(2010) 1: 4973
DOI 10.1007/s1254301000376
ORI GI NAL ARTI CLE
Robust Fuzzy Fault Detection and Isolation Approach
Applied to Surge in Centrifugal Compressor Modeling and
Control
Ahmed Hafaifa · Kouider Laroussi · Ferhat Laaouad
Received: 1 October 2009/ Revised: 30 January 2010/
Accepted: 6 February 2010/
© SpringerVerlag Berlin Heidelberg and Fuzzy Information and Engineering Branch of the Operations
Research Society of China 2010
Abstract This work presents the results of applying an advanced fault detection and
isolation technique to centrifugal compressor; this advanced technique uses physics
models of the centrifugal compressor with a fuzzy modeling and control solution
method. The fuzzy fault detection and isolation has become an issue of primary im
portance in modern process engineering automation as it provides the prerequisites
for the task of fault detection. In this work, we present an application of this approach
in fault detection and isolation of surge in compression system. The ability to detect
the surge is essential to improve reliability and security of the gas compressor plants.
We describe and illustrate an alternative implementation to the compression systems
supervision task using the basic principles of fuzzy fault detection and isolation asso
ciated with fuzzy modeling approach. In this supervision task, the residual generation
is obtained fromthe real inputoutput data process and the residual evaluation is based
on fuzzy logic method. The results of this application are very encouraging with rel
atively low levels of false alarms and obtaining a good limitation of surge in natural
gas pipeline compressors.
Keywords Compression system· Centrifugal compressor · Fuzzy modeling · Fuzzy
control · Fuzzy fault detection and isolation · Surge phenomena · Supervision system
1. Introduction
The compression systems are used in a wide variety of applications [2, 4, 9, 21].
These includes turbojet engines used in aerospace propulsion, power generation using
industrial gas turbines, turbocharging of internal combustion engines, pressurization
of gas and ﬂuids in the process industry, transport of ﬂuids in pipelines and so on.
Ahmed Hafaifa () · Kouider Laroussi · Ferhat Laaouad
Industrial Automation and Diagnosis Systems Laboratory, Science and Technology Faculty, University of
Djelfa, 17000, DZ Algeria
email: hafaifa@hotmail.com
50 Ahmed Hafaifa · Kouider Laroussi · Ferhat Laaouad (2010)
These manufacturers are greatly interested with any improvement in performance,
life and weight reduction without loss of reliability. Therefore, it is worthwhile to
carefully estimate the reliability of rotating systems in order to improve the supervi
sion and the control system or eventually modify the design. Reliability analysis of
the supervision structure require some information on the model of the compression
system. We know it is diﬃcult to obtain the mathematical model for a complicated
mechanical structure. The turbo compressor is considered as a complex system where
many modeling and controlling eﬀorts have been made [14].
In regard to the complexity and the strong non linearity of the turbo compressor
dynamics, and the attempt to ﬁnd a simple model structure which can capture in some
appropriate sense the key of the dynamical properties of the physical plant, we pro
pose to study the application possibilities of the recent supervision approaches and
evaluate their contribution in the practical and theoretical ﬁelds consequently. Fac
ing to the studied industrial process complexity, we choose to make recourse to fuzzy
logic for analysis and treatment of its supervision problem owing to the fact that these
technique constitute the only framework in which the types of imperfect knowledge
can jointly be treated (uncertainties, inaccuracies, · · · ) oﬀering suitable tools to char
acterize them. In the particular case of the turbo compressor, these imperfections
are interpreted by modelling errors, the neglected dynamics and the parametric vari
ations.
This work presents the results of applying an advanced fault detection and isola
tion technique to centrifugal compressor; this advanced technique uses physics mod
els of the centrifugal compressor with a fuzzy modeling and control solution method.
The technique automatically ﬁnds the best fault scenario to match measured (or test)
data. The best fault scenario provides information about parameter deviations (i.e.,
fault detection) and faultcontributing components (i.e., isolation). The technique is
independent of the thresholds used in fault detection as in some other techniques.
The technique is eﬀective even under the condition where data are scarce and widely
spaced in time. Operational data from the gas compression station of SONATRACH,
SC
3
in Algeria. The purpose of the data is to apply the fuzzy modelbased fault iden
tiﬁcation expertise to industrial gas pipeline. The investigation was conducted with
extremely limited knowledge of the compression system and their maintenance his
tories. The measured variables, provided in the data set, only include surge, speed,
exhaust temperature, ﬂow, and compressor discharge pressure. With these limited
compression system data, we modiﬁed an existing, generic model for centrifugal
compressor and developed the fuzzy method to “hunt” for suspicious fault states.
The detection results were conﬁrmed by the method of validation. The detection ac
curacy of this technique can be improved with additional data and knowledge about
the centrifugal compressor. This technique can be readily generalized to fault/state
detection of other types of centrifugal compressor in all industries.
The presented approach is based on the use of the fuzzy model. As was introduced
in [23], by applying a TakagiSugeno (TS) type fuzzy model with interval param
eters, one is able to approximate the upper and lower boundaries of the domain of
functions that result from an uncertain system. The fuzzy model is therefore intended
for robust modelling purposes; on the other hand, studies show it can be used in fault
Fuzzy Inf. Eng. (2010) 1: 4973 51
detection as well. The novelty lies in deﬁning of conﬁdence bands over ﬁnite sets of
input and output measurements in which the eﬀects of unknown process inputs are
already included. Moreover, it will be shown that by data preprocessing the fuzzy
model parameteroptimization problem will be signiﬁcantly reduced. By calculating
the normalized distance of the system output from the boundary model outputs, a nu
merical fault measure is obtained. The main idea of the proposed approach is to use
the fuzzy model in a Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) system as residual genera
tors, and combine the fuzzy model outputs for the purpose of fault isolation. Due to
data preprocessing, the decision stage is robust to the eﬀects of system disturbances.
This paper presents a new method for fault diagnosis of a compression system.
The method determines performance indices using fuzzy FDI approach. Firstly, we
describe the case study of surge in gas compression system in Section 2. Secondly in
Section 3, by using fuzzy modeling in FDI for the compression system control, the
proposed method can achieve high performance in the surge control of the compres
sion system. In Section 4, this work illustrates an alternative implementation to the
compression systems supervision task using the basic principles of modelbased FDI
associated with the selftuning of surge measurements with subsequent appropriate
corrective actions. Using a combination of fuzzy modeling approach makes it possi
ble to devise a faultisolation scheme based on the given incidence matrix. After that
in Section 5, followed by experimental results that conﬁrm the eﬀectiveness of the
proposed approach in the application results section. In its ﬁnal part the paper gives
some conclusions about this application.
2. Gas Compression System
The complex models for surge in centrifugal compression systems have been pro
posed by many authors [5, 10, 12, 22]. An essential step in modelbased controller
design is to understand the physical phenomena in the system and to develop a math
ematical model that describes the dynamics of the relevant phenomena. In this work,
the examined compression system is modeled with just three components. The ﬁrst
component is the inlet duct that allows inﬁnitesimally small disturbances at the duct
entrance to grow until they reach an appreciable magnitude at the compressor face.
The second component is the compressor itself, modeled as an actuator disk, which
raises the pressure ratio by doing work on the ﬂuid. The third component is the
plenum chamber (or diﬀuser) downstream, which acts as a large reservoir and re
sponds to ﬂuctuations in mass ﬂow with ﬂuctuations in pressure behind the actuator
disk. In this paper, we are considering a compression system consisting of a centrifu
gal compressor, Close Coupled Valve (CCV), compressor duct, plenum volume and
a throttle. The throttle can be regarded as a simpliﬁed model of a turbine [4, 6, 12].
The gas turbine installation used in our application for studies of compressor surge
detection and control is shown in Fig. 1.
