crustaceans. LM SO: Source Biological Bulletin. Crowe. Woods Hole [BIOL. WH Jr. the giant fresh-water prawn from the Indo-Pacific area. particularly in Ecuador and Panama. AU: Author Lumare. JH. 1987. Doheny Library. Currently great interest in P. where it has been developed on a commercial scale since about 1958.]. Japan is the center of shrimp culture in the world. the giant tiger prawn. in 1983 world aquaculture production increased 688% compared to 1975. Sicyonia ingentis. Vol. In each of these instances the pH sub(i) of the unactivated cell is relatively low (6. is farmed in Taiwan. and many Penaeids. Crowe. Unactivated sperm of the marine shrimp. possess an elevated pH sub(i) (8. USC. biochemical phenomena. 2. cytology. Penaeid culture is developing in tropical and sub-tropical areas. Article Geographic Terms: Italy. vannamei and P. de Investigaciones Cientificas. BULL. F SO: Source Scientia Marina.)] (DBO). Article Taxonomic Terms: Sicyonia ingentis. Macrobrachium rosenbergii. FJ.5). no. kerathurus and P.4). CA: Corporate Author Consejo Super. japonicus culture is shown in Europe and in the Mediterranean. the Philippines and many other countries. pH effects. world. Record 419 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine shrimp culture in the world and present state and trends of kuruma prawn culture in Italy. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. Marine Biological Laboratory. CA 90089-0182. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus. 1987.

genetic drift. D SO: Source Schriften der Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Fischerei Hamburg.0). brine . DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: population genetics. D SO: Source Schriften der Bundesforschungsanstalt fur Fischerei Hamburg. BUNDESFORSCHUNGSANST. enhances the percent of sperm that form filaments in low pH seawater (pH < 8. but does not induce exocytosis in unreacted sperm.0. Inland Fish. Genetic variation in natural populations of economically important crustaceans appears to be sufficient to support genetic improvement programs. The ability of valinomycin to induce filament formation in the upper portion of this pH range (8. conspecific populations. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: crustacean culture. nigericin. firm rejection of the hypothesis of selective neutrality awaits full explication of population sizes and structures. Hamburg [SCHR. Copenhagen (Denmark) Record 422 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Interspecific hybridization of economically important crustaceans. These results demonstrate that the sperm of S..]. ingentis undergo a pH sub(i) decrease as a result of the acrosome reaction and that the decrease is associated with acrosomal filament formation. Adv. HAMB. (DBO) Record 421 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Population genetic bases for improving cultured crustaceans. ICES. AU: Author Hedgecock. 1987.5).. CA: Corporate Author FAO Europ. crustacean culture. Low external pH elicits acrosomal filament formation in sperm that have undergone acrosomal exocytosis. Inbreeding appears to threaten the few closed populations of marine shrimp that have been established because husbandry practices have ignored genetic principles. In addition. literature reviews AB: Abstract Studies on the population genetics of crustaceans reveal considerable variation among higher taxonomic categories in the amounts of genetic variation within and between local. 1987. they also suggest that an efflux of K super(+) ions is connected to the pH sub(i) decrease.75-8. Although natural selection is implicated by several lines of evidence. Presently these genetic resources are underutilized because of a general lack of control over crustacean reproductive processes. but does not elicit filament formation at external pHs greater than or equal to 8.filament) is accompanied by a decrease in pH sub(i) (7.0) declines as the extracellular K super(+) concentration rises. Valinomycin induces filament formation in sperm that have undergone exocytosis over a wide range of external pHs (5. Comm. The ionophore. FISCH. AU: Author Hedgecock. hybrid culture. Rome (Italy).8).

P. CS. particularly if one restricts attention to species of aquacultural importance. 45-51. aquaculture development. The most important potential benefits of interspecific hybridization. Marine shrimp culture in Suriname. are of interest because they are prime food species for many cultured fish and shellfish. Rome (Italy) Record 424 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Efficacy of formalin in reducing the levels of peritrichous ciliates on cultured marine shrimp. development of the sector should be associated with reliable sources of juveniles. CA: Corporate Author FAO Europ. Among the decapods. disinfectants. DV SO: Source Journal of fish diseases. Comm. P SO: Source FAO. AU: Author Bell. Copenhagen (Denmark) Record 423 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Suriname. aquaculture economics. 1987. The tests were conducted at concentrations above and below those being used in shrimp culture and were designed to define the concentration . pp. Programme. B. TA.shrimp culture. Oxford. freshwater prawns and clawed lobsters have been hybridized artificially. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus stylirostris AB: Abstract Tests were performed to measure the efficacy of formalin in reducing peritrichous ciliates on the surface of cultured marine shrimp. hybrid vigor and sterility. have yet to be realized in commercial crustacean culture. no. Potential profitability and potential impact of shrimp rearing and export are examined.. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: antiprotozoal agents. shrimp culture. Branchiopoda. Inland Fish. 1. 10. Vol. 1987. Suriname AB: Abstract An account is given of activities of the shrimp culture development project in Suriname. Conditions are favorable for rearing shrimps at a low cost. food organisms. Article Taxonomic Terms: Artemia. Rome (Italy). Arume. Daphnia AB: Abstract The scientific literature on hybridization among Crustacea is sparse. ROME (ITALY). Lemercier. some brachyuran crabs of fisheries importance hybridize in nature. chiefly brine shrimp (Artemia ) and water fleas (Daphnia ). Garen. A report prepared for the Project for the Development of Marine Shrimp Culture in Tidal Ponds. marine shrimp. AU: Author Detante. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. CA: Corporate Author FAO Technical Coop. The chief constraint to artificial hybridization appears to be lack of control over reproductive processes. Lightner. Adv. Article Geographic Terms: ASW. ICES.

CA: Corporate Author International Finance Corp. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. AU: Author Pillai. management. financing.providing the most effective rapid reduction of ciliates for Penaeus stylirostris Stimpson. 2. Four factors critical to the success of a commercial shrimp farm are examined: site selection. Calculation of cash flow and unit costs of production are also covered. are detailed for shrimp species. 325-329. SC (USA). while 12 multiplied by 5 ppm did not differ from the control (0 ppm). prawn culture. CHARLESTON. Record 426 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine shrimp farming: A guide to feasibility study preparation. 53-56. SO: Source AQUAFOOD BUSINESS ASSOCIATES. Record 425 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Species profile -. Penaeus AB: Abstract Farming techniques. WH Jr SO: Source Journal of Experimental Zoology. . aquaculture techniques. and P. no. Formalin at 25. AU: Author Avault. Penaeus vannamei. Vol. 13. 1987. JW Jr SO: Source Aquaculture Magazine. Washington. The higher the level of formalin used the better the protection from ciliate epifaunation. MC. Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium rosenbergii. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. Vol. availability of seedstock and project design. stylirostris . pp.. 1987. pp. 3. 50 and 100 ppm was demonstrated to be effective in reducing ciliates. including Macrobrachium rosenbergii. manuals. no. 244. economic feasibility. which may vary from country to country.freshwater prawns and marine shrimp. It is designed as a tool to assist project sponsors in the careful preparation of feasibility studies prior to approaching potential sources of funding. P. Project performance characteristics. Sicyonia ingentis . costs AB: Abstract The manual is intended to aid in the preparation of an appraisal of a commercial marine shrimp farming project. DC (USA) Record 427 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Oocyte activation in the marine shrimp. monodon . capital costs and operating characteristics and costs are discussed in detail. Clark. 1987.

pathology. depended on external Ca super(++). 1987. M SO: Source SWIOP DOC. crustacean larvae. activation resumed. CA: Corporate Author FAO/UNDP Reg. rearing./DOC. External Mg super(++) was necessary for both fertilized and unfertilized ova to undergo activation. It is concluded that further research is required to improve larval rearing techniques for the mass production of marine shrimp seed and also to determine growth. Y. however. Article Taxonomic Terms: Sicyonia ingentis AB: Abstract The resumption of meiotic maturation and formation of the hatching envelope in the ova of the marine shrimp. viral diseases of freshwater fish. but not fertilized ova. meiosis. diseases of yellowtail in Japan. Victoria (Seychelles) Record 429 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The role of pathology in aquaculture. eel diseases.DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: biological fertilization. CJ DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: fish culture. fish diseases. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. aquatic animals AB: Abstract Case histories are given for vibriosis of salmonids. aquaculture development. Metapenaeus monoceros AB: Abstract A brief account is given of the spawning and larval rearing of Penaeus monodon and Metapenaeus monoceros considering also prospects for shrimp culture in Mauritius. viral diseases. AU: Author Sindermann. If unfertilized ova that formed neither polar bodies nor a hatching envelope in Ca super(++)-free seawater were transferred to normal seawater. for the Development and Management of Fisheries in the Southwest Indian Ocean. Record 428 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Breeding of Penaeus monodon and Metapenaeus monoceros and prospects for marine shrimp culture in Mauritius. aquaculture. whirling disease in salmonids. The author follows with an . The hatching envelopes formed in both cases were structually identical. marine shrimp diseases and oyster diseases on the North European coast. Sicyonia ingentis were triggered by exposure to seawater. Activation of unfertilized ova. oyster culture. hatcheries. shrimp culture. diseases. AU: Author Enomoto. whirling disease. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon. Munbodh. vibriosis. a slightly longer time was required for the completion of meiotic maturation and hatching envelope formation in unfertilized ova. disease control. OISO. Proj. Fertilized and unfertilized ova underwent the same sequence of events. MI. Jehangeer. yield and other economic parameters. eggs.

