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Railway reservation system

by Nishi Sahlot (0924013022) Subham Bansal(09240130) Shehzad Khan(09240130)

Submitted to the Department of Information Technology in partial fulfillment of requirements for Project of Bachelor of Technology In IT, VI Sem

Sunderdeep Group of Institutions G.B. Technical University April,2012

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Declaration
I hereby declare that this submission is my own work and that, to the best of my knowledge and belief, it contains no material previously published or written by another person nor material which to a substantial extent has been accepted for the award of any other degree or diploma of the university or other institute of higher learning, except where due acknowledgement has been made in text.

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Railway Reservation System

Certificate
This is to certify that the work which is being presented in the project report entitled “Railway Reservation System”is an authentic report of work carried out under the super vision of MR.Mahesh Kumar Sharma as the project head in Sunderdeep group of Institutions by the students named Nishi Sahlot,Subham Bansal,shehzad Khan I here by certify that above statement made by the candidates is correct to the best of my knowledge.

Mr.Mahesh Kumar Sharma

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And I would also like to appreciate the effort of my whole team for working as a team and their spectacular efferts which make this project to be possible easily.Railway Reservation System Acknowledgement Finally as the report has been completed I thereby acknowledge the contribution of some people probably without whose work this project would not have been at all what it meant to be actually.timelysuggestions. 4 . Mahesh kumar Sharma who’s teaching. First of all I would like to acknowledge the contribution of our projet supervisior Mr.well guideline and keen interest coupled with easy accessibility was a great help while making this project.And the internet and books were also very helpful.

Software Platform b. Limitations c.RequirementSpecification 4. Testing i. Current system b. Requirement analysis b.INTRODUCTION a.SYSTEMDEVELOPMENT LIFECYCLE 3.CONCLUSION a. E-R Diagram 5.IMPLEMENTATION a.Railway Reservation System Table Of Contents 1. Hardware Platform ii.DESIGN a. Implementation c. Modules identified c. Database Design i. Important Features b. System Flow Diagram b.ANALYSIS a. Platform Used i. TestingTechnique used 6. Future Work 5 . Need ofproposed system 2.

Introduction Abstract In this emerging world of computers all most all manual system automatedand computerizedbutmaximumofthemaresocomplexandacommonuserisunabletoo peratethatsoftwaresystem. 6 .Wespecifically propsway to computerize theadministrationandengineeringofficesofIndian RailwayOnline. Thisprojectexploreshowcomputertechnologycanbeusedtosolvethe problemof user.Ahighspeedcommunicationnetworkneedstobedevelopedforint erconnectingthe offices ofrailways. This samecommunication network can be used to providehighspeedinternet connectiontothepublicandleasoutnetworkcapacitytointernet serviceproviders.Wearedevelopingthe“OnlineRailwayReservationS ystem”tomodelthepresentsystemandtoremovethedrawbacks.

User friendly.Forthe reservationofthe ticketapersongototicketcounteroftherailwayreservationofficeand expenditsvaluabletimeinstandingqueue.Nowtosavethattimewe haveafacilityofOnlineReservationnowwecanbookcancelorsearch other train information just by click on computer.Thelongdistanceroadnetworkisverypoorlydeveloped inmost partsofIndia. To enhance the efficiency and diversification of services activities. Interactive graphical user interface.1CurrentSystem Indiaisthe7thlargestcountryintermsofgeographicalsize. Effective utilization of available resource.The efficiencyoftherailwaywillincrease resultofcomputerizationduetodramatic reductionincommunication timeamonggeographicallydispersedoffices.Introduction 1.Thereforeformsabackbone ofpublictransportinIndia.2Needofproposedsystem To reduce complexity of existing system. time Thescopeofprojectdefinetheprojectfeasibilitythetechnology. 1.Effective management of time.Railway reservation system 1. simple and error free.Bulkoflongdistancetrafficiscarriedbythe IndianRailwayasaresultIndianrailways.This means there is a need for efficient means for long distance transportation. and resources best define in technology weather the 7 . finance . To make work easy.

defectscanbereduced intheprojectandupwhichlevelfinancially. weathertheoverallprojectcostisaffordable. 8 .Timedescribetheweather theprojectionfinishingpointwillbeachieve ontimeorbeforetime resources required should be available at the rate of cost and time.

