# Training Course-Day-2

Water Surface Profile Modeling Using HEC-RAS

Aug-2009 University of Engineering and Technology LAHORE

Course Contents
DAY-2 Modeling a Bridge Modeling a Culvert Modeling Multiple Openings

Practice session / Discussions
Modeling an Inline structure (Weir, Dam etc.) Modeling Storage Area Modeling Bridge Scour Modeling Channel Modifications Understanding of notes/warnings and errors Understanding Model Stability Trouble shooting

Practice session / Discussions

Explanation-Ineffective flow area

•The areas of the cross section that will contain water that is not actively being conveyed (ineffective flow). •Ineffective flow areas are often used to describe portions of a cross section in which water will pond, but the velocity of that water, in the downstream direction, is close to or equal to zero. •This water is included in the storage calculations and other wetted cross section parameters, but it is not included as part of the active flow area. •When using ineffective flow areas, no additional wetted perimeter is added to the active flow area

Bridge Modeling -Geometry Roadway Deck Upstream Embankment Side Slope Low Chord Pier Downstream Embankment Side Slope .

Bridge Modeling -Geometry .

Weir Flow Water overtops the bridge Bridge deck acts like a Weir . Pressure flow Water surface is touching the low chord (Sluice Flow) 2.Bridge Modeling –Flow Types Low Flow The flow through the bridge opening is open channel flow Water surface is not touching the low chord High Flow 1.

Uses energy equation as well as some empirical attributes. K ) .Empirical formula developed to model effects of bridge piers. (do not account for pier drag) Momentum accounts for friction losses and geometry changes through bridge.Bridge Modeling Energy accounts for friction losses and geometry changes through bridge. Yarnell . Based on 2600 lab experiments on different pier shapes (Yarnell’s Pier Coefficient. (requires pier drag coefficient Cd) FHWA WSPRO Federal Highways Administration method of analyzing bridge. as well as losses due to flow transition & turbulence. Developed for bridges that constrict wide floodplains with heavily vegetated overbank areas.

Yarnell. and WSPRO Class B Low Flow . Momentum.Bridge Modeling Low Flow Bridge Modeling 3 Types of Flow Class A Low Flow .Flow passes through critical depth Energy and Momentum Class C Low Flow .Subcritical Flow Energy.Supercritical Flow Energy and Momentum .

Bridge Modeling-High Flows Pressure (Sluice) flow 1 ⎡ Z + α 3V 32 ⎤ Q = C d ∗ A bu ⎢ Y 3 2 2g ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 2 Pressure (Orifice) flow Q = C A 2gH .

Bridge Modeling-High Flows Pressure & Weir flow Q = CLH 3 2 For high tail water elevations the program will automatically reduce the amount of weir flow to account for submergence on weirs elevations .

Locating Cross-Sections Near Bridges Fully Effective Flow Contraction Thru Bridge Expansion Fully Expanded Flow .

.Locating Cross-Sections Near Bridges Lc Le Fully Effective Flow Fully Expanded Flow 4 3 2 1 Lc and Le can be determined by field investigation during high flow or can be computed.

Locating Cross-Sections Near Bridges 4 3 2 1 .

Contraction and Expansion Ratios .

Bridge Modeling –Expansion Ranges .

3 Typical Bridge Transition 0.1 0.8 .6 0.5 Abrupt Transition 0.3 0.Contraction and Expansion Ratios Contraction Expansion No Transition 0 0 Gradual Transition 0.

3 0.3 Contraction 0.4 0.3 .3 0.4 Use Ce = 0.5 0.Contraction and Expansion Ratios Expansion Cross-Section 4 (furthest US) Cross-Section 3 Cross-Section 2 Cross-Section 1(furthest DS) 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.1 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.1 Use Cc = 0.

Ineffective flow areas 4 3 2 1 .

Bridge Data Sheet Created by Clyde Giaquinto NRCS-NY .