Penaeus setiferus Linnaeus. Record 431 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Status of world aquaculture: 1985. especially carbohydrases. AU: Author Lee. pp. Higher digestive enzyme activities on the 22% protein diet may be evidence of an adaptation to a diet containing less digestible proteins. Lawrence. SOC. amylase. AL SO: Source J. Record 430 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Effects of diet and size on growth. chitinase. enzymatic activity. 2) China aquaculture tradition. digestibility. 16.]. Medium shrimp fed the 30% protein diet exhibited the lowest survival and growth while medium shrimp fed the 22% protein diet exhibited the highest enzyme activities. medium (9. disease control in aquaculture and emerging concepts in aquaculture pathology. apparent feed digestibility. Shrimp survival was unrelated to diet or size.7 g). aquaculture development. BUYER'S GUIDE '86. .assessment of the significance of disease in aquaculture. 1986. General and acid protease. Small shrimp fed the 22% protein diet grew the least but exhibited the highest enzyme activities. digestive enzyme activity and growth of Penaeus setiferus were investigated during a 30-day growth trial. trypsin. survival AB: Abstract Relationships between protein level. artificial feeding. AU: Author Rhodes. Instantaneous growth rate. feed digestibility and digestive enzyme activities of the marine shrimp. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. 3) salmon culture and the Pacific Ocean. Apparent total dry matter digestibilities and apparent protein digestibilities were determined for small and medium shrimp.5 g) and large (14. world AB: Abstract A global view is given of aquaculture considering the following topics: 1) marine shrimp culture in Asia. 1986. 275-287. diets. size. and 7) crawfish and other US critters. Small shrimp fed the 38% protein diet displayed the highest dry matter digestibility. MAG. Small (3. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: aquaculture enterprises. feeding experiments.7 g) shrimp were fed 4 isocaloric diets with varying protein levels. non-specific esterase and lipase activities were also assayed for small and medium shrimp. 6) US catfish farming. Vol. carboxypeptidase A and B. PG. 5) salmon in Norway. RJ SO: Source Aquaculture Magazine [AQUACULT. growth. total dry matter and protein digestibilities decreased as shrimp size increased. WORLD MARICULT. 4) Latin American shrimp culture.

aquaculture development. Penaeus indicus. is farmed in Taiwan. Record 433 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Prawn and shrimp culture in Pakistan. 1986. 1-4. AU: Author Wang. pp. This species is stimulated to sawn by unilateral eyestalk ablation. AU: Author Lumare. Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Penaeus japonicus. In South-East Asia Penaeus monodon . 5. the fry are reared in extensive and semi-intensive conditions to marketable size. in the Philippines and in many other countries. AU: Author Yaqoob. Penaeid culture is developing in tropical and sub-tropical areas. Penaeus monodon. Lam. the fresh-water giant prawn from Indo-Pacific area. methodology. Italy. 6. no. Article Geographic Terms: Pakistan AB: Abstract Freshwater prawn culture in Pakistan is discussed. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. pp. the tiger giant prawn. prawn culture. length-weight relationships. Marine shrimp pond culture is also examined briefly. Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium malcolmsonii. 1986.Record 432 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine shrimp culture in the world and present state and trends of kuruma prawn culture in Italy. CY SO: Source Journal of the World Aquaculture Society. shrimp culture. Vol. World Waters AB: Abstract In 1983 production from crustacean aquaculture worldwide increased 688% compared to 1975. The main crustacean groups for culture are the Palaemonidae Macrobrachium rosenbergi . stocking (organisms). body size. Penaeus kerathurus. 17. Vol. describing the pond culture systems used for Macrobrachium malcolmsonii and culture requirements. F DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: crustacean culture. Article Geographic Terms: MED. 33-36. no. and many penaeids. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: pond culture. FARMING. 25-32. J-K. juveniles. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus stylirostris . Record 434 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Physical dimension relationships of juvenile Penaeus stylirostris . M SO: Source PROG. aquaculture systems. Penaeus indicus being the species involved.

Vol. 95-112. AU: Author Shigekawa. K. pp. weight. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: muscles. 2. WH Jr SO: Source Development Growth & Differentiation. MM. Clark. 239. 1986. Record 435 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Myofiber death plays a role in determining fiber type composition in the claw closer muscles of the snapping shrimp. This represents the first example of programmed myofiber death as a mechanism used in crustacean muscle development. and have used these as immunohistochemical markers to follow the fate of different myofiber types during this transformation. This analysis reveals a strikingly specific necrosis of the fast fibers. 28. 1986. Vol. This unique phenomenon includes transition of the closer muscle in one claw from a muscle of mixed fiber type into a homogeneous slow muscle. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: cell morphology. AU: Author Quigley.AB: Abstract Stocking of juveniles is widely practiced in marine shrimp production. no. Alpheus heterochelis . it was determined that a regression equation of the form Y = (A super(*)X super(**)B) super(*) epsilon can be used to adequately describe the relationships between weight. 2. Article Taxonomic Terms: Alpheus AB: Abstract Marine shrimp of the genus Alpheus exhibit a remarkable reversal of asymmetry in their great claws. We have developed monoclonal antibodies that specifically recognize fast and slow myosin heavy chain (MHC).33 g. no. D Jr SO: Source Journal of Experimental Zoology.07 to 10. width and length. Article Taxonomic Terms: Sicyonia ingentis AB: Abstract Spermiogenesis in the marine prawn Sicyonia ingentis was examined using transmission electron microscopy. Record 437 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts . Mellon. 299-305. Sicyonia ingentis . By analyzing a sample of 551 commercially produced Penaeus stylirostris juveniles. A simple mechanical device is needed to sort juvenile shrimp by their physical dimensions. ultrastructure. Record 436 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Spermiogenesis in the marine shrimp. ranging from 0. degradation. The onset of fiber degeneration appears linked to the molt cycle and occurs rapidly once started. moulting. pp.

pollution detection.145.Wildlife and Aquatic Organisms. the technology needed for shrimp farming to be commercially successful in the US is much greater than in the more tropical areas and in developing nations. it is designed to supplement Subdivision E of the Pesticide Assessment Guidelines: Hazard Evaluation . use of non-native species and legal restrictions. This SEP provides an Introduction. DC (USA). and Appendix of appropriate methods to guide the review and scientific evaluation of pesticide effects on estuarine/marine shrimp. AU: Author Rieder. Though shrimp farming is commercial. standard evaluation procedure: Acute toxicity test for estuarine and marine organisms (shrimp 96-hour acute toxicity test). Because of the limited growing season. Reviewer Evaluation. and research in the western hemisphere. analytical techniques AB: Abstract The Standard Evaluation Procedure (SEP) for the Shrimp 96-Hour Acute Toxicity Test is a guidance document primarily intended for Agency reviewers and the regulated industry who evaluate ecological effects data specified in 40 CFR Part 158. The SEP for the Shrimp 96-Hour Toxicity Test is only one of a number of SEP's published by the National Technical Information Service as a supplement to Subdivision E of the Pesticide Assessment Guidelines. shrimp are now the most valuable crop with a value for 1983 and 1984 of approximately $200 million per year. of Pesticide Programs Record 439 of 500 DN: Database Name . AL DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. This paper reviews recent developments in commercial farm management. D DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: pesticides. environmental impact. Record 438 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Hazard Evaluation Division. The SEP is also intended to provide information to the general public indicating how the Agency evaluates these types of studies. Washington. Off. For example.TI: Title Marine shrimp culture in the Western Hemisphere. Most countries from Brazil and Peru north to the United States have commercial shrimp farms and pilot farms are operating in the US. Article Geographic Terms: America Coasts AB: Abstract In the past decade shrimp culture has developed from the experimental and testing phase to commercial production. in Ecuador. AU: Author Lawrence. toxicity tests. pollution monitoring. Materials and Methods. technology is still poorly developed and ventures into shrimp culture still must be considered as high risks. aquaculture development. Ecuador produces more shrimp commercially than any other country in the western hemisphere. Reporting Requirements. As such. CA: Corporate Author EPA.

AU: Author Kibria. Article Taxonomic Terms: Natantia AB: Abstract An acoustic model of marine crustaceans in the form of a rigid elastic shell filled with liquid is developed. no.. pp. 3. Vol. 3. New Orleans. Record 440 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Shrimp fisheries of Bangladesh. AU: Author Andreyeva. introduction to shrimp culture. 8. Inc. an overview is made of freshwater and marine shrimp culture operations. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. zooplankton. 11-12. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. marketing AB: Abstract Marine shrimp aquaculture is discussed under the following headings: overview of world production and consumption. Lysak. 1985. and outlook for cultured marine shrimp supplies. CA: Corporate Author Shrimp Notes.ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Sound scattering by individual crustaceans and by crustacean aggregates in the ocean. G SO: Source N A G A: I C L A R M Quarterly [ICLARM NEWSL. 1985: A survey of the world status and outlook for shrimp aquaculture. acoustic models. Bangladesh AB: Abstract Following details of the shrimp species of commercial importance in Bangladesh. 328-332. The effect of the physical characteristics of the materials and shape of the model is evaluated. current technology developments. 1985. outlining briefly processing of the products. production trends -problems and potentials. no. market situation analysis for cultured shrimp. The backscatter coefficients for aggregates of mesoplankton and larger marine shrimp are calculated. LA (USA) Record 442 of 500 . aquaculture systems. Article Geographic Terms: ISW. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: sound scattering. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. Record 441 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Shrimp aquaculture. IB.]. DP SO: Source Oceanology of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Polar diagrams of backscattering by live shrimp are analyzed and described in terms of the model. pp. Vol. backscatter. aquaculture development. 25.

acclimatization and the direct and indirect sowing methods are discussed. transfer. increase of shrimp fisheries and overcatching are reviewed. maturity. MC. trash. AU: Author Horna Z. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. diets. H SO: Source SECRETARIA EDUCACION PUBLICA. growth. Article Geographic Terms: ISE. intensive culture. (MEXICO). and seed harvesting and transport. Lima. MEXICO. fish handling. control of the physicochemical parameters. Heidelberg. etc. Berlin. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: cadmium. AU: Author Kurata. some recommendations for avoidance post-larvae mortality are given. spawning. including pond construction. Record 444 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Accumulation of cadmium from contaminated water and sediment by the shrimp Callianassa australiensis . DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: aquaculture facilities. such as life cycle. 191-197. of the marine shrimp are reviewed. such as deforestation of mangrove swamp. 1985. Vol.). Mobley. DS SO: Source Marine biology. pp. The main causes of shrimp mortality such as capture. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus. bioaccumulation. 15-26. Article Taxonomic Terms: Callianassa australiensis AB: Abstract . transport. Record 443 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title (Culture of the Kuruma shrimps. seed production. D.F. 1984. aquaculture techniques. The developed area for breeding purposes is shown. Also the methodology for the culture of commercial shrimp is showed. M. 82.DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title (Mortality of shrimp post-larvae because of handling effect. 26. burrowing organisms. Some of the possible causes of larvae population decrease. no. 1985. 2. The methods for obtaining post-larvae seeds are described. Ecuador AB: Abstract The characteristics of breeding and culture of marine shrimp (Penaeus ) in Ecuador are reviewed. no.). AU: Author Ahsanullah. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae AB: Abstract The biological aspects. Negilski. pp. R SO: Source Revista latinoamericana de acuicultura.

by the use of non-algal supplements. J SO: Source Aquaculture. disease resistance. Isochrysis. galbana which were supplemented with yeast and other non-algal foods. The growth of oysters fed algae/yeast diets was mainly dependent on the proportion of algae in the diet. biological stress. AU: Author Katzen. Crassostrea virginica. and yeast was not a satisfactory substitute for algae. The concentrations ranged from 0. Australia in 1977.5 to 63 mu g Cd l super(-1) for water and 0. AU: Author Urban. it had no effect on cadmium uptake by the shrimp.The burrowing marine shrimp Callianassa australiensis (Dana) was collected from an uncontaminated area in Western Port. Oyster growth was only slightly improved when supplements of lipid encapsulated vitamins were added to algae/yeast diets. Thalassiosira pseudonana. The concentration factors decreased with increasing concentration of cadmium in water but increased as the duration of exposure increased. The shrimp were exposed to cadmium-contaminated water and sediment for 8 wk. pp. Rice starch. no. 4. Salser. feed composition. diets. Victoria. S. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus stylirostris . 4. Article Taxonomic Terms: Thalassiosira pseudonana. comparative studies. and a trout diet were each tested in combination with algae/yeast diets. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: lysine. Although the cadmium concentration in the sediments was 10 super(3) times higher than that in water. Crassostrea virginica AB: Abstract A series of growth experiments was carried out with juvenile Crassostrea virginica fed algal rations of Thalassiosira pseudonana and Tahitian Isochrysis aff. Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin). ER Jr. Record 446 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Dietary lysine effects on stress-related mortality of the marine shrimp. cheese whey. Vol. Vol. feeding experiments. Langdon. pp. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: artificial diets. 1984. 40. 1984. feed composition. CJ SO: Source Aquaculture.5 to 63 mu g Cd g super(-1) for sediment. aquaculture. Penaeus stylirostris . 38. a marine shrimp diet. blood meal. Record 445 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Reduction in costs of diets for the American oyster. no. Ure. Only rice starch and the shrimp diet improved oyster growth compared with the growth of oysters fed on algae/yeast diets alone. a bacterial fermentation product. 277-281. 277-292. The shrimp accumulated cadmium from water at a rate commensurate with increases in the concentration of cadmium in water and the duration of the experiment. BR. Isochrysis. The shrimp dry weight decreased with increasing concentration of cadmium water and duration of exposure.

