## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Solar Energy

Electrical characteristic of Silicon

PV cells and modules

When the resistance is infinite, the current in the circuit is

zero and the voltage across the cell is at its maximum, known

as open circuit voltage (Voc).

When the resistance is zero, the cells is in effect “short-

circuited” and the current reaches its maximum, known as

short-circuit current (Isc).

PV cell connected to variable resistance, with

ammeter and voltmeter to measure variation in

current and voltage as resistance varies.

Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics

If we varies the load resistance between zero and infinity, the

current (I) and voltage (V) will be found to vary as shown I-V

curve.

The power output is zero at Voc and at Isc.

Between these points it rises and falls so there is one point at

which the cell delivers maximum power.

This maximum power point on I-V curve.

V

I (mA)

0.6

0.4 0.2

–20

0

V

oc

–10

I

sc

= –I

ph

V'

The Load Line for R = 30 ž

(I-V for the load)

I-V for a solar cell under an

illumination of 600 Wm

-2

.

Operating Point

Slope = –

1

/

R

P

I'

(a) When a solar cell drives a load R, R has the same voltage as the solar cell

but the current through it is in the opposite direction to the convention that

current flows from high to low potential. (b) The current I' and voltage V' in

the circuit of (a) can be found from a load line construction. Point P is the

operating point (I', V'). The load line is for R = 30 ž .

Light

I

R

V

I

(a)

(b)

© 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)

V

I (mA)

0.6

0.4 0.2

–20

0

V

oc

–10

I

sc

= –I

ph

V'

The Load Line for R = 30 ž

(I-V for the load)

I-V for a solar cell under an

illumination of 600 Wm

-2

.

Operating Point

Slope = –

1

/

R

P

I'

(a) When a solar cell drives a load R, R has the same voltage as the solar cell

but the current through it is in the opposite direction to the convention that

current flows from high to low potential. (b) The current I' and voltage V' in

the circuit of (a) can be found from a load line construction. Point P is the

operating point (I', V'). The load line is for R = 30 ž .

Light

I

R

V

I

(a)

(b)

© 1999 S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall)

Operating point of the circuit

The current and voltage in the solar cell circuit are most

easily found by using a load line construction.

I-V characteristics of the load is a straight line with a negative

slope –1/R.

This is called load line

The load line cuts the solar cell characteristic at P.

At P, the load and the solar cell have the same current I’ and

voltage V’.

Point P represents the operating point of the circuit.

Power curve for a solar cell

The power (P) produced by a solar cell is the product of the

voltage and the current for the particular operating

characteristics: P=IV

P is zero when either I or V are zero.

This occurs at I

sc

, (when V = 0) and V

oc

(when I = 0).

If we plot power on the I-V axes we can see how power varies

in between the two extremes.

Maximum power (P

mp

) is produced when V = V

mp

at which

point the current is I

mp

.

This is known as the maximum power point (MPP).

It is important to ensure that solar cells operate at or near the

point of maximum power.

Power curve for a solar cell

Power

The power delivered to the load is P

out

= I’V’

Which is the area of the rectangle bound by I- and V- axes

Maximum power is delivered to the load when this

rectangular are is maximized when I’=I

m

& V’=V

m

By either changing R or the intensity of illumination.

Since the maximum possible current is I

sc

and the

maximum possible voltage is V

oc

, I

sc

V

oc

represents the

desirable goal in power delivery for a given solar cell.

Fill Factor

To compare the maximum power output I

m

V

m

with

I

sc

V

oc

, the fill factor FF, which is a figure of merit for the

solar cell, is defined as

FF = I

m

V

m

/(I

sc

V

oc

)

FF is a measure of the closeness of the solar cell I-V curve to the

rectangular shape.

It is advantageous to have FF as close to unity as possible at the

exponential p-n junction properties prevent this

Typical FF values are in the range 70-85%

Design of a Photovoltaic System

Solar cells may be connected in series, parallel or both to

obtain the required voltage and current.

Cells are connected to form modules, modules are connected

to form panels, panels are connected to form arrays.