52 Ahmed Hafaifa · Kouider Laroussi · Ferhat Laaouad (2010)
Fig. 1 Compression system
2.1. Surge in Centrifugal Compressor
Centrifugal compressors will surge when forward ﬂow through the compressor can
no longer be maintained, due to an increase in pressure across the compressor, and
a momentary ﬂow reversal occurs. Once surge occurs, the reversal of ﬂow reduces
the discharge pressure or increases the suction pressure, thus allowing forward ﬂow
to resume again until the pressure rise again reaches the surge point [10]. Surge is
characterized by large amplitude ﬂuctuations of the pressure and by unsteady, but
circumferentially uniform, annulusaveraged mass ﬂow. This essentially one dimen
sional instability aﬀects the compression system as a whole and results in a limit cycle
oscillation in the compressor map. This surge cycle will continue until some change
is made in the process or compressor conditions. Fig. 2 shows a pressure trace for
a compressor system, which was initially operated in a steady operating point. By
throttling the compressor mass ﬂow, the machine is run into surge. This ﬁgure illus
trates the diﬀerence between pressure variations before and after surge initiation. A
surge controller typically measures a function of pressure rise versus ﬂow. The con
troller operates a surge valve to maintain suﬃcient forward ﬂow to prevent surge [4,
5, 7, 8, 11].
The optimum ﬂow rate may be calculated from a simple graph of pressure diﬀer
Fuzzy Inf. Eng. (2010) 1: 4973 53
Fig. 2 Surge mode in centrifugal compressor
Fig. 3 Compressors characteristic curves
ence against ﬂow, as shown on Fig. 3. The position of the lines is unique to a par
ticular compressor. The operating setpoint is at the minimum ﬂow rate and pressure
diﬀerence which avoids surge conditions. The application fuzzy logic for antisurge
control provides a ﬁne and reliable control mechanism maintaining the process close
to this setpoint.
Many papers and texts on antisurge control maintain that the onset of surge can
occur in as little as 50ms [6, 12, 13, 18]. They then conclude that this, and the
requirement for very ”tight” tuning, implies that a digital antisurge controller must
have an extremely fast repeat time. Compressor users, however, point out that the
54 Ahmed Hafaifa · Kouider Laroussi · Ferhat Laaouad (2010)
blow oﬀ or recycle valve driven by the controller is unlikely to open in less than 2
seconds. The process automation antisurge control fuzzy logic has been proven to
successfully meet the above criteria with repeat times of 75 to 100 ms.
2.2. Centrifugal Compressor Model
The resulting equations of the dynamics of the compression system in the model used
for controller design are in the form:
⎧
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎨
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎩
P
p
=
kP
01
ρ
01
V
p
_
m − k
t
_
P
p
− P
01
_
,
m =
A
1
L
c
⎡
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎣
P
01
_
1 + η
i
(m, N)
Δh
ideal
C
p
T
01
_
4(k−1)
k
− P
p
⎤
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎦
,
N =
1
2Jπ
_
η
t
m
tur
C
p,t
ΔT
tur
2πN
− 2r
22
σπN  m 
_
,
(1)
where P
p
is the plenum pressure, K is a numerical constant, P
01
is the ambient pres
sure, ρ
01
is the inlet stagnation density, V
p
is the plenum volume, m is the compressor
mass ﬂow, k
t
is a parameter proportional to throttle opening, A
1
is the area of the
impeller eye (used as reference area), L
c
is the length of compressor and duct, η
i
is
the isentropic eﬃciency, N is the spool moment of inertia, Δh
ideal
is the total speciﬁc
enthalpy delivered to ﬂuid, c
p
is the speciﬁc heat capacity at constant pressure, c
v
is
the speciﬁc heat capacity at constant volume, T
01
is the inlet stagnation temperature
and k is the ratio of speciﬁc heats k =
C
p
C
v
.
Moore and Greitzer model in [19] gives rise to three ordinary diﬀerential equa
tions, the ﬁrst for the nondimensional totaltostatic pressure rise Δp across the com
pression system, the second for the amplitude of mass ﬂow rate ﬂuctuations m, and
the third for the nondimensional, spool moment of inertia. In the following, and
based on the work of Moore and Greitzer model we used the two ﬁrst equations of
(1) equivalent to the model of [4]. The linearization of this model given by [2] around
a point of operation M (P
pc0
, m
c0
, u
t0
, u
b0
) give:
x =
⎡
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎣
ˆ
P
pC
ˆ m
c
⎤
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎦
=
⎡
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎣
B
m
−B
1
B
1
Bm
te
⎤
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎦
⎡
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎣
P
pC
m
c
⎤
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎦
+
⎡
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎣
0
−
V
B
⎤
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎦
ˆ u
b
. (2)
With:
˜
t = tw
H
o` u w
H
it is the frequency of HELMHOLTZ deﬁned by the following
equation: w
H
= a
_
A
C
V
P
L
C
, with a =
√
γRT
a
and B
m
=
B
G
. The parameters B and G is
deﬁned by the following equations: B =
U
t
2w
H
L
c
and G =
L
t
A
C
L
C
A
t
, B it is the parameter of
stability of GREITZER [9].
3. Fuzzy Modeling
The fuzzy modeling, which directly uses fuzzy rules, is the most important applica
tion in fuzzy theory [23]. Using a procedure originated by Mamdani in the late 70s,
three steps are taken to create a fuzzy model for the compression system [23]:
Fuzzy Inf. Eng. (2010) 1: 4973 55
• First, fuzziﬁcation (using membership functions to graphically describe a situ
ation).
• Second, rule evaluation (application of fuzzy rules).
• Third, defuzziﬁcation (obtaining the crisp results).
Step 1 First of all, the diﬀerent levels of output (throttle opening, the pressure
coeﬃcient and the mass ﬂow coeﬃcient) of the compression system are deﬁned by
the triangle membership functions for the fuzzy sets.
Step 2 The next step is to deﬁne the fuzzy rules. The fuzzy rules are merely a series
of ifthen statements as mentioned above. These statements are usually derived by
an expert to achieve optimum results. The actual value belongs to the fuzzy set zero
to a degree of 0.75 for “Pressure coeﬃcient” and 0.4 for “Mass ﬂow coeﬃcient”.
Hence, since this is an AND operation, the minimum criterion is used, and the fuzzy
set approximately zero of the variable “The throttle opening” is 0.4.
Step 3 The result of the fuzzy modeling so far is a fuzzy set. To choose an ap
propriate representative value as the ﬁnal output (crisp values), defuzziﬁcation must
be done. This can be done in many ways, but the most common method used is the
center of gravity of the fuzzy set.
Fuzzy models are ﬂexible mathematical structures that, in analogy to nonlinear
models, have been recognized as universal function approximators [1, 3, 23]. Fuzzy
models use ‘IfThen’ rules and logical connectives to establish relations between the
variables deﬁned for the model of the system. For the given example, let the system to
model be the relation between surge and the ﬂuctuations in the mass ﬂow coeﬃcient
ΔΦ and pressure coeﬃcient ΔΨ. Thus, in fuzzy modeling the fuzzy ‘IfThen’ rules
take the form:
I f u is surge then y is High. (3)
The fuzzy sets in the rules serve as an interface amongst qualitative variables in the
model, and the input and output numerical variables. The fuzzy modeling approach
has several advantages when compared to other nonlinear modeling techniques; in
general, fuzzy models can provide a more transparent representation of the system
under study, maintaining a high degree of accuracy.
3.1. Fuzzy TS Models
Developing mathematical models for nonlinear systems can be quite challenging.
However, TS fuzzy systems are capable of serving as the analytical model for non
linear systems due to its universal approximation property, that is, any desired ap
proximation accuracy can be achieved by increasing the size of the approximation
structure and properly deﬁning the parameters of the approximators [20, 23]. A TS
fuzzy system can be deﬁned by:
56 Ahmed Hafaifa · Kouider Laroussi · Ferhat Laaouad (2010)
⎧
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎨
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎩
y = F
ts
(x, θ) =
R
_
i=1
g
i
(x)μ
i
(x)
R
_
i=1
μ
i
(x)
,
g
i
(x) = a
i,0
+ a
i,1
x
1
+ · · · + a
i,n
x
n
,
μ
i
(x) =
n
_
j=1
exp
⎛
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎝
−
1
2
⎛
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎝
x
i
− c
i
j
σ
i
j
⎞
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎠
2
⎞
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎠
,
(4)
where y is the output of the fuzzy system, x = [x
1
, x
2
, · · · , x
n
]
T
holds the n inputs,
i = 1, 2, · · · , R represent R diﬀerent rules, and j = 1, 2, · · · , n represent n diﬀerent
inputs, the shapes of the membership functions are chosen to be Gaussian, and center
average defuzziﬁcation and product are used for the premise and implication in the
structure of the fuzzy system. The g
i
(x) are called consequent functions of the fuzzy
system, where a
i, j
are linear parameters. The premise membership functions μ
i
(x)
are assumed to be well deﬁned so that
R
_
i=1
μ
i
(x) 0. The parameters that enter in
a nonlinear fashion are c
i
j
and σ
i
j
, which are the centers and relative widths of the
membership functions for the j
th
inputs and i
th
rules.