R. RW. TCBS. 1-3. no. vibrios were not recovered from freshwater samples obtained from the well but were recovered at concentrations of 250-8. V. fluvialis. programming languages. alginolyticus. Vibrios at 30-7. AU: Author Fujioka. Penaeus. As expected. viral diseases. aquaculture economics. aquaculture.) and this water is mixed with fresh water (1 ppt) from another well to culture freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium spp.). brackish and freshwater systems used in an aquaculture farm. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: mathematical models. shrimp culture.A. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus.AB: Abstract Studies with semi-synthetic diets revealed that dietary lysine reduced the effects of an unidentified disease of penaeid nervous systems. The membrane filtration method using marine agar. Brick. Record 447 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Enumeration of Vibrio species in marine.S. Greco. Article Geographic Terms: USA AB: Abstract A general conceptual model of a marine shrimp farming system representing important relationships between the engineering design of facilities.000/ml from brackish water (16 ppt) used to culture the larvae of Machrobrachium spp. FORTRAN. marine aquaculture. computer programs. Four semi-synthetic diets were prepared with different levels of dietary lysine as the sole variable. Macrobrachium. pp. S DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: freshwater aquaculture. and the factors affecting production costs and . AU: Author Griffin. 25. Record 448 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title A bioeconomic model of shrimp maricultural systems in the U. cholerae non-01 and many other unidentified Vibrio spp.000/ml were also recovered from the outdoor. Vibrio AB: Abstract Since vibriosis is a potential problem in aquaculture. Grant. the various stages of an operating aquaculture farm were analyzed for vibrio bacteria. Heavy treatment-related mortality resulted after the first weigh period. salinity) from a well to culture marine shrimp (iPenaeusspp. 1984. prawn culture. 47-68. economics. WE. Microscopic examination of the dead shrimp revealed neural lesions in all test treatments but in greatest incidence and severity in shrimp fed the lowest lysine level. V. freshwater ponds (1 ppt) used to grow the prawns to maturity. shrimp culture. WL. Hanson. TCBS+7% NaCl and MAAC Agar was used. The selected farm uses marine water (33 ppt. Vibrio isolates include V. Subsequent stress exercises resulted in a consistent mortality pattern which was inversely related to lysine levels in the diet. microbial contamination. Vol. JS SO: Source Ecological Modelling. the environmental and managerial factors affecting shrimp growth and survival.

0. based on results from previous exploratory surveys. a bioeconomic simulation model is developed to assess the economic feasibility of a projected penaeid shrimp maricultural operation along the Texas coast. Penaeus vannamei AB: Abstract The relationships between protein level. proteins. and second. Penaeus vannamei Boone. on the biological and economic productivity of the system. diets. 30 and 38%. no. and to evaluate the effects of changes in an important managerial variable rate of water flow. pp. PG.8 g) were maintained in 2650-1 indoor tanks and fed ad libitum with six isocaloric diets. ARG. Lawrence. A report prepared for the Marine Fisheries Resources Survey and Exploratory Fishing Project. 42. size. catch/effort. 1984. and digestive protease enzyme activities of the marine shrimp. fishing grounds. an analysis of available catch records for the artisanal and industrial shrimp fisheries. while each of these two series was composed of three diets having protein levels of 22. AU: Author Price. 225-239. shrimp fisheries. were investigated during three 30-day growth experiments. The modeling in development of shrimp maricultural systems in the Unites States is discussed. body size. Record 449 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Burma. The protein sources were varied by changing the animal to plant protein ratio (a/p ratio). AU: Author Lee. Rome (Italy) Record 450 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Digestive proteases of Penaeus vannamei Boone: Relationship between enzyme activity. Vol. 9. protein source. shrimp culture. CA: Corporate Author FAO. Based upon this conceptual model. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: enzymatic activity. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae AB: Abstract This report consists of two principal elements: first. 3-4. size and diet. K DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: stock assessment. Results of simulations of a projected penaeid shrimp maricultural operation along the Texas coast suggest that such an operation would be marginally economically feasible when based upon the particular assumptions of this study. AL SO: Source Aquaculture. catch composition. Htin. feed composition. The level of protein in the diet had a greater effect on the enzyme . fishery statistics.8. digestion. an evaluation of marine shrimp resources along the coast of Burma. 2:1 and 1:1. 20. Preliminary stock assessment of marine shrimp resources in Burma. LL.profit is presented. Smith. Three sizes of shrimp (4.

AU: Author Supawewat. the government needs to emphasize research in order to improve hatchery techniques. Vol. Vol. pp. an internal regulatory agent. Lawrence. 5. AD. 2. 444-459. no. Chamberlain. respectively. To further develop shrimp farming. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: electric stimuli. Record 453 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Adenosine 5'-monophosphate. SG. Complete expulsion of one or both spermatophores occurred in only 47% (29-65%. P. 1984. Record 451 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Electrical stimulation of spermatophore expulsion in marine shrimp.total activities in the large shrimp (17-30 g) than in small shrimp (< 10 g). depending on species). is a potent . AU: Author Sandifer. pp. 181-187. and other aspects of culture technology. PA. When the specific activities of the fed shrimp were evaluated. aquaculture development. feed formulation. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus stylirostris AB: Abstract Electrical stimulation (4-6 V AC) applied near the male gonopores at the base of the fifth pereopods caused expulsion of the spermatophore in Penaeus setiferus . shrimp culture. WA SO: Source Aquaculture. Article Geographic Terms: Thailand AB: Abstract In view of the overfishing in the marine fisheries of Thailand. Harris. Record 452 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The economy of marine shrimp culture. GW. Stokes. and P.608. stylirostris . small shrimp (< 10 g) fed the 1:1 a/p ratio diets displayed lower activities than those fed the 2:1 ratio diet. induced breeding. AL. Shrimp with melanized terminal ampullae generally did not expel a spermatophore following electrical stimulation. Shrimp is one of the species of particular interest for fish farmers. For healthy animals. The average total cost and net profit of extensive shrimp farming in the area near the Inner Gulf of Thailand in 1983 were 25. 1984. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: marine aquaculture. P SO: Source THAI FISH.33 baht/kg and 1. some degree of spermatophore expulsion occurred in 80% of the attempts. 41. vannamei . no. Bray. aquaculture is considered as a substitute source of fish production. males. 37. Penaeus spp. GAZ.22 baht/rai (small farm: 50 rai and less). shrimp culture. disease control.

biochemical composition. However. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: marine aquaculture. Palaemonetes pugio .1 to 1000 mu mol/l show that the dose-response curve is biphasic with the maximum response occurring at about 10 mu mol/l. Homarus americanus AB: Abstract . DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: lipids. 1440-1441. The triglycerides of both species contained considerable amounts of PUFA and FWP has a high triglyceride content. Bioassays of 28 substances structurally related to AMP show that the integrity of both the adenosine and the ribose phosphate moieties are required for maximal activity. P. HW SO: Source Journal of Comparative Physiology. AU: Author Carr. Record 455 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title CRC Handbook of Mariculture.chemoattractant for a marine shrimp. Vol. Vol. Behavioral bioassays of AMP in the concentration range of 0. aquaculture techniques. Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium rosenbergii. BOCA RATON. pp. chemotactic factors. no. Record 454 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Differences in the lipid composition of fresh water prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii ) and marine shrimp. SO: Source CRC PRESS. DH SO: Source Journal of Food Science. AU: Author Chanmugam. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: AMP. storage life. Wheeler. ATP and adenosine are inactive as attractants. This was due to the much higher levels of triglycerides in FWP as compared to marine shrimp. Volume 1: Crustacean Aquaculture. This may contribute. 48. FL (USA).9%). 1. A. J. Thompson. Article Taxonomic Terms: Palaemonetes pugio AB: Abstract Th nucleotide adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) is a potent chemoattractant for the marine shrimp. Donovan. AMP is much more potent than ADP. crustacean culture. chemoreception. WES. attractancy. The omega 3 PUFA predominated in marine shrimp. 5. 1983. 1983. primarily due to the greater concentration of linoleic acid in FWP lipids (16. to the shorter shelf-life of Macrobrachium as compared to marine shrimp. 1983. CJ. Hwang. 47-53.3 vs 2. pp.33%). no. the integrity of the ribose phosphate is of special importance since most of the substances having changes in this moiety are complexity inactive as attractants. Macrobrachium rosenbergii ) was found to be greater than that of marine shrimp (3.18 vs 1. in part. 153A. Article Taxonomic Terms: Macrobrachium rosenbergii AB: Abstract Total lipid content of fresh water prawn (FWP.

rotifiers. Vol. and methods used in combatting disease problems experienced in crustacean culture. 54. 1982. 1981. 44. they must operate in eithr open or closed systems and remain functional during pumping or power failure. no. 1.Current step-by-step procedures and techniques utilized in the culture of commercially important crustaceans are described by recognized culturists. Section III describes various diseases. 13-20. This respiratory independence is associated with maintenance of a . AU: Author Hagerman. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: fish eggs. Section II provides detailed descriptions of all aspects of culture techniques for the three main groups of crustaceans: marine shrimp (Penaeidae). Haemolymph Oxygen Tension and Haemocyanin Level in the Shrimp Palaemon adspersus Rathke. shows an oxygen consumption rate (MO sub(2)) that is independent of water oxygen tension (P sub(W)O sub(2)) as PO sub(2) decreases to a critical point (P sub(cr))near 70 mm Hg. Section IV provides the most recent information available on crustacean nutritional requirements. L. aquaculture equipment. RE SO: Source Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. Weber. freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii ). DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: respiration. treatments. Record 456 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Incubator incorporating air-powered water flow for marine fish eggs. Article Taxonomic Terms: Palaemon adspersus AB: Abstract The marine shrimp Palaemon adspersus Rathke. An incubator with air-powered water flow is described. Hatching success of ling cod (Ophiodon elongatus ) eggs incubated in this equipment was more than 90%. 3. incubation. embryonic development. frequenting Zostera meadows. and lobster (Homarus americanus ). Thus. Artemia . hemolymph. AE SO: Source Progressive Fish-Culturist. Vol. no. hemocyanins. Record 457 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Respiratory Rate. pp. The unit may also be suitable for incubating marine shrimp and crab eggs as well as the adhesive demersal eggs of freshwater fish species. methodology. Section I contains specific methods for the culture and preparation of algae. incubation devices for such eggs must provide water flow velocities sufficient to thoroughly ventilate egg masses as large as 100 mL while avoiding agitation. AU: Author Giorgi. Article Taxonomic Terms: Ophiodon elongatus AB: Abstract Adequate ventilation of adhesive eggs is necessary to assume proper embryo development. and other foodstuffs used in crustacean hatcheries. 154-155. oxygen consumption. hatching. pp.

