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Jamonline / 2(2); 2012 / 6–13 Review Article

Madhu Babu K & Bikshal Babu K

Journal of Atoms and Molecules
An International Online Journal
ISSN – 2277 – 1247

A REVIEW ON BRAZILIAN PEPPER PLANT: SCHINUS MOLLE Madhu Babu Kasimala1*, Bikshal Babu Kasimala2, Department of Allied Sciences, College of Marine Science and Technology, Massawa, Eritrea. 2 QC department. RV labs, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India. Received on: 11-03-2012 Revised on: 01-04-2012 Accepted on: 16–04–2012

Introduction: Schinus molle L. (Anacardiaceae), also known as Brazilian pepper tree, is a tree which is short and has thin, long leaves and it is often used in subtropical climates for landscaping. Schinus spp. has been traditionally used as medicine by indigenous people throughout the tropics (Erazo et al., 2006). Recent research show that extracts obtained from S. molle can be used as an analgesic (painreliever), anti-inflammatory and anti-tumorous agent (Yueqin et al., 2003; Diaz et al., 2008). It also possesses potent antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, insecticidal and repellent properties (Dikshit et al., 1986; Chopa et al., 2006; Ferrero and Gonzales, 2006; Ferrero et al, 2007; Padin et al., 2007).

Taxonomy: Kingdom : Plantae

Subkingdom : Tracheobionta * Corresponding author Madhu Babu K, Email: Tel: 00291 – 7251105 Superdivision : Spermatophyta Division Class Subclass Order Family Genus Species : Magnoliophyta : Magnoliopsida : Rosidae : Sapindales : Anacardiaceae : Schinus : Schinus molle L.

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Jamonline / 2(2); 2012 / 6–13

Madhu Babu K & Bikshal Babu K

S.molle plant

Bark of S.molle

Pinnate leaf of S.molle

Fruits of S.molle

ripened fruits of S.molle

dry fruits of S.molle

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Jamonline / 2(2); 2012 / 6–13 Schinus molle is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries (Huerta et al., 2010). It is widely spread outside their original geographical ranges, grows in North and Central America, Africa, Middle East and is cultivated around Mediterranean in

Madhu Babu K & Bikshal Babu K has a sweet taste and contains aromatic oils. There are one or two seeds per fruit. Seeds are 2-4 mm in diameter, round, brown-black, furrowed when dry. There are 30,000-40,000 seeds per kg. Distribution and habitat The area of natural distribution is the Andes region, mainly Peru. It is found at altitudes up to 3900 MSL, in areas with 300-700 mm rain/year. It tolerates high temperatures and once established it is extremely drought resistant; it is resistant to frost but not for long periods. A fast growing pioneer species is typically found in roadsides and on

Southern Europe. In Argentina, it is widely used as an urban tree because of its resistance to pollution, easy and economical spread and little need for irrigation. (Chamorro et al). It is an evergreen tree with weeping foliage, usually grow up to 6-8 m tall, on good sites up to 15 m; trunk is short with dark brown, deeply fissured and flaking bark, when the bark is damaged it exude a sticky latex. Leaves are compound with pinnate

agricultural lands. It grows well on stony sites and slopes. Prefers sandy, well-drained soils but is tolerant to most soil types and also to salinity and alkalinity. Introduced to Central and North America, Europe and Africa and in some places it has become naturalised. (Orwa et al; 2009) Local names: Amharic (qundo berbere); Arabic (felfelkazib, filfilrafie); English (pepper tree, California pepper tree, Chilean pepper tree, mastic tree, molle, pepper berry tree, weeping pepper, Peruvian mastic, pink pepper,

arrangement and 15-30 cm long, with 15-41 leaflets; leaflets are yellowish-green, 2-5 cm long, lanceolate with entire or serrate margins. The leaves have a peppery smell when crushed. Flowers are unisexual, small and pale yellow, in 10-15 cm long panicles. Female and male flower grows normally on different trees, within the area of natural distribution flowering occurs in September to December and fruits are ripe in DecemberJanuary. In East Africa fruits are collected in March. All fruits do not mature at the same time and within a cluster the fruits will often be at different stages of maturity. (Orwa et al; 2009) Fruits are small, round drupes, 5-9 mm in diameter, bright red when mature, later turning black. The pulp is thin and leathery; it All rights reserved© 2011