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Bridge Modeling -Geometry

Bridge Modeling -Geometry

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Practice Session Bridge Modeling .

Federal Highway Administration (FHWA. 1985) standard equations are used for culvert hydraulics The definition of culvert geometry is similar to bridge geometry The layout of cross sections. the selection of loss coefficients.Culvert Modeling A culvert is a relatively short length of closed conduit. and most other aspects of bridge analysis apply to culverts as well . the use of the ineffective areas. which connects two open channel segments or bodies of water In HEC-RAS.

Culvert Hydraulics Depending upon upstream or downstream control. super critical computations are carried out A hydraulic jump will occur at a location where the specific force of the subcritical flow is larger than specific force of supercritical flow . supercritical and mixed flow regimes are calculated If the control is at downstream side subcritical flow would pass through the culvert from downstream to upstream When the culvert is at steep slopes.

Culvert Hydraulics .

Culvert Hydraulics .

Culvert Hydraulics .

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Culvert data input is almost same as that for bridge input with some minor specific inputs .

Modeling Multiple Openings .

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Modeling Inline Structures .

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Modeling Storage Areas .

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Modeling Bridge Scour .

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Total Scour = sum of 1) Long term Aggradation/degradation 2) General Scour 3) Local Scour .

Clear Water Scour Clear-water scour occurs when there is no movement of the bed material in the flow upstream of the crossing or the bed material being transported in the upstream reach is transported in suspension through the scour hole at the pier or abutment at less than the capacity of the flow .

. that is.Live Bed Scour •Occurs when there is transport of bed material from the upstream reach into the crossing. the scour hole that develops during the rising stage of a flood refills during the falling stage. Live-bed local scour is cyclic in nature.

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Channel Modification Analysis .

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Trouble Shooting Model .

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Computation time step. 6. 4. Theta weighting factor for numerical solution. Solution iterations. . 5. 7. Weir and spillway submergence factors. Weir and spillway stability factors. 3.Trouble Shooting Model Following factors will affect the stability and numerical accuracy of the model 1. Cross section spacing. Solution tolerances. 2.

Theta of 0. The default in HEC-RAS is 1. • • • • • • Theoretically Theta can vary from 0.0.6 to 1. reduce theta towards 0.0 Theta of 1. .6. as long as the model stays stable.0. A practical limit is from 0. Once you have your model developed.0 provides the most stability.Theta weighing factors Theta is a weighting applied to the finite difference approximations when solving the unsteady flow equations.5 to 1.6 provides the most accuracy.

The default number of iterations in HEC-RAS is set to 20. This is especially true when your model has lateral weirs and storage areas. If the error is greater than the allowable tolerances. the program will iterate. . All of the computation nodes are then checked for numerical error. Iteration will generally improve the solution.Iterations At each time step derivatives are estimated and the equations are solved.

The default values should be good for most river systems.Tolerance Two solution tolerances can be set or changed by the user: water surface calculation (0. .10 default). Only change them if you are sure! Making the tolerances larger can reduce the stability of the solution.02 default) and Storage area elevation (0. Making them smaller can cause the program to go to the maximum number of iterations every time.

The default value of 1.0 As you increase the factor you get greater dampening of the flows (which will provide for greater stability).Weir and Spillway Stability Factors The weir and spillway stability factors can range from 1.0 to 3. but less accuracy.0. .

and makes the submergence curve less steep at high degrees of submergence.Submergence Factors Can vary from 1. Using a factor greater than 1.0. . A factor of 1.0 causes the program to use larger submergence factors earlier.0 leaves the submergence criteria in its original form.0 to 3. .

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Last Note Practice Practice and Practice .

Thank You All ! For Future Reference Please use following contact Information ….com Ali Iqbal ali@relevancepoint.com. www.pk 0333-4349247 .bossintl.com 0302-8551238 Yasir Abbas engryasir@brain.