Part V

Solar Energy
Electrical characteristic of Silicon
PV cells and modules
 When the resistance is infinite, the current in the circuit is
zero and the voltage across the cell is at its maximum, known
as open circuit voltage (Voc).
 When the resistance is zero, the cells is in effect “short-
circuited” and the current reaches its maximum, known as
short-circuit current (Isc).
PV cell connected to variable resistance, with
ammeter and voltmeter to measure variation in
current and voltage as resistance varies.
Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics
 If we varies the load resistance between zero and infinity, the
current (I) and voltage (V) will be found to vary as shown I-V
curve.
 The power output is zero at Voc and at Isc.
 Between these points it rises and falls so there is one point at
which the cell delivers maximum power.
 This maximum power point on I-V curve.
V
I (mA)
0.6
0.4 0.2
–20
0
V
oc
–10
I
sc
= –I
ph
V'
The Load Line for R = 30 ž
(I-V for the load)
I-V for a solar cell under an
illumination of 600 Wm
-2
.
Operating Point
Slope = –
1
/
R
P
I'
(a) When a solar cell drives a load R, R has the same voltage as the solar cell
but the current through it is in the opposite direction to the convention that
current flows from high to low potential. (b) The current I' and voltage V' in
the circuit of (a) can be found from a load line construction. Point P is the
operating point (I', V'). The load line is for R = 30 ž .
Light
I
R
V
I
(a)
(b)
© 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)
V
I (mA)
0.6
0.4 0.2
–20
0
V
oc
–10
I
sc
= –I
ph
V'
The Load Line for R = 30 ž
(I-V for the load)
I-V for a solar cell under an
illumination of 600 Wm
-2
.
Operating Point
Slope = –
1
/
R
P
I'
(a) When a solar cell drives a load R, R has the same voltage as the solar cell
but the current through it is in the opposite direction to the convention that
current flows from high to low potential. (b) The current I' and voltage V' in
the circuit of (a) can be found from a load line construction. Point P is the
operating point (I', V'). The load line is for R = 30 ž .
Light
I
R
V
I
(a)
(b)
© 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)
Operating point of the circuit
 The current and voltage in the solar cell circuit are most
easily found by using a load line construction.
 I-V characteristics of the load is a straight line with a negative
slope –1/R.
 This is called load line
 The load line cuts the solar cell characteristic at P.
 At P, the load and the solar cell have the same current I’ and
voltage V’.
 Point P represents the operating point of the circuit.
Power curve for a solar cell
 The power (P) produced by a solar cell is the product of the
voltage and the current for the particular operating
characteristics: P=IV
 P is zero when either I or V are zero.
 This occurs at I
sc
, (when V = 0) and V
oc
(when I = 0).
 If we plot power on the I-V axes we can see how power varies
in between the two extremes.
 Maximum power (P
mp
) is produced when V = V
mp
at which
point the current is I
mp
.
 This is known as the maximum power point (MPP).
 It is important to ensure that solar cells operate at or near the
point of maximum power.
Power curve for a solar cell
Power
 The power delivered to the load is P
out
= I’V’
 Which is the area of the rectangle bound by I- and V- axes
 Maximum power is delivered to the load when this
rectangular are is maximized when I’=I
m
& V’=V
m
 By either changing R or the intensity of illumination.
 Since the maximum possible current is I
sc
and the
maximum possible voltage is V
oc
, I
sc
V
oc
represents the
desirable goal in power delivery for a given solar cell.
Fill Factor
 To compare the maximum power output I
m
V
m
with
I
sc
V
oc
, the fill factor FF, which is a figure of merit for the
solar cell, is defined as
FF = I
m
V
m
/(I
sc
V
oc
)
 FF is a measure of the closeness of the solar cell I-V curve to the
rectangular shape.
 It is advantageous to have FF as close to unity as possible at the
exponential p-n junction properties prevent this
 Typical FF values are in the range 70-85%
Design of a Photovoltaic System
 Solar cells may be connected in series, parallel or both to
obtain the required voltage and current.
 Cells are connected to form modules, modules are connected
to form panels, panels are connected to form arrays.
Solar modules in series
 If the solar modules PV
1
and PV
2
are nominally 12 V each and with
a current capability of
I
1
= I
2
= 3.5A,
then the output voltage from
both modules that appear across
resistance R will be the sum of
the individual voltages from the
PV modules,
PV
T
= 24 V
12 V + 12 V = 24 V
but the current IT will be as for
one module,
I
1
= I
2
= I
T
= 3.5A
Solar modules in parallel
 If the solar panels are nominally
PV
1
= PV
2
=12 V
each and with a current
capability of