2.This is usually a scaled-down system. which can help in developing a cost effective project are analyzed and strategies to use them are decided.alsoknownasthespirallifecyclemodel. 3.The system requirements are defined in as much detail as possible.A firstprototype of the new system is constructed from the preliminary design. expensive. prototyping maybe used to proceed with the available data and find out possible solution in order to deal with the potential changes in the requirements. This usually involves interviewing a number of users representing all the external or internal users and other aspects of the existing system. and 9 .Thespiralmodelisfavoredforlarge. The steps in the spiral model iteration can be generalized as follows: 1. It is a software development strategythat encompassestheprocess.A preliminary design is created for the new system.isa systemsdevelopmentlifecyclemodelusedininformationtechnology(IT).This phase has been added specially in order to identify and resolve all the possible risks in the project development. In this phase all possible (and available) alternatives.2SpiralModel Thespiralmodel. development phase and supportphase.methodsandtoolslayersplus the generic phases namely definitionphase. and complicated projects.Aprocessmodelis chosen basedonthenatureofthe project and application. If risksindicate any kind of uncertainty in requirements. Thismodelof developmentcombinesthefeaturesoftheprototyping modelandthewaterfall model.This phase is the most important part of "Spiral Model".1Definition Asoftwareprocessmodelorasoftwareengineeringisanabstract representation ofa software process. the methods and tools to be used and the controls and deliverables that are required.Systemdevelopmentlifecycle 2. 2.

3.Evaluating the first prototype in terms ofits strengths.Planning and designing the second prototype. 4. and risks.RailwayReservationSystem representsan approximation of the characteristics of the final product.A second prototype is evolved by a fourfold procedure: 1.Constructing and testing the second prototype. weaknesses. 2. 4. Spiral Model:- 10 .Defining the requirements of the second prototype.

Itprovides the appropriate mechanism for understanding what the customerwants.e. Atlast. indicates software‟sinterfaceconstraints. Requirement Analysisis a task done under software engineering and software design. specifying the solution unambiguously.negotiating a solution. function. functional and behavioral domains. function and behavior that can be convertedtodata.oncethe software has been built.databehavior.assessingfeasibility.wecansaythattherequirementspecificationmakesavailable.1 REQUIREMENTANALYSIS: Requirementsareafeatureofasystemordescriptionofsomething that is capable of doing in order to fulfill the system‟spurpose. thedeveloperandthecustomer.Moreover.ameans toassessquality. requirementsanalysisletthesoftwareengineer(calledanalysis)torefinethesoft ware allocation and construct models of data.analyzingtheneeds. While requirements engineering specifiessoftware‟soperationalcharacteristics i.Analysis 3. Softwarerequirementsanalysiscanbecategorizedintofourareas effort.interfaceandcomponent-leveldesigns. as followsEvaluation and synthesis Modeling Specification Review of 11 . validating the specificationandmanagingtherequirementsastheyaretranslatedinto an operational system.3.requirementsanalysisprovidessoftwaredeveloper with a representation of data.architectural.

Itincludesa setofusecasethatdescribesalltheinteractionsthattheuserswillhave with the software.e. Afterevaluatingthecurrentproblemsanddesiredinformation(i.Once establishingthisinformation. Duringtheevaluationandsynthesisactivity.processingfunctionsandthesystem behavioraredefinedindetail. 3. functionalprocessing. 12 . inputand output).soastoensureproblemrecognition.Thereasonbehind is recognize the basic problem elements perceived by customer.theanalystcreates thesystem modelsoastobetterunderstanddataandcontrolflow.thedataobjects.usedtogenerate planningestimate. or design constraints).operationalbehaviorandtheinformationcontent.Itisthenimportanttounderstandthesoftwarein asystemcontext. The model provides a base for software design and the creation of specifications for the software.isnecessary.Hemustevaluatethecontentandflowof information.communicationforanalysismust beestablished.theengineerandanalystsynthesizingoneormore solutions.thereviewofthesoftwarescope.RailwayReservationSystem Theanalyststartswiththestudiesofsystemspecificationandthe softwareprojectplan.Next. quality standards.Thusthe processofevaluationandsynthesisproceedsuntilbothanalystandthe customer are sure that software can be adequately specified for subsequent development steps.Theengineer(oranalyst)mustdefinealldataobjects thatareextremelyobservable.Also. Use cases are also known as Functional Requirements..Initially.anduncover additional design constraints.Also. Non-Functional Requirementsare requirements which impose constraints on the design or implementation (such as performance requirements.establishthecharacteristicsofsystem interface.hemust defineanddescribeallsoftwarefunctions. to Thenextmajorareaofeffortforanalysis isproblemevaluationand solutionsynthesis.2 REQUIREMENTSPECIFICATION: A Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is acomplete descriptionofthebehaviorofthesystemtobedeveloped.the analystthenconsidersbasicarchitecturesforimplementation. understand software behavior in the context of the system affected events.