The TS fuzzy model consists of representing the base rules as follows:
R
i
: I f u is A
i
then y = f
i
(u), i = 1, 2, · · · , K, (5)
where R
i
denotes the i
t
h rule, K is the number of rules, u is the antecedent variable,
y is the consequent variable and A
i
is the antecedent fuzzy set of the i
t
h rule. Each
rule i has a diﬀerent function f
i
yielding a diﬀerent value for the output y
i
. The most
simple and widely used function is the aﬃne linear form:
R
i
: I f u is A
i
then y = a
T
i
u + b
i
, i = 1, 2, · · · , K, (6)
where a
i
is a parameter vector and b
i
is a scalar oﬀset.
3.2. Fuzzy Models of Compression System
The fuzzy logic model is a rulebased system that receives information fed back from
the plant’s operating, in this case the normalized ﬂuctuations of Φ and Ψ. These crisp
values are fuzziﬁed and processed using the fuzzy knowledge base [1, 3, 20, 23].
The fuzzy output is defuzziﬁed in throttle and the CCV gains in order to control the
plants operating conditions. A fuzzy system involves identifying fuzzy inputs and
outputs, creating fuzzy membership functions for each, constructing a rule base, and
then deciding what action will be carried out.
The response of the system is used to model the control system. Increasing either
the throttle gain γ
T
or CCVgain γ
V
will stabilize the systemwith a penalty of pressure
lost across the plenum. The ﬂuctuations of the mass ﬂow coeﬃcient ΔΦ and pressure
coeﬃcient ΔΨ are normalized before being sent to the fuzzy model as the crisp input
by the following [13, 14, 15, 16]:
Fuzzy Inf. Eng. (2010) 1: 4973 57
ΔΨ
i
=
Ψ
i
− Ψ
i+Δt

max(Ψ
i
, Ψ
i+Δt
)
, (7)
ΔΦ
i
=
Φ
i
− Φ
i+Δt

max(Φ
i
, Φ
i+Δt
)
. (8)
Samples of the coeﬃcients are taken at regular timestep intervals, Δt = kh where
k is a constant and h is the RungeKutta time step size.
The crisp output from the fuzzy model adjusts both control gains by the following:
γ
i+Δt
= γ
i
+ γ
i
Δγ
i
. (9)
For the case of two inputs and one output, the rule base is constructed by creating a
matrix of options and solutions. The matrix has the input variable along the top side.
The entries in the matrix are the desired response of the system, the changes in either
throttle or CCV gain. The rule base of three rules can be created:
1) If [ΔΨ is Low] or [ΔΦ is Low], then [Δγ
V
and Δγ
T
is Low];
2) If [ΔΨ is Medium] or [ΔΦ is Medium], then [Δγ
V
and Δγ
T
is Medium];
3) If [ΔΨ is High] or [ΔΦ is High], then [Δγ
V
and Δγ
T
is High].
The results of two simulations are presented in this section. The ﬁrst is the compar
ison between the complex model, the linearized model and the fuzzy model suggested
with Greitzer parameter B = 1.50 for the masse ﬂow coeﬃcient, and the second sim
ulation is the comparison between the complex model, the linearized model and the
fuzzy model suggested with Greitzer parameter B = 0.50 for the pressure coeﬃcient.
For both simulations the value of J, the squared amplitude of rotating stall was set to
zero, and the throttle gain was set so that the intersection of the throttle line and the
compressor characteristic is located on the part of the characteristic that has a positive
slope.
The response of the system with comparison is shown in Fig. 4 for the mass ﬂow
coeﬃcient for B = 0.50, the response of the system with comparison for the pressure
coeﬃcient for B = 0.50 is shown in Fig. 5. Both simulations push the design point
along the compressor characteristic until it reaches a stable operation point without
overshooting a stable equilibrium point. An overshoot of the equilibrium conditions
would result in pressure lost across the throttle.
58 Ahmed Hafaifa · Kouider Laroussi · Ferhat Laaouad (2010)
Fig. 4 Response of complex model, linearized model and fuzzy model for the mass
ﬂow coeﬃcient with B = 0.50
Fig. 5 Response of complex model, linearized model and fuzzy model for the pressure
coeﬃcient with B = 0.50
The response of the system with comparison is shown in Fig. 6 for the mass ﬂow
coeﬃcient for B = 1.50, the response of the system with comparison for the pressure
coeﬃcient for B = 1.50 is shown in Fig. 7.
According to the above ﬁgures, we can notice that our fuzzy logic model is very
Fuzzy Inf. Eng. (2010) 1: 4973 59
Fig. 6 Response of complex model, linearized model and fuzzy model for the mass
ﬂow coeﬃcient with B = 1.50
Fig. 7 Response of complex model, linearized model and fuzzy model for the pressure
coeﬃcient with B = 1.50
reliable since its outputs match those of the nonlinear complex model with a very
small error in a short time interval for the open loop response, hence the obtained
model can be used for the output prediction or for the compressor control. Accord
60 Ahmed Hafaifa · Kouider Laroussi · Ferhat Laaouad (2010)
ing to the obtained results it appears clearly that the characteristics of the system of
compression describes by the complex model reproduced perfectly by the fuzzy logic
model.
4. Compression System Control Based on Fuzzy FDI
Fuzzy FDI method deﬁning the surge point over a wide range of changing conditions
makes it possible to set the control line for optimum surge protection without unnec
essary recycling. This method automatically compensates for changes in pressure
rise, mass ﬂow, temperature, and compressor rotor speed. The system utilizes a char
acterization of compression ratio versus compensated compressor inlet ﬂow function
as control parameters. This algorithm allows use of the surge control system in this
paper (as shown in Fig. 8), resulting in minimized recycle or blowoﬀ ﬂow. This
method reduces the initial cost and simpliﬁes engineering, testing, operation, and
maintenance associated with the system when compared to alternative methods. The
input signals required to facilitate use of the surge control algorithm on centrifugal
compressors are the suction ﬂow diﬀerential pressure, suction pressure and discharge
pressure.
Fig. 8 Proposed supervision schema in compression system
Using the fuzzy logic model, it was possible to analyze the deﬁciencies of the orig
inal surge control algorithm by observing the “real” surge margin calculated from the
compressor performance, the objective of an antisurge controller should not be lim
ited to basic independent machine protection. The antisurge control performance as
an integral part of the machine performance control must be considered. Storing real
surge points, applying fuzzy logic control of the recycle valve (variable gain depend
ing on operating region) and compensating for interaction between surges, overload
and process control can signiﬁcantly expand the operating window. This allows oper
ation very close to the actual surge lines (48%) under all process conditions. Straight
Fuzzy Inf. Eng. (2010) 1: 4973 61
line surge control, even with variable slope, must make allowance for the poor ﬁt to
actual surge points by using a wider margin (1520%).
Interim remedial actions to improve the surge control constants were carried out
until an advanced complex control system was installed. An identical steadystate
model that was built separately helped to design and test the revised compressor surge
control algorithm prior to commissioning on the compressor.
In the course of developing fault diagnosis schemes, the use of analytical redun
dancy implies that a mathematical model of the systemis used to describe the inherent
relationship (or redundancy) contained among the system inputs and outputs which
may be used to generate the residuals for fault diagnosis. The resulting approaches
are usually referred to as analytical redundancy based fault diagnosis or model based
methods [17]. This is the approach we take here; the proposed approach consists of
the basic steps residual generation, residual evaluation and fault alarm presentation
as shown in Fig. 9.