Peruvian pepper tree); French (faux Poivrier du Perou, poivre rosé); German

(Brasilianischer pfeffer, rosé-pfeffer, rosa pfeffer, Peruanischer pfeffer); Italian (Albero del pepe, Pepe del Peru,Schino); Spanish (pirul, pimienta, arveira); Swahili (mpilipili); 8

Jamonline / 2(2); 2012 / 6–13 Swedish (rosépeppar); Tigrigna (bereberetselim, berbere-tselim).(Orwa et al; 2009) Pharmacology Pharmacological studies carried out with extracts from Schinus molle showed that this plant has hypotensive (Bello et al., 1996), antitumoral (Diaz et al., 2008), antifungal (Schmourlo et al., 2005), antibacterial (Erazo et al., 2006), anti-inflammatory (Yueqin et al., 2003), analgesic (Barrachina et al., 1997), and antidepressant (Machado et al., 2007) properties, but there is no evidence of any effect against plant pathogens. Methanol extracts of the different species of Schinus showed an inhibitory effect on conidial germination of Fusarium solani. Leaf extracts of Schinus showed a high level of

Madhu Babu K & Bikshal Babu K The oil of S. molle was the most effective, inhibiting the animal pathogens completely and exhibiting moderate activity against the storage fungi. The minimum fungistatic concentrations of S. molle oil were 300, 200, and 200 ppm against M. gypseum, T. mentagrophytes, and T. rubrum, respectively. The minimum fungicidal concentrations were 900 ppm against T. mentagrophytes and 400 ppm against T. rubrum. M. gypseum was completely resistant to the fungicidal action of S. molle oil, even at concentrations of 900 ppm. The minimum fungistatic concentrations of S. molle oil were 60, 75, and 55 times more active against M. gypseum, T.

mentagrophytes, and T. rubrum, respectively, when compared with Multifungin. In terms of minimum fungicidal concentrations, S. molle oil was 125 times more effective than Multifungin against T. rubrum and 55.5 times more effective against T. mentagrophytes . Physicochemical properties of the oil were determined. Of 50 components resolved by gas-liquid chromatography, 14 were found above 1% (vol/vol); however, only 10 components could be identified. (Dikshit et al; 1986); (Deveci et al 2010). Insect Repellence: Leaves are an insect repellents. All materials showed repellency in varying degrees against Oriental cockroach ( Blatta orientalis). All the doses of essential oils of S.molle were found to be more effective, while the fruit oils and leaf extracts were not effective. (Deveci et al,

antimicrobial effect against the bacterial strains and the best results were obtained with S. molle against Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Bacillus subtilis (Rhouma et al., 2009). Leaf juice is used to treat ophthalmia and rheumatism; a bark extract infusion is used for diarrhoea, and resin of the bark is a dangerous purgative. Other known medicinal properties of the tree include using it as an astringent, a balsamic, diuretic, expectorant, masticatory, stomachic, tonic and vulnerary. The ailments it is known to treat include amenorrhoea, bronchitis, gingivitis,

gonorrhoea, gout, tuberculosis, tumour, ulcer, urethritis, wart, wounds, and urogenital and venereal diseases. (Orwa et al; 2009)

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Jamonline / 2(2); 2012 / 6–13 2010). The essential oils of ripe fruit has high repellency and leaf extracts of S.molle do not have repellency against German cockroach (Chopa et al, 2006). Essential oil: The plant extracts and essential oils can be obtained from different parts like leaves, unripe fruits and ripe fruits. Essential oil of leaf contained 24 components; mainly deltacadinene (11.28%) and alpha-cadinol