or it may be discovered through elicitation sessions with users. correct unambiguous. stakeholders and other experts within the organization. a functional requirement defines a functionofasoftware-systemorcomponent. 13 . However. Software requirements must beclear.whichmustbeaclearandreadabledescriptionoftherequired behavior.Thisinformationisusedto helpthereaderunderstandwhytherequirementisneeded.Functionalrequirementsmaybe calculations.2.thebehaviorandoutputs.Thisbehaviormaycomefromorganizationalorbusinessrule. Atypicalfunctionalrequirementwillcontainauniquenameand number.andarationale.abriefsummary.1FUNCTIONALREQUIREMENTS: In software engineering. a requirements analyst generates functional requirements after building use cases. the Thecoreoftherequirementisthedescriptionoftherequired behavior.andtotrack requirement through the development of the system. specific and verifiable.RailwayReservationSystem 3.Afunctionisdescribedasa setofinputs. Both artifacts (use cases documents and requirements documents) complement each other in a bidirectional process. Typically.datamanipulationandprocessingand other specific functionality that show how a use case to be fulfilled.technical details. this may have exceptions sincesoftware development is an iterative process and sometime certain requirements are conceived prior to the definition of the use case.

shape.Evolution qualities.e. 2. Purpose Inputs adescription of the functional requirement its reason(s) whataretheinput.areobservable at runtime. “qualitygoals”and “quality of service requirements” .rangeofparametersintheoutput. such as extensibilityand scalability. Nonfunctionalrequirementsareoften calledqualitiesofasystem. ”qualityattributes”.non-functional requirementscanbedividedinto2main categories: 1.i.2. 14 .Executionqualities.output timing.suchassecurityandusability.fromwhat sourcescantheinputcome.Other terms for non-functional requirements are “constraints”.non-functional requirementsarerequirementswhichspecifycriteriathatcanbeusedto judge theoperation of system.inwhatformwilltheyarrive.exacttimingof eachoperation(ifneeded).descriptionandvolumeofoutput. process by which the output is stored or destroyed.whatarethelegaldomainsof each input Describesthe outcome rather than the implementation.Qualities.howtohandleunexpectedor abnormal situations Theform. embody in thestatic structure of the software system.unitmeasureof the output.2NONFUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS: Insystemsengineeringandrequirementsengineering. rather than specific behaviors.processforhandlingerrormessageproducedas output Processing Outputs 3. The nonfunctional requirements in our projects are:Time:The project should be completed within the stipulated time period. includesanyvaliditychecksonthedata.RailwayReservationSystem DetailedDescription of Functional Requirements: Template fordescribingfunctional requirements.

typicallypeople. 3. butcouldbeothersystemsordevicesaslongaslongastheyare outside the system being specified. RELATIONSHIPS: Relationships betweenactors or between use cases.Use casesarestudiedtodeterminewhatobjectsarerequiredtoaccomplish them and how they interact with other objects.RailwayReservationSystem Cost:The cost involved in marketing theproject should be less. 3. Eachcaseisatransactionorsequenceofeventsperformedbyuser.1GOALS OF USECASEANALYSIS: Designsystemfromuser‟sperspective.3. a “completethought” or end-to- 3.2CHARACTEISTICS OF USE-CASEANALYSIS: USE-CASE:The specific ways in which the system is used. CONNECTIONS:Connections from actors to use cases.3SOMEKEY COMPONENTS OF USE CASEANALYSIS: ACTORS:Entitiesthatuseorareusedbysystem. 3. as this system will interact with user. Usability:This requirementis present.Communi catesystembehavior in user‟sterms. Performance:It should be fast enough to produce the output. 15 .3.3USECASEANALYSIS: UseCase Analysisis an object-oriented method for designing informationsystemsbybreakingdownrequirementsintouserfunctions.3. Reliability:This system must be highly robust. Each usecase expresses endtransaction.

