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Jamonline / 2(2); 2012 / 202–213 Research Article

Rasoul Karbalaee Shirifard et al

Journal of Atoms and Molecules
An International Online Journal
ISSN – 2277 – 1247

IMPACT OF VOLLYBALL (TEAM GAME) VERSUS AEROBIC (INDIVIDUAL EXCERCISES) IN THE MITIGATING OF THE DEPRESSION Rasoul Karbalaee Shirifard1*, Prof. Hrant Avanesyan2, Habib Honari3, Soghra Ebrahimi Ghavam Abadi4, Ashraf Asadat mirkazemi5 Philosophy and psychology department, Yerevan State University, Armenia 2 Head of General Psychology Chair, Yerevan State University, Armenia 3 Physical education department, Allameh Tabatabaei University, Republic Islamic of Iran 4 Educational Psychology department, Allameh Tabatabaei University, Republic Islamic of Iran 5 Psychology department, Shahid Beheshti University, Republic Islamic of Iran Received on: 16-04-2012 Abstract: This study investigated the influence of eight-week volleyball game versus aerobic exercise interventions in mitigating of depression in the young people. The first 51persons from100 participates who had more depression score than others were determined. Participates (M age = 20.43, N = 51) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: volleyball program, aerobic and control group. Classes met 1 hour, 3 days per week, for 8 weeks. Beck Depression inventory was used to the individuals. Pre and post-test were used to the experimental and control groups. Results were analysis with ANOVA and it revealed decreases in depression over the intervention. Both groups benefited from the physical exercise intervention and there was no difference between the two experimental groups. These findings indicate that both type of the exercise can mitigate depression and that these result are not depend on the one of the two exercises. Key Words: depression, volleyball game, aerobic exercise, young people. Introduction: * Corresponding author Rasoul Karbalaee Shirifard, Email: Tel: +37495788862 Most people, children as well as adults, feel low or `blue' occasionally. Feeling sad is a normal reaction to experiences that are stressful or upsetting. (Carr, A. (ed.) 2000)(2) Different people describe depression Revised on: 25-04-2012 Accepted on: 29–04–2012

differently, and it may not feel exactly the

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Jamonline / 2(2); 2012 / 202–213 same for any two people. Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, feelings and physical well-being. (Sandra Salmans 1997)(15) The most common time of onset is between the ages of 20 and 30 years, with a later peak between 30 and 40 years. (American Medical Network, Inc. Retrieved 2011-01-15)(12)People with mental disorders have dramatically shorter life expectancies compared with the general population,

Rasoul Karbalaee Shirifard et al activity, from aerobic exercise to qigong, can help lessen depressive symptoms (Tsang, H.W., et all, 2002) (22) Reported similar results comparing jogging and walking for inpatients with depressive and anxiety

disorders. Martinsen et al. (Martinsen EW, Hoffart A, Solberg . 1989) (13) found no significant differences between aerobic and non-aerobic forms of exercise in major depression. This study focused on those benefits which are individual psychological aspects in nature. The present investigation was designed whether physical exercise reduces the depression rates of the young people and if there is significant differences between volleyball game and aerobic in the mitigating of young people depression. Models and hypothesis explain depression: Several models psychological profit of

ranging from 3 to 30 years of life lost. (Hiroeh U,et all,2008, Colton CW, Manderscheid RW.2006)(5)(10) The magnitude of the mortality risk is 1.5–1.8-fold for depression, and 2–6-fold for alcohol and other substance use disorders. (WW, Martins SS,et all,2008, Cuijpers P, Smit F. 2002)(23) Difficulties and problems in recent decades are essential to the increase in certain disease such as, depression. Today human's life is very more complex from past tense and man spends life affected many factors. These factors can cause depression for the man to bring. Depression can be a product of biological factors, environmental, social, and genetic. The effect of exercise on depression has been the subject of research for several decades, and the literature on the subject is growing.

exercises has been raised. In 1965, Joseph Schildkraut put forth the hypothesis that depression was associated with neither low levels of nor epinephrine (Schildkraut JJ 1965) (16) and later researchers theorized that serotonin was the neurotransmitter of interest. (Coppen A 1967)(6) Endorphin hypothesis, at present, the hypothesis that endorphin is produced by exercise leads to a change of mood are to be plausible. The influence of acute exercise on psychological well-being, in particular ‘euphoria’, is caused by the release and subsequent binding of endogenous opiate, these being -endorphins to receptor sites in the brain. (Steinberg & Sykes, 1985)(21)