Madhu Babu K & Bikshal Babu K

Fig. 1. Chromatogram of essential oil from

(10.77%) Germacrene D (20.77%) and Betaceryophyllene (13.48%).(Deveci et al 2010). The composition may differ by season and the region that the plant material was collected. (Abdel-sattar, 2010). The major components identified in the essential oil of S. molle of Resistencia city were α- pinene (11.5%), βpinene (14.71%), limonene (9.17%), αocimene (3.1%), germacrene D (3.6%), γcadinene (6.9%), δ-cadinene (4.9%) and epibicyclosesquiphelandrene (18.6%), as shown in the Figure 1. However, the composition of these oils differ in their main components compared to data reported from other sources, such as Liguria (Italy), whose main Schinus molle. Components: α-pinene (1), βpinene (2), limonene (3), α-ocimene (4), germacrene D (5), γ-cadinene (6), δ-cadinene (7) and epibyciclosesquiphelandrene

(18.6%).(Chamorro et al.,). Poisonous nature of plant: The hanging strings of little pink berries of this attractive ornamental tree are reputed to be moderately poisonous, particularly the seed.. The pollen, on contact or when inhaled, can cause dermatitis and asthmatic reactions. The tree also has antimicrobial, antifungal, piscicidal and viricidal properties. (Orwa et al; 2009) Wood Heart wood is a dull, light red, deepening upon exposure and becoming more or less purplish and rather oily looking; the specific gravity (air – dry) is 0.54 – 0.68, it is very easy to work and durability is high. Wood is termite resistance and therefore suitable for 10

components are α-phellandrene (30%) and elemol (13.25%) (Maffei & Chialvo, 1990), Uruguay with 30% of Biciclogermacreno (Menendez et al., 1996), state of Rio Grande do Sul in southern Brazil with 40% of limonene (Barroso et al., 2011) and Santa Fe (Argentina) whose major component is limonene (40%) (Guala et al., 2009).

(Chamorro et al.,) All rights reserved© 2011

Jamonline / 2(2); 2012 / 6–13 posts. Bark is used as tanning of skin. (Orwa et al; 2009). The degree of solubility of the wood of S. molle in ethanol is comparatively low and the content of extractible substances of the wood of S. molle, 7.3%, is relatively low in comparison with the species that have been used in the pulp industries. (Rutiaga; 2001). The content of holocellulose 67.3% and lignin is 22.2%, inorganic material 3.2%, in the wood of S. molle (Mejia Diaz and Rutiaga Quinoes ; 2008) Conclusion: Schinus molle contains anti microbial activity. It controls many microorganisms which are pathogenic in nature. It is also used for the repellent of certain insects. It contains many natural products in its essential oils. The further research can be carried out by isolation and identification of the natural products, quantitative and qualitative studies of the natural products present in the essential oils of the Schinus molle. Acknowledgement: The authors are extending their gratitude to Dr. P.Ashok Kumar, Department of Marine Biotechnology, College of Marine Science and Technology, Massawa, Eritrea for his help in the collection of literature. References: 1 Abdel-Sattar E, Zaitoun AA, Farag MA, Gayed SH, Harraz FMH (2010). 6 5 4 3 2

Madhu Babu K & Bikshal Babu K leaf and fruit essential oils against Tragoderma granarium and Tribolium castaneum. Nat.Prod. Res., 24(3): 226235. Barroso, M. S. T.; Villanueva, G.; Lucas, A. M.; Perez, G. P.; Vargas, R. M. F.; Brun, G. W. and Cassel, E.; (2011). Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Volatile and Non-Volatile Compoundsfrom

Schinus molle L. Brazilian J. Chem. Engineering. 28:305–312. Chamorro ER, Zambon SN, Morales WG, Morales WG, Sequeira AF, Velasco GA. Study of the chemical composition of Essential oils by Gas Chromatography. Nat. Tech University, Argentina. 15: 307-324. Chopa CS, Alzogaray RA, Ferrero AA (2006). Repellency Assays with Schinus molle Essential germanica var. areira(L)(Anacardiaceae) Oils against Blattella Blatellidae).


BioAssay,1(6). Deveci O, Suka A, Tuzun N, Kocabas EHE (2010). Chemical Composition, repellent and antimicrobial activity of Schinus molle L.. J. Med.plants Res. 4(21): 2211-2216. Diaz C, Quesada S, Brenes O, Aguilar G, Ciccio JF (2008). Chemical composition of Schinus mole essential oil and its cytotoxic activity on tumour cell lines. Nat.Prod.Res., 22(17): 1521-1534.