Anactormaybeaperson.It shouldbe writteninverb-nounformat.or time.anothersystem.4.representedasasequenceofsimplesteps.e. 16 .4. 3.Anindividualintherealworldcanberepresentedbyseveral actors if they have different roles and goals in regards to a system.Abriefly describes what the user intends to achieve with this use case.4. 3.Actorsaresomethingor someonewhichexistsoutsidethesystemunderstudy.orhardwaredevices.shoulddescribeanachievable goalandshouldbe sufficientfortheendusertounderstandwhatthe use case is about.ifthestatedescribesinthe preconditions.Usecasesdescribetheinteraction betweenaprimaryactor-theinitiatoroftheinteraction-andthesystem itself. Eachusecaseisa completeseriesofevents. (i.4.toachieve somegoal:theymaybeendusers.3ACTORS: Anactorissomeoneorsomethingoutsidethesystemthateither actsonthe system-aprimaryactor–orisactedonbythesystem-a secondaryactor. The usecase techniqueisusedin softwareandsystemengineeringtocapturethe functionalrequirementsofasystem.Actorsrepresentthedifferentrolesthatsomethingoutsidehasin itsrelationshipwiththesystemwhosefunctionalrequirementsarebeing specified.othersystems.andthat takes partinasequenceofactivitiesinadialoguewithasystem.Thereisnoneedforause casewhen thereisnoneedforanyactortoachieveagoal.4USECASEDIAGRAM: Auseis adescriptionof asystem‟sbehaviorasit respondsto arequest that originates from outside of that system.. 3.4PRECONDITIONS: Apreconditionssectiondefinesalltheconditionthatmustbetrue describesthestateofthesystem)forthetriggertomeaningfully causetheinitiationoftheusecase. the behavior of the use case is indeterminate.1USECASENAME: Ausecasenameprovidesuniqueidentifiersfortheusecase.Thatis.adevice. 3.describesfromthepoint view of the actor.RailwayReservationSystem 3.2GOAL: Withoutagoalausecaseisuseless.

5POSTCONDITION: Thepostconditionssectiondescribeswhatthechangeinthestate ofthe systemwillbeaftertheusecasecompletes.RailwayReservationSystem 3. SIMPLEUSECASEDIAGRAMFORONLINERAILWAYRESERVARION SYSTEM: USER REQUEST FOR BOOKING TICKET REQUEST FOR TICKET CANCELATION REQUEST FOR OTHER QUERY SYSTEM ADMINISTRATOR VALIDATEUSER VIEWTRANSACTION 17 .Postconditionsare guaranteed to be true when the use case ends.4.

A passengerasausermayplayoneorthreeroles. would lead us to an identificationofuse case? Tableshowstheresultoftheprocessof identifying theuse case. the counterclerkandthereservationandticketingsystem(R&Tsystem).i. reservation and ticketing system. in turn.passenger. users are the passenger. Which.counter clerk.e.RailwayReservationSystem 3.whichwouldleadusto identify the roles played. Table showsthe result of the process of identifyingtheusecase.5USECASEDIAGRAM DESCRIPTION: In theticket reservation system.letustakethepassenger(auserofsystem). Takeeachuserand identifytherolesplayed. 18 .

as intheillustration.RailwayReservationSystem 4.1SYSTEMFLOWDIAGRAM: ASystemFlowDiagram(SFD)showstherelationshipbetweenthe. inaformthatiseasytoreadandcommunicate.mustbetaken. it is first necessary to understand its operationindetail.Theflowchartisa simple mapping tool that shows the sequence of actions within a process.DESIGN 4. Processbecomesmorecomplexwhendecisionsmustbemadeon which.whereindividualstepsaremoreeasilyseen. the In order to improvea process. majorcomponentsinthesystem. 19 .Thisalsoshowstheboxesforprocessstartandend points of which there are normally one each.Thestepsinaprocessareshownwithsymbolic shapes.Itisasystematicrepresentationofan algorithmoraprocess.outofanalternativesetofaction.The mappingof„whatfollowswhat‟ isshownwitharrowsbetweensequentialactionboxes.Thedecisionis showninaflowchart asadiamondshapedboxcontainingasimple question to which the answer is yes or no.andtheflowoftheprocessisindicatedwitharrowsconnecting symbols.Describingthisintextlackstheclarityofapictorial diagram.

