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Name of experiment: - Study of installation /operation /maintenance practices for refrigeration system

INSTALLATION: In installing the refrigeration and air conditioning system for commercial and industrial purpose following points must be noted: The troubles in refrigeration after installation are such as no refrigeration, no continuous running, a higher electricity bill, poor refrigeration temperature, frosted suction line etc.The location of condensing unit should be as close as possible to the cabinets in multiple installation system. it should be exposed to low temperatures . it depends on source of electric supply , water supply , water drainage . Condensing unit should be mounted on concrete base to avoid moist floor and vibration.Cooling coils should be carefully mounted firmly fastened to ceiling of cabinet. The hangers are used to help for leveling coils in all direction. In few installations horizontal steel piping fastened to the walls of cabinet is used for support for coils.The tubing of installation is run along the walls and ceiling, supported by frequent intervals to keep tube in straight position. The tubing in all case should run horizontally and vertically with neat bends with perfect radius also protected from short runs. The tubing should not run near source of heat, such sources will cause low efficiency and poor refrigeration. The tubing must be placed I such a manner that construction of support protects tubing from accident.The noise of compressor should not disturb the occupants. It should be as near to suction line so as to avoid the superheat of the refrigerant along the tubing.The position of expansion valve should be as near to the cooling coil to avoid the cooling losses. CHARGING THE REFRIGERATION UNIT: The systematic line diagram for charging a small refrigeration unit is as shown in fig a .It is necessary to remove the air from refrigeration unit before charging .First the valve V2 is closed and pressure gauge P2 and vacuum gauge V are fitted as shown in the figure. The valve is V5 also closed and valves V1 and V3 are opened, the motor is started. Thus the air from the condenser, receiver and evaporator is sucked through the valve V1 and it is discharged into atmosphere through the valve V6 after compressing into the compressor. The vacuum gauge V indicates sufficiently low vacuum when most of the air is removed from the system. After removing the air, the compressor is stopped and the valves V1 and V6 are valves V5, V2, and V7 of the refrigerant cylinder are opened and then compressor is started. Whenever the sufficient quality of refrigerant is taken into system which will be noted on the spring balance as shown in the figure, the compressor is stopped, the valves V7 and V5 are closed and valve V1 is opened. The refrigerant cylinder is disconnected from the system. The pressure gauges are used to note the pressures during charging the system. The valve V1,V2,V5 and V6 are the integral part of the compressor.

PURGING Many times the air leaks inside during the operation of the system. It is necessary to remove this air for maintaining the efficiency of the system. Owing to the presence of air the high side pressure and water consumption increases, after increase of 10% air should be removed necessarily this is known as Purging .During purging the valve V6 of compressor is intermittently opened for few seconds. Air and few grams of refrigerant vapour escape under high pressure side. A notable pressure and temperature drop in the system occurs and normal pressure is established. The refrigerant is added from outsideif excessive purging occurs. The valves V1, V2, V5 and V6 are the integral parts of the compressor. Purging. Many times during the operation of the system, the air leaks inside the system. It is necessary to remove the air for maintaining the efficiency of the system. Owing to the presence of the air in the system, the higher side pressure and water consumption of the condenser are increased. When this increment is 10% above normal, it is necessary to remove the air from the system which is known as purging. During purging, the compressor discharge valve V6 is intermittently opened for few seconds at a time. Air and few grams of refrigerant vapour escapes under high pressure side. A noticeable pressure and temperature drop tin the system occurs and normal operating pressure is established. The refrigerant is added from outside if excessive purging occurs.