Solar modules in series

If the solar modules PV

1

and PV

2

are nominally 12 V each and with

a current capability of

I

1

= I

2

= 3.5A,

then the output voltage from

both modules that appear across

resistance R will be the sum of

the individual voltages from the

PV modules,

PV

T

= 24 V

12 V + 12 V = 24 V

but the current IT will be as for

one module,

I

1

= I

2

= I

T

= 3.5A

Solar modules in parallel

If the solar panels are nominally

PV

1

= PV

2

=12 V

each and with a current

capability of

I

1

= I

2

= 3.5 A

respectively,

then the output of the circuit

will be

PV

T

=12 V

at a total current of

I

T

= 3.5 A + 3.5 A = 7 A

Combination series/parallel circuits

An array of 2 parallel strings

with 2 modules in series in each

string is shown.

Assuming the same values as in

the previous examples, this solar

array has an output voltage of:

12 V+ 12 V = 24 V

An output current of

3.5 A + 3.5 A = 7 A

Example 1: Solar Energy Conversion

Suppose that a particular family house in a sunny geographic location

over a year consumes a daily average electrical power of 500 W. If the

annual average solar intensity incident per day is about 6 kWhm

–2

, and

a photovoltaic device that converts solar energy to electrical energy

has an efficiency of 15%, what is the required device area?

Since we know the average light intensity incident,

Total energy available for 1 day = Incident solar energy in 1 day per unit

area ×Area × Efficiency,

Which must equal to the average energy consumed per house in 1

day. Thus,

( )

3.65m. 3.65m panel a or 3 . 13

15 . 0 min/ 60 min / 60 10 6

24 min/ 60 min / 60 500

Efficiency area unit per energy solar Incident

house per Enegy

Area

2

1 2 6

× =

× × × · · ×

× × ×

=

×

=

÷ ÷

m

hr s day m hr W

hrs hr s W

Example 2

An application requires 300 W at 28 V. Design a PV panel using solar

cells with V

m

= 0.542 V and I

m

= 0.1143 A each with an area of 6

cm

2

.

V

m

= 0.542 V and I

m

=0.1143 A

Power/cell = 0.542V × 0.1143 A=0.062 W

Number of cell required = 300 W/(0.062 W/cell) = 4840

Number of cells in series = System Voltage/Voltage per cell

= 28 V/0.542 V = 52

Number of rows of 52 cells connected in parallel = 4840/52 ~ 93.1

Since the number of rows must be a whole number, we may increase the

number to 94 rows which will give 303 W output.

Factors which effect the

performance of solar cells

The critical factors that effect the power output of a solar

cells are

temperature and

irradiance.

Temperature Effect

The output voltage and the efficiency of a solar cell increases

with decreasing temperature

Solar cells operate best at lower temperature.

Assuming n = 1, at two different temperature T

1

and T

2

but

at the same illumination level

V

oc2

= V

oc1

(T

2

/T

1

) + E

g

/e(1– T

2

/T

1

)

where the subscripts 1 and 2 refer to the temperature T

1

or T

2

respectively

For example, a silicon solar cell that has V

oc1

= 0.55 V at 20

°C (T

1

= 293 K) will have V

oc2

at 60°C (T

2

= 333 K) given by

V

oc2

= (0.55 V)(333/293)+(1.1 V)(1 – 333/293) = 0.475 V

Temperature Effect (cont.)

As the temperature of a solar cell increases the open circuit

voltage V

oc

decreases but the short circuit current I

sc

increases

marginally.

The combined effect is a decrease in power

As a rule of thumb, for crystalline silicon cell the output power

changes 0.5 % for every 1 °C variation in temperature.

The voltage decreases while there is a very slight increase in

current with the increasing temperature. This change in voltage is

at a very similar percentage to that of the power, that is

approximately 0.5 % for every 1 °C variation in temperature.

Variation of characteristics with

temperature

Nominal operating cell temperature

The temperature at which solar cells are rated is 25 °C. However,

under normal operating conditions the temperature is generally

higher than the ambient temperature and therefore higher than the

standard test cell temperature of 25 °C.

Standard test conditions (STC) give the conditions under which all

cells can be compared but nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT)

gives a better indication of what output to expect from the cell

under normal operating conditions.

Please note that cells can still operate at temperatures higher than

NOCT and typically can be 25 °C above ambient temperature,

depending on cell technology, solar module design and mounting

techniques.

Irradiance effect

As the irradiance varies

There is an almost linear variation of the short circuit current.

The open circuit voltage, however, does not change dramatically,

it increases slightly.

The graph assumes that the cell temperature is constant ie.

unaffected by the differing irradiance.

Voltage.