I
1
= I
2
= 3.5 A
respectively,
 then the output of the circuit
will be
PV
T
=12 V
at a total current of
I
T
= 3.5 A + 3.5 A = 7 A
Combination series/parallel circuits
 An array of 2 parallel strings
with 2 modules in series in each
string is shown.
 Assuming the same values as in
the previous examples, this solar
array has an output voltage of:
12 V+ 12 V = 24 V
 An output current of
3.5 A + 3.5 A = 7 A
Example 1: Solar Energy Conversion
Suppose that a particular family house in a sunny geographic location
over a year consumes a daily average electrical power of 500 W. If the
annual average solar intensity incident per day is about 6 kWhm
–2
, and
a photovoltaic device that converts solar energy to electrical energy
has an efficiency of 15%, what is the required device area?
Since we know the average light intensity incident,
Total energy available for 1 day = Incident solar energy in 1 day per unit
area ×Area × Efficiency,
Which must equal to the average energy consumed per house in 1
day. Thus,
( )
3.65m. 3.65m panel a or 3 . 13
15 . 0 min/ 60 min / 60 10 6
24 min/ 60 min / 60 500
Efficiency area unit per energy solar Incident
house per Enegy
Area
2
1 2 6
× =
× × × · · ×
× × ×
=
×
=
÷ ÷
m
hr s day m hr W
hrs hr s W
Example 2
An application requires 300 W at 28 V. Design a PV panel using solar
cells with V
m
= 0.542 V and I
m
= 0.1143 A each with an area of 6
cm
2
.
V
m
= 0.542 V and I
m
=0.1143 A
Power/cell = 0.542V × 0.1143 A=0.062 W
Number of cell required = 300 W/(0.062 W/cell) = 4840
Number of cells in series = System Voltage/Voltage per cell
= 28 V/0.542 V = 52
Number of rows of 52 cells connected in parallel = 4840/52 ~ 93.1
Since the number of rows must be a whole number, we may increase the
number to 94 rows which will give 303 W output.
Factors which effect the
performance of solar cells
 The critical factors that effect the power output of a solar
cells are
 temperature and
 irradiance.
Temperature Effect
 The output voltage and the efficiency of a solar cell increases
with decreasing temperature
 Solar cells operate best at lower temperature.
 Assuming n = 1, at two different temperature T
1
and T
2
but
at the same illumination level
V
oc2
= V
oc1
(T
2
/T
1
) + E
g
/e(1– T
2
/T
1
)
 where the subscripts 1 and 2 refer to the temperature T
1
or T
2
respectively
 For example, a silicon solar cell that has V
oc1
= 0.55 V at 20
°C (T
1
= 293 K) will have V
oc2
at 60°C (T
2
= 333 K) given by
V
oc2
= (0.55 V)(333/293)+(1.1 V)(1 – 333/293) = 0.475 V
Temperature Effect (cont.)
 As the temperature of a solar cell increases the open circuit
voltage V
oc
decreases but the short circuit current I
sc
increases
marginally.
 The combined effect is a decrease in power
 As a rule of thumb, for crystalline silicon cell the output power
changes 0.5 % for every 1 °C variation in temperature.
 The voltage decreases while there is a very slight increase in
current with the increasing temperature. This change in voltage is
at a very similar percentage to that of the power, that is
approximately 0.5 % for every 1 °C variation in temperature.
Variation of characteristics with
temperature
Nominal operating cell temperature
 The temperature at which solar cells are rated is 25 °C. However,
under normal operating conditions the temperature is generally
higher than the ambient temperature and therefore higher than the
standard test cell temperature of 25 °C.
 Standard test conditions (STC) give the conditions under which all
cells can be compared but nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT)
gives a better indication of what output to expect from the cell
under normal operating conditions.
 Please note that cells can still operate at temperatures higher than
NOCT and typically can be 25 °C above ambient temperature,
depending on cell technology, solar module design and mounting
techniques.
Irradiance effect
 As the irradiance varies
 There is an almost linear variation of the short circuit current.
 The open circuit voltage, however, does not change dramatically,
it increases slightly.
 The graph assumes that the cell temperature is constant ie.
unaffected by the differing irradiance.
Voltage.
 Because the voltage remains reasonably constant under
varying irradiance solar cells are well suited for use as
battery chargers
Variation of characteristics with
irradiance
PV system sizing
 If meeting the load at all times is not critical, PV systems are
usually sized based on the average values of energy and power
needed, available solar radiation and component efficiencies.
 This is known as the heuristic approach
 It is important to note that this approach will not give the best
design but may provide a good start for a detailed design.
Design for remote photovoltaic
applications
 Photovoltaic power may be ideal for a remote application