Fig. 9 General scheme of modelbased FDI system
The evaluation of the residual signals generated by the models is performed us
ing an expert supervisory scheme. The heuristic knowledge of faults and processing
experience can be incorporated into the expert system in the form of rules easily,
and thus its advantages are the transparency of operation and simple integration of a
priori knowledge. Basically, the rulebased expert supervisory system performs two
functions.
The residual evaluation is a logic decision making process that transforms quanti
tative knowledge (residuals) into qualitative knowledge (fault symptoms). The goal
is to decide if and where in the process the fault has occurred, with a minimum rate
of erroneous decision (false alarms) that are caused by the existing disturbances and
modeling uncertainties. In Fig. 10, the principle of residual evaluation using fuzzy
logic consists of a threestep process. Firstly, the residuals have to be fuzziﬁed, then
they have to be evaluated by an inference mechanism using IFTHEN rules, and ﬁ
nally they have to be defuzziﬁed to obtain a decision.
The mean value of the residual r
k
(t) on a temporal window of p sampling periods
T, x
k
(t) is given by
62 Ahmed Hafaifa · Kouider Laroussi · Ferhat Laaouad (2010)
Fig. 10 Residual evaluation concept
x
k
(t) =
1
p
p
j=0
r
k
(t − j). (10)
The residual derivative x
k
(t) will be estimated on the same temporal window by a
least square linear approximation
x
k
(t) =
p
p
_
j=0
jr
k
(t − j) −
p
_
j=0
j
p
_
j=0
r
k
(t − j)
p
p
_
j=0
j
2
−
_
p
_
j=0
j
_
2
. (11)
The use of mean values over a small temporal window (in the application p = 8)
somewhat ﬁlters the measurement noise and at the same time allows a quick determi
nation of any change in the residuals.
To enhance the diagnostic performance, especially to reduce false alarm, the resid
uals are subjected to a second layer of ﬁltering. Indeed, if we consider the residual
r(k) given by [1, 17]:
r(k) = y(k)−ˆ y(k), (12)
the mean value x
k
(t) of this residual on a temporal window of p sampling is given by
x
k
(t) =
1
p
p
j=0
r
k
((t − j)T) (13)
with T being the sampling period.
Using a least square linear approximation, the change in x
k
(t) is given by:
x
k
(t) =
p
p
_
j=0
jr
k
(t − j) −
p
_
j=0
j
p
_
j=0
r
k
(t − j)
p
p
_
j=0
j
2
−
_
p
_
j=0
j
_
2
. (14)
Fuzzy Inf. Eng. (2010) 1: 4973 63
The use of means values, over a small temporal window, ﬁlters the measurements
noise and allows a quick determination of any change in the residuals. In this paper
a symmetric trapezoidal membership functions are used in residual evaluation for the
fuzziﬁcation, as shown in Fig. 11 with
b
i
= a + δ, (15)
where a is corresponds to a certain amplitude of the noise, and δ is the variance of the
noise.
Fig. 11 Membership functions used in residual evaluation
For our application, it is more judicious to take b
i
= r
imax
for the identiﬁcation of
the faults so that, for a value r
i
(t) of residual i:
u
Positi f
i
(r
i
(t)) =
⎧
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎨
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎩
0, r
i
(t) ≤ a,
r
i
(t) − a
b
i
− a
, r
i
(t) ∈ [a, b
i
],
1, r
i
(t) ≥ b
i
.
(16)
In this work, two fuzzy implications, shown in Fig. 12, enable us to deduce indi
cators from faults:
• Implication de BrouwerGd¨ oel [20, 23]:
F(e
j
) = min
i
⎛
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎝
⎧
⎪
⎪
⎨
⎪
⎪
⎩
1, d
i j
≤ u
Positi f
i
(r
i
(t))
u
Positi f
i
(r
i
(t)), no
⎞
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎠
. (17)
64 Ahmed Hafaifa · Kouider Laroussi · Ferhat Laaouad (2010)
Fig. 12 Fuzzy implications used in residual evaluation
• Implication de Goguen [20, 23]:
F(e
j
) = min
i
⎛
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎝
⎧
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎨
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎩
min
_
u
Positi f
i
(r
i
(t))
d
i j
, 1
_
, d
i j
0
1, no
⎞
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎠
. (18)
5. Application Results
In this section, we present several experimental results to demonstrate the feasibility
of the proposed fuzzy FDI scheme. The proposed fuzzy modelbased FDI is experi
mentally investigated in the examined compression system (gas compression station
in Algeria SC
3
/Sonatrach). We present in this section the results of implementation
of the proposed approach.
There are two scenarios of measurements available: in the ﬁrst situation, the com
pression system is in surge without control, in this case, we run scenarios with con
secutive defects have been introduced in order to evaluate the behavior of residues
and their symptoms associated with defects detecting surge phenomenon in our com
pression system for the diﬀerent variable parameters. The amplitudes of faults were
applied obviously chosen to exceed the corresponding limits of detection. The re
sponse of the diﬀerent types of surge in our compression system, for the diﬀerent
variable parameters with the associate residuals, can be seen in ﬁgures 13, 14, 15, 16,
17, 18 and 19.
Fuzzy Inf. Eng. (2010) 1: 4973 65
Fig. 13 Results of the fault detection in compression system with surge: mass ﬂow
input
Fig. 14 Results of the fault detection in compression system with surge: mass ﬂow
output
66 Ahmed Hafaifa · Kouider Laroussi · Ferhat Laaouad (2010)
Fig. 15 Results of the fault detection in compression system with surge: pressure
input
Fig. 16 Results of the fault detection in compression system with surge: pressure
output
Fuzzy Inf. Eng. (2010) 1: 4973 67
Fig. 17 Results of the fault detection in compression system with surge: temperature
input
Fig. 18 Results of the fault detection in compression system with surge: temperature
output
68 Ahmed Hafaifa · Kouider Laroussi · Ferhat Laaouad (2010)
Fig. 19 Results of the fault detection in compression system with surge: Rotation
speed
In the second situation, the compression system with control of surge by using
fuzzy logic controller, in this case, the fuzzy logic controller attempts to replicate the
functionality of the existing nonlinear controller by using collected real data. The
response of the compression system with control of surge by using fuzzy FDI, for
the diﬀerent variable parameters with the associate residuals, is shown in ﬁgures 20,
21, 22, 23, 24, 25 and 26. In this case, the behavior of our compression system is
considered nominal (without surge). There is no value for the residuals, these signals
are exactly zero.
Fig. 20 Results of the fault detection in compression system by using fuzzy control:
mass ﬂow input
Fuzzy Inf. Eng. (2010) 1: 4973 69
Fig. 21 Results of the fault detection in compression system by using fuzzy control:
mass ﬂow output
Fig. 22 Results of the fault detection in compression system by using fuzzy control:
pressure input
70 Ahmed Hafaifa · Kouider Laroussi · Ferhat Laaouad (2010)
Fig. 23 Results of the fault detection in compression system by using fuzzy control:
pressure output
Fig. 24 Results of the fault detection in compression system by using fuzzy control:
temperature input
Fuzzy Inf. Eng. (2010) 1: 4973 71
Fig. 25 Results of the fault detection in compression system by using fuzzy control:
temperature output
Fig. 26 Results of the fault detection in compression system by using fuzzy control:
Rotation speed
72 Ahmed Hafaifa · Kouider Laroussi · Ferhat Laaouad (2010)
In this work, a new approach to fault diagnosis by using fuzzy fault and detection
and isolation has been presented. The signiﬁcant advantage of the new approach is
that it is given unbiased estimates of the parameter variations in a straightforward
way and provides good performance in terms of surge detection and isolation and
reduced error. In this paper, recent research work on online intelligent fault detection
techniques has been presented including the expert systems approach with fuzzy logic
approach in control and in supervision. In addition, the main advantages of fuzzy fault
and detection and isolation method is to minimise false alarms enhance detectability
and isolability and minimise detection time by hardware implementation.