Pump down of Refrigeration system If the refrigeration system is to be repaired or some part of the system is to be replaced, then refrigerant must be pumped into the receiver for temporary storage. To do this, liquid shut off valve V4 is first closed and the compressor is started. The compressor pumps the entire refrigerant into the receiver. The suction pressure reads close to zero. The receiver inlet V2 is now closed and the compressor is stopped. The serviceman can open the refrigeration system safely foe repair as refrigerant is stored in receiver. During the pumping down process, the rapid decrease in crankcase pressure causes the refrigerant in oil to vaporize. This causes foaming which will often result in slugging of oil through the valves of the compressor. This causes knocking and if allowed to continue may damage the compressor. If the compressor is heard to knock while pumping down low side, it should be stopped for short time to allow the oil to settle down after which operation can be continued. The refrigeration system should never be opened while under vacuum, because air, dirt, moisture would quickly be forced into system by outside pressure. It is always advisable to break the vacuum with refrigerant vapour.Charging the commercial or industrial systems is just similar to system described here. TESTING FOR LEAKAGE After charging the system, it is necessary to test all the joints to make sure that they are leak proof. Test is necessary because even a minute leak will cause a complete loss of refrigerant in a relatively short period. The methods of testing for leaks vary with different refrigerants used. TEST FOR SO2 If a small piece of ammonia soaked cloth fastened to he end of the stick and placed adjacent to the joints or placed where leaks may occur, it will be noticeable by a thick white smoke forming at place of leak. TEST FOR NH3 Two methods are used for testing the leaks of ammonia either in compression or absorbing system. A sulphur candle gives a thick white smoke if it comes in contact with leaking ammonia. If a phenolphthalein paper is brought near the leaking place, its color changes instantly after coming in contact with ammonia. Both tests are rapid, accurate.

TEST FOR FREON, CARRENE, ETHYLCHLORIDE The leaks of above mentioned refrigerants are tested with halides torch. If the intake tube of the halide torch is brought near the leaking joint, then leaking gas will enter into the intake tube of the torch and gives a green hue which is a sure sign of gas leak. To light the torch ,the flame chamber must be preheated and air intake tube must be stopped with one finger until the flame is burning well. The halide leak detector may also use natural gas, propane, acetylene as fuel. TEST FOR ISOBUTANE AND METHYL CHLORIDE For this a solution of thick soap is used near joints. If the bubbles are formed, then it is a sure indication of leakage. The halide lamp is not used for these refrigerants as gas is explosive in some concentrations. ELECRONIC LEAK DETECTOR These measure electronic resistance of gas samples and if air containing the refrigerant vapor is tested then current flow changes. The change in current is an indicated on a milliammeter or rings a bell. ADDING OIL TO THE COMPRESSOR (a)Adding oil to the compressor (when oil plug is not provided) • Take correct grade oil into a clean dry glass container. • Connect an oil charging line to the suction service gauge port through a hand shut off valve and put other end into oil. • Close the shut off valve and turn the service valve all the way in. Lift the oil tubing out of the container and then shut off valve to purge the line and insert tubing in container. • With shut off valve closed, operate the compressor unit, a vacuum of 50 cm is obtained. The vacuum should stand after stopping compressor. • Stop the compressor and open valve to allow desired amount oil to be drown into crankcase. Do not permit the end of tubing to be out of oil during charging of oil. • Close shut off valve and observe suction pressure. If it is not .125 bar , open the service valve slightly until pressure reaches just above atmosphere. Then oil level may be checked. • Then close shut off valve, back seat the service valve and then remove oil charging line and gauge. (b) Adding oil to the compressor (when plug is provided) Follow the following procedure as described step by step. • Suction service valve should be back seated and attach a gauge. • Turn the valve all the way in and start the compressor. If necessary hold the control switch close to keep the machine gauge. • Operate the compressor until vacuum of 40cm of Hg is maintained and then stop the compressor. • Open the suction valve slightly until the pressure builds up to 0.25 bar (gauge) and then close again.

Open the service valve, remove the gauge and restore the normal operation.

OTHER SERVICE OPERATIONS
(1) Changing the Compressor The following procedure of removing the compressor from the system is used for nonsealed unit: • Back seat the suction service valve and attach a gauge. Turn the valve all the way in to close. • Operate the compressor until the pressure of 0.125 bar (gauge) is detained. • Close the discharge service valve and loosen the gauge port plug to relieve the pressure in the head. Then remove the plug. • Remove the suction and discharge service valves from the compressor leaving the valves attached to the lines. • Slide the motor forward and remove the belts. Unbolt the compressor and take off the flywheel. • Attach the flywheel to the new compressor and bolt it to the frame. • Bolt the service valves to the compressor ports and put the belts on and adjust. • Start the compressor and operate until air stops coming out of the discharge valve port. • Replace the gauge port plug, open the valves and test for leakages. (2) Replacing a Sealed Unit of a Refrigerator The following procedure should be adopted when a sealed unit is to be changed. First declamp the thermal bulb of the thermostatic switch from the evaporator surface and remove the wire connections from the compressor. Then expose the suction and liquid line tubing including capillary. If the tubing is on the back of the cabinet, nothing is to be done on it. But if it is on the front, it is necessary to remove one or more plastic strips at the front side edges of the refrigerator cabinet. Then unbolt the sealed compressor from the base. First pull out the freezer after removing evaporator mounting screws and then the compressor can be removed from its original position. The new sealed unit may be fitted and thermal bulb of the thermostatic switch is to be reclamped and attached the wires of the compressor motor. The unit will be ready for its operation. (3) Changing an Air-cooled Condenser The following steps should be followed before disconnecting the condenser from the system. • The entire charge must be removed if there is no valve between the condenser and receiver as discussed in earlier article.