in contrast to the above independence. 1981. could be related to biological and environmental factors. both MO sub(2) and P sub(a)O sub(2) fall. Haemolymph copper measurements demonstrate relatively high haemocyanin concentrations and oxygen-carrying capacities. 1981. 253-265. pandionis . USA and Great Britain. AU: Author Cherry. AU: Author Gore. was described by Holthuis (1951) from a single female specimen. bioaccumulation. pp. Article Taxonomic Terms: Periclimenes pandionis AB: Abstract P. in particular. Caridea. The species has apparently not been reported since Holthuis' description in his monograph of American Palaemonidae. Record 459 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Studies on Decapod Crustacea from the Indian River Region on Florida. 165-175. JR SO: Source Crustaceana. CL. 40. ASE AB: Abstract The concentrations of super(210) Po and super(210)Pb were determined in more than 30 species of marine shrimp (Penaeidae and Caridea). The median super(210)Po concentration was 8. XVIII. but MO sub(2) levels reflect an insignificant role for the pigment as an oxygen store. During a series of recolonization experiments 26 . Heyraud. van Dover. lead. Article Geographic Terms: MED. At lower P sub(W)O sub(2) values. 2. The range of concentrations covered more than two orders of magnitude for both nuclides. no. the remainder from Kuwait. RD. environmental factors. Vol. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. 65. Palaemonidae) with Notes on the Males and Zoeal Stages. the corresponding super(210)Po: super(210)Pb activity ratios were 77 and 138.0 pCi g super(-1) dry wt in the whole shrimp and 85 pCi g super(-1) dry in the hepatopancreas. The data are discussed as regards adaptations for aerobic metabolism. most were from the Mediterranean Sea near Monaco. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: radioactive contamination. 1951 (Caridea. a direct dependence of MO sub(2) on internal PO sub(2). South Africa. Heidelberg. males. 3. pp.relatively constant "arterial" (post-branchial) haemolymph tension (P sub(a)O sub(2)) at 70-80 mm Hg. Record 458 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Polonium-210 Content of Marine Shrimp: Variation With Biological and Environmental Factors. Rediscovery of Periclimenes (Periclimenes ) pandionis Holthuis. polonium. no. a small marine shrimp. The variations in the levels of super(210)Po. Berlin. RH. zoeae. Samples were collected in the years l977 to l980. respectively. Factor. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: taxonomy. reflecting. Vol. M SO: Source Marine biology.

D. Article Geographic Terms: USA AB: Abstract A major section of the National Aquaculture Development Plan deals with proposed species development programs.D. pollution effects. and briefly compare the larvae to those known from one other western Atlantic species of Periclimenes . For salmon. Anodonta cataractae. Homarus americanus. toxicity tests. nonylphenol is slightly more toxic than aminocarb. catfish. and a marine shrimp (Crangon septemspinosa ). In addition. clam. data are presented on the lethality of nonylphenol to lobsters (Homarus americanus ) and the soft-shelled clam (Mya arenaria ). Record 461 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Lethality of aminocarb and the components of the aminocarb formulation to juvenile Atlantic salmon. marine invertebrates and a freshwater clam AU: Author McLeese.C. Zitko.W. 9(2). Salmo salar. lethal limits.specimens of Periclimenes pandionis were obtained.. Sergeant. development. In this section. Crangon septemspinosa. and trout. the plan has been redrafted and is out for review by the aquaculture community. The preliminary draft was reviewed at a workshop held in September. the lethality of the aminocarb formulation is due almost completely to nonylphenol.. striped bass. freshwater prawn. (1980) DE: Descriptors pesticides. The National Plan is actually the first interaction of what will be a continuing process of updating and expanding the original plan document. The authors provide supplemental data on both males and females of P. This change occurs because aminocarb is more toxic to the shrimp than to . planning. and funding.D. mussel. marine shrimp. and nonylphenol to juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar ). For Crangon .V. there will be plans for 12 species: baitfish. resource development. aminocarb. AU: Author Shaw. pandionis . salmon. SO: Source Chemosphere. largemouth bass. The authors also provide a description and illustrations of the first 2 zoeal stages for the species. WN DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: oyster culture. Lethality data are presented for 585 oil and several invertebrate species.. As a result of the workshop. Metcalfe. Mya arenaria AB: Abstract This paper presents data on the lethality of the aminocarb formulation. 79-82. Record 460 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title National aquaculture development plan. oyster. crawfish. Plans include approaches to resolving the problems confronting commercial development of these species--programs of research.B. including illustrations of several characters not discussed by Holthuis. aquaculture. a freshwater clam (Anodonta cataractae ).

where shrimp exploitation is considered excessive. J. The excess capacity must be reduced. Agric. particularly since shrimp stocks are not visible and their assessment must be made by indirect methods. population characteristics. SO: Source Indones.U. and more than 42 species make up this catch. Indonesia AB: Abstract The marine shrimp catch in Indonesia has ranged from about 50. Over exploitation and other problems require more accurate data and rational policies AU: Author Naamin. (1980) DE: Descriptors shellfish fisheries. Tierpsychol. Among the animals tested. Nonylphenol is not an 'inert ingredient' of the formulation and its presence provides an increased hazard to freshwater and marine environments. knowledge of the concentrations of aminocarb and nonylphenol in surface waters potentially affected by the formulation was insufficient for a more detailed hazard assessment. (1980) DE: Descriptors social behaviour. are noted.salmon.000 tons per year. Hymenocera picta AB: Abstract This paper examines the usefulness of taking long-term data on the position of individuals to describe relationships among members of a group of invertebrates. The diluent oil contributes little towards the toxicity of the formulation. Dev. 17-20. 321-330. the order of sensitivity to the formulation components appears to be: marine crustaceans > salmon > bivalves. The objectives of the Third National Five-Year Development Plan are briefly noted.000 tons to 60. 2(1). Penaeidae. It appears that no adverse ecological effects resulted from use of the aminocarb formulation during actual spray operations. SO: Source Z. ISEW. Record 463 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Sociometric analysis of groups of the marine shrimp Hymenocera picta AU: Author Seibt.N. Record 464 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title . Priority areas. and subjects proposed for the fuure shrimp research programme. Record 462 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Plans for a future marine shrimp research and development program. 52(4).. Res.. The major economic constraint in development has been caused in some areas by over-capitalization. This diversity of species results in complex management problems. fishery development. However.

1980. Author Al-Hajj. Pacific Islands and Southern Hemisphere. Record 465 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Shrimp farming development in other areas. The type of rearing technology utilized. SO: Source Zool.T.AU: SO: DE: AB: Optimal levels of food for hatchery culture of the marine shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus . Mediterranean. Caridea AB: Abstract . prawn culture. aquaculture systems. J. Federation of Asian and Pacific Fishery Assoc. ASD Source Annual research report. Farmer. Linn. (1979) DE: Descriptors fouling organisms. Maynard. aquaculture development AB: Abstract A review is made of the status and potential of marine shrimp and freshwater prawn farming in the Caribbean and Pacific Islands. Al-Ahmed.R. MB DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. 65(4). Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus semisulcatus Abstract In order to refine shrimp hatchery production technology a series of 3 experiments was conducted to determine the optimum levels of live food organisms required by the various larval stages. Near East. Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research. Soc. Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. Caribbean Islands.. food organisms. Three types of live foods were tested: omega-marine yeast (Candida sp.). the Mediterranean and the Near East regions. AB. current and potential output from farming and the species being cultured are described for the following regions: Japan. CA: Corporate Author INFOFISH. Non-Mediterranean Europe and USSR. rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis ) and brine shrimp (Artemia salina ) nauplii. hatcheries. USA. Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Record 466 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Antifouling adaptations of marine shrimp (Decapoda: Caridea): gill cleaning mechanisms and grooming of brooded embryos AU: Author Bauer. 281-303. ECL. diets. adaptations. It is concluded that the production of farmed shrimp and prawns from mostly temperate developed countries will probably never reach the level attained by the mainly tropical developing nations. AU: Author New. AK. Results indicate the importance of accuracy in the maintenance and monitoring of concentrations of live food organisms during the hatchery culture phases for penaeid larvae.

together with status reports on major projects. sea cage culture. larval food production. Penaeus duorarum notialis (Burkenroad) and Penaeus aztecus subtilis (Perez Farfante). marine shrimp. In H. Ablation of the cleaning chelipeds of the shrimp Heptacarpus pictus results in severe fouling of the gills in experimentals. seed (aquaculture). Important mechanisms for cleaning the gills are brushing of the gills by the grooming or cleaning chelipeds in some species. Embryos brooded by female carideans are often brushed and jostled by the grooming chelipeds. research institutions. marine pathology. economic analysis. CA: Corporate Author Oceanic Institute. HI (USA) Record 468 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Production cost of marine shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius) seed AU: Author Kungvankij. Projects reported on include artificial propagation of finfishes..). Record 467 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The Oceanic Institute annual report 1978 SO: Source Jan 1979. 31(4). Waimanalo AB: Abstract The Director's report for the year is presented. USA. pictus . as well as the brooded embryos in females. Inst.P. seed production. a list of publications. and phytoplankton sinking rate. setae from the bases of the thoracic legs brush up among the gills during movement of the limbs (epipod-setobranch complexes). Penaeus monodon AB: Abstract No abstract text. and a financial summary. SO: Source Thai Fish. are subject to fouling by particulate debris and epizoites. while in others. finfish husbandry. 329-336. reproductive physiology of fish. 28 p. Ocean.Gills in the branchial chambers of caridean shrimps. Waimanalo DE: Descriptors annual reports. removal of the cleaning chelae results in heavier microbial and sediment fouling than in controls. Record 469 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title (The Culture of Marine Shrimp. water quality analyses. while those of controls remain clean. oceanography.. AU: Author . Waimanalo. (1978) DE: Descriptors aquaculture economics. Hawaii. Annu. in Experimental Ponds. Setae of cleaning chelipeds and of epipod-setobranch complexes show similar ultrastructural adaptations for scraping gill surfaces.. Rep. Gaz.