Because the voltage remains reasonably constant under

varying irradiance solar cells are well suited for use as

battery chargers

Variation of characteristics with

irradiance

PV system sizing

If meeting the load at all times is not critical, PV systems are

usually sized based on the average values of energy and power

needed, available solar radiation and component efficiencies.

This is known as the heuristic approach

It is important to note that this approach will not give the best

design but may provide a good start for a detailed design.

Design for remote photovoltaic

applications

Photovoltaic power may be ideal for a remote application

requiring a few watts to hundreds of kW of electrical power.

The design of a PV system is based on some basic

considerations for the application

Which is more important, the daily energy output or the power

(average or peak)?

Is a backup energy source needed and/or available?

Is energy storage important? What type- battery, pumped water

etc?

Is the power needed as AC or DC? What voltage?

Design for remote photovoltaic

applications (cont.)

There are three basic steps in the design of a PV system:

1. Estimation of load and load profile

2. Estimation of available solar radiation

3. Design of PV system, including area of PV panels, selection

of other components and electrical system schematic.

Example 3: Daily load calculation

Load Load Power (W) Run time (hours/day)

Charge controller 2.0 8

Data gathering 4.0 3

Modem (standby) 1.5 22.5

Modem (send/receive) 30.0 1.5

Daily load calculations. How much energy per day is used by a

remote weather station given the following load characteristics?

Daily energy = (2.0W)(8h) + (4.0W)(3h)+(1.5W)(22.5h) + (30W)(1.5h)

= 106.75 Wh

Daily energy use is about 107 Wh per day

Example 4

Heuristic approach to PV system sizing. A PV system using

50W, 12V panels with 6V, 125A-hour batteries is needed to

power a house with a daily load of 1700 W-hour. System

voltage is 24V. There are an average of 5 daylight hours.

Specify the collector and storage values for the system using the

heuristic approach.

3 days of storage is required.

Assuming a battery efficiency of 75 % and a maximum depth of

discharge 70 %

Example 4 (cont.)

Load=1700 Wh/day

Daylight hours = 5 hours/day

Average panel output = 50W

Number of panels = 1700Wh/day ÷ (5 hour/day × 50 W/panel)

= 6.8, round off to 7 panels

Since the system voltage is 24 V, but each panel produces only 12 V

and even number of panels will be needed.

Therefore number of panels =8.

Example 4 (cont.)

Given 3 days of storage, a battery efficiency = 75% and a maximum

depth of discharge 70% ,

Storage = 1700 ×3/(0.75 × 0.7)

= 9714 Wh

Num of batteries= (9714 Wh)/(125 Ah × 6 V)

= 13 (Rounded off to the next whole number)

Since the system voltage is 24V and each battery provides 6V the

number of batteries is increased to 16. In a detailed design, the

efficiency of battery storage, inverter and the balance of system

must be accounted for.

Example 5: load calculation

An owner of a remote cabin wants to install a PV power

system. The load in the home are described as follow. Assume

all lights and electronics are powered by AC.

Lights (AC) 4, 23 W compact fluorescent bulbs On at night for 5 hours

Lights (AC) 6, 13 W compact fluorescent bulbs 2 hours each (day time)

Stereo (AC) 110 W (amplifier), 15 W (other) On for 8 hours per week

Water pump (DC) 55W (3.75A start current, 24V) Run for 2hours per day

Computer (AC) 250W (monitor included) On for 1 ½ hours daily

(weekend nights only)

Bathroom fan (DC) 40 W (3.5A start current, 24V) On for 1 hour per day

Microwave (AC) 550 W (AC) – 1000W surge On for 30 minutes per day

Example 5 (cont.)

Using the cabin electrical system with average DC load

150Wh/day and average AC load 1124 Wh/day, calculate the

overall system efficiency for each operating mode possible

for the system.

Estimate the amount of energy required per day for the system.

When the load timing (day or night), assume half of the load

runs during the day and half runs at night.

The inverter used has a component efficiency of 91%, the

battery efficiency is 76%, and the distribution system

efficiency is 96%.

Example 5 (cont.)

Load name Power (W) Run time (hours) Energy (Wh)

Average Peak Day Week Day Week

Lights (AC) 4×23 4×23 5.0 35 460 3220

Lights (AC) 6×13 6×13 2.0 14 156 1092

Stereo (AC) 1×110 1×110 - 8 - 880

Water pump

(DC)

1×55 3.75A

×24V

2.0 14 110 770

Computer

(AC)

1×250 1×250 1.5 3 - 750

Bathroom

fan (DC)

1×40 3.5A

×24V

1.0 7 40 280

Microwave

(AC)

1×550 1×1000 0.5 3.5 275 1925

Example 5 (cont.)