(ScottMG, 1960)(17) Health professionals give regular exercise a gold star for helping prevent disease, keeping off excess weight, and even spicing up that sex life. Another benefit is that different types of physical

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Jamonline / 2(2); 2012 / 202–213 Other psychological theory is Self-esteem; there are models that try to explain the relationship between self-esteem and physical exercises. These models have focused on increasing awareness of the body, strengthen the mind, increase your confidence and prosperity, enhance social relationships,

Rasoul Karbalaee Shirifard et al Participants: The young individuals (ages 17.80 to 24; M = 20.43, SD = 1.98) from 5 collages Allameh Tabatabaee University. Participants at end were 51 young people (intervention group, n _ 33; control group, n _ 18). Gender distribution was, Male students constituted 41.2% (n _ 21) and 58.8% (n _ 30) for female. Marital status was 68.6% (n_35) for singles and 21.6% (n_11) for married and a minority of the youth reported that they were divorced 9.8% and (n_5). Occupation distribution was, part-time work students constituted 35.3% (n _ 18) and 67.7% (n _ 33) for no job students. Participants were from 5 collages: Psychology 27.5% (n_14), Literature 23.5% (n_12), Management 21.6% (n_11) and for Political 11.8% (n_6) and the end was Council 15.7% (n_8). Participants were 51 young individuals and divided in 3group: Control Group18 persons, volleyball 16 persons and for aerobic program 17 persons. According to the test result, 51student of 100persons who got highest depression scores were chosen as research group. Some of research group (33) accepted as exercise group. Instrumentations: A demographic questionnaire and the Beck depression demographic inventory were used. includes The age,

reduce anxiety and depression are the benefits of physical exercise. One such model is Sonstroem's.(1978) (20) Instructions and Methods: With regard to this investigation, young students from 5 different departments in Allameh Tabatabaee university, different Faculty were used and teaching students primary(1,2 years) base with no previous training , who were accidental and evenly assigned to engage in one of two treatments for 8 weeks. Beck depression inventory and a demographic questioner were used to 100 young people. The first 51participates that had the High score of depression were assigned. Students participated in two group's test and the one group was chose as the control group. Initial test and final test was performed to two the test groups and control group. Results analyzed by ANOVA and Test groups examined in organized physical exercises such as volleyball, and aerobic. The findings indicated for the use of exercises as a strategy for improved coping with depression. Statistical of descriptive was determined for each group. For testing of the variance analysis, 0.05significance rate was chose. All rights reserved© 2011


gender, marital status, occupational status, and their collage. Volleyball playing group (volleyball game), The Volleyball program 204

Jamonline / 2(2); 2012 / 202–213 was selected because it is a team exercise which is frequently used for colleague's individuals. The Volleyball playing is

Rasoul Karbalaee Shirifard et al intervention was selected as a control without physical activity. Procedure: Measurements were conducted pre-

inexpensive and convenient, and therefore is both accessible and beneficial for almost all colleagues' individuals. The Volleyball intervention, with the participants filling out the entire tests, Beck depression inventory. Demographic data (including age, gender, occupational status, marital status, and current collage) were collected. Eventually after eight weeks of intervention, measurement was conducted, with individuals completing the entire of measures (Beck depression

playing was a team exercise program, with instructor guidance and support. Individuals assigned to the Volleyball playing

intervention were provided with a specific route. Both indoor and outdoor Volleyball playing were available. Participants were encouraged to play for as much of each 1hour session as possible, for working with

inventory). Data Analysis: Data were analyzed with SPSS software. Descriptive statistics were diagnosed for the demographic information. The first

everyone, it began with a 10minute warm-up and ended with a 10minute cool-down but to rest as 5minutes as needed at the halftime. The instructor also provided guidance about proper playing shoes and other equipment, playing volleyball form, and offered

hypothesis was examined that there is a significant difference between mean of

motivation and encouragement to the playing participants. Interaction among the volleyball group members as a whole was fostered. However, interaction between players did occur. Aerobic exercise is physical exercise of relatively low intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process. Generally, light-to-moderate intensity

experimental and control groups at the beginning of experimental research, with using analysis of variance. The second hypothesis, through analysis of variance test for independent variables were studied. This result was achieved, in the eight weeks the level of depression decreased due to physical exercise intervention in the experimental groups. The third hypothesis showed, using analysis of variance of the dependent variable, there is no significant difference between the mean of experimental groups.

activities that are sufficiently supported by aerobic metabolism can be performed for extended periods of time. (Sharon A.