requiring a few watts to hundreds of kW of electrical power.
 The design of a PV system is based on some basic
considerations for the application
 Which is more important, the daily energy output or the power
(average or peak)?
 Is a backup energy source needed and/or available?
 Is energy storage important? What type- battery, pumped water
etc?
 Is the power needed as AC or DC? What voltage?
Design for remote photovoltaic
applications (cont.)
There are three basic steps in the design of a PV system:
1. Estimation of load and load profile
2. Estimation of available solar radiation
3. Design of PV system, including area of PV panels, selection
of other components and electrical system schematic.
Example 3: Daily load calculation
Load Load Power (W) Run time (hours/day)
Charge controller 2.0 8
Data gathering 4.0 3
Modem (standby) 1.5 22.5
Modem (send/receive) 30.0 1.5
Daily load calculations. How much energy per day is used by a
remote weather station given the following load characteristics?
Daily energy = (2.0W)(8h) + (4.0W)(3h)+(1.5W)(22.5h) + (30W)(1.5h)
= 106.75 Wh
Daily energy use is about 107 Wh per day
Example 4
Heuristic approach to PV system sizing. A PV system using
50W, 12V panels with 6V, 125A-hour batteries is needed to
power a house with a daily load of 1700 W-hour. System
voltage is 24V. There are an average of 5 daylight hours.
Specify the collector and storage values for the system using the
heuristic approach.
 3 days of storage is required.
 Assuming a battery efficiency of 75 % and a maximum depth of
discharge 70 %
Example 4 (cont.)
Load=1700 Wh/day
Daylight hours = 5 hours/day
Average panel output = 50W
Number of panels = 1700Wh/day ÷ (5 hour/day × 50 W/panel)
= 6.8, round off to 7 panels
Since the system voltage is 24 V, but each panel produces only 12 V
and even number of panels will be needed.
Therefore number of panels =8.
Example 4 (cont.)
Given 3 days of storage, a battery efficiency = 75% and a maximum
depth of discharge 70% ,
Storage = 1700 ×3/(0.75 × 0.7)
= 9714 Wh
Num of batteries= (9714 Wh)/(125 Ah × 6 V)
= 13 (Rounded off to the next whole number)
Since the system voltage is 24V and each battery provides 6V the
number of batteries is increased to 16. In a detailed design, the
efficiency of battery storage, inverter and the balance of system
must be accounted for.
Example 5: load calculation
 An owner of a remote cabin wants to install a PV power
system. The load in the home are described as follow. Assume
all lights and electronics are powered by AC.
Lights (AC) 4, 23 W compact fluorescent bulbs On at night for 5 hours
Lights (AC) 6, 13 W compact fluorescent bulbs 2 hours each (day time)
Stereo (AC) 110 W (amplifier), 15 W (other) On for 8 hours per week
Water pump (DC) 55W (3.75A start current, 24V) Run for 2hours per day
Computer (AC) 250W (monitor included) On for 1 ½ hours daily
(weekend nights only)
Bathroom fan (DC) 40 W (3.5A start current, 24V) On for 1 hour per day
Microwave (AC) 550 W (AC) – 1000W surge On for 30 minutes per day
Example 5 (cont.)
Using the cabin electrical system with average DC load
150Wh/day and average AC load 1124 Wh/day, calculate the
overall system efficiency for each operating mode possible
for the system.
Estimate the amount of energy required per day for the system.
When the load timing (day or night), assume half of the load
runs during the day and half runs at night.
The inverter used has a component efficiency of 91%, the
battery efficiency is 76%, and the distribution system
efficiency is 96%.
Example 5 (cont.)
Load name Power (W) Run time (hours) Energy (Wh)
Average Peak Day Week Day Week
Lights (AC) 4×23 4×23 5.0 35 460 3220
Lights (AC) 6×13 6×13 2.0 14 156 1092
Stereo (AC) 1×110 1×110 - 8 - 880
Water pump
(DC)
1×55 3.75A
×24V
2.0 14 110 770
Computer
(AC)
1×250 1×250 1.5 3 - 750
Bathroom
fan (DC)
1×40 3.5A
×24V
1.0 7 40 280
Microwave
(AC)
1×550 1×1000 0.5 3.5 275 1925
Example 5 (cont.)
Average DC load: (770+280)/7 = 150 Wh/day
Average DC load is 150 Wh/day
Average AC load: (3220+1092+880+750+1925)/7 = 1124
Wh/day
Average AC load is 1124 Wh/day
The various system efficiencies are:
 PV to load (DC): 0.96 (day, DC)
 Battery to load (DC): (0.76)(0.96) = 0.73 (night, DC)
 PV to load (AC): (0.96)(0.91)= 0.874 (day, AC)
 Battery to load (AC): (0.76)(0.91)(0.96) = 0.664 (night/AC)
Example 5 (cont.)
Day (DC): (0.5)(110)+(0.5)(40) = 75 Wh/day
Night (DC): (0.5)(110)+(0.5)(40) = 75 Wh/day
Day (AC): (156) + (0.5)(880+750)/7 + (0.5)(275) = 409.9 Wh/day
Night (AC): (460) + (0.5)(880+750)/7 + (0.5)(275) = 713.9 Wh/day
Without considering system efficiency, the daily energy requirement is
E
day
= (150) + (1124)
= 1274 Wh/day
The expected daily energy requirement is
E
day
= (75)/(0.96) + (75)/(0.73) + (409.9)/(0.874) + (713.9)/(0.664)
= 1725 Wh/day
The actual energy requirement is 35% higher than simple calculation