Average DC load: (770+280)/7 = 150 Wh/day

Average DC load is 150 Wh/day

Average AC load: (3220+1092+880+750+1925)/7 = 1124

Wh/day

Average AC load is 1124 Wh/day

The various system efficiencies are:

PV to load (DC): 0.96 (day, DC)

Battery to load (DC): (0.76)(0.96) = 0.73 (night, DC)

PV to load (AC): (0.96)(0.91)= 0.874 (day, AC)

Battery to load (AC): (0.76)(0.91)(0.96) = 0.664 (night/AC)

Example 5 (cont.)

Day (DC): (0.5)(110)+(0.5)(40) = 75 Wh/day

Night (DC): (0.5)(110)+(0.5)(40) = 75 Wh/day

Day (AC): (156) + (0.5)(880+750)/7 + (0.5)(275) = 409.9 Wh/day

Night (AC): (460) + (0.5)(880+750)/7 + (0.5)(275) = 713.9 Wh/day

Without considering system efficiency, the daily energy requirement is

E

day

= (150) + (1124)

= 1274 Wh/day

The expected daily energy requirement is

E

day

= (75)/(0.96) + (75)/(0.73) + (409.9)/(0.874) + (713.9)/(0.664)

= 1725 Wh/day

The actual energy requirement is 35% higher than simple calculation

**Electrical characteristic of Silicon PV cells and modules
**

When the resistance is infinite, the current in the circuit is

zero and the voltage across the cell is at its maximum, known as open circuit voltage (Voc). When the resistance is zero, the cells is in effect “shortcircuited” and the current reaches its maximum, known as short-circuit current (Isc).

PV cell connected to variable resistance, with ammeter and voltmeter to measure variation in current and voltage as resistance varies.

. Between these points it rises and falls so there is one point at which the cell delivers maximum power.Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics If we varies the load resistance between zero and infinity. The power output is zero at Voc and at Isc. This maximum power point on I-V curve. the current (I) and voltage (V) will be found to vary as shown I-V curve.

I (mA) I (mA) 0 Light Light I V 0 V 0. The load line is for R = 30 ž . © 1999 S. operating point (I. Kasap.4 I-V for a solar cell under an illuminationI-V600 a solar.2 0. R has the same voltage that but the current through it is in the opposite direction to the convention as the solar cell but from high to low potential. of The load found from = 30 ž . Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall) .2 Voc V Voc 0. Point P is the point (I.6 V I V –10 0. Point I and voltage V in operatingthe circuitV). V). (b) The current P is the the circuit of (a) can befrom high to a load line construction.O. cell un of for Wm-2 illumination of 600 W I R I R Isc= –Iph I = –I ph sc –20 P (b) Operating Point Operating Point The Load Line for R = 30 ž The Load Line for (I-V for the load) P (I-V for the load) –20 (b) (a) (a) (a) When a solar cell drives a load R. Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall) © 1999 S. Kasap.6 0. (b) The current I and the convention current flowsthe current through it is in the opposite direction tovoltage V in that current flows found from low potential. R has the same voltage as the solar cell (a) When a solar cell drives a load R.4 V Slope = – 1/R Slope = – 1/R –10 I I 0.(a) can be line is for R a load line construction.O.

At P. . This is called load line The load line cuts the solar cell characteristic at P. the load and the solar cell have the same current I’ and voltage V’. I-V characteristics of the load is a straight line with a negative slope –1/R.Operating point of the circuit The current and voltage in the solar cell circuit are most easily found by using a load line construction. Point P represents the operating point of the circuit.

Power curve for a solar cell The power (P) produced by a solar cell is the product of the voltage and the current for the particular operating characteristics: P=IV P is zero when either I or V are zero. in between the two extremes. (when V = 0) and Voc (when I = 0). . It is important to ensure that solar cells operate at or near the point of maximum power. This is known as the maximum power point (MPP). If we plot power on the I-V axes we can see how power varies This occurs at Isc. Maximum power (Pmp) is produced when V = Vmp at which point the current is Imp.

