When cyst is swallowed, it passes through the stomach unharmed and shows no activity while in an acidic environment.

When it reaches the alkaline medium of the intestine, the metacyst begins to move within the cyst wall, which rapidly weakens and tears. The quadrinucleate amoeba emerges and divides into amebulas that are swept down into the cecum. This is the first opportunity of the organism to colonize, and its success depends on one or more metacystic trophozoites making contact with the mucosa. Mature cyst in the large intestines leaves the host in great numbers (the host remains asymptomatic). The cyst can remain viable and infective in moist and cool environment for at least 12 days, and in water for 30 days. The cysts are resistant to levels of chlorine normally used for water purification. They are rapidly killed by purification, desiccation and temperatures below 5 and above 40 degrees.

as well as genetic. unsaturated FAs were unable to support growth of M. excessive vitamin A intake can cause seborrhoeic [5] dermatitis. However. Progenies of the initial colonies are squeezed out to the lower portion of the bowel and thus. E. releasing a mixture of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. an unsaturated FA and Malassezia metabolite. that Malassezia require saturated. the colonization rate of affected skin may be lower than that of [7] unaffected skin. globosa and M. hormonal. The unsaturated FAs penetrate the stratum corneum and due to their non-uniform structure breach the skin's barrier function. seborrheic dermatitis presents with scaly. The main species found in the scalp is Malassezia globosa. Eventually. fatty acids support Malassezia growth. and are carried to the intrahepatic portal vein. seborrhea) [1] [2] (also known as "seborrheic eczema" ) is an inflammatory skin disorder affecting the scalp.and hyperalimentation In children. psychological stress. Saturated. Most amoebic abscess of the liver are in the right lobe. Malassezia furfur. 2. [edit] Nutritional hypo. A typical liver abscess develops and consists of: of the nasolabial fold. furfur. not unsaturated. although a yeast that is part of the normal skin flora. Typically. and not unsaturated FAs. and immune-system factors. . a yeast called Malassezia (formerly known as Pityrosporum ovale). [edit] Fungal [4] [4][6] and riboflavin (vitamin However. The trophozoites burrow deeper with tendency to spread laterally or continue the lysis of cells until they reach the sub-mucosa forming flash-shape ulcers. Causes The cause of seborrhoeic dermatitis remains unknown. the organ which is the frequent site of extraintestinal amoebiasis is the lungs. Interestingly. While number density of M. [edit] Secondary to other medical conditions    Central zone necrosis Median zone of stoma only An outer zone of normal tissue newly invaded by amoeba. In dandruff susceptible individuals pure OA. Trophozoites which reach the muscularis mucosa frequently erode the lymphatics or walls of the mesenteric venules in the floor of the ulcers. Malassezia furfur (formerly known as [9][10] Pityrosporum ovale). especially during times of stress or sleep [4] deprivation. and trunk. fatigue. This finding. Implications for dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis: Previously. itchy. the whole colon may be involved. histolytica has been demonstrated in practically every soft organ of the body. This is further evidenced by lard. is involved. Lack of biotin. with the skin becoming inflamed and flaking. It produces toxic substances that irritate and inflame the skin. pyridoxine (vitamin B6) [4] B2) may also be a cause. This commonly develops as an extension of the hepatic abscess. In adolescents and adults. Next to the liver. supports the following hypothesis: Malassezia hydrolyze human sebum. Seborrhoeic dermatitis (also seborrheic dermatitis AmE. Patients with seborrhoeic dermatitis appear to [citation needed] have a reduced resistance to the yeast. seborrhoeic dermatitis usually presents as scalp scaling (dandruff) or as mild to marked erythema or "redness" The condition is one of the autonomic signs of Parkinson's disease. the trophozoites in thrombi cause lytic necrosis on the wall of the vessels and digest a pathway into the lobules. change of season and reduced general health. secondary lesions maybe produced at the lower level of the large intestine. most cases of seborrhoeic dermatitis likely involve an inflammatory reaction to the proliferation of a normal skin inhabitant. From the primary site of invasion. have the opportunity to invade and produce additional ulcers. There may be several points of penetration. [11][12] environmental. They take up the required saturated FAs. coupled with previous data. leading to dandruff and seborrheic [8] dermatitis. it has been shown that: 1. restricta do not directly correlate to dandruff presence or severity. The claim that seborrhoeic dermatitis is an inflammatory response to the [13] yeast has not been proven. This barrier breach induces an irritation response. [edit] Stress Seborrhoeic dermatitis may be aggravated by illness. leaving behind unsaturated FAs. It particularly affects the sebum-gland rich areas of skin. red skin. Those afflicted with seborrhoeic dermatitis have an unfavourable epidermic response to the infection. The widely present yeast. If thrombi occur in the small branches of the portal veins. pure. which is rich in saturated triglycerides. removal correlates directly with amelioration of flaking. growth of both species was supported by saturated FAs.The metacystic trophozoites of their progenies reach the cecum and those that come in contact with the oral mucosa penetrate or invade the epithelium by lytic digestion. likely [3] plays a key role. In all cases. globosa or M. face. induces flaking in the absence of Malassezia by direct effects on the host skin barrier. flaky. The colonies increase in size and develop into abscess.