Electrical characteristic of Silicon PV cells and modules
 When the resistance is infinite, the current in the circuit is

zero and the voltage across the cell is at its maximum, known as open circuit voltage (Voc).  When the resistance is zero, the cells is in effect “shortcircuited” and the current reaches its maximum, known as short-circuit current (Isc).

PV cell connected to variable resistance, with ammeter and voltmeter to measure variation in current and voltage as resistance varies.

.  Between these points it rises and falls so there is one point at which the cell delivers maximum power.Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics  If we varies the load resistance between zero and infinity.  The power output is zero at Voc and at Isc.  This maximum power point on I-V curve. the current (I) and voltage (V) will be found to vary as shown I-V curve.

I (mA) I (mA) 0 Light Light I V 0 V 0. The load line is for R = 30 ž . © 1999 S. operating point (I. Kasap.4 I-V for a solar cell under an illuminationI-V600 a solar.2 0. R has the same voltage that but the current through it is in the opposite direction to the convention as the solar cell but from high to low potential. of The load found from = 30 ž . Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall) .2 Voc V Voc 0. Point P is the point (I.6 V I V –10 0. Point I and voltage V in operatingthe circuitV). V). (b) The current P is the the circuit of (a) can befrom high to a load line construction.O. cell un of for Wm-2 illumination of 600 W I R I R Isc= –Iph I = –I ph sc –20 P (b) Operating Point Operating Point The Load Line for R = 30 ž The Load Line for (I-V for the load) P (I-V for the load) –20 (b) (a) (a) (a) When a solar cell drives a load R. Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall) © 1999 S. Kasap.6 0. (b) The current I and the convention current flowsthe current through it is in the opposite direction tovoltage V in that current flows found from low potential. R has the same voltage as the solar cell (a) When a solar cell drives a load R.4 V Slope = – 1/R Slope = – 1/R –10 I I 0.(a) can be line is for R a load line construction.O.