Power curve for a solar cell .

axes Maximum power is delivered to the load when this By either changing R or the intensity of illumination.and V.Power The power delivered to the load is Pout= I’V’ Which is the area of the rectangle bound by I. rectangular are is maximized when I’=Im & V’=Vm maximum possible voltage is Voc. IscVoc represents the desirable goal in power delivery for a given solar cell. Since the maximum possible current is Isc and the .

which is a figure of merit for the solar cell.Fill Factor To compare the maximum power output ImVm with IscVoc. is defined as FF = ImVm/(IscVoc) FF is a measure of the closeness of the solar cell I-V curve to the rectangular shape. the fill factor FF. It is advantageous to have FF as close to unity as possible at the exponential p-n junction properties prevent this Typical FF values are in the range 70-85% .

. panels are connected to form arrays. parallel or both to obtain the required voltage and current.Design of a Photovoltaic System Solar cells may be connected in series. Cells are connected to form modules. modules are connected to form panels.

5A .5A. then the output voltage from both modules that appear across resistance R will be the sum of the individual voltages from the PV modules. PVT = 24 V 12 V + 12 V = 24 V but the current IT will be as for one module. I1= I2 = IT = 3.Solar modules in series If the solar modules PV1 and PV2 are nominally 12 V each and with a current capability of I1= I2= 3.

Solar modules in parallel If the solar panels are nominally PV1 = PV2 =12 V each and with a current capability of I1= I2= 3. then the output of the circuit will be PVT =12 V at a total current of IT = 3.5 A respectively.5 A = 7 A .5 A + 3.

Assuming the same values as in the previous examples. this solar array has an output voltage of: 12 V+ 12 V = 24 V An output current of 3.5 A + 3.Combination series/parallel circuits An array of 2 parallel strings with 2 modules in series in each string is shown.5 A = 7 A .

Total energy available for 1 day = Incident solar energy in 1 day per unit area Area Efficiency.65m 3. and a photovoltaic device that converts solar energy to electrical energy has an efficiency of 15%.65m.15 13. Thus. Which must equal to the average energy consumed per house in 1 Enegy per house day.3m 2 or a panel 3. If the annual average solar intensity incident per day is about 6 kWhm–2.Example 1: Solar Energy Conversion Suppose that a particular family house in a sunny geographic location over a year consumes a daily average electrical power of 500 W. Area Incident solar energy per unit area Efficiency 500W 60 s / min 60 min/ hr 24hrs 6 106 W hr m 2 day 1 60s / min 60 min/ hr 0. what is the required device area? Since we know the average light intensity incident. .

Vm= 0.542 V and Im= 0.542 V = 52 Number of rows of 52 cells connected in parallel = 4840/52 ~ 93. we may increase the number to 94 rows which will give 303 W output.1 Since the number of rows must be a whole number.1143 A=0.542V 0.062 W Number of cell required = 300 W/(0.062 W/cell) = 4840 Number of cells in series = System Voltage/Voltage per cell = 28 V/0. .Example 2 An application requires 300 W at 28 V.1143 A Power/cell = 0.1143 A each with an area of 6 cm2. Design a PV panel using solar cells with Vm= 0.542 V and Im=0.

Factors which effect the performance of solar cells The critical factors that effect the power output of a solar cells are temperature and irradiance. .

55 V)(333/293)+(1.475 V .55 V at 20 C (T1 = 293 K) will have Voc2 at 60C (T2 = 333 K) given by Voc2 = (0.1 V)(1 – 333/293) = 0. a silicon solar cell that has Voc1 = 0.Temperature Effect The output voltage and the efficiency of a solar cell increases with decreasing temperature Solar cells operate best at lower temperature. Assuming n = 1. at two different temperature T1 and T2 but at the same illumination level Voc2 = Voc1(T2/T1) + Eg/e(1– T2/T1) respectively where the subscripts 1 and 2 refer to the temperature T1 or T2 For example.

5 % for every 1 C variation in temperature. for crystalline silicon cell the output power changes 0. . The combined effect is a decrease in power As a rule of thumb. The voltage decreases while there is a very slight increase in current with the increasing temperature.) As the temperature of a solar cell increases the open circuit voltage Voc decreases but the short circuit current Isc increases marginally. This change in voltage is at a very similar percentage to that of the power.5 % for every 1 C variation in temperature. that is approximately 0.Temperature Effect (cont.

Variation of characteristics with temperature .