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When the refrigerant has been removed and the pressure balances to atmospheric pressure, the condenser can be disconnected. Install and connect the new condenser. Evacuate the system. Then charge the required amount of refrigerant and test for leakages.

The above outline procedure is also followed for water cooled condenser. (4) Changing the evaporator (A) The following procedure should be adopted for replacing the evaporator from the system when low side float valve with liquid and suction valves at the evaporator are used: a) attach a pressure gauge to the compressor service valves. b) Close the liquid valve at the receiver and all other valves are left open. c) Operate the compressor until the liquid line becomes cold and then warms up. Then close the liquid and suction valves at the evaporator. d) If necessary operate the compressor again to balance the pressure in the suction line after the evaporator valves have been closed. Close the suction valve. e) Disconnect the lines at the evaporator and plug these. f) Then remove the faulty evaporator and put the new one and connect the liquid and suction lines. g) Open the receiver-liquid valve slightly and purge the air from the line by cracking and flare nut at the evaporator. h) Open the two valves at the evaporator and purge the suction line by cracking the flare nut at the compressor. i) Open all valves and keep the system in operation. (B) The following procedure should be adopted for replacing the evaporator from the system when there are no valves at the evaporator : a) Attach gauges to the suction and discharge service valves at the compressor. b) Close the receiver liquid valve going to evaporator and operate the compressor unitil all the refrigerant has been removed from the evaporator. This can be determined observing that the suction pressure does not rise above atmospheric after the unit has been shut off for about ten minutes. c) Open the receiver valve and allow refrigerant to flow into the lines and evaporator until the suction pressure reads to 0.125 bar gauge. d) Close the suction valve and loosen the flare nut at the compressor to relieve the vapour remaining in the lines. e) Install the new evaporator and connect lines. f) Open the receiver valve and purge the air by cracking the flare nut at the compressor suction valve. g) Open the suction valve wide, start the compressor and remove the gauges.

(5) Maintaining Household Refrigerator The following points should be remembered for trouble free operation of refrigerator: a) The refrigerator must be properly leveled. It is absolutely essential for automatic closing of door which is done by magnetic switch mounted in the refrigerator cabinet. The proper leveling should be achieved with the use of 4-screws provided with the refrigerator. Open the door by hand and leave free, if it closes properly without any gap, it is an indicator of proper leveling. b) Refrigerator must be operated on 230V and 50 Hz supply through a voltage stabilizer. c) Refrigerator should be connected to the electrical point which is nearest to the refrigerator. d) It should not be exposed to direct sun rays as it adds the load on the refrigerator. e) It should be kept at minimum 25 cm away from the wall for proper air circulation over the condenser. f) It should be operated without load for 2 hours before loading it. g) The condenser should be cleaned from its outer surface periodically otherwise it increases the load on refrigerator. h) If you need urgent ice, turn on the control knob of thermostat to pos 5 or 6 and turn the chill tray deflector to the out position. Don’t forget to change these to their normal positions after the need is over. i) Defrosting of the freezer should be done periodically, otherwise it increases load on the refrigerator as frost adds thermal resistance for heat flow. j) Never use harsh cleaners or striking or chipping for removing ice from the freezer coils as it may result in leakage of refrigerant gas. k) Deflector of the chill tray should be kept out during defrosting to collect the water. l) Moist food should be placed inwrapped polythene bags to avoid dehydration and giving out its smell to other foods. m) The bottom most compartment is provided with a tray which should be used for storing green vegetables and fruits. n) Do not start and stop the refrigerator immediately. There must be half an hour gap between start and stop. o) Hot fluids should not be stored otherwise hot vapours may damage the refrigerator cabinet. The refrigerator should be properly earthed to safeguard against electric shock. Improper earthling may result in fatal accident Conclsion:-various installation, maintenance, and servicing practices were studied