 At P. .  This is called load line  The load line cuts the solar cell characteristic at P. the load and the solar cell have the same current I’ and voltage V’.  I-V characteristics of the load is a straight line with a negative slope –1/R.Operating point of the circuit  The current and voltage in the solar cell circuit are most easily found by using a load line construction.  Point P represents the operating point of the circuit.

Power curve for a solar cell  The power (P) produced by a solar cell is the product of the voltage and the current for the particular operating characteristics: P=IV  P is zero when either I or V are zero. in between the two extremes. (when V = 0) and Voc (when I = 0). .  It is important to ensure that solar cells operate at or near the point of maximum power.  This is known as the maximum power point (MPP).  If we plot power on the I-V axes we can see how power varies  This occurs at Isc.  Maximum power (Pmp) is produced when V = Vmp at which point the current is Imp.

Power curve for a solar cell .

axes  Maximum power is delivered to the load when this  By either changing R or the intensity of illumination.and V.Power  The power delivered to the load is Pout= I’V’  Which is the area of the rectangle bound by I. rectangular are is maximized when I’=Im & V’=Vm maximum possible voltage is Voc. IscVoc represents the desirable goal in power delivery for a given solar cell.  Since the maximum possible current is Isc and the .

which is a figure of merit for the solar cell.Fill Factor  To compare the maximum power output ImVm with IscVoc. is defined as FF = ImVm/(IscVoc)  FF is a measure of the closeness of the solar cell I-V curve to the rectangular shape. the fill factor FF.  It is advantageous to have FF as close to unity as possible at the exponential p-n junction properties prevent this  Typical FF values are in the range 70-85% .

. panels are connected to form arrays. parallel or both to obtain the required voltage and current.Design of a Photovoltaic System  Solar cells may be connected in series.  Cells are connected to form modules. modules are connected to form panels.

5A .5A. then the output voltage from both modules that appear across resistance R will be the sum of the individual voltages from the PV modules. PVT = 24 V 12 V + 12 V = 24 V but the current IT will be as for one module. I1= I2 = IT = 3.Solar modules in series  If the solar modules PV1 and PV2 are nominally 12 V each and with a current capability of I1= I2= 3.

Solar modules in parallel  If the solar panels are nominally PV1 = PV2 =12 V each and with a current capability of I1= I2= 3.  then the output of the circuit will be PVT =12 V at a total current of IT = 3.5 A respectively.5 A = 7 A .5 A + 3.

 Assuming the same values as in the previous examples. this solar array has an output voltage of: 12 V+ 12 V = 24 V  An output current of 3.5 A + 3.Combination series/parallel circuits  An array of 2 parallel strings with 2 modules in series in each string is shown.5 A = 7 A .

Total energy available for 1 day = Incident solar energy in 1 day per unit area  Area  Efficiency.65m  3. and a photovoltaic device that converts solar energy to electrical energy has an efficiency of 15%.65m.15    13. Thus. Which must equal to the average energy consumed per house in 1 Enegy per house day.3m 2 or a panel 3. If the annual average solar intensity incident per day is about 6 kWhm–2.Example 1: Solar Energy Conversion Suppose that a particular family house in a sunny geographic location over a year consumes a daily average electrical power of 500 W. Area  Incident solar energy per unit area  Efficiency 500W  60 s / min  60 min/ hr  24hrs  6 106 W  hr  m  2 day 1  60s / min  60 min/ hr  0. what is the required device area? Since we know the average light intensity incident. .