Please note that cells can still operate at temperatures higher than NOCT and typically can be 25 C above ambient temperature. . However.Nominal operating cell temperature The temperature at which solar cells are rated is 25 C. solar module design and mounting techniques. Standard test conditions (STC) give the conditions under which all cells can be compared but nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT) gives a better indication of what output to expect from the cell under normal operating conditions. under normal operating conditions the temperature is generally higher than the ambient temperature and therefore higher than the standard test cell temperature of 25 C. depending on cell technology.

unaffected by the differing irradiance. however. Because the voltage remains reasonably constant under varying irradiance solar cells are well suited for use as battery chargers . The open circuit voltage.Irradiance effect As the irradiance varies There is an almost linear variation of the short circuit current. does not change dramatically. Voltage. The graph assumes that the cell temperature is constant ie. it increases slightly.

Variation of characteristics with irradiance .

PV system sizing If meeting the load at all times is not critical. This is known as the heuristic approach It is important to note that this approach will not give the best design but may provide a good start for a detailed design. PV systems are usually sized based on the average values of energy and power needed. available solar radiation and component efficiencies. .

battery. the daily energy output or the power (average or peak)? Is a backup energy source needed and/or available? Is energy storage important? What type. pumped water etc? Is the power needed as AC or DC? What voltage? . The design of a PV system is based on some basic considerations for the application Which is more important.Design for remote photovoltaic applications Photovoltaic power may be ideal for a remote application requiring a few watts to hundreds of kW of electrical power.

Design for remote photovoltaic applications (cont. including area of PV panels.) There are three basic steps in the design of a PV system: 1. . Estimation of load and load profile Estimation of available solar radiation Design of PV system. 2. selection of other components and electrical system schematic. 3.

75 Wh Daily energy use is about 107 Wh per day .0 4.0W)(3h)+(1.5 1.Example 3: Daily load calculation Daily load calculations.5h) + (30W)(1.0 22.0W)(8h) + (4.0 Run time (hours/day) 8 3 Modem (standby) Modem (send/receive) 1.5W)(22.5 30. How much energy per day is used by a remote weather station given the following load characteristics? Load Charge controller Data gathering Load Power (W) 2.5h) = 106.5 Daily energy = (2.

Example 4 Heuristic approach to PV system sizing. 125A-hour batteries is needed to power a house with a daily load of 1700 W-hour. System voltage is 24V. 12V panels with 6V. A PV system using 50W. Assuming a battery efficiency of 75 % and a maximum depth of discharge 70 % . Specify the collector and storage values for the system using the heuristic approach. 3 days of storage is required. There are an average of 5 daylight hours.

but each panel produces only 12 V and even number of panels will be needed. Therefore number of panels =8.) Load=1700 Wh/day Daylight hours = 5 hours/day Average panel output = 50W Number of panels = 1700Wh/day (5 hour/day × 50 W/panel) = 6. .8. round off to 7 panels Since the system voltage is 24 V.Example 4 (cont.

) Given 3 days of storage. Storage = 1700 3/(0. In a detailed design. a battery efficiency = 75% and a maximum depth of discharge 70% . .Example 4 (cont.75 0. the efficiency of battery storage. inverter and the balance of system must be accounted for.7) = 9714 Wh Num of batteries= (9714 Wh)/(125 Ah 6 V) = 13 (Rounded off to the next whole number) Since the system voltage is 24V and each battery provides 6V the number of batteries is increased to 16.

75A start current. Assume all lights and electronics are powered by AC. 23 W compact fluorescent bulbs On at night for 5 hours Lights (AC) Stereo (AC) Water pump (DC) Computer (AC) 6. 24V) Microwave (AC) 550 W (AC) – 1000W surge . 24V) 250W (monitor included) 2 hours each (day time) On for 8 hours per week Run for 2hours per day On for 1 ½ hours daily (weekend nights only) On for 1 hour per day On for 30 minutes per day Bathroom fan (DC) 40 W (3. 15 W (other) 55W (3. Lights (AC) 4. The load in the home are described as follow.Example 5: load calculation An owner of a remote cabin wants to install a PV power system. 13 W compact fluorescent bulbs 110 W (amplifier).5A start current.

Example 5 (cont. The inverter used has a component efficiency of 91%. the battery efficiency is 76%. Estimate the amount of energy required per day for the system. When the load timing (day or night). . assume half of the load runs during the day and half runs at night. and the distribution system efficiency is 96%.) Using the cabin electrical system with average DC load 150Wh/day and average AC load 1124 Wh/day. calculate the overall system efficiency for each operating mode possible for the system.