It is in part intended to provide as complete a listing as possible of pertinent published materials. 3(3). there are data voids and some of the references are general. growth. which can be used to clarify the state of the art.25 m). Torres. A marine shrimp culture bibliography AU: Author Hanson.. A subject index of selected references and an author index have been provided. neptunium. Penaeidae. Western Hemisphere AB: Abstract This bibliography has been compiled through a series of iterations. Appendex C.30 x 0.. S. Woods Hole. J. Inst. Crustacea AB: Abstract Neptunium-237 kinetics were studied in marine shrimp and mussels using a thick source alpha counting technique. DE: Descriptors bibliographies.A. MA (USA). Commun. each one more comprehensive and better organized than its predecessors. Department of Biology Record 471 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Biokinetics of neptunium-237 in mussels and shrimp AU: Author Guary.Martinez Silva. SO: Source Publ. J. monthly survival rate and behavior are reported.E.. Penaeus duorarum notialis and the northern brown shrimp. Rojas Beltran.W. H. Record 470 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine shrimp farming in the western hemisphere. Vega Velez.50 x 0.. SO: Source Mar. CA: Corporate Author Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Tech. Dec 1977. MA (USA). Average monthly growth in length and weight. Article Geographic Terms: Colombia AB: Abstract A study was made of the growth and behavior of the southern pink shrimp.. In addition. Rep. Mollusca. R DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: crustacean culture. S. will not completely reflect current capabilities existing in laboratories or in the field. 211-229. (1977) DE: Descriptors bioaccumulation. Woods Hole Ocean.. Sci. Huguenin. survival. J.C. reaching whole body . since many aspects of importance for commercial application do not get discussed extensively in scientific journals. 45p. M. Bioaccumulation of SUP-237 Np from water was relatively slow in both species.by: WHOI.L. Penaeus aztecus subtilis cultivated in tanks (0. VMJ. crustacean culture. Woods Hole. Shrimp culture is presently a very dynamic field and such a bibliograp Gependent on published information. culture tanks. LE. Fowler. The bibliography provides an organized method for the serious investigator to acquire in-depth scientific and technical information.S. Goodwin. Huguenin.

which scrape the antennules. Proceedings of technical sessions.. was studied with light and scanning electron microscopy. molting will play an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of this transuranic in the marine environment. Technical report. Surface adsorption was implicated in the initial uptake. 40. pp. Feeding behaviour. a frequent and widespread behavior of caridean shrimps and other decapod crustaceans. Antennular preening was the most frequent grooming behavior observed. Pasiphaeidae. 2. Semarang. Caridea. Indonesia. Antennae. aquaculture. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Ultrastructure. Pandalidae. Tidepool shrimps (Heptacarpus pictus) experimentally prevented from grooming the antennules by ablation suffered fouling of the olfactory hairs of the antennules with their subsequent breakage and loss. antennules of controls remained clean and undamaged. Working papers DE: Descriptors crustacean culture. Hippolytidae. Crangonidae. Record 472 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Antifouling adaptations of marine shrimp (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea): functional morphology and adaptive significance of antennular preening by the third maxillipeds. is suggested as having high adaptive value in keeping sensory sites free of epizoic and sedimentary fouling which might render them inoperative. RT SO: Source Marine Biology [Mar. Sense functions. 1. but the duration of other grooming behaviors was greater. SO: Source In: First ASEAN Meeting of Experts on Aquaculture. Distribution and ultrastructure of serrate grooming setae on the third maxillipeds. AU: Author Bauer. Antennular preening. Article Geographic Terms: INE. this may be a reflection of the physical nature of the uptake. Rapid growth of organisms like mussels acts to reduce the SUP-237 Np concentration in tissues during a period of decontamination. grooming) of the antennules and other cephalothoracic appendages by the third maxillipeds was observed in several spp of shrimp. By virtue of the large amounts of accumulated SUP-237 Np associated with the exoskeleton of shrimp. 31 January to 6 February 1977. U. 261-276. no. Article Taxonomic Terms: Heptacarpus pictus. T. Alpheidae. Penaeidae. Biol. California AB: Abstract Preening (cleaning. Both uptake and loss of the radioisotope were not significantly affected by temperature. Vol. Experimental research. Thailand . Record 473 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Recent developments in intensive Penaeid shrimp culture in Thailand AU: Author Pongsuwana. Glyphocrangonidae. Palaemonidae. Bhukasawan. USA. 1977.concentration factors of only 15 to 20 after three months.]. 3. Animal appendages. The motor patterns of antennular cleaning were similar for all spp.

production economics. marine aquaculture. Generally. Within each chapter brief accounts come from individual contributors. These problems were to a large extent resolved when in 1976 the Department of Fisheries produced over 7 million fry and seed of Penaeus spp. especially marine shrimp culture. Penaeidae AB: Abstract Following a brief historical perspective. State-of-the-art reviews and status assessments SO: Source Publ. obtaining spawners. Stroudsburg. Separate abstracts in this issue of ASFA describe each part. The total number of shrimp farms and total farm area used in 1972 were 1. presents a state-of-the-art review and status assessment. the productivity is very low. Production rates of up to 7. A state-of-the-art review and status assessment SO: Source Publ. PA (USA).by: Dowden.154 farms and 9. and its monoculture in farm ponds. period life cycle control. The authors here discuss the mass production of P. DE: Descriptors crustacean culture. potential markets. on marine shrimp farming in the western hemisphere. including accounts of hatchery systems. with an average of 109 kg /ha. 439 p. diseases. A summary chapter and a discussion of research priorities are included. PA (USA). Record 476 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts . is becoming an important fishery industry in Thailand. Hutchinson and Ross. individual chapters describe the methodology and biology of marine shrimp farming. literature reviews AB: Abstract This volume includes two accounts.by: Dowden. This results from inadequate supply of natural shrimp larvae together with poor management techniques used in traditional operations. Record 475 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine shrimp farming in the western hemisphere. The second part presents a similar account of freshwater prawn farming (genus Macrobrachium) in the western hemisphere.AB: Abstract Coastal aquaculture. 1977. 3 kg/ha/yr may now be achieved with P. 1977. 191 p. Hutchinson and Ross.monodon seed. Stroudsburg. DE: Descriptors crustacean culture. and legislation.monodon.656 . nutrition and feeds. CA: Corporate Author ASEAN meeting of experts on aquaculture Record 474 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Shrimp and prawn farming in the western hemisphere. growout systems.056 ha. The first.

SO: Source Rapp. ebergy-consuming. pp. Record 478 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Biology of Hymenocera picta Dana. 24(3). Int.min) with an absolute Na Super(+) requirement. GA SO: Source Journal of Experimental Biology [J. Vol. Vol. AU: Author Wickler. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus marginatus AB: Abstract (1) Mucosal glycine influx occurred via a single carrier-mediated. (1977) DE: Descriptors bioaccumulation. P. suggesting a greater proportion of energy-dependent transport at lower amino acid concs. Panaeus marginatus. 61. pp. whereas proline appeared to be a fully competitive inhibitor of luminal glycine transfer. Biol. (2) Glycine transport inhibition by N Sub(2) gas.-C. 27-31. (6) A tentative model of glycine transport in the penaeid shrimp intestine is presented. 677-696. (5) D-Fructose added to the incubation medium restored normal glycine transport in the presence of alanine.. 2. 3. (4) Alanine was a fully non-competitive inhibitor of mucosal glycine entry. AU: Author Ahearn. 9.. Mer Mediterr. Exp. iodoacetate.36 mM. and anionic amino acids. (3) Aliphatic neutral amino acids and histidine were more potent inhibitors of mucosal glycine influx than were aromatic neutral. J.]. 225-230.-V. 2. 1974.0 mM glycine. 1973. V Sub(max) = 0. no. Fowler.TI: Title [Accumulation and retention of SUP-237 Np in two marine invertebrates] AU: Author Guary. neptunium. and ouabain was more extensive at 0. Monaco. Record 477 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Kinetic characteristics of glycine transport by the isolated midgut ofthe marine shrimp. 4-DNP. W SO: Source Micronesica.1 mM than at 1. Amino acids.42 {mu}moles/g. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Digestion. . NaN Sub(3). Explor. indicating that the 2 amino acids most likely utilized separate. Uptake of SUP-237 Np from water was slow reaching concentration factors of only 15 to 20 in both species. Reun. Invertebrata AB: Abstract Neptunium-237 kinetics were studied in marine shrimp and mussels using a thick source alpha counting technique. active transport entry process (K Sub(t) = 0. Sci. S. Comm. elimination of the isotope was rapid being strongly influenced by both shrimp molting and growth of mussels. mucosal transport processes. no. NaCN..

no.AB: Abstract The marine shrimp H. 4. 2. Since individual recognition and pairbond do exist.D. Vol. nor are 2 animals necessary to make hunting successful. Meet. 369-377. Annu.and 5-hour periods. all prepared diets produced good growth with low mortality when compared with data reported by other workers. Dissolution was influenced by diet composition. These shrimps are territorial (philopatric) and normally live in pairs. 1000 eggs which become attached to the underside of her abdomen.J. 3. Between moulting and egg-laying the female will allow one single copulation which is good for only one batch of eggs. Seven representative diets ranging from 25 to 40 per cent total protein were prepared and tested for their dry weight loss in water for 1-. Juvenile Malaysian prawns held under mass culture conditions for 60days increased in length from 98 to 112 per cent on 3 different diets. Growth appeared to increase with amount of protein in the diet. and loss was greater in fresh water than in seawater. San Diego. Hymenocera seem to feed exclusively on starfish. Penaeus setiferus and Penaeus duorarum. Both sexes moult every 18-20 days. 7. Every Hymenocera male has a clear preference for his individual mate with whom it stays most of the time. World Mariculture Society. AB: Abstract An inexpensive. it tries to copulate with every available freshly moulted female. Results of these trials showed that diets were capable of producing a 106-329 per cent increase in weight in juvenile penaeid shrimp over a 25-day period. pp. There is no obvious cooperation between the members of a pair. SO: Source . picta of the Indo-Pacific region grows up to 5 cm in length. simple and effective method is described for preparing water-stable diets suitable for aquatic crustacean feeding experiments. However. Record 480 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title A method for obtaining metaphase chromosome spreads from marine shrimp with notes on the karyotypes of Penaeus aztecus. 25 Jan 1976 AU: Author Milligan. After each moult the female is ready to spawn approx. 1973. Juvenile Penaeus japonicus held under mass culture conditions for 75 days increased in weight 1877 per cent on a 35 per cent protein diet. they are able to kill even large specimens. CA (USA). In general. AU: Author Balazs. Diets were subsequently fed to both marine shrimp (Penaeus sp) and fresh water Malaysian prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). this sp seems to have a rather low population density which has been confirmed by field data. Record 479 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Preliminary studies on the preparation and feeding of crustacean diets. held under experimental conditions. Mysis-larvae hatch out of the eggs within 18 days. GH SO: Source Aquaculture.