Vm= 0.542 V and Im= 0.542 V = 52 Number of rows of 52 cells connected in parallel = 4840/52 ~ 93. we may increase the number to 94 rows which will give 303 W output.1 Since the number of rows must be a whole number.1143 A=0.542V  0.062 W Number of cell required = 300 W/(0.062 W/cell) = 4840 Number of cells in series = System Voltage/Voltage per cell = 28 V/0. .Example 2 An application requires 300 W at 28 V.1143 A Power/cell = 0.1143 A each with an area of 6 cm2. Design a PV panel using solar cells with Vm= 0.542 V and Im=0.

Factors which effect the performance of solar cells  The critical factors that effect the power output of a solar cells are  temperature and  irradiance. .

55 V)(333/293)+(1.475 V .55 V at 20 C (T1 = 293 K) will have Voc2 at 60C (T2 = 333 K) given by Voc2 = (0.1 V)(1 – 333/293) = 0. a silicon solar cell that has Voc1 = 0.Temperature Effect  The output voltage and the efficiency of a solar cell increases with decreasing temperature  Solar cells operate best at lower temperature.  Assuming n = 1. at two different temperature T1 and T2 but at the same illumination level Voc2 = Voc1(T2/T1) + Eg/e(1– T2/T1) respectively  where the subscripts 1 and 2 refer to the temperature T1 or T2  For example.

5 % for every 1 C variation in temperature. for crystalline silicon cell the output power changes 0. .  The combined effect is a decrease in power  As a rule of thumb.  The voltage decreases while there is a very slight increase in current with the increasing temperature.)  As the temperature of a solar cell increases the open circuit voltage Voc decreases but the short circuit current Isc increases marginally. This change in voltage is at a very similar percentage to that of the power.5 % for every 1 C variation in temperature. that is approximately 0.Temperature Effect (cont.

Variation of characteristics with temperature .

 Please note that cells can still operate at temperatures higher than NOCT and typically can be 25 C above ambient temperature. . However.Nominal operating cell temperature  The temperature at which solar cells are rated is 25 C. solar module design and mounting techniques.  Standard test conditions (STC) give the conditions under which all cells can be compared but nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT) gives a better indication of what output to expect from the cell under normal operating conditions. under normal operating conditions the temperature is generally higher than the ambient temperature and therefore higher than the standard test cell temperature of 25 C. depending on cell technology.

unaffected by the differing irradiance. however.  Because the voltage remains reasonably constant under varying irradiance solar cells are well suited for use as battery chargers .  The open circuit voltage.Irradiance effect  As the irradiance varies  There is an almost linear variation of the short circuit current. does not change dramatically. Voltage.  The graph assumes that the cell temperature is constant ie. it increases slightly.

Variation of characteristics with irradiance .

PV system sizing  If meeting the load at all times is not critical.  This is known as the heuristic approach  It is important to note that this approach will not give the best design but may provide a good start for a detailed design. PV systems are usually sized based on the average values of energy and power needed. available solar radiation and component efficiencies. .

battery. the daily energy output or the power (average or peak)?  Is a backup energy source needed and/or available?  Is energy storage important? What type. pumped water etc?  Is the power needed as AC or DC? What voltage? .  The design of a PV system is based on some basic considerations for the application  Which is more important.Design for remote photovoltaic applications  Photovoltaic power may be ideal for a remote application requiring a few watts to hundreds of kW of electrical power.

Design for remote photovoltaic applications (cont. including area of PV panels.) There are three basic steps in the design of a PV system: 1. . Estimation of load and load profile Estimation of available solar radiation Design of PV system. 2. selection of other components and electrical system schematic. 3.

75 Wh Daily energy use is about 107 Wh per day .0 4.0W)(3h)+(1.5 1.Example 3: Daily load calculation Daily load calculations.5h) + (30W)(1.0 22.0W)(8h) + (4.0 Run time (hours/day) 8 3 Modem (standby) Modem (send/receive) 1.5W)(22.5 30. How much energy per day is used by a remote weather station given the following load characteristics? Load Charge controller Data gathering Load Power (W) 2.5h) = 106.5 Daily energy = (2.