RailwayReservationSystem PASSENGER PROCESS RESERVATON ADMINISTRATOR CHACK DATABASE PROCESS CANCELLATION CANCELATION AUTHORITY DATABSE CHECK STATUS ENQUIRY AUTHORITY DATABSE 20 .

Gowiththemainflowi.Note each successive action concisely and clearly.Make cross reference to supporting information.e.choosethemost important alternative to continue flowcharting with.Followtheprocessthroughtoausefulconclusion(endatatarget point).e. 3.Describe the process to be charted and to givea chart the title.Start witha triggereventi. and the resulting complexitythreatens tooverwhelmtheexercise. 5. 2. 21 .beginstodrawdiagrambyfirst describing the event which initiatesthe process.RailwayReservationSystem Hereare6stepswhichcanbeusedasaguideforcompletingflow diagrams: 1. 4. 6.whenwereachapointatwhichthe flowchart branches into a numberof alternatives.

RailwayReservationSystem SYSTEMFLOWCHART: START USER NAME&PASSWORD IFVALID GOBACK ENTER LOCATION Respondto Request AndTicket Booked EndUser Respond to Request and Ticket Cancel CUSTOMER -1 CUSTOMER-2 CUSTOMER-3 22 .

RailwayReservationSystem COMPLEX FLOWCHARTFORORRSDECISION CONTROL: Start InputUser Name Compareittovaliduserlist MaintainedatServer Yes Is User Valid No Wantto Logout Yes Deny Login No EntertheTrainName. Source&Destination Logout Stop Is Train Available X 23 .no.

RailwayReservationSystem X Is User Authorized Access Denied EntertheOperationto Be Performed Is Option Reservati onof Ticket Yes No BookTicket Is Option Cancelof Ticket No Yes CancelTicket Y 24 .

RailwayReservationSystem Y Yes Is Option Other Information No Give Information AskWhatYouWant 25 .

RailwayReservationSystem SystemUser Request Server ServerResponse LEVEL1DFD OFORRS 26 .

RailwayReservationSystem Userand Password SystemUser UserValidation File Request Servicesto User Server Response LEVEL2DFD OFORRS 27 .

DESTINATION RailwayReservationSystem RUNNING_DAY SOURCE TRAIN TRAIN_NO TRAIN_NAME 1_AC 2_AC BELONG_TO TRAVELS TATION TRAVEL DATE DISTANCE SECOND _CLASS CHARGE FARE DISTANCE BELONG_TO SLEEPER TRAIN_NO CLASS TIME RESRVATION SEAT FIRST_CLASS STATUS DATE_OF_JRNY PNR_NO. SOURCE PASSENGER_DTL 28 .

1PlatformUsed 5.RailwayReservationSystem 5.Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 BackEnd: .2 SoftwarePlatform: OperatingSystem:.Windows Xp FrontEnd: .1.Sql Server 2005 29 .1HardwarePlatform: Clientside: Processor:166 MHz or above RAM:64 MB HardDisk Space: 100 MB Serverside: Processor:166 MHz or above RAM:64 MB HardDisk Space: 300 MB 5. IMPLEMENTATION 5.1.

2 ImplementationLevelDetails: Databasetable being used is: Fieldname PNR_Number Source Destination Data type Numeric Varchar VarcharTr ain_name VarcharTr ain_number VarcharD eparture_from_source VarcharAr rival_at_destination VarcharD ate_of_journy Name_of_passenger Sex Age Address Nvarchar Telephone_number Numeric 30 Numeric Char Char Numeric .RailwayReservationSystem 1.

Class Distance Seat_no. Varchar Numeric Numeric 31 .