6. Conclusion
The main purpose of this paper is to develop robust FDI scheme by using the TS
fuzzy model. We have discussed the modeling of the dynamic behavior of centrifugal
compression systems via experimental identiﬁcation to describe surge transients of
a centrifugal compressor. The good agreement between fuzzy modeling results and
fuzzy supervision schema based on robust FDI can be very well integrated with any
conventional control scheme to develop a fault tolerant control scheme. The intro
duced fuzzy faults detection and isolation approach contain various parameters that
require tuning when the model is applied to a speciﬁc compression system. The ap
plied fuzzy supervision schema give good results that were obtained with the applied
control approach, it is observed that probability of missed false alarms in compression
system.
Fuzzy FDI method deﬁning the surge point over a wide range of changing condi
tions makes it possible to set the control line for optimum surge protection without
unnecessary recycling. This method automatically compensates for changes in pres
sure rise, mass ﬂow, temperature, and compressor rotor speed. The system utilizes a
characterization of compression ratio versus compensated compressor inlet ﬂowfunc
tion as control parameters. This algorithm allows for use of the surge control system
in this paper, resulting in minimized recycle or blowoﬀ ﬂow. This method reduces
the initial cost and simpliﬁes engineering, testing, operation, and maintenance asso
ciated with the system when compared to alternative methods.
The business beneﬁts of this fuzzy FDI method open, ﬂexible, proactive approach
to compression system monitoring and maintenance are not only improved fault di
agnosis performance, but also reusable service assemblies, better scalability, better
maintainability, higher availability, reduction in unscheduled maintenance and result
ing reduction in compression system.
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50
Ahmed Hafaifa · Kouider Laroussi · Ferhat Laaouad (2010)
These manufacturers are greatly interested with any improvement in performance, life and weight reduction without loss of reliability. Therefore, it is worthwhile to carefully estimate the reliability of rotating systems in order to improve the supervision and the control system or eventually modify the design. Reliability analysis of the supervision structure require some information on the model of the compression system. We know it is diﬃcult to obtain the mathematical model for a complicated mechanical structure. The turbo compressor is considered as a complex system where many modeling and controlling eﬀorts have been made [14]. In regard to the complexity and the strong non linearity of the turbo compressor dynamics, and the attempt to ﬁnd a simple model structure which can capture in some appropriate sense the key of the dynamical properties of the physical plant, we propose to study the application possibilities of the recent supervision approaches and evaluate their contribution in the practical and theoretical ﬁelds consequently. Facing to the studied industrial process complexity, we choose to make recourse to fuzzy logic for analysis and treatment of its supervision problem owing to the fact that these technique constitute the only framework in which the types of imperfect knowledge can jointly be treated (uncertainties, inaccuracies, · · · ) oﬀering suitable tools to characterize them. In the particular case of the turbo compressor, these imperfections are interpreted by modelling errors, the neglected dynamics and the parametric variations. This work presents the results of applying an advanced fault detection and isolation technique to centrifugal compressor; this advanced technique uses physics models of the centrifugal compressor with a fuzzy modeling and control solution method. The technique automatically ﬁnds the best fault scenario to match measured (or test) data. The best fault scenario provides information about parameter deviations (i.e., fault detection) and faultcontributing components (i.e., isolation). The technique is independent of the thresholds used in fault detection as in some other techniques. The technique is eﬀective even under the condition where data are scarce and widely spaced in time. Operational data from the gas compression station of SONATRACH, SC3 in Algeria. The purpose of the data is to apply the fuzzy modelbased fault identiﬁcation expertise to industrial gas pipeline. The investigation was conducted with extremely limited knowledge of the compression system and their maintenance histories. The measured variables, provided in the data set, only include surge, speed, exhaust temperature, ﬂow, and compressor discharge pressure. With these limited compression system data, we modiﬁed an existing, generic model for centrifugal compressor and developed the fuzzy method to “hunt” for suspicious fault states. The detection results were conﬁrmed by the method of validation. The detection accuracy of this technique can be improved with additional data and knowledge about the centrifugal compressor. This technique can be readily generalized to fault/state detection of other types of centrifugal compressor in all industries. The presented approach is based on the use of the fuzzy model. As was introduced in [23], by applying a TakagiSugeno (TS) type fuzzy model with interval parameters, one is able to approximate the upper and lower boundaries of the domain of functions that result from an uncertain system. The fuzzy model is therefore intended for robust modelling purposes; on the other hand, studies show it can be used in fault
which raises the pressure ratio by doing work on the ﬂuid. An essential step in modelbased controller design is to understand the physical phenomena in the system and to develop a mathematical model that describes the dynamics of the relevant phenomena. The ﬁrst component is the inlet duct that allows inﬁnitesimally small disturbances at the duct entrance to grow until they reach an appreciable magnitude at the compressor face. plenum volume and a throttle. compressor duct. The main idea of the proposed approach is to use the fuzzy model in a Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) system as residual generators. 1. The method determines performance indices using fuzzy FDI approach. By calculating the normalized distance of the system output from the boundary model outputs. After that in Section 5. Gas Compression System The complex models for surge in centrifugal compression systems have been proposed by many authors [5. The third component is the plenum chamber (or diﬀuser) downstream. the examined compression system is modeled with just three components. which acts as a large reservoir and responds to ﬂuctuations in mass ﬂow with ﬂuctuations in pressure behind the actuator disk. the decision stage is robust to the eﬀects of system disturbances. Moreover. 22]. . the proposed method can achieve high performance in the surge control of the compression system. In this paper. Due to data preprocessing. modeled as an actuator disk.Fuzzy Inf. Secondly in Section 3. a numerical fault measure is obtained. Using a combination of fuzzy modeling approach makes it possible to devise a faultisolation scheme based on the given incidence matrix. The novelty lies in deﬁning of conﬁdence bands over ﬁnite sets of input and output measurements in which the eﬀects of unknown process inputs are already included. this work illustrates an alternative implementation to the compression systems supervision task using the basic principles of modelbased FDI associated with the selftuning of surge measurements with subsequent appropriate corrective actions. The second component is the compressor itself. we are considering a compression system consisting of a centrifugal compressor. This paper presents a new method for fault diagnosis of a compression system. (2010) 1: 4973 51 detection as well. In its ﬁnal part the paper gives some conclusions about this application. The gas turbine installation used in our application for studies of compressor surge detection and control is shown in Fig. In this work. 10. followed by experimental results that conﬁrm the eﬀectiveness of the proposed approach in the application results section. 6. Firstly. Close Coupled Valve (CCV). In Section 4. 12]. 2. by using fuzzy modeling in FDI for the compression system control. we describe the case study of surge in gas compression system in Section 2. 12. it will be shown that by data preprocessing the fuzzy model parameteroptimization problem will be signiﬁcantly reduced. Eng. and combine the fuzzy model outputs for the purpose of fault isolation. The throttle can be regarded as a simpliﬁed model of a turbine [4.
Fig. 5. By throttling the compressor mass ﬂow.1. annulusaveraged mass ﬂow. the machine is run into surge. Once surge occurs. 7.52 Ahmed Hafaifa · Kouider Laroussi · Ferhat Laaouad (2010) Fig. thus allowing forward ﬂow to resume again until the pressure rise again reaches the surge point [10]. This essentially one dimensional instability aﬀects the compression system as a whole and results in a limit cycle oscillation in the compressor map. but circumferentially uniform. A surge controller typically measures a function of pressure rise versus ﬂow. which was initially operated in a steady operating point. 11]. The controller operates a surge valve to maintain suﬃcient forward ﬂow to prevent surge [4. 8. 2 shows a pressure trace for a compressor system. The optimum ﬂow rate may be calculated from a simple graph of pressure diﬀer . 1 Compression system 2. due to an increase in pressure across the compressor. the reversal of ﬂow reduces the discharge pressure or increases the suction pressure. Surge in Centrifugal Compressor Centrifugal compressors will surge when forward ﬂow through the compressor can no longer be maintained. and a momentary ﬂow reversal occurs. Surge is characterized by large amplitude ﬂuctuations of the pressure and by unsteady. This ﬁgure illustrates the diﬀerence between pressure variations before and after surge initiation. This surge cycle will continue until some change is made in the process or compressor conditions.
