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Principal component analysis is often incorporated into genome-wide expression studies, but what is it and how can it be used to explore high-dimensional data? Several measurement techniques used in the life sciences gather data for many more variables per sample than the typical number of samples assayed. For instance, DNA microarrays and mass spectrometers can measure levels of thousands of mRNAs or proteins in hundreds of samples. Such high-dimensionality makes visualization of samples difficult and limits simple exploration of the data.Principal component analysis (PCA) is a mathematical algorithm that reduces the dimensionality of the data while retaining most of the variation in the data set1. It accomplishes this reduction by identifying directions, called principal components, along which the variation in the data is maximal. By using a few components, each sample can be represented by relatively few numbers instead of by values for thousands of variables. Samples can then be plotted, making it possible to visually assess similarities and differences between samples and determine whether samples can be grouped.Saal et al.2 used microarrays to measure the expression of 27,648 genes in 105 breast tumor samples. I will use this gene expression data set, which is available through the Gene Expression Omnibus database (accession no. GSE5325), to illustrate how PCA can be used to represent samples with a smaller number of variables, visualize samples and genes, and detect dominant patterns of gene expression. My aim with this example is to leave you with an idea of how PCA can be used to explore data sets in which thousands of variables have been measured. Principal components Although understanding the details underlying PCA requires knowledge of linear algebra1,the basics can be explained with simple geometrical interpretations of the data. To allow for such interpretations, imagine that the microarrays in our example measured the expression levels of only two genes, GATA3 and XBP1. This simplifies plotting the breast cancer samples according to their expression profiles, which in this case consist of two numbers (Fig. 1a). Breast cancer samples are classified as being either positive or negative for the estrogen receptor, and I have selected two genes whose expression is known to correlate with estrogen receptor status3.PCA identifies new variables, the principal components, which are linear combinationsof the original variables. The two principal components for our two-dimensional gene expression profiles are shown in Figure 1b. It is easy to see that the first principal component is the direction along which the samples show the largest variation. The second principal component is the direction uncorrelated to the first component along which the samples show the largest variation. If data are standardized such that each gene is centered to zero average expression level, the principal components are normalized eigenvectors of the covariance matrix of the genes and ordered according to how much of the variation present in the data they contain. Each component can then be interpreted as the direction, uncorrelated to previous components, which maximizes the variance of the samples when projected onto the component. Here, genes were centered in all examples before PCA was applied to the data. The first component in Figure 1b can be expressed in terms of the original variables as PC1 = 0.83 GATA3 + 0.56 XBP1. The components have a sample-like pattern with a weight for each gene and are sometimes referred to as eigenarrays. Methods related to PCA include independent component analysis, which is designed to identify components that are statistically independent from each other, rather than being uncorrelated4. Dimensional reduction and visualization We can reduce the dimensionality of our twodimensional expression profiles to a single dimension by projecting each sample onto the first principal component (Fig. 1c). This one

dimensional representation of the data retains the separation of the samples according to estrogen receptor status. The projection of the data onto a principal component can be viewed as a gene-like pattern of expression across samples, and the normalized pattern is sometimes called an eigengene. So for each sample-like component, PCA reveals a corresponding gene like pattern containing the same variation in the data as the component. Moreover, provided that data are standardized so that samples have zero average expression, the eigengenes are eigenvectors to the covariance matrix of the samples. So far we have used data for only two genes to illustrate how PCA works, but what happens when thousands of genes are included in the analysis? Lets apply PCA to the 8,534 probes on the microarrays with expression measurements for all 105 samples. To get a view of the dimensionality of the data, we begin by looking at the proportion of the variance present in all genes contained within each principal component (Fig. 1d). Note that although the first few components have more variance than later components, the first two components retain only 22% of the original variance and 63 components are needed to retain 90% of the original variance. On the other hand, 104 components are enough to retain all the original variancea much smaller number than the original 8,534 variables. When the number of variables is larger than the number of samples, PCA can reduce the dimensionality of the samples to, at most, the number of samples, without loss of information. To see whether the variation retained in the first two components contains relevant information about the breast cancer samples, each

sample is projected onto these components in Figure 1e. The result is that the dimensionality can be reduced from the number of genes down to two dimensions, while still retaining information that separates estrogen receptor positive from estrogen receptornegative samples. Estrogen receptor status is known to have a large influence on the gene expression profiles of breast cancer cells3. However, note that PCA did not generate two separate clusters (Fig. 1e), indicating that discovering unknown groups using PCA is difficult. Moreover, gene expression profiles can also be used to classify breast cancer tumors according to whether they have gained DNA copies of ERBB2 or not3 and this information is