Plowman; Denise L. Smith 1 June 2007)(19) A control group (non-exercise control) for the All rights reserved© 2011 205

Jamonline / 2(2); 2012 / 202–213 Results: The assessment for the pre-test and post-test control group, showed no significant

Rasoul Karbalaee Shirifard et al intervention period. Differences were

obtained, the mean score of 14.06 for the first evaluation and the average score of 7.35 for the second evaluation, in group exercise (aerobic program). With reducing the average score of the first evaluation and second evaluation, depression was reduced. There was a significant difference in depression levels of students in the experimental group (aerobic program), and this difference was significant between the first assessment and second assessment F (2, 48) =1.08, (P<0.05). It is meaningless to assume that it has emerged reduction in depression itself. The first hypothesis detected that non-significant differences would appear among mean scores for the two exercise interventions and the control group in the beginning, as a consequence of randomized assignment to the three groups. The hypothesis was tested using a multivariate analysis of variance for, depression measures at beginning. Kurtosis of the pre test groups for female was -.937 kurtosis of the pre test groups for males was .017. Box’s. Test of Equality of Covariance Matrices covariance indicated matrices that of the the observed dependent

difference in first and final average. SD for control group was 4.75 and 4.94 in 1st, 2ndmeasurements. In reviewing the status of students, did not make any difference for the control group, in the first test and second test. Then, depression rate dispersion was found normal. The minimum score obtained for the control group, for the first measurement 6 and the second measurement is 6. The rates obtained, this means there is no change in depression after 8 weeks. Initial analysis of findings of the experimental group

(volleyball), showed reduced depression in experimental group during (in pre test and post-test) the intervention period. Differences were obtained, the mean score of 16.13 for the first evaluation and the average score of 6.62 for the second evaluation, in group exercise (volleyball). With reducing the average rate of the first evaluation and second evaluation, depression significant was reduced. in There was a of



students in the experimental group volleyball, and this difference was significant between the first assessment and second assessment, F (2, 48) =1.08, (P<0.05). It is meaningless to assume that it has emerged reduction in depression itself. Initial analysis of findings of the experimental group (aerobic program), showed reduced depression in experimental group during (in pre test and post-test) the All rights reserved© 2011

variables were equal across groups. Levene’s test of equality of variances showed nonsignificant F (2, 48) =1.08 (p < .05) differences among the three groups’ variances on each of the three pretest scores, showing that variances were same. Therefore, the information appears to meet the assumptions 206

Jamonline / 2(2); 2012 / 202–213 for multivariate analysis. Thus, randomization resulted in equality of means across groups in beginning. However, because inspection of the comparisons across groups for each dependent did not reveal some differences, for depression, two the group's differences

Rasoul Karbalaee Shirifard et al important know that subjects that participated in this study had none clinical depression rate so it could a problem for our research. Maybe choosing of young people from university whereas it creates this matter and we know majority of individual in university are not clinical depression. Another of the potential criticisms of our study is that the duration of 8 weeks might be too short for the evaluation of exercise effects but this time is recognized as more minimum time that is possible and another research did this time too. In a study in 4 severely depressed women, (Doyne et all

resulted in a significant affect F (2, 48) =1.08, (P<0.05).The LSD post-hoc contrast didn’t indicate significant (p < .05) differences between the volleyball with aerobic program group means. Discussion: A 2010 US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention analysis of Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data from 2006 and 2008 found nine percent of 235,067 adults surveyed in 45 states, (defined as meeting criteria for either major depression or "other depression" during the 2 weeks preceding the survey); 3.4% met the criteria for major depression. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention October 1, 2010)(3) Andrews et all, have calculated that some 13% of the burden of depression is currently being averted. If coverage, clinician

1983)(9) showed improvements in depressive symptoms and cognitive function after 6 weeks’ training on a cycle ergo meter for 30 minutes 4 times a week. (Sexton M, Mære A, Dahl NH.1989)(18) Dishman says for people who live in prosperous societies, physical exercise is no longer considered a necessity but may represent a lifestyle choice.