Chemical composition, insecticidal and insect repellent activity of Schinus molle All rights reserved© 2011 11

Jamonline / 2(2); 2012 / 6–13 7 Dikshit A, Naqvi AA, Husain A (1986). Schinus molle: a new source of natural fungitoxicant. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 51(5): 1085 – 88. 8 Erazo S, Delporte C, Negrete R, Garcia R, Zaldivar M, Ittura G, Caballero E, Lopez JL, Backhouse N (2006).

Madhu Babu K & Bikshal Babu K 2007. Antidepressant-like effect of the extract from leaves of Schinus molle L. in mice: Evidence for the involvement of the monoaminergic system. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology Biological Psychiatry 31: 421-428. 14 Maffei, M. and Chialva, F.; (1990). Essential oil from Schinus molle L. berries and leaves. Flav. Fragr. J., 5, 4952. 15 Mejia Diaz LA and Rutiaga Quinoes JG (2008). Chemical Composition of and

Constituents and biological activities of Schinus polugamus. J. Ethnopharmacol., 107(3):395-400. 9 Ferrero AA, Chopa CS, Gonzalez JOW, Alzogaray RA (2007). Repellence and Toxicity of Schinus molle Extracts on Blatella germanica. Fitoterpia.,

Schinus molle L. wood and kraft pulping process. Revista Mexicana de Ingenieria Quimica; 7(2) 145 – 149. 16 Menendez, P.; Dellacassa, E. and Moyna, P.; (1996). Essential Oils from Leaves of Schinus molle and Schinus lentiscifolius J. Essent. Oil Res., 8, 71-73. 17 Mondragón-Noguez, V.S., Rutiaga-

78(4):311-314. 10 Ferrero AA, Gonzalez JOW , Chopa CS (2006). Biological activity of Schinus molle on Triatoma infestans. Fititerapia , 77(5): 381-383. 11 Guala, M. S.; Elder, H. V.; Perez, G. y Chiesa, A.; (2009). Evaluación del Poder Antioxidante de Fracciones de Aceite

Quiñones, J.G. y López-Urquiza, M.E. (2002). Análisis químico de la madera de tepehuaje. IV Congreso Mexicano de Tecnología de Productos Forestales. Guadalajara, México. Memorias pp 5758. 18 Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindy R, Jamnadass R, Simons A (2009). Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. 19 Padin EV, Pose GN, Pollio ML(2007). Antibacterial activity of Oleoresin from Aguaribay (Schinus molle L.). J.

Esencial Crudo de Schinus molle L. obtenidas por Destilación al Vacío. Información Tecnológica. 20(2):83-88. 12 Huerta A, Chiffelle I, Puga K, Azua F, Araya JE.,(2010). Toxicology and

repellence of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from Scinus molle on elm leaf beetle Xanthogaleruca. Crop Protect. 29 , 1118-1123. 13 Machado D.G., Kaster M.P., Binfaré R., Dias M., Santos A.R.S., Pizzolatti M.G., Brighente I.M.C., Rodrigues A.L.S.,

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Jamonline / 2(2); 2012 / 6–13 20 Ramos-Pantaleón, D., Rutiaga-Quiñones, J.G. y Ochoa-Ruiz, H.G. (2003).

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Contenido de extraíbles en la madera de parota. VI Congreso Mexicano de

Recursos Forestales. San Luis Potosí, México. Memorias, pp 289- 290. 21 Rhouma A, Ben Daoud H, Ghanmi S, Ben Salah H, Romdhane M, Demak M(2009). Antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts of Pistacia and Schinus species against some plant pathogenic fungi and bacteria. J. Of Plant Pathol., 91(2): 339 – 345. 22 Yuequin Z, Recio MC, Manez S, Giner RM, Cerda-Nicolas M, Rios JL(2003). Isolation of teo titerpinoids and a biflavanone with anti-Inflammatory

activity from Schinus molle fruits. Planta. Med., 69(10): 893-898.

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