lost when reducing this data set to the first two principal components (Fig. 1f). This reminds us that PCA is designed to identify directions with the largest variation and not directions relevant for separating classes of samples. Also, it is important to bear in mind that much of the variation in data from high-throughput technologies may be due to systematic experimental artifacts57, resulting in dominant principal components that correlate with artifacts. As the principal components have a sample- like pattern with a weight for each gene, we can use the weights to visualize each gene in the PCA plot8. Most genes will be close to the origin in such a biplot of genes and samples, whereas the genes having the largest weights for the displayed components will extend out in their respective directions9. Biplots provide one way to use the correspondence between the gene-like and sample-like patterns revealed by PCA to identify groups of genes having expression levels characteristic for a group of samples. As an example, two genes with large weights are displayed in Figure 1e. Applications in computational biology An obvious application of PCA is to explore highdimensional data sets, as outlined above. Most often, three-dimensional visualizations are used for such explorations, and samples are either projected onto the components, as in the examples here, or plotted according to their correlation with the components10. As much information will typically be lost in two- or three-dimensional visualizations, it is important to systematically try different combinations of components when visualizing a data set. As the principal components are uncorrelated, they may represent different aspects of the samples. This suggests that PCA can serve as a useful first step before clustering or classification of samples. However, deciding how many and which components to use in the subsequent analysis is a major challenge that can be addressed in several ways1. For example, one can use components that correlate with a phenotype of interest9 or use enough components to include most of the variation in the data11. PCA results depend critically on preprocessing of the data and on selection of variables. Thus, inspecting PCA plots can potentially provide insights into different choices of preprocessing and variable selection. PCA is often implemented using the singular value decomposition (SVD) of the data matrix1. The sample-like eigenarray and the gene-like eigengene patterns are both uncovered simultaneously by SVD10,12. Many applications beyond dimensional reduction, classification and clustering have taken advantage of global representations of expression profiles generated by this decomposition. Applications include identifying patterns that correlate with experimental artifacts and filtering them out6, estimating missing data, associating genes and expression patterns with activities of regulators and helping to uncover the dynamic architecture of cellular phenotypes7,10,12. The rapid growth in technologies that generate high-dimensional molecular biology data will likely provide many new applications for PCA in the years to come.

3.1 Eigenfaces face recognition

Eigenfaces is a well studied method of face recognition based on principal component analysis (PCA), popularised by the seminal work of Turk & Pentland. Although the approach has now largely been superseded, it is still often used as a benchmark to compare the performance of other algorithms against, and serves as a good introduction to subspace-based approaches to face recognition. In this post, Ill provide a very simple implementation of eigenfaces face recognition using MATLAB. PCA is a method of transforming a number of correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables. Similar to how Fourier analysis is used to decompose a signal into a set of additive orthogonal sinusoids of varying frequencies, PCA decomposes a signal (or image) into a set of additive orthogonal basis vectors oreigenvectors. The main difference is that, while Fourier analysis uses a fixed set of basis functions, the PCA basis vectors are learnt from the data set via unsupervised training. PCA can be applied to the task of face recognition by converting the pixels of an image into a number of eigenface feature vectors, which can then be compared to measure the similarity of two face images.

The first step is to load the training images. You can obtain faces from a variety of publicly available face databases. In these examples, I have used a cropped version of the Caltech 1999 face database. The main requirements are that the faces images must be: .Greyscale images with a consistent resolution. If using colour images, convert them to greyscale first with rgb2gray. I used a resolution of 64 48 pixels. .Cropped to only show the face. If the images include background, the face recognition will not work properly, as the background will be incorporated into the classifier. I also usually try to avoid hair, since a persons hair style can change significantly (or they could wear a hat). .Aligned based on facial features. Because PCA is translation variant, the faces must be frontal and well aligned on facial features such as the eyes, nose and mouth. Most face databases have ground truth available so you dont need to label these features by hand. The Image Processing Toolbox provides somehandy functions for image registration. Each image is converted into a column vector and then the images are loaded into a matrix of size n m, where n is the number of pixels in each image and m is the total number of images. The following code reads in all of the PNG images from the directory specified by input_dir and scales all of the images to the size specified by image_dims.

3.3Training the face detector requires the following steps (compare to the steps to perform PCA):

After sensing person by photodiode we 1. Calculate the mean of the input face images 2. Subtract the mean from the input images to obtain the mean-shifted images 3. Calculate the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the mean-shifted images 4. Order the eigenvectors by their corresponding eigenvalues, in decreasing order 5. Retain only the eigenvectors with the largest eigenvalues (the principal components) 6. Project the mean-shifted images into the eigenspace Steps 1 and 2 allow us to obtain zero-mean face images. Calculating the eigenvectors and eigenvalues in steps 3 and 4 can be achieved using the princomp function. This function also takes care of mean-shifting the input, so you do not need to perform this manually before calling the function. However, I have still performed the mean-shifting in steps 1 and 2 since it is required for step 6, and the eigenvalues are still calculated as they will be used later to investigate the eigenvectors. The output from step 4 is a matrix of eigenvectors. Since the princomp function already sorts the eigenvectors by their eigenvalues, step 5 is accomplished simply by truncating the number of columns in the eigenvector matrix. Here we will truncate it to 20 principal components, which is set by the variable num_eigenfaces; this number was selected somewhat arbitrarily, but I will show you later how you can perform some analysis to make a more educated choice for this value. Step 6 is achieved by projecting the mean-shifted input images into the subspace defined by our truncated set of eigenvectors. For each input image, this projection will generate a feature vector of num_eigenfaces elements.

Classification

Once the face images have been projected into the eigenspace, the similarity between any pair of face images can be calculated by finding the Euclidean distance between their corresponding feature vectors and ; the smaller the distance between the feature vectors, the more similar the faces. We can define a simple similarity score based on the inverse Euclidean distance:To perform face recognition, the similarity score is calculated between an input face image and each of the training images. The matched face is the one with the highest similarity, and the magnitude of the similarity score indicates the confidence of the match (with a unit value indicating an exact match). Given an input image input_image with the