(Dishman, 2001)(8) In other study examined Forty-nine female volunteers (aged 18–20 years; mean 18.8 ± 0.7 years) with mild-tomoderate depressive symptoms, as measured by the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale, were randomly assigned to either an exercise regimen or usual daily activities for 8 weeks. The findings of this study suggest that a group jogging exercise may be effective in

competence and compliance were optimal and the health service delivery and financing issues no barrier, we further calculated that only 36% of the burden could be averted using current interventions and knowledge. Thus, it would appear that 64% of the burden of major depression cannot be averted. This is a situation in which effective prevention can be critical. (Andrews et all, 2000)(1) It is All rights reserved© 2011





response to stress and physiological fitness of adolescent females with depressive 207

Jamonline / 2(2); 2012 / 202–213 symptoms. (Chanudda Nabkasorn et al

Rasoul Karbalaee Shirifard et al evaluate their effectiveness. (NICE2006)(14) Although it has been suggested by others that frequent aerobic exercise may be an effective treatment for depression in clinical settings, there appears to be no adequately controlled experimental demonstration of this effect on a patient sample. These findings indicate that the aerobic program intervention was not in its way inherently different than the other exercise group. Conclusion: If this study will be conducted with larger groups, it will explore more robust statistical results. Post-hoc analysis did not show some differences between exercises groups, and it may not be that the aerobic and volleyball intervention was different from the other. Research in other age groups, can reveal more angles. In addition, the research can help the tendency of all people to exercise and physical training. Second, the demographic information concerning the participants of this study indicated that the sample included in the population. We have to notify to sport psychology and exercises activities then it needs to publish more articles about that matter. We must increase our information and know about young people and exercises activity that youth can become benefit from it. Acknowledgments: This study was made with best supports of sara keshtgar Ph.D that is teacher in Allameh tabatabaee, Physical education department 208

2004)(4) A systematic review and subsequent randomized controlled trials show consistent positive effects of yoga on anxiety disorders compared with placebo in flawed, small studies. (Kirkwood this G, Rampes et al, three



hypotheses were tested. The first hypothesis detected no significant differences between groups at first. It was proposed in the second hypothesis that the two exercise interventions would be significantly more effective in reducing depression than would the control group. And the third hypotheses didn’t detect different mean between aerobic program and volleyball. It was hypothesized that each variable would demonstrate significant by group interaction effects. It was proposed that all two exercise interventions would show a stronger effect over the course of the eight weeks than the control (non-active control) group. This hypothesis was confirmed for depression. In one study Martinsen et al. (Martinsen EW, Hoffart A, Solberg Ø. 1989) (13) found no significant differences between aerobic and non-aerobic forms of exercise in major depression. It is important know that Doyne and colleges (Doyne EJ, 1987) (9) found no significant differences between running and weight lifting in the treatment of clinical depression. In other research NICE concluded that there was insufficient evidence to recommend Exercise Referral Schemes other than as part of research studies to

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Jamonline / 2(2); 2012 / 202–213 and we thanks from Ashraf Asadat Mirkazemi in making and providing of data from students. Here I have thanks from all of students that help us to making this research. This article would try to increase awareness of the need to exercise. We can do more research of interest in exercise and sport and encourage people to exercise and sport. The results be summarized this way; the physical exercise that omitted depression founded in students descended continuous depression, effectively. Then we observed negative relation at physical exercise and depression. These findings indicate that both type of the exercise can mitigate depression and that these result are not depend on the one of the two exercises. References: 1 Andrews, G. (2001) should depression be managed as a chronic disease? BMJ, 322, 419-421 2 Carr, A. (ed.) (2000)'What Works with Children and Adolescents?' - A Critical Review of Psychological Interventions with Children, Adolescents and their Families. London: Brunner-Routledge. 3 Centers for Disease Control and 9 8 7 6 5

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hormones and physiological fitness in adolescent females with depressive

symptoms, Received September 1, 2004. Colton CW, in Manderscheid increased RW.



rates, years of potential life lost, and causes of death among public mental health clients in eight states. Prev Chronic Dis 2006; 3: A42. Coppen A (1967) The biochemistry of affective disorders. Br J Psychiatry 113: 1237–1264. Cuijpers P, Smit F. Excess mortality in depression: a meta-analysis of

community studies. J Affect Disord 2002; 72: 227–36. Dishman, R. K. (2001). The problem of exercise adherence: Fighting sloth in nations with market economies. Quest, 53,279-294. Doyne, E. J., Chambless, D. L., Beutler, L. E. (1983). Aerobic exercise as a treatment for depression in women. Behavior Therapy, 14, 434-40. 10 Hiroeh U, Kapur N, Webb R, Dunn G, Mortensen PB, Appleby L. Deaths from natural causes in people with mental illness: a cohort study. J Psychosom Res 2008; 64: 275–83. 11 Kirkwood G, Rampes H, Tuffrey V, Richardson J, Pilkington K. Yoga for anxiety: a systematic review of the

Prevention (CDC) (October 1, 2010). "Current Depression Among Adults— United States, 2006 and 2008". MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 59 (38): 1229– 35. PMID 20881934 4 Chanudda Nabkasorn et al ( 2004) Effects of physical exercise on

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Jamonline / 2(2); 2012 / 202–213 research evidence. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39(12):884–891. 12 "Major Depressive Disorder". American Medical Network, Inc..