Compressor users. 13. The operating setpoint is at the minimum ﬂow rate and pressure diﬀerence which avoids surge conditions. Many papers and texts on antisurge control maintain that the onset of surge can occur in as little as 50ms [6.Fuzzy Inf. They then conclude that this. The application fuzzy logic for antisurge control provides a ﬁne and reliable control mechanism maintaining the process close to this setpoint. 18]. Eng. as shown on Fig. point out that the . 3 Compressors characteristic curves ence against ﬂow. however. 3. implies that a digital antisurge controller must have an extremely fast repeat time. 2 Surge mode in centrifugal compressor Fig. 12. and the requirement for very ”tight” tuning. The position of the lines is unique to a particular compressor. (2010) 1: 4973 53 Fig.
K is a numerical constant. In the following. ut0 .54 Ahmed Hafaifa · Kouider Laroussi · Ferhat Laaouad (2010) blow oﬀ or recycle valve driven by the controller is unlikely to open in less than 2 seconds.t ΔT tur − 2r22 σπN  m  . kt is a parameter proportional to throttle opening. which directly uses fuzzy rules. 2Jπ 2πN where P p is the plenum pressure. The linearization of this model given by [2] around a point of operation M (P pc0 . ηi is the isentropic eﬃciency. the second for the amplitude of mass ﬂow rate ﬂuctuations m. N) ideal ⎢ Lc ⎣ C p T 01 4(k−1) k ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ − Pp⎥ . and based on the work of Moore and Greitzer model we used the two ﬁrst equations of (1) equivalent to the model of [4]. 3. V p is the plenum volume. is the most important application in fuzzy theory [23]. the ﬁrst for the nondimensional totaltostatic pressure rise Δp across the compression system. P01 is the ambient pressure. spool moment of inertia.2. The parameters B and G is PL deﬁned by the following equations: B = stability of GREITZER [9]. ⎥ ⎦ (1) 1 ηt mtur C p. Centrifugal Compressor Model The resulting equations of the dynamics of the compression system in the model used for controller design are in the form: ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ Pp = ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ m= ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ N= ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ kP01 m − kt P p − P01 . T 01 is the inlet stagnation temperature Cp and k is the ratio of speciﬁc heats k = Cv . with a = γRT a and Bm = G . cv is the speciﬁc heat capacity at constant volume. Δhideal is the total speciﬁc enthalpy delivered to ﬂuid. and the third for the nondimensional. ρ01 V p ⎡ ⎢ A1 ⎢ Δh ⎢ ⎢ ⎢P01 1 + ηi (m. m is the compressor mass ﬂow. N is the spool moment of inertia. ub0 ) give: ⎤ ⎡ ⎤⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎢ P pC ⎥ ⎢ Bm −B ⎥ ⎢ P pC ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ˆ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥+⎢ ⎥ˆ ⎢ ⎢ x=⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ m ⎥ ⎢ 1 1 ⎥ ⎢ m ⎥ ⎢ − V ⎥ ub . three steps are taken to create a fuzzy model for the compression system [23]: Ut 2wH Lc and G = Lt AC LC At . A1 is the area of the impeller eye (used as reference area). B it is the parameter of . Using a procedure originated by Mamdani in the late 70s. The process automation antisurge control fuzzy logic has been proven to successfully meet the above criteria with repeat times of 75 to 100 ms. c p is the speciﬁc heat capacity at constant pressure. Moore and Greitzer model in [19] gives rise to three ordinary diﬀerential equations. 2. Fuzzy Modeling The fuzzy modeling. Lc is the length of compressor and duct. ρ01 is the inlet stagnation density. ˆc c B Bmte B (2) u With: ˜ = twH o` wH it is the frequency of HELMHOLTZ deﬁned by the following t √ B equation: wH = a VAC C . mc0 .
(3) The fuzzy sets in the rules serve as an interface amongst qualitative variables in the model. To choose an appropriate representative value as the ﬁnal output (crisp values). let the system to model be the relation between surge and the ﬂuctuations in the mass ﬂow coeﬃcient ΔΦ and pressure coeﬃcient ΔΨ. Fuzzy models are ﬂexible mathematical structures that. 3.1. TS fuzzy systems are capable of serving as the analytical model for nonlinear systems due to its universal approximation property. The actual value belongs to the fuzzy set zero to a degree of 0. 3. However. For the given example. Step 3 The result of the fuzzy modeling so far is a fuzzy set.4 for “Mass ﬂow coeﬃcient”. • Second. The fuzzy rules are merely a series of ifthen statements as mentioned above. • Third.4. in fuzzy modeling the fuzzy ‘IfThen’ rules take the form: I f u is surge then y is High. have been recognized as universal function approximators [1. Hence. the diﬀerent levels of output (throttle opening. in analogy to nonlinear models. since this is an AND operation. Fuzzy models use ‘IfThen’ rules and logical connectives to establish relations between the variables deﬁned for the model of the system. Fuzzy TS Models Developing mathematical models for nonlinear systems can be quite challenging. maintaining a high degree of accuracy. (2010) 1: 4973 55 • First. the pressure coeﬃcient and the mass ﬂow coeﬃcient) of the compression system are deﬁned by the triangle membership functions for the fuzzy sets. the minimum criterion is used. fuzziﬁcation (using membership functions to graphically describe a situation).Fuzzy Inf. in general. This can be done in many ways. The fuzzy modeling approach has several advantages when compared to other nonlinear modeling techniques. A TS fuzzy system can be deﬁned by: . and the fuzzy set approximately zero of the variable “The throttle opening” is 0. defuzziﬁcation must be done. 23]. Step 1 First of all. any desired approximation accuracy can be achieved by increasing the size of the approximation structure and properly deﬁning the parameters of the approximators [20. rule evaluation (application of fuzzy rules). Eng. 23]. Step 2 The next step is to deﬁne the fuzzy rules. but the most common method used is the center of gravity of the fuzzy set. that is. fuzzy models can provide a more transparent representation of the system under study. defuzziﬁcation (obtaining the crisp results). and the input and output numerical variables.75 for “Pressure coeﬃcient” and 0. These statements are usually derived by an expert to achieve optimum results. Thus.
θ) = i=1 ⎪ . ⎝ ⎠⎟ ⎪ ⎠ ⎝ ⎩ j=1 j (4) where y is the output of the fuzzy system. u is the antecedent variable. Increasing either the throttle gain γT or CCV gain γV will stabilize the system with a penalty of pressure lost across the plenum. 2. The parameters that enter in a nonlinear fashion are cij and σij . i = 1. 2. in this case the normalized ﬂuctuations of Φ and Ψ.0 + ai. K.2.56 Ahmed Hafaifa · Kouider Laroussi · Ferhat Laaouad (2010) ⎧ R ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ gi (x)μi (x) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ y = F (x. Fuzzy Models of Compression System The fuzzy logic model is a rulebased system that receives information fed back from the plant’s operating. and centeraverage defuzziﬁcation and product are used for the premise and implication in the structure of the fuzzy system. (5) where Ri denotes the it h rule. ⎪ ts ⎪ R ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ μi (x) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ i=1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ gi (x) = ai. · · · . i = 1. 2. · · · . 3. The response of the system is used to model the control system. the shapes of the membership functions are chosen to be Gaussian. j are linear parameters. and j = 1. K. which are the centers and relative widths of the membership functions for the jth inputs and ith rules. · · · . i where ai is a parameter vector and bi is a scalar oﬀset. · · · . ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎞ ⎛ ⎪ ⎪ n ⎪ ⎜ 1 ⎛ xi − ci ⎞2 ⎟ ⎪ ⎜ ⎜ ⎪ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟⎟ j⎟ ⎟ ⎪ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎪ μi (x) = ⎪ exp ⎜− ⎜ ⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎪ ⎜ 2 ⎜ σi ⎟ ⎟ . n represent n diﬀerent inputs. y is the consequent variable and Ai is the antecedent fuzzy set of the it h rule. Each rule i has a diﬀerent function fi yielding a diﬀerent value for the output yi . The most simple and widely used function is the aﬃne linear form: Ri : I f u is Ai then y = aT u + bi . The gi (x) are called consequent functions of the fuzzy system. constructing a rule base. 16]: (6) . and then deciding what action will be carried out. K is the number of rules. xn ]T holds the n inputs. x2 . R represent R diﬀerent rules. · · · . 2. 23]. The TS fuzzy model consists of representing the base rules as follows: Ri : I f u is Ai then y = fi (u).n xn . where ai. x = [x1 . These crisp values are fuzziﬁed and processed using the fuzzy knowledge base [1. The premise membership functions μi (x) R are assumed to be well deﬁned so that i=1 μi (x) 0. The fuzzy output is defuzziﬁed in throttle and the CCV gains in order to control the plants operating conditions. 3. 20. creating fuzzy membership functions for each. The ﬂuctuations of the mass ﬂow coeﬃcient ΔΦ and pressure coeﬃcient ΔΨ are normalized before being sent to the fuzzy model as the crisp input by the following [13.1 x1 + · · · + ai. i = 1. 15. 14. A fuzzy system involves identifying fuzzy inputs and outputs.