US marine shrimp farming consortium. setiferus 2n=90. World Maricult. and. karyotypes. duorarum 2n=88 are given. Reproductive studies on milkfish. Meet. annual reports. January 25-29. Studies on the maturation and spawning of milkfish in captivity. HI (USA) Record 482 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The Oceanic Institute: 1987 Annual report. and P. DM . US marine shrimp farming consortium. Annu. CA: Corporate Author Oceanic Inst. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: oceanographic surveys. Penaeus setiferus.In: Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Meeting [of the] World Mariculture Society held at San Diego. HI (USA) Record 483 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Soybean meal utilization by marine shrimp. Record 481 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The Oceanic Institute: 1986 Annual report. Comprehensive agriculture and aquaculture feeds production system. aquaculture development. CA: Corporate Author Oceanic Inst. Waimanalo. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: aquaculture development. 1976 in cooperation with San Diego State University â § Syntex . marine fisheries. New programs initiated in the year include.. Aquacultural research service. Penaeus duorarum AB: Abstract A method for demonstrating metaphase chromosome spreads from the hepato-pancreas tissue of marine shrimp is described. Penaeus aztecus. Aquaculture planning grant. DE: Descriptors genetics. research programmes AB: Abstract The report describes accomplishments made during the year 1986 by the Oceanic Institute in the following prograes: Oceanography.Proc. California. Soc. P.. research programmes AB: Abstract The report describes accomplishments made during the year 1987 by the Oceanic Institute in the following programs: Oceanography. Waimanalo. and Marine instrumentation. annual reports. Stock enhancement. Center for tropical and subtropical aquaculture. AU: Author Akiyama. The chromosome numbers for Penaeus aztecus 2n=88. Mahi mahi marketing studies. and Education and training program. Education and training program.

Dominy. vitamins.. vannamei. given that all the required nutrients are available. The carbohydrate fraction of soybean meal appears to lower the total dry matter digestibility. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. AL SO: Source AMERICAN SOYBEAN ASSOC. 207-225. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae AB: Abstract A discussion is presented on marine shrimp nutrition providing information of special relevance to the commercial feed industry so as to help improve the nutritional quality and cost of shrimp feed. SINGAPORE (SINGAPORE). Three different systems were constructed one is a triphasic system in which culture ponds . Record 485 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title (Experimental center for marine shrimp culture. Penaeidae AB: Abstract Soybean meal appears to be highly digestible by marine shrimp and especially protein and amino acids. WG. artificial feeding. AU: Author Giraldo. P. are described. There appears to be little difference in soybean meal digestibility by 3 species of marine shrimp. artificial feeding. There is little doubt that soybean meal can replace a considerable amount of the marine animal meals while maintaining similar shrimp production performance. stocking ponds.). and least-cost feed formulations detailed. fatty acids. pp. fiber. pp.. Further processing of soybean meal may increase its nutritional value to marine shrimp. Article Taxonomic Terms: Glycine max. japonicus . P. When replacing these marine animal meals with soybean meal. shrimp culture. one needs to consider not only protein but energy. SINGAPORE (SINGAPORE). Record 484 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Penaeid shrimp nutrition for the commercial feed industry: Revised. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. nutritional requirements. proteins. and minerals. considering proteins. The dietary requirements of shrimp are outlined. M DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: aquaculture facilities. DM. minerals. Several studies have successfully substituted fish meal and shrimp meal with soybean meal. Feed ingredients and feed additives are also examined. monodon . diets. energy. nutritive value. and P. diets. carbohydrates. lipids. Colombia. 80-98.SO: Source AMERICAN SOYBEAN ASSOC. AU: Author Akiyama. and other nutrients which are present in the marine animal meals and not in soybean meal. Lawrence. Article Geographic Terms: Colombia AB: Abstract The facilities installed at a shrimp culture farm located in the Cordoba department.

or rehabilitation to a sustainable use. trade. however. is strong. unofficial estimates have suggested that as many as 70% of ponds may be disused after a period in production. 425-435. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp fisheries. Thailand AB: Abstract (DBO). Record 487 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Disused Shrimp Ponds: Options for Redevelopment of Mangroves AU: Author Stevenson. and the third is a level system which takes advantage of the natural topography.]. intensive culture. 119-139.maintain an area relationship of 1:4:8. pp. economic feasibility. Aquaculture. 12. Pond construction. D SO: Source Animal research and development. shrimp culture. The case for restoration. Environment management. 4.]. largely due to inappropriate construction methods. Tubingen [ANIM. Record 486 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Marine shrimp aquaculture in Thailand -. and the flora and fauna composition of the pond area. the second system is a modular one which consists of 10 pools based on the traditional system. Water quality.results and problems of an export oriented intensive culture AU: Author Uthoff. Fishery management. hydrological conditions. Mangrove swamps. Shrimp culture. Failures AB: Abstract Associated with the rapid increase in the production of cultured marine shrimp has been large-scale conversion of mangroves to shrimp ponds. the environmental conditions remaining following disuse. and technical constraints. Record 488 of 500 DN: Database Name . the needs and preferences of pond owners and coastal managers. 43-44. Coastal zone management. Ecosystems. NJ SO: Source Coastal Management [Coast. pp. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. Vol. Environmental effects. Production in many regions has proved to be unsustainable. DEV. Manage. Vol. overstocking. no. and disease. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus. RES. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: shrimp culture. and pond disuse lead to alterations to the physical and chemical properties of soil. Consideration must be given to the causes of production failure. A number of shrimp ponds consequently are unproductive and lie idle. Fish ponds. Accurate assessments of pond disuse are difficult to obtain. shellfish catch statistics. poor environmental conditions. Ponds.

medicated feeds. Husbandry diseases. the US Marine Shrimp Farming Program (USMSFP) has developed a selective breeding program using specific pathogen free (SPF) Penaeus vannamei (Carr et al. Todate. vannamei currently maintained by the USMSFP. Although vaccines. SPF populations of P. In addition to TSV. 1997). 1997). vannamei were acquired from different regions of their natural range to establish genetic diversity in the breeding program. they are either unavailable to shrimp farmers or their efficacy is unproven.ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Design and Economic Analysis of a Prototype Biosecure Shrimp Growout Facility AU: Author Moss. although preliminary heritability estimates (h2) for TSV resistance are low. In response to viral disease problems facing the shrimp farming industry. and immunostimulants have proven effective in combating some pathogens in other meat-producing industries. Disease control. Mahler. Further. and results indicate that there is high between-family variation in response to TSV challenge (Moss et al. WJ. and genetic correlations between traits. vannamei have been evaluated for growth and TSV resistance. However. heritability. Aquaculture techniques. vannamei may benefit shrimp farmers. Mortality causes. 199 1). RSV resistance could be negatively correlated with resistance to other pathogens. Various pond management strategies have been employed to mitigate the risk of disease outbreak. 1998). including fish (Gjedrem et al. There is also the potential to produce shrimp that respond well in disease-challenge tests used in breeding programs. and screening influent water. including the stocking of high health seed. These differences between full-sib families suggest that it may be possible to improve TSV resistance through selection. In the western hemisphere. breeding for TSV resistance is not a panacea to the health problems plaguing the industry. Viruses can mutate. In light of the limitations inherent in breeding for disease resistance. Systematic genetic selection is known to enhance disease resistance in a number of fanned plants and animals. LE SO: Source Proceedings of the US Marine Shrimp Farming Program Biosecurity Workshop. Reynolds. Although the development of TSV-resistant strains of P. none of these strategies are effective in reducing the loss of shrimp due to diseases (Brock et al. reducing water exchange rates. the efficacy of breeding for disease resistance in penaeid shrimp has not been established because of the paucity of information about relevant genetic parameters. Mass mortalities of cultured shrimp due to Yellow Head Virus (YHV) and White Spot Syndrome Virus (WS SV) have occurred in the major shrimp fanning regions in Asia (Flegel et al. SM. the USMSFP is developing biosecure . Infectious diseases. thereby rendering selectively bred shrimp incapable of defending themselves against new strains of virus. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. resistance to YHV and WSSV has been evaluated. but perform poorly when stocked in commercial ponds. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract Disease outbreaks have devastated the global shrimp fanning industry in recent years. 1994). such as phenotypic and genetic variation. Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) has resulted in a direct economic loss on shrimp farms in excess of US$ 1 billion (Lightner 1995). Results indicate that there is little or no innate resistance to either virus in the families of P. over 450 full-sib families of P. Unfortunately.

The model will determine the highest risk pathways for pathogen transfer and direct development of the most appropriate mitigation methods. In systems where seawater disinfection is indicated. A prototype biosecure shrimp production system is described. including pond enclosure. Aquaculture development. Based on risk assessment analysis. and the need for measures such as seawater disinfection can be determined. Mortality causes. Shrimp farm effluent typically exceeds federal and state water quality limits for many parameters. reduced water exchange will minimize the discharge of farm effluent into receiving waters. 1990). including total suspended solids.shrimp production technologies that rely on minimal water exchange. preventing implementation of costly mitigation methods which may have minimal benefits. D SO: Source Proceedings of the US Marine Shrimp Farming Program Biosecurity Workshop. Risk assessment analysis can provide a means for focusing biosecure production system development in directions that will provide the greatest reduction in disease risks for given financial and technological constraints. While shrimp production in this prototype system was comparable to control systems. nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. Aquaculture facilities. 2) Development of appropriate seawater and . and shrimp harvest results. Infectious diseases. Record 489 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Preliminary Development of a Biosecure Shrimp Production System AU: Author Browdy. the most appropriate means for pathogen exclusion from production systems can be implemented. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae AB: Abstract One of the most important problems limiting shrimp mariculture production worldwide has been the spread of shrimp viruses. These technologies will protect cultured shrimp from potential disease vectors and are especially important in light of the increasing incidences of "exotic" viruses being identified in wild shrimp stocks. appropriate methods for disinfection assurance must be developed based on water chemistry and viral susceptibility to disinfection as determined by bioassays. intake water disinfection. cost-effective technologies will provide the shrimp farming industry with economically viable and environmentally sustainable alternatives to traditional shrimp culture in order to meet the growing demand for high quality shrimp products. CL. results of the study suggest logistical and technological limitations encountered in retrofitting earthen pond production systems for improved biosecurity. Control of disease will depend upon effective designs for more biosecure production systems which prevent pathogen transfer and establishment. Disease control. on February 14. It is expected that biosecure. 199 8. These include: 1) Development of risk analysis models for application on a site-specific basis. community establishment after disinfection. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Primary knowledge gaps and research needs have been indentified. and BOD (Ziemann et al. Bratvold. This paper presents the design and economic analysis of a prototype biosecure shrimp growout facility developed by the Oceanic Institute and was presented at the USMSFP Biosecurity Workshop held in Las Vegas. Nevada. In addition.