Rasoul Karbalaee Shirifard et al 18 Sexton M, Mære A, Dahl NH. Exercise intensity and reduction in neurotic

symptoms. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1989; /80:/231_5. 19 Sharon A. Plowman; Denise L. Smith (1 June 2007). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 61Retrieved 13 October 2011. 20 Sonstroem, R. J. (1978) Physical Retrieved 2011-0115. 13 Martinsen EW, Hoffart A, Solberg. Comparing aerobic and non-aerobic

forms of exercise in the treatment of clinical depression: A randomized trial. Compare Psychiatry 1989;/3:/324_31. 14 NICE (2006) National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Four commonly used methods to increase physical activity: brief interventions in primary care, exercise referral schemes, pedometers and community based

estimation and attraction scales: rationale and research. Medicine and Science in Sports, 10, 97–102. 21 Steinberg, H. & Sykes, E. A. (1985) Introduction to symposium on

endorphins and behavioural processes: a review of literature on endorphins and exercise. Pharmacology Biochemistry

and Behaviour, 23, 857–862. 22 Tsang, H.W., Cheung, L., Lak, D.C., et al. Department of Rehabilitation

exercise programmes for walking and cycling. www.nice/org/ uk/PH1002. PH002 physical activity.pdf, 2006. 15 Sandra Salmans (1997). Depression: questions you have - answers you need. People's Medical Society. ISBN

Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong. International Journal of Geriatric

Psychiatry, 2002 Dec;17(12):1146-54. 23 WW, Martins SS, Nestadt G, Bienvenu OJ, Clarke D, Alexandre P. The burden of mental disorders. Epidemiol Rev 2008; 30: 1–14.

9781882606146. 16 Schildkraut JJ (1965) The catecholamine hypothesis of affective disorders: A review of supporting evidence. J

Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 7: 524– 533. 17 ScottMG .The contributions of physical activity to psychological

development.Res Q1960; 31:307–320.

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Jamonline / 2(2); 2012 / 202–213 Tables:

Rasoul Karbalaee Shirifard et al

Statistics N: 51 Mean Median Mode Std. Deviation Minimum Maximum 17.80 Occupation status 24 Collage Part-time Work None job Psychology Literature Management Political Council 18 33 14 12 11 6 8 35.3 64.7 27.5 23.5 21.6 11.8 15.7 Age 20.43 20 19 Marital Status 1.98 Married Divorced 11 5 21.6 9.8 Gender Female Male Single 30 21 35 58.8 41.2 68.6 Factor Category F %

Table1 Participants’ (N = 51) Demographics 3 Groups Groups Control group volleyball Aerobic Total F 18 16 17 52 % 35.3 31.4 33.3 100.0

Table 2 shows these dispersion 3 groups All rights reserved© 2011 211

Jamonline / 2(2); 2012 / 202–213

Rasoul Karbalaee Shirifard et al

Investigation Female Group Number % control Group Exercise Group TOTAL 20 10



Number %

Number % 100,0

55.6 8

44.4 18

60.6 13

39.4 33




Table 3 The dispersion of Investigation gender group

Statistical Indicators Mathematical Mean Standard Error

Pre-test 14.11 1.20

Post-test 15.11 1.16

Standard Deviation Variance Minimum rate Maximum rate ANOVA2.Measurements.

4.75 22.57 6 22 F(2,48)=1.08

4.94 24.45 6 23 P < 0.05

Table 4 The statistical indicators of control group BECK:

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Jamonline / 2(2); 2012 / 202–213

Rasoul Karbalaee Shirifard et al

Statistical Indicators Mathematical Mean Standard Error Standard Deviation

1.BECK 16.13 1.00 4.03

2.BECK 6.62 .49 1.99

variance Minimum rate Maximum rate ANOVA2.Measurements.

18.49 9 23 F(2,48)=1.08

3.96 3 10 P <0.05

Table 5 Findings of exercise group (volleyball) 1. 2. Assessment:

Statistical Indicators Mathematical Mean Standard Error Standard Deviation variance Minimum rate Maximum rate ANOVA 2.Measurements.

1. BECK 14.06 1.19 4.91 24.18 7 22 F (2, 48) =1.08

2.BECK 7.35 .911 3.75 14.11 2 15 P <0.05

Table 6 Findings of exercise group (Aerobic) 1. 2. Assessment.

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