3Testing: Softwaretestingisacriticalphaseofsoftwarequalityassurance.Unittestingis mostoftendonebytheprogrammerhimself/herself.it affords several benefits.Thegoal of Unittestingistoisolateeachpartoftheprogramandshowthat the individual parts are correct.e.notthewholesoftwaresystem. andthecodingphaseissometimescalled “codingandunittestingphase”. 2.wherethe program isactuallycompiledandexecuted.Oncesourcecodehasbeengenerated. 3.Agoodtestcaseshouldhaveahighprobabilityoffindinganas.Testingemphasizesonasetofmethodsforthecreationoftest cases that fulfill overall testing objectives.Atestcasewillbeconsideredsuccessfulifituncoversanas-yetundiscoverederror.Thegoalofunittestingis to testmodulesor “units”.1TESTINGTECHNIQUEUSED: 1.UNIT TESTING:Unittestingaimstheverificationeffortonthesmallestunit of softwaredesigni.Ituses procedural designasaguidetotestmajorcontrolpathsand uncovererrorswithin themoduleboundary.Railway ReservationSystem 5. A unittest provides a strict. 5.ItisaWhitebox orientedandthestepcanbe conductedinparallelformultiple components. 32 . design and code generation.3. Unittestingisadynamicmethodforverification.softwaremustbe testedto uncoverandcorrectmaximumpossibleerrors.It indicates the ultimate review of specification.yetundiscoverederror. writtencontractthatthepieceofcodemustsatisfy.asoftwarecomponentormodule.beforebeing delivered.Testing is a process of executing a program to find an error in it..Itisoneofthemost widelyusedmethods.Asaresult. The primary objectives of software testingare as follows: 1.

33 .e.Itiscalledvalidation testing. 3. when combined.afinalseriesofsoftware testMaybeing.In itallthebottomorlowlevelmodules.Thismethodhelpstodetermine thelevelsofsoftwaredevelopmentand makeseasiertoreport testing progress in the form of a percentage.Onemodulecan haveaninadvertent. The major objective of integration testing is to tackle the problem of integrationi.subfunctions.Atthis time.puttingallthemodulestogether.INTEGRATIONTESTING:Integrationtestingisaphaseofsoftwaretestinginwhich individual software modules are combined and tested as a group. Validation attemptsto uncover errors.softwareisdevelopedas apackage havingalltheerrorsuncoveredandcorrected. globaldatastructurecancauseproblemsandtotruncatethislist of problems we use integration testing. Validation succeeds when software function in a reasonably expectablemanner.VALIDATIONTESTING:Attheclimaxofintegrationtesting.It follows snit testing and precedes system testing. the things that will be immediately apparent to the customer.thenextlevelofmodules will be formed and can be used for integration testing.proceduresor functions are integrated and then tested. may not be magnified to unacceptable levels. This approachishelpfulonlywhenallormostofthe modulesofthe samedevelopmentlevelareready. but the emphasis is on the requirements level i. IntegrationtestingstrategyusedisBottom-UpIntegration Testing. adverse effecton another.e.RailwayReservationSystem 2. After the integration testingoflowerlevelintegrationmodules.

Anotherlimitationofourprojectisthatinthissoftwareand requirement is high comparison of existing system. CONCLUSION 6. 2.Useof thecomputershassolvedmanyproblems. 6.Real time transfer of the file with minimum time delay.RailwayReservationSystem 6.3 FUTUREENHANCEMENT: 1. 6. 1. 2. 3.Searching an efficient security package and studying its usage.Recordsof client activities can be maintained. 3. This is not the end but beginning of the versatile.Themostsignificantlimitationofoverprojectisitsdependency overthe serverbecauseofthiswhenisfailthenwholeworkistobe stopped.Anotherenhancementwouldbetoaddmoremodulestocoverall information off the system.Response timeof the system mayvary because of variable network speed. This is the one which is 34 . efficient and outsourcing railway reservation system. hardware 6.Extra and user defined security needs can be employed during request and response. 2.Enablingthemultiuserenvironmentandsimultaneoususageof files.4 CONCLUSION: Ratherthandesigningmanuallywehavemadeuseofcomputeras oncethatdata‟sareinput it performsaccurate function.whicharefacedwhilemanual calculation. Thereisno chanceoffaultormiscalculationifthedataarefeededcorrectly.1 LIMITATIONOFTHEPROJECT: 1.2DIFICULTIESENCOUNTERED: Thereweremanydifficultiesthatcame in ourwayin theprocess of development of this real time project some of them are illustrated below. 3.

RailwayReservationSystem compatibletoalloperatingsystem.Bymakingthisweprojectwemade footsteptowardsthepathofprogressofplatformindependent reservation system. small railway 35 .

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