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Mechanism of thermal spraying are:  Filler material are wires and powder.  The droplet which hit the subtract do not form a weld pool but solidity individually. There are cavitations and oxides between them.  The deposit stick to the surface mainly by mechanical forces but also by adhesion, diffusion and local solid state welding. The surface of the subtract must be clean and rough.  The droplet or particles which are semi molten are propelled by a gas on the surface of the subtract.  The subtract is not fused and there is no dilution of the filler material by the subtract.  The wire are melted to droplet, the particles of the powder are melted to droplet or only at their surface by an oxyacetylene flame or arc.

The substrate is not fused and there is no dilution because the substrate is heated only up to 150oC (for thick part), maybe 250oC for thinner parts. With low temperature appear the base metal not be melted. 10. Applications of thermal spraying !

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Corrosion resistant deposit : The most important application is arc spraying of Zn and Al on steel (e.g for steel bridge). Scaling resistant deposit : e.g the piston of a press for forging. Sliding deposit : e.g Al bronze.

Electricity conducting deposits : e.g Cu on graphite electrodes for arc furnaces (steel mill). Insulating deposit : e.g flame spraying of Al2O powder on SA welding nozzle to prevent short circuit in deep groove. 12. Tabel). 13. a. b. Comparison of plasma and flame spraying ! (Lihat Describe of : Surface preparation Removal of porosity :

2. Why can parts in their final be surfaced by thermal spraying without distortion : because the subtract is heated only up to 1500C (for thick parts), maybe 2500C for the thinner parts. There for parts in their final form can be sprayed without distortion. 

Scaling of the pores by plastics. Melting of thermal spray deposit


Machining : Turning, Milling, Grinding.


3. Gas powder surfacing  Principle is a special burner for oxyacetylene with the hopper for a powder is used. The powder is fed by the acetylene to the nozzle and the surface of the subtract. The distance between the nozzle and surface is very low (5-20 mm) and the flame melts the powder on the surface. Special alloys of the Ni-B-Si type are used.


Application is the process is specially suited for surfacing of small areas edge, or bend areas like ventilator blades or extrusion screws. Wire flame spraying Principle is wire of diameter 3 to 5 mm are fed to the center of an oxyacetylene torch, melted in the flame and the droplets propelled by compressed air to the substrate. The wire feed speed must be adjusted to the power of the flame. The relation of the volumes of oxygen to acetylene is decisive for the melting rate, the size and the oxidation of the droplets and should be 1 (to 1.2). the distance between the torch and the substrate is about 100-200 mm. noise is high (>100dB) and a lot droplets are lost. Powder flame spraying Principle is powder from a hopper is fed by a part of the oxygen to the central nozzle bore. The particles of the powder are melted and propelled by the expanding gases of the flame. The optimal ratio of oxygen to acetylene is the same as for wire flame spraying. Arc spraying Principle is two wire are fed together at an angle of 30o to 60o. They are melted by an arc burning between the two wire. Direct current is applied; therefore the melting rate and the droplet size is different for the two wires. The droplets are propelled by compressed air to the substrate. The deposition rate is much higher than which flame spraying. By the higher temperature of the arc the droplets achieve also a higher temperature and a higher strength of the deposit. Plasma spraying Principle is in plasma spraying the plasma arc burns between the tungsten electrode and a water cooled copper nozzle. The plasma gas is Ar or Ar+H2 or Ar+N2 or N2+H2. It is heated by the plasma arc up to 1500OC expand therefore very much and melts and propels the surfacing powder with va very high velocity (600 m/s) to the substrate. The deposit are therefore very tight. How should the surface of the base metal be prepared for thermal spraying?

a. Type of bonding : deposit and substrate The deposit sticks to the substrate mainly by mechanical force but also by adhesion, diffusion and local solid state welding. b. How oxide and porosity influence hardness of deposit :  The porosity in the deposit amounts between 0.5 – 10 %. Deposit with a porosity upper limit cause have a lower strength and hardness decrease.  The oxide make the droplet which heat the substrate do not form that mean the hardness at surface material not be done to increase.





The fresh metallic clean surface. This is necessary for all thermal spraying process. At artificial rough surface. This is necessary e.g for flame spraying point. There are three method to prepare a rough surface : by rough, by sand blasting and by grinding. Spraying of a 0.1–0.2 mm thick intermediate layer of Mo or 80% Ni + 20% Al. This is advantageous e.g for flame spraying. 9. Thermal spaying : what thickness have a deposit ? This is done with deposit which need a higher strength.  Here surfacing with deposit of some 0.1 to 3 mm Is there dilution by base metal