and Ecomar made their attempts in Texas. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae AB: Abstract In recent years the spread of several viruses in shrimp culture worldwide has led to a renewed interest in production of shrimp in facilities that provide some degree of security from the viruses. In particular. in Idaho. The 1990s have seen efforts by individuals in New York. smaller ponds. There are many routes that pathogens can use to gain access to shrimp production systems. The use of zero water exchange systems (tanks or ponds) will reduce the likelihood of waterbome biohazards. That research has led to increased shrimp yields. increased management. Red Ewald. Aquaculture facilities. the Stillman Ranch. biosecure systems are very much like classical closed recirculating systems. whereas threats from birds and feral animals may be met by placing the systems in an enclosure.production system disinfection protocols. The mainstream of shrimp research for the past two decades has been focused on pond production. Thus. 3)Demonstration of effective technologies for retrofitting existing facilities and for new innovative systems based on sound financial analysis and viable production strategies. and less water usage. and Texas. Biosecure Shrimp Growout System AU: Author Ogle. Lotz. Michigan. Florida. JM SO: Source Proceedings of the US Marine Shrimp Farming Program Biosecurity Workshop. water. In 1979. Feed that is devoid of shrimp meal will be less likely to carry contamination than feeds that employ shrimp meal. JT. and the study of the interrelationships between disinfection and culture system design and management. Disease control. These efforts should include basic evaluations of the advantages and disadvantages of various disinfectants. such systems produce little wastewater that needs disposal. and the most likely routes are those that support the most activity. . DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Aquaculture techniques. Biosecure production systems are typically enclosed or covered tanks that use recirculating seawater. Research on the closed system culture of shrimp as well as other marine animals has been active continuously at the Gulf Coast Research Laboratory (GCRL ) in Mississippi and the Institute of Marine Science in Texas for the past two decades. and that problem forms part of the rationale for the design concept presented here. feed. Some of the earliest attempts at shrimp production in closed systems occurred in 1972 at the National Marine Fisheries Service Lab in Galveston. Viral diseases. other animals. In the 1980s. Texas. By their nature. The final route of pathway introduction (people and equipment) is often the hardest to prevent. and at Toesco Inc. all of these results appear to coincide with the development of closed systems. Shrimp culture. pathogens may be transported by infected seed (postlarval shrimp). Recirculating systems. or by people and their equipment. Solar Aquafarms in California and Aquabiotics in Chicago attempted commercial shrimp culture in closed systems. evaluation of pathogen sensitivity to various disinfectants. Record 490 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Preliminary Design of a Closed. The danger from contaminated seed can be reduced by using a source of seed known to be free of specific pathogens.

people have a tendency to use short cuts if faced with difficult or complicated procedures. Adequate tools have to be developed to ensure that this increase in production will not result in a negative impact on wild shrimp stocks.Unrestricted movement of people and supplies between facilities is a very likely means of spreading disease and also a likely source of initial infection. The occurrence of viral diseases on US shrimp farms also suggests the US shrimp farms are at risk. The first part of the paper will focus on disease prevention methods in cultured shrimp stocks. The value of the shrimp imported into the US is almost 2. The objectives of this paper are to develop and evaluate a biosecurity program that will result in an increased production of farm-raised shrimp in Texas and the US. Although these viruses are not posing any threat to humans.000. USA. The second part will describe potential biosecurity management practices to reduce the risk of viral disease outbreaks during the shrimp nursery phase. TM. Aquaculture techniques. Infectious diseases. Lawrence. the recent viral disease outbreaks in farm-raised shrimp in Texas and South Carolina suggest that careful planning and testing are essential for the growth of the shrimp farming industry in the US. the farm-raised shrimp in the US is currently contributing less than 1% of the total shrimp consumed in the country at a value of $26. When designing a biosecure system. Texas AB: Abstract Shrimp consumption worldwide is in an increasing trend with an annual growth of 7-9% in the US alone.000 lb. Aquaculture facilities. more than 450. More than 70% of the US production of shrimp on farms occurs in Texas. it must be kept in mind that even though people are an important pathway for disease introduction and spread. Record 491 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Preliminary Design and Operating Specifications for a Biosecure Shrimp Growout Facility in Texas AU: Author Samocha. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Viral diseases.4 billion dollars a year (Johnson and Associates 1997). In contrast. a great part of the imported frozen shrimp is suspected to be infected by virulent viruses. Preliminary observations suggest that viruses in imported frozen shrimp can stay potent for a few years. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. Disease control. However. of shrimp were imported to satisfy the US market demand. About 150. Article Geographic Terms: ASW.000. However. Increasing production of farm-raised shrimp in the US is one solution to satisfy the increasing demand that can also help reduce the current huge trade imbalance. With the recent viral disease outbreaks in farm-raised shrimp in Southeast Asia and Central America. AL SO: Source Proceedings of the US Marine Shrimp Farming Program Biosecurity Workshop. Recent discoveries of wild shrimp populations infected with exotic viruses in South Carolina and Texas suggest that wild stocks are at risk. in 1995. the effect on native wild shrimp stocks and the US shrimp farms is unknown. The third part of the paper will deal with potential methods to reduce the chance of . of marine shrimp per year are harvested by the US fishing fleet.5 million.000 lb. with minimal negative impact on native shrimp populations and receiving waters.

in Hays County. Two 65-hp compressors of I 000 cubic feet per minute capacity were installed to operate airlifts in each tank. To insure the zero discharge operation of the facility.shrimp viral disease outbreaks during the growout phase. Article Geographic Terms: USA. aztecus. was a Texas corporation chartered in 1994. Aquaculture facilities. just off Interstate Highway 35. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Inc.763 gallons and 152 square meters of surface area. Record 493 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Toxicity of various off-shore crude oils and dispersants to marine and estuarine shrimp. algae production area. The growout area was formed by nine independent systems consisting of four tanks each with a biofilter raceway down the middle of each system. . DD Jr SO: Source Proceedings of the Twenty-fifth Annual Conference. Culley. Each single tank measured 26 feet wide by 62 feet long. Texas AB: Abstract Penbur Farms. giving a volume of 36. P SO: Source Proceedings of the US Marine Shrimp Farming Program Biosecurity Workshop. AU: Author Mills. This location is south of Austin. Recirculating systems. Disease control. Southeastern Association of Game and Fish Commissioners. Each four-tank growout system was equipped with a heat exchanger operating from a boiler to maintain water temperatures during the winter months. 642-650. and wet laboratory facilities. pp. Buda. two independent maturation facilities. Independent air conditioning units were installed along both sides of the building to maintain temperatures during the summers. a one-quarter acre concrete pond was built outside the building to retain all water discharged from the fan-n tanks.000 square feet of intensive growout. a nursery facility. P.000 square feet consisted of two independent hatcheries. Aquaculture techniques. AB: Abstract The acute effects of 4 crude oils and 2 oil spill removers on 4 spp of marine shrimp (Penacus setiferus. The indoor recirculating shrimp culture facility was sited on a 53-acre tract of land at 1235 South Loop 4. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. Palaemonetes vulgaris. The facility was built in a 2OO-feet by 500-feet steel building and consisted of 80. ER. Biofiltration was to be achieved from the center raceway of each system measuring 126 feet by 3 feet by 4 feet and filled with 1. Record 492 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title The AquaTech Seafood Closed System Shrimp Farm: A Central Texas Operation and Management Perspective AU: Author Boeing. Texas.5 inch bio-balls. The remaining 20. Intensive culture.

The Palaemonetes spp appeared more tolerant to all toxicants. Beginning in . labor. US producers must rely on advanced technologies and systems to offset cost advantages enjoyed by foreign producers. In doing so. From the very outset it has been clear that to be internationally competitive.and P. enjoy lower costs for land. Recently. Tufts University (TUFTS) has the lead in molecular genetics. and most certainly lower cost for environmental protection. would not be socially. development and transfer of technologies and products required for domestic shrimp farmers to become competitive in world markets. using primitive production methods. Recirculating systems. Environmental impact. or zero. is dedicated to research. genetically improved shrimp stocks and advanced disease diagnostic and treatment methods. through the work of its six member institutions. The University of Arizona (UAZ) and the Gulf Coast Research Laboratory (GCRL) are the principals in disease research. Aquaculture development. Aquaculture techniques. A prerequisite for the importance of minimal. The Oceanic Institute (01) has principal responsibility for genetic improvement of shrimp stocks. including disease resistance. initiated in 1985. Fishery management. especially poultry and swine. pugio) were determined. Such primitive methods. The oil spill removers were much more toxic than the crude oils. water exchange was rapidly established. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeidae. Foreign producers. employed in most other countries. Such systems fall under the umbrella term biosecurity. Marine aquaculture. Record 494 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Proceedings of the US Marine Shrimp Farming Program Biosecurity Workshop DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Massive disease problems are directly associated with deteriorating water quality and poor quality broodstock and seed. Problems are so severe that parallel efforts were initiated to develop production systems designed to exclude diseases from the populations under culture. has provided US producers with direct access to reliable supplies of high health. the Consortium stated its position that primitive culture practices. diagnostics and treatment centers. Aquaculture effluents. Beginning in 1988. however. Major efforts have been undertaken to establish defenses against disease problems encountered by existing shrimp farmers. The Waddell Mariculture Center (WMC) and the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station (TAES) work directly with shrimp farmers in resolving on-farm problems. Disease control. are proving to be environmentally and economically unsustainable. the USMSF elected to pattern its efforts after those used in successful US agricultural industries. Evidence indicates that the most serious effects of oil pollution would be noted in the shallower areas where high concentrations of toxic compounds might build up. environmentally or economically acceptable in the United States. Addition of the oil spill removers to all crude oils at recommended application ratios increased the toxicity of both the crude oils and the oil spill removers. shrimp disease agents and associated problems have spread from foreign countries into the United States. indicating a synergistic effect. Results of 48-hr bioassays showed that distinctive differences in toxicity existed between crude oils from different areas with all shrimp tested. gene marker and microsatellites. The USMSFP. Decapoda AB: Abstract The US Marine Shrimp Farming Program (USMSFP).

AU: Author Jiraporn Kasornchandra SO: Source Fourth Symposium on Diseases in Asian Aquaculture: Aquatic Animal Health for Sustainability. viral encephalitis and iridovirus infection. anguillarum and V. Book of abstracts. Vibrio anguillarum. Philippines. V. Commercial species. Cebu International Convention Center.).) dominate. parahemolyticus. It is noted that expert panel presentations were taped only.FY97. These proceedings include a list of participants. Cage culture. Viral diseases have so far been confined to lymphocystis. Transcription was on a best efforts basis. Waterfront Cebu City Hotel. Manila (Philippines) Fish Health Sect. Flavobacterium AB: Abstract The floating net-cage culture has been established in early 1970s in Southeast Asia and since then it has become very popular. Cebu City. 1999. This paper reviews the major bacterial and viral pathogens of economically important finfishes with emphasis on seabass and grouper. Vibrio. Bacterial diseases. November 22-26. five invited workshop presentations and six expert panel presentations including questions and answers. errors should be attributed to the editor and not the presenter. WMC and TAES accepted specific USMSFP assignments to begin development of biosecure and zero water exchange shrimp growout systems. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Marine fish. Although several species of marine and diadromous fishes have been successfully cultured and commercialized. fungi. Record 496 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts . Record 495 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Major viral and bacterial diseases of marine fishes with emphasis on seabass and grouper. CA: Corporate Author Asian Fisheries Soc. Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The expansion of the commercial culture of marine and estuarine finfishes had been accompanied by the occurrence of diseases of infectious and non-infectious etiologies. Vibrio vulnificus. and Flavobacterium sp. Infectious diseases. Flexibacter. GCRL. Epinephelus. The workshop also was designed to provide opportunities for receiving industry input and information and technology transfer.. OI. Among the recognized causative agents of infectious diseases are protozoa. This workshop was scheduled as part of efforts to coordinate and integrate institutional programs.]. vulnificus) and myxobacterial infection Flexibacter sp. Viral diseases. bacteria and viruses. Article Taxonomic Terms: Lates calcarifer. Bacterial diseases have continued to parallel the growth of cage-culture marine finfishes in importance involving Vibrio species (particularly V. The workshop and proceedings publication were supported by the Oceanic Institute under contract with CSREES/USDA #95-38808-1424. only 4-5 species particularly the seabass (Lates calcarifer) and grouper (Epinephelus spp. Appreciation is expressed to the speakers and other participants for their contributions to this workshop. [unpag. Aetiology.