then [ΔγV and ΔγT is Low]. the linearized model and the fuzzy model suggested with Greitzer parameter B = 0. The crisp output from the fuzzy model adjusts both control gains by the following: γi+Δt = γi + γi Δγi . and the throttle gain was set so that the intersection of the throttle line and the compressor characteristic is located on the part of the characteristic that has a positive slope. The ﬁrst is the comparison between the complex model. (2010) 1: 4973 57 ΔΨi = Ψi − Ψi+Δt  . An overshoot of the equilibrium conditions would result in pressure lost across the throttle. the response of the system with comparison for the pressure coeﬃcient for B = 0. . max(Ψi . (9) For the case of two inputs and one output. the rule base is constructed by creating a matrix of options and solutions. 2) If [ΔΨ is Medium] or [ΔΦ is Medium]. 3) If [ΔΨ is High] or [ΔΦ is High]. then [ΔγV and ΔγT is High].Fuzzy Inf.50. 4 for the mass ﬂow coeﬃcient for B = 0. the linearized model and the fuzzy model suggested with Greitzer parameter B = 1. Δt = kh where k is a constant and h is the RungeKutta time step size.50 for the pressure coeﬃcient. The entries in the matrix are the desired response of the system. The matrix has the input variable along the top side. Ψi+Δt ) Φi − Φi+Δt  . then [ΔγV and ΔγT is Medium]. the squared amplitude of rotating stall was set to zero. Eng. and the second simulation is the comparison between the complex model. 5. For both simulations the value of J. Φi+Δt ) (7) ΔΦi = (8) Samples of the coeﬃcients are taken at regular timestep intervals.50 for the masse ﬂow coeﬃcient. max(Φi . Both simulations push the design point along the compressor characteristic until it reaches a stable operation point without overshooting a stable equilibrium point. The rule base of three rules can be created: 1) If [ΔΨ is Low] or [ΔΦ is Low]. The results of two simulations are presented in this section. the changes in either throttle or CCV gain. The response of the system with comparison is shown in Fig.50 is shown in Fig.
the response of the system with comparison for the pressure coeﬃcient for B = 1. 6 for the mass ﬂow coeﬃcient for B = 1. linearized model and fuzzy model for the pressure coeﬃcient with B = 0. According to the above ﬁgures. 7.50 is shown in Fig.58 Ahmed Hafaifa · Kouider Laroussi · Ferhat Laaouad (2010) Fig.50 Fig. 5 Response of complex model.50. we can notice that our fuzzy logic model is very .50 The response of the system with comparison is shown in Fig. 4 Response of complex model. linearized model and fuzzy model for the mass ﬂow coeﬃcient with B = 0.
6 Response of complex model. Eng. hence the obtained model can be used for the output prediction or for the compressor control.Fuzzy Inf.50 Fig. (2010) 1: 4973 59 Fig.50 reliable since its outputs match those of the nonlinear complex model with a very small error in a short time interval for the open loop response. 7 Response of complex model. Accord . linearized model and fuzzy model for the pressure coeﬃcient with B = 1. linearized model and fuzzy model for the mass ﬂow coeﬃcient with B = 1.
This method reduces the initial cost and simpliﬁes engineering. and compressor rotor speed. mass ﬂow. 4. Fig. resulting in minimized recycle or blowoﬀ ﬂow. Storing real surge points. temperature. it was possible to analyze the deﬁciencies of the original surge control algorithm by observing the “real” surge margin calculated from the compressor performance. 8 Proposed supervision schema in compression system Using the fuzzy logic model. This method automatically compensates for changes in pressure rise. The system utilizes a characterization of compression ratio versus compensated compressor inlet ﬂow function as control parameters. applying fuzzy logic control of the recycle valve (variable gain depending on operating region) and compensating for interaction between surges.60 Ahmed Hafaifa · Kouider Laroussi · Ferhat Laaouad (2010) ing to the obtained results it appears clearly that the characteristics of the system of compression describes by the complex model reproduced perfectly by the fuzzy logic model. overload and process control can signiﬁcantly expand the operating window. testing. 8). Straight . This algorithm allows use of the surge control system in this paper (as shown in Fig. suction pressure and discharge pressure. This allows operation very close to the actual surge lines (48%) under all process conditions. Compression System Control Based on Fuzzy FDI Fuzzy FDI method deﬁning the surge point over a wide range of changing conditions makes it possible to set the control line for optimum surge protection without unnecessary recycling. The input signals required to facilitate use of the surge control algorithm on centrifugal compressors are the suction ﬂow diﬀerential pressure. and maintenance associated with the system when compared to alternative methods. The antisurge control performance as an integral part of the machine performance control must be considered. operation. the objective of an antisurge controller should not be limited to basic independent machine protection.
and thus its advantages are the transparency of operation and simple integration of a priori knowledge. and ﬁnally they have to be defuzziﬁed to obtain a decision. the use of analytical redundancy implies that a mathematical model of the system is used to describe the inherent relationship (or redundancy) contained among the system inputs and outputs which may be used to generate the residuals for fault diagnosis. Interim remedial actions to improve the surge control constants were carried out until an advanced complex control system was installed. An identical steadystate model that was built separately helped to design and test the revised compressor surge control algorithm prior to commissioning on the compressor. In Fig. 9.Fuzzy Inf. Firstly. 10. 9 General scheme of modelbased FDI system The evaluation of the residual signals generated by the models is performed using an expert supervisory scheme. The resulting approaches are usually referred to as analytical redundancy based fault diagnosis or model based methods [17]. The goal is to decide if and where in the process the fault has occurred. The residual evaluation is a logic decision making process that transforms quantitative knowledge (residuals) into qualitative knowledge (fault symptoms). with a minimum rate of erroneous decision (false alarms) that are caused by the existing disturbances and modeling uncertainties. residual evaluation and fault alarm presentation as shown in Fig. Fig. even with variable slope. the principle of residual evaluation using fuzzy logic consists of a threestep process. Basically. Eng. This is the approach we take here. then they have to be evaluated by an inference mechanism using IFTHEN rules. In the course of developing fault diagnosis schemes. the residuals have to be fuzziﬁed. xk (t) is given by . must make allowance for the poor ﬁt to actual surge points by using a wider margin (1520%). The heuristic knowledge of faults and processing experience can be incorporated into the expert system in the form of rules easily. (2010) 1: 4973 61 line surge control. The mean value of the residual rk (t) on a temporal window of p sampling periods T. the proposed approach consists of the basic steps residual generation. the rulebased expert supervisory system performs two functions.