Example 4 Heuristic approach to PV system sizing. 125A-hour batteries is needed to power a house with a daily load of 1700 W-hour. System voltage is 24V. 12V panels with 6V. A PV system using 50W.  Assuming a battery efficiency of 75 % and a maximum depth of discharge 70 % . Specify the collector and storage values for the system using the heuristic approach.  3 days of storage is required. There are an average of 5 daylight hours.

but each panel produces only 12 V and even number of panels will be needed. Therefore number of panels =8.) Load=1700 Wh/day Daylight hours = 5 hours/day Average panel output = 50W Number of panels = 1700Wh/day  (5 hour/day × 50 W/panel) = 6. .8. round off to 7 panels Since the system voltage is 24 V.Example 4 (cont.

) Given 3 days of storage. Storage = 1700 3/(0. In a detailed design. a battery efficiency = 75% and a maximum depth of discharge 70% . .Example 4 (cont.75  0. the efficiency of battery storage. inverter and the balance of system must be accounted for.7) = 9714 Wh Num of batteries= (9714 Wh)/(125 Ah  6 V) = 13 (Rounded off to the next whole number) Since the system voltage is 24V and each battery provides 6V the number of batteries is increased to 16.

75A start current. Assume all lights and electronics are powered by AC. 23 W compact fluorescent bulbs On at night for 5 hours Lights (AC) Stereo (AC) Water pump (DC) Computer (AC) 6. 24V) Microwave (AC) 550 W (AC) – 1000W surge . 24V) 250W (monitor included) 2 hours each (day time) On for 8 hours per week Run for 2hours per day On for 1 ½ hours daily (weekend nights only) On for 1 hour per day On for 30 minutes per day Bathroom fan (DC) 40 W (3. 15 W (other) 55W (3. Lights (AC) 4. The load in the home are described as follow.Example 5: load calculation  An owner of a remote cabin wants to install a PV power system. 13 W compact fluorescent bulbs 110 W (amplifier).5A start current.

Example 5 (cont. The inverter used has a component efficiency of 91%. the battery efficiency is 76%. Estimate the amount of energy required per day for the system. When the load timing (day or night). . assume half of the load runs during the day and half runs at night. and the distribution system efficiency is 96%.) Using the cabin electrical system with average DC load 150Wh/day and average AC load 1124 Wh/day. calculate the overall system efficiency for each operating mode possible for the system.

0 2.5 8 14 3 7 3.5A ×24V 1×1000 2.) Load name Lights (AC) Lights (AC) Power (W) Average 4×23 6×13 Peak 4×23 6×13 Run time (hours) Day 5.5 110 40 275 880 770 750 280 1925 .0 1.0 0.Example 5 (cont.5 1.0 Week 35 14 Energy (Wh) Day 460 156 Week 3220 1092 Stereo (AC) Water pump (DC) Computer (AC) Bathroom fan (DC) Microwave (AC) 1×110 1×55 1×250 1×40 1×550 1×110 3.75A ×24V 1×250 3.

73 (night. DC)  Battery to load (DC): (0.91)= 0.664 (night/AC) .96)(0.76)(0.96 (day.) Average DC load: (770+280)/7 = 150 Wh/day Average DC load is 150 Wh/day Average AC load: (3220+1092+880+750+1925)/7 = 1124 Wh/day Average AC load is 1124 Wh/day The various system efficiencies are:  PV to load (DC): 0. AC)  Battery to load (AC): (0.96) = 0.874 (day.Example 5 (cont.76)(0. DC)  PV to load (AC): (0.96) = 0.91)(0.

Example 5 (cont.5)(880+750)/7 + (0.874) + (713.5)(275) = 713.5)(880+750)/7 + (0.5)(40) = 75 Wh/day Day (AC): (156) + (0.5)(110)+(0. the daily energy requirement is Eday = (150) + (1124) = 1274 Wh/day The expected daily energy requirement is Eday = (75)/(0.5)(275) = 409.9)/(0.9 Wh/day Night (AC): (460) + (0.5)(40) = 75 Wh/day Night (DC): (0.96) + (75)/(0.664) = 1725 Wh/day The actual energy requirement is 35% higher than simple calculation .5)(110)+(0.) Day (DC): (0.9 Wh/day Without considering system efficiency.9)/(0.73) + (409.