0 2.5 8 14 3 7 3.5A ×24V 1×1000 2.) Load name Lights (AC) Lights (AC) Power (W) Average 4×23 6×13 Peak 4×23 6×13 Run time (hours) Day 5.5 110 40 275 880 770 750 280 1925 .0 1.0 0.Example 5 (cont.5 1.0 Week 35 14 Energy (Wh) Day 460 156 Week 3220 1092 Stereo (AC) Water pump (DC) Computer (AC) Bathroom fan (DC) Microwave (AC) 1×110 1×55 1×250 1×40 1×550 1×110 3.75A ×24V 1×250 3.

73 (night. DC) Battery to load (DC): (0.91)= 0.664 (night/AC) .96)(0.76)(0.96 (day.) Average DC load: (770+280)/7 = 150 Wh/day Average DC load is 150 Wh/day Average AC load: (3220+1092+880+750+1925)/7 = 1124 Wh/day Average AC load is 1124 Wh/day The various system efficiencies are: PV to load (DC): 0. AC) Battery to load (AC): (0.96) = 0.874 (day.Example 5 (cont.76)(0. DC) PV to load (AC): (0.96) = 0.91)(0.

Example 5 (cont.5)(880+750)/7 + (0.874) + (713.5)(275) = 713.5)(880+750)/7 + (0.5)(40) = 75 Wh/day Day (AC): (156) + (0.5)(110)+(0. the daily energy requirement is Eday = (150) + (1124) = 1274 Wh/day The expected daily energy requirement is Eday = (75)/(0.5)(275) = 409.9)/(0.9 Wh/day Night (AC): (460) + (0.5)(40) = 75 Wh/day Night (DC): (0.96) + (75)/(0.664) = 1725 Wh/day The actual energy requirement is 35% higher than simple calculation .5)(110)+(0.) Day (DC): (0.9 Wh/day Without considering system efficiency.9)/(0.73) + (409.

- Siemens Power Engineering Guide 7E 54uploaded bymydearteacher
- IJETR021671uploaded byerpublication
- A19 Maximum Power Tracking TJSE 2005 06uploaded byAgus Fathurrahman
- Design a Photovolatic Array With Boost Converter Using Fuzzy Logic Controller-2uploaded byFernando Villacis Diaz
- What the heck is an MPPTuploaded bygeeanbu
- A Study on Major Design Elements of Tracking-type Floatinguploaded bysmile_with_sri1950
- Three-phase Probabilistic Load Flow Including Photovoltaic Generation in Distribution Systemuploaded bySEP-Publisher
- 00 PV NREA Final Seminar Scheduleuploaded bysamar
- Grid Connected Solar Photovoltaic System with Converters Controluploaded byInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development - IJSRD
- The Power of DC in Rural Telecom Systemsuploaded byDominic R. Santiago
- IJETR021671uploaded bymanohar487
- RVS Polytechnic 100 KWpuploaded byfvijayami
- 8. Electrical -IJEEER -Simulation of the Hysteresis Voltage - Vamsiuploaded byTJPRC Publications
- Solar Photovoltaic System Design for Institutional Purposeuploaded byManoj Paudel
- Information about PVuploaded bypasist
- Inspector Training SLO 2012 4ppuploaded byAgung Bayu
- India Solaruploaded byRajendra Prasad Sunkara
- Generating Green Energyuploaded byMihai Alexx
- Bosch PV Net-Metering Brochureuploaded byDeepak Mulajkar
- Design & Analysis of an Optimized Grid-tied PV System.pdfuploaded bysaed70002290
- Performance Evaluation of Grid Connected Solar PV Plant using PVsystuploaded byIRJET Journal
- Photovoltaic Systemsuploaded bykashifbutty2k
- How Does Solar Energy Workuploaded byAnthony Rosa
- Burr Dissertation Abstractuploaded byHour Jhoun
- 00373812uploaded bydeepu3428
- 123160 Nsc Solar Roofs Good Practice Guide Webuploaded byPrashath Krishnan
- Catalyzing Mass Production of Solar Photovoltaic Cells Using University Driven Green Purchasinguploaded byleozaumbueno
- fileadmin-catalog-Articles-Tech-Topics-TT-PVPN5-Sizing-Fuses-of-Photovoltaic-Systems-per-NEC-Tech-Topic.pdfuploaded bycrazyshiva
- InstallationManual SHARP NAExxxG5!3!30uploaded byFANEP
- sand87_7023uploaded bysaif

Close Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Loading