To enhance the diagnostic performance. especially to reduce false alarm. if we consider the residual r(k) given by [1. (11) 2 p j=0 j2 − j j=0 The use of mean values over a small temporal window (in the application p = 8) somewhat ﬁlters the measurement noise and at the same time allows a quick determination of any change in the residuals. (14) 2 p j=0 j2 − j j=0 . the residuals are subjected to a second layer of ﬁltering. 17]: r(k) = y(k)−ˆ (k). j=0 (10) The residual derivative xk (t) will be estimated on the same temporal window by a least square linear approximation p p xk (t) = j=0 jrk (t − j) − p p p j j=0 p j=0 rk (t − j) . y (12) the mean value xk (t) of this residual on a temporal window of p sampling is given by 1 xk (t) = p p rk ((t − j)T ) j=0 (13) with T being the sampling period. 10 Residual evaluation concept 1 xk (t) = p p rk (t − j).62 Ahmed Hafaifa · Kouider Laroussi · Ferhat Laaouad (2010) Fig. Indeed. the change in xk (t) is given by: p p xk (t) = j=0 jrk (t − j) − p p p j j=0 p j=0 rk (t − j) . Using a least square linear approximation.
enable us to deduce indicators from faults: • Implication de BrouwerGd¨ el [20. Fig. bi ]. In this paper a symmetric trapezoidal membership functions are used in residual evaluation for the fuzziﬁcation. two fuzzy implications. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ r (t) − a ⎪ i ⎨ uPositi fi (ri (t)) = ⎪ ⎪ bi − a . (15) where a is corresponds to a certain amplitude of the noise. ri (t) ≥ bi . ri (t) ∈ [a. di j ≤ uPositi fi (ri (t)) ⎟ ⎜⎪ ⎟ ⎟. ⎜⎨ ⎟ F(e j ) = min ⎜⎪ ⎜⎪ ⎟ ⎝⎩ ⎠ i uPositi fi (ri (t)). shown in Fig. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 1. 23]: o ⎛⎧ ⎞ ⎜⎪ 1.Fuzzy Inf. for a value ri (t) of residual i: ⎧ ⎪ 0. it is more judicious to take bi = rimax for the identiﬁcation of the faults so that. no (17) . over a small temporal window. (2010) 1: 4973 63 The use of means values. Eng. ﬁlters the measurements noise and allows a quick determination of any change in the residuals. and δ is the variance of the noise. 12. (16) In this work. 11 with bi = a + δ. ri (t) ≤ a. as shown in Fig. 11 Membership functions used in residual evaluation For our application.
d ⎜⎪ ⎜⎪ ij ⎜⎨ di j ⎜⎪ F(e j ) = min ⎜⎪ ⎜⎪ ⎜⎪ ⎜⎩ i ⎝ 1. ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (18) . for the diﬀerent variable parameters with the associate residuals. 1 . the compression system is in surge without control. The proposed fuzzy modelbased FDI is experimentally investigated in the examined compression system (gas compression station in Algeria SC3 /Sonatrach). 12 Fuzzy implications used in residual evaluation • Implication de Goguen [20. We present in this section the results of implementation of the proposed approach. 16. 15. in this case. no 5. Application Results In this section.64 Ahmed Hafaifa · Kouider Laroussi · Ferhat Laaouad (2010) Fig. 14. we present several experimental results to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed fuzzy FDI scheme. we run scenarios with consecutive defects have been introduced in order to evaluate the behavior of residues and their symptoms associated with defects detecting surge phenomenon in our compression system for the diﬀerent variable parameters. There are two scenarios of measurements available: in the ﬁrst situation. 18 and 19. ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ 0⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟. The amplitudes of faults were applied obviously chosen to exceed the corresponding limits of detection. 17. 23]: ⎛⎧ ⎜⎪ ⎜⎪ min uPositi fi (ri (t)) . The response of the diﬀerent types of surge in our compression system. can be seen in ﬁgures 13.
Fuzzy Inf. (2010) 1: 4973 65 Fig. Eng. 13 Results of the fault detection in compression system with surge: mass ﬂow input Fig. 14 Results of the fault detection in compression system with surge: mass ﬂow output .
16 Results of the fault detection in compression system with surge: pressure output . 15 Results of the fault detection in compression system with surge: pressure input Fig.66 Ahmed Hafaifa · Kouider Laroussi · Ferhat Laaouad (2010) Fig.
(2010) 1: 4973 67 Fig. 18 Results of the fault detection in compression system with surge: temperature output . Eng.Fuzzy Inf. 17 Results of the fault detection in compression system with surge: temperature input Fig.
22. In this case. is shown in ﬁgures 20. these signals are exactly zero. the fuzzy logic controller attempts to replicate the functionality of the existing nonlinear controller by using collected real data. 19 Results of the fault detection in compression system with surge: Rotation speed In the second situation. 21. There is no value for the residuals. 23. 25 and 26. in this case. the compression system with control of surge by using fuzzy logic controller. for the diﬀerent variable parameters with the associate residuals. 20 Results of the fault detection in compression system by using fuzzy control: mass ﬂow input . The response of the compression system with control of surge by using fuzzy FDI. Fig. the behavior of our compression system is considered nominal (without surge).68 Ahmed Hafaifa · Kouider Laroussi · Ferhat Laaouad (2010) Fig. 24.
(2010) 1: 4973 69 Fig. 21 Results of the fault detection in compression system by using fuzzy control: mass ﬂow output Fig. Eng. 22 Results of the fault detection in compression system by using fuzzy control: pressure input .Fuzzy Inf.
70 Ahmed Hafaifa · Kouider Laroussi · Ferhat Laaouad (2010) Fig. 24 Results of the fault detection in compression system by using fuzzy control: temperature input . 23 Results of the fault detection in compression system by using fuzzy control: pressure output Fig.
(2010) 1: 4973 71 Fig. 26 Results of the fault detection in compression system by using fuzzy control: Rotation speed . Eng. 25 Results of the fault detection in compression system by using fuzzy control: temperature output Fig.Fuzzy Inf.
Gissinger G L. better maintainability. testing. 6. The system utilizes a characterization of compression ratio versus compensated compressor inlet ﬂow function as control parameters. Doctoral thesis. This algorithm allows for use of the surge control system in this paper. Conclusion The main purpose of this paper is to develop robust FDI scheme by using the TS fuzzy model. a new approach to fault diagnosis by using fuzzy fault and detection and isolation has been presented. Willems T (2000) Modeling and bounded feedback stabilization of centrifugal compressor surge. The signiﬁcant advantage of the new approach is that it is given unbiased estimates of the parameter variations in a straightforward way and provides good performance in terms of surge detection and isolation and reduced error. the main advantages of fuzzy fault and detection and isolation method is to minimise false alarms enhance detectability and isolability and minimise detection time by hardware implementation. Fuzzy FDI method deﬁning the surge point over a wide range of changing conditions makes it possible to set the control line for optimum surge protection without unnecessary recycling. We have discussed the modeling of the dynamic behavior of centrifugal compression systems via experimental identiﬁcation to describe surge transients of a centrifugal compressor. it is observed that probability of missed false alarms in compression system. Gentil S (2005) Recurrent neurofuzzy system for fault detection and isolation in nuclear reactors. Netherlands : University of technology of Eindhoven 3. proactive approach to compression system monitoring and maintenance are not only improved fault diagnosis performance. In this paper. The introduced fuzzy faults detection and isolation approach contain various parameters that require tuning when the model is applied to a speciﬁc compression system. This method automatically compensates for changes in pressure rise. This method reduces the initial cost and simpliﬁes engineering. The good agreement between fuzzy modeling results and fuzzy supervision schema based on robust FDI can be very well integrated with any conventional control scheme to develop a fault tolerant control scheme. Frank P M (2001) Identiﬁcation of fuzzy relational models for fault detection. resulting in minimized recycle or blowoﬀ ﬂow. Evsukoﬀ A. Netherlands : University of technology of Eindhoven . reduction in unscheduled maintenance and resulting reduction in compression system.72 Ahmed Hafaifa · Kouider Laroussi · Ferhat Laaouad (2010) In this work. The applied fuzzy supervision schema give good results that were obtained with the applied control approach. temperature. and maintenance associated with the system when compared to alternative methods. Control Engineering Practice 9(5): 555562 2. References 1. but also reusable service assemblies. operation. Advanced Engineering Informatics 19(1): 5566 4. Doctoral thesis. Corina H J Meuleman (2002) Measurement and unsteady ﬂow modelling of centrifugal compressor surge. higher availability. and compressor rotor speed. recent research work on online intelligent fault detection techniques has been presented including the expert systems approach with fuzzy logic approach in control and in supervision. The business beneﬁts of this fuzzy FDI method open. mass ﬂow. Amann P. ﬂexible. better scalability. Franciscus P. Perronne J M. In addition.
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