1999. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Fish culture. Raewat Khongpradit SO: Source Fourth Symposium on Diseases in Asian Aquaculture: Aquatic Animal Health for Sustainability. [unpag. Prophylaxis. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Husbandry diseases.].TI: Title Recent progress in the development of shrimp cell cultures in Thailand. Cell culture. 1999. Cebu City. Philippines. Viral diseases. [unpag. a temperature range of 25-28 degree C and incubation in a normal atmosphere. Both epithelial-like and fibroblastic-like cells were observed from those organs within 24-48 h incubation. Histology. Penaeus monodon in double-strength Leibovitz's L-15 medium supplemented with 15% fetal bovine serum. Record 497 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Detection of blister disease in brown-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides in Thailand. Manila (Philippines) Fish Health Sect. Thailand AB: Abstract . Cytopathic effect (CPE) induced by these two viruses in primary shrimp cells were similar. Article Taxonomic Terms: Penaeus monodon. Philippines. Virulence. Disease detection.. in which YHV showed characteristics of cells rounding. Waterfront Cebu City Hotel. Jiraporn Kasornchandra. aggregation followed by detachment and lysis. Lymphatic system. 5 g/L NaCl and 10% shrimp meat extract. Viral diseases. Thailand AB: Abstract Primary shrimp cell cultures were developed from lymphoid organ. yellow head virus (YHV) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). November 22-26. heart and ovaries of black tiger shrimp. No cell aggregation was observed in the WSSV-infected cells. The optimum conditions for primary culture in vivo were obtained in L-15 medium with an osmolality of approximately 710-730 mmol/kg. Within three days. Cebu City. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. AU: Author Jiraporn Kasornchandra. AU: Author Raewat Khongpradit. November 22-26. Ovaries. 80% confluent monolayers were obtained from the lymphoid organ while cultures from other tissues required five days. Waterfront Cebu City Hotel. 1% glucose. Cultures were maintained for at least 43 days. Book of abstracts. Sarawuth Sriwatanavarunyou SO: Source Fourth Symposium on Diseases in Asian Aquaculture: Aquatic Animal Health for Sustainability. Article Geographic Terms: ISEW. Article Taxonomic Terms: Epinephelus coioides. CA: Corporate Author Asian Fisheries Soc.]. Healthy cultures of the lymphoid cells did not persist beyond the third passage. Primary lymphoid cell cultures were also examined for supporting the propagation of shrimp viruses. Aquaculture development. Book of abstracts. Cebu International Convention Center. Only cells from lymphoid organ can be subcultured and confluent monolayers achieved within 10 days post-spilt. Heart. Cebu International Convention Center.

Infection trials carried out on healthy juvenile grouper by immersion demonstrated pathogenicity similar to those found in natural infections. 2 . AU: Author Shleser. nauplii. Manila (Philippines) Fish Health Sect. 2 a 6 de novembro de 1998. Sustainable development. The dermis was necrotized.Virological and histological investigations were conducted on a serious disease outbreak of cultured brown-spotted grouper. CA: Corporate Author Asian Fisheries Soc. Intron amplification and sequencing showed a large amount genetic heterozygosity in both naturally occuring stocks and hatchery generated populations. Anais. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. R SO: Source (Aquaculture Brazil '98. Selective breeding. Proceedings. Recife-PE. Inoculation of cell-free homogenates of pooled visceral organs and lesions from the diseased fish produced cytopathic effect (CPE) in grouper fin (GF). Polymerase chain reaction. kidney and lesions. Volume 1: Conferencias. Production of shrimp stocks that are homozygous for selected DNA markers allows comparisons of stock performance in the same production systems. This approach makes it possible to evaluate selected lines for inbreeding and to make crosses to restore desired performance levels. Epinephelus coioides. Record 498 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title DNA marker assisted selective breeding of marine shrimp. Brazil. The commercial production of genetically improved shrimp broodstock. 335-348. and post larvae will become established as a new segment of the industry. spleen. respectively at temperature ranging from 25-30 degree C. Volume 1: Lectures ). Aquicultura Brasil '98. Histopathological changes and virological examination of experimentally infected fish coincided with naturally infected. This will result in more dependable performance and improved profits for shrimp . containing exudation and hemorrhagic infiltration at the area of the intact layer. Recife-PE. An emphasis is placed on the use of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based technology to amplify targeted segments of the shrimp genome that can be used as markers to manage the selective breeding process. Aquaculture techniques. in southern Thailand in 1995-1996 and 1998. Article Taxonomic Terms: Litopenaeus vannamei AB: Abstract A review is presented of various approaches to and methods for managing a selective breeding program for marine shrimp. Liver showed severe blood congestion.6 November 1998. Results of research that led to the selection of introns in nuclear genes as method of choice for a DNA based management system for Penaeus vannamei are presented. Brood stocks. Results indicated that iridovirus was the causative agent of the blister disease in brown-spotted grouper and its name 'GIV-2' has been tentatively proposed. Brasil. Histopathological changes showed highly localized severe inflammation of the epidermal and dermal layer.. Epithelioma Papulosum Cyprini (EPC) and blue gill fry (BF-2) cell lines. pp. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the presence of icosahedral to round-shaped virions with a diameter of 180-200 nm in the infected cells of liver. Typical signs include the appearance of whitish blisters on the body and fins. Desenvolvimento com sustentabilidade. DNA.

2 . including Spain. Department of Commerce show that between the second semester in 1996 to the end of 1997 tilapia imports increased from 4.6 November 1998. associations of seafood producers. whole fish. fillets. Recife-PE. Available data from the U. Marketing.268 to 8. Brazil. Article Geographic Terms: USA.S.). These ways are undergoing evident modifications. France. Aquicultura Brasil '98. both in volume and in the various presentations (eg. live tilapia.002 mt. where the main players are changing their market share through mergers and acquisitions with large companies devoted to the marketing of products other than seafood. This is partly due to the strong advertising efforts to motivate consumers to increase consumption of seafood products. etc. Proceedings. Record 499 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title (Analysis of the present trend of tilapia marketing in the United States of America and in the European Union ). sanitary aspects related to product handling.farmers. AU: Author Alceste. Another factor has to do with the traditional ways of marketing seafood products in Europe. Pooling these data show that U. Trade. and this is evident from the growth rate experienced by tilapia imports in the past few years. catering and franchising companies) among others.621 mt in 1997. During the last 15 years consumption of seafood in countries of the European Union (EU) has grown significantly due to various factors. both from fishery activities and from aquaculture. Anais. tilapia production increased from 2. tilapia consumption went from 6. DE SO: Source (Aquaculture Brazil '98. This was observed at both the retail and the wholesale levels. 2 a 6 de novembro de 1998. Market research. Brasil.S. Desenvolvimento com sustentabilidade. Sustainable development. including organoleptic characteristics. after marine shrimp and Atlantic salmon. which import over 22% of the global production.S. at the time the consumer is purchasing seafood products he/she is using several selection criteria (in addition to price).. Article Taxonomic Terms: Tilapia.417 to 37. 349-364. adopted by EU countries through their respective fishing and aquaculture ministries and agencies. Jory. One of these is that. Europe AB: Abstract Tilapia is the second most important aquaculture species in the world today. This rapid growth can be attributed to a greater availability of products in markets. and marketing entities (including supermarkets. This dependency situation tends to increase due to the policies to . Volume 1: Conferencias.619 mt. C. and the third most important seafood commodity imported into the U. Tilapia products have rapidly become one of the most popular seafood products in the U. how innovative the presentation is and also other aspects related to the environmental characteristics of the region from where the product originated.S. Volume 1: Lectures ). Recife-PE. Italy and Germany. pp. its nutritional value.S. Aquaculture products. Concurrently U. ease of preparation. processing plants and industrial chambers.. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Fish culture.685 mt in 1992 to 45. freshness. This has generated a strong dependency on seafood imports from third countries (outside the EU) with the objective of fulfilling this growing demand in countries with the highest rates of seafood consumption.

2 . . and nutrition. This maturation survey encompassed shrimp farming regions in nine countries culturing the 'open-thelycum' marine shrimp. Brood stocks. eyestalk ablation. Anais.reduce fishing effort currently implemented by EU countries in its common fishing areas. Proceedings. DK SO: Source (Aquaculture Brazil '98. 2) Broodstock Quality and Pond Management. The results obtained from this survey helped to quantify methods and criteria used in the management of these maturation facilities.S. AU: Author Kawahigashi. Volume 1: Lectures ). Areas of shared concern were 1) Shrimp Domestication through Genetic Selection. respondents were asked to provide their views on maturation research priorities. Brazil. 2 a 6 de novembro de 1998. Finally. average spawn size. Sustainable development. Aquicultura Brasil '98. Details about mating frequency. Volume 1: Conferencias. 3) Broodstock Nutrition. and broodstock replacement value was also tabulated. and EU countries' markets. pp. Desenvolvimento com sustentabilidade. insemination method. To have access to the EU seafood markets. nauplii production. 4) Broodstock Certification and 5) Biosecurity Systems. Recife-PE. very strict sanitary norms must be followed to guarantee products of the highest quality. Record 500 of 500 DN: Database Name ASFA: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts TI: Title Overview of commercial maturation technology in the Western Hemisphere.6 November 1998. Brasil. 381-392. a significant portion of their production is being directed to local markets due to the high prices that tilapia and its products command in these markets. Although large-scale tilapia producers in Latin American countries have as a goal the exporting of their products to the U. DE: Descriptors Article Subject Terms: Shrimp culture. Recife-PE. Selective breeding. Hatcheries. Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus stylirostris. Article Geographic Terms: Western Hemisphere AB: Abstract A survey form was sent to a cross section of shrimp maturation biologists to determine the status and future concerns of the shrimp hatchery industry in the western hemisphere. The participants responded to technical questions regarding the origin of broodstock (pond-reared or ocean-caught).

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