seborrheic dermatitis can cause discomfort and interfere in one's daily activities. Controlling the disorder can be done by using various medicated shampoos or creams. [20] a stubborn diaper rash accompanies the scalp rash. Many patients experience alternating periods of the symptoms. scaly skin lesions and [18] in some cases hair loss. especially inflammation and itchiness. the agent should be stopped immediately. an antifungal agent and a topical steroid. stress. behind the ears. Addressing the condition to a doctor is important in order to prevent potentially long-lasting damage to the hair follicles which may lead to hair loss. Treating seborrheic dermatitis is quite difficult to achieve given that there seem to be more than just one factor contributing to its development. but must be stopped after two weeks because of the increased frequency of side effects. yellowish crust around the hairline and on the scalp. when they either improve or suddenly worsen. the individual suspects that the skin might have become infected or they have tried self-care therapy without success. If this fails. Other symptoms include patchy scaling or thick crusts on the scalp. greasy skin covered with flaky white or yellow scales. Usually. yellowish to reddish scaly pimples appear along the hairline. Topical cortisone creams are highly effective in minimizing the symptoms of this condition. The class III topical steroid should be tried first. A thorough cleaning of the scalp is the first step to be made in preventing and curing this condition because by having a proper scalp hygiene. on the eyebrows. the bacteria and fungus are removed and the likelihood of developing a follicular inflammation is reduced. soreness and yellow or white scales that may [19] attach to the hair shaft. red. If the patient responds before the two-week limit. On [by whom?] the other hand. but the condition can be held under control with few measures. around the nose. In more rare cases. permanent [citation needed] hair loss may result. behind the ears and in areas where the skin folds. The flakes can be yellow. [17] and on the upper back. Seborrheic dermatitis can occur in infants younger than three months and it causes a thick. A sign that the condition has become more severe is the formation of thick. If severe outbreaks are untreated for extended intervals. Some creams may also be used to treat hair loss due to seborrheic dermatitis. Maintaining the scalp clean is mandatory for sufferers of seborrheic dermatitis and therefore using anti-dandruff shampoos which are effective may be one way of preventing getting this condition. For others. Also. [edit] Symptoms The condition's symptoms appear gradually and usually the first signs of seborrheic dermatitis are the flakes of skin called [15] dandruff. Commonly. it is believed that garlic ingestion can help in minimizing the fungal infection on the scalp. in the ear canal. oily. the clinician may then choose to use a class I agent. In more severe cases. because of damage to hair follicles. when it occurs in infants the condition resolves itself within days and with no treatment. but if the condition remains unresponsive. or both. Other body areas where these symptoms occur are the chest and upper back. there are several special shampoos that contain sulfur. Frequently. Adjuvant therapy including use of a dandruff shampoo. Parkinson's disease. Also. These creams are only available on prescription. oily and yellow scales which might appear on the forehead. zinc or salicylic acid. These are common sites that become red and flaky. redness and flaking may occur on the skin near the eyelashes. [edit] Treatments Dermatologist recommend topical treatments such as shampoos. It is still unclear if seborrheic dermatitis causes permanent hair loss. sebo-suppressive or keratolytic ingredients: One approach is to try different combinations of the usual agents: a dandruff shampoo. weakened immune system. symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis may last from few weeks to even years.Those with immunodeficiency (especially infection with HIV) and with neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease and stroke [14] are particularly prone to it. Some researchers claim that the yeast causing seborrheic dermatitis is the main cause of hair loss due to this condition. cleansers or creams/lotions that contain antifungal. antiinflammatory. on the forehead or around the sides of the nose. The condition is referred to a specialist when it becomes painful. The symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis can appear basically on any part of the body where there is certain amount of hair and therefore follicles which might become inflamed. These more potent agents may be applied once or twice per day. In adults. [edit] Hair loss Side effects to inflammation may include temporary hair loss. The symptoms may occur anywhere on the skin of the face. around the sides of the nose or on the skin near the eyelashes. Itching is not common among infants. [16] white or grayish. certain neurological conditions and keeping the scalp unclean. itching. extreme hot or cold weather conditions. is essential during the "pulse" period and should be continued as maintenance therapy after each pulse. [21] although the inflammation involves the hair follicles. an antifungal agent. short-term use of a more potent topical steroid in a "pulse fashion" may put some refractory patients into remission and actually decrease the total steroid exposure. on the chest. on the bridge of the nose. even on the face. patients experience mild redness. Therapeutic choices for pulse therapy may include a nonfluorinated class III steroid such as mometasone furoate (Elocon) or an extra-potent class I or class II topical steroid such as clobetasol propionate (Temovate) or fluocinonide (Lidex). [edit] Antifungal OTC Over the counter      zinc pyrithione salicylic acid selenium sulfide ketoconazole 1% climbazole . hair loss can be a result of the many other factors combined: excess oil production by the oil glands due to reasons such as hormonal imbalance.

brand name Elidel Isotretinoin (Accutane) at low dose 5 mg to 10 mg: As a last resort in refractory disease.at least every two days . [43] Monarda fistulosa [33][34] . [29] Pimecrolimus. An antifungal diet consisting of the elimination of sugar should reduce seborrheic [54][55] dermatitis. This can be accomplished with good hygiene and daily use of over-the-counter or prescription anti-fungal shampoo. Is recognised by Germany's Commission E as Monograph 195 for the treatment of Cradle Cap a form of seborrheic [37][38][39] dermatitis. but it is not advised to be used for a prolonged time. By means of a very short hair cut (more air and sun comes to the concerned areas) and through frequent hair washing . such as candida. Regular stays in the sun are beneficial to healing of the symptoms. and Head & Shoulders. Medicated Selsun Blue. The reason for this is that the UV-radiation curbs the growth of the Malassezia yeast that is suspected to be the cause of [57] the rash. [41] Avocado Extracts: AV119 & 5-alpha Avocuta. since coal tar is carcinogenic) [24] Lithium gluconate [25] Lithium succinate Vitamin B6 ointment Topical steroid: Chronic treatment with topical corticosteroids may lead to permanent atrophy and [27][28] telangiectasia of the skin. [26] Applying milk of magnesia may help clear up seborrheic dermatitis. sebosuppressive agent isotretinoin (Accutane) may be used to reduce sebaceous gland activity. [edit] Prevention A healthy scalp is the first step to preventing a flare-up. [edit] Phototherapy Dermatologists recommend the use of photodynamic therapy also known as phototherapy which uses UV-A and UV-B laser or red and blue LED light to inhibit the growth of Malassezia and reduce the [30][31][32] inflammation.the symptoms can be alleviated. also [42] known as butyl avocadate applied topically. a change in the diet should be considered given that foods rich in antioxidants and beta-carotene [citation needed] are efficient in reducing the inflammation . Honey apply diluted crude(raw)honey (90% honey diluted in warm water) every other day on the lesions with gentle rubbing for 2-3 mins. [edit] Alternative treatments [edit] Medications other than antifungals        Coal tar (can be very effective. Treatment is continued [40] for 4 weeks. one may apply on the face while showering and rinse off at the end [56] of the shower. [edit] Natural treatments       Aloe Vera applied topically [35][36] Tea tree oil: diluted to 5% applied topically Viola tricolor or Heartsease: applied topically. Also UV-radiation (especially in the winter) is recommended by doctors. However. isotretinoin has potentially serious side effects and few patients with seborrhea are appropriate candidates for therapy. Moreover. also known as Niacinamide [47][48][49][50][51][52] Zinc [44] [edit] Diet There is evidence that there is relationship between seborrheic [53] dermatitis and intestinal yeast.   Piroctone olamine Clotrimazole Sulfur [edit] Supplements        Prescription       ciclopiroxolamine sodium sulfacetamide [22] terbinafine Fluconazole Ketoconazole [23] Itraconazole Probiotics Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus [45] paracasei [46] Lactoferrin Vitamin B7 Biotin Vitamin B6 Vitamin B2 Vitamin B3: Nicotinamide. Some effective over-thecounter shampoos include: Nizoral. Honey is left on for 3 hr before gentle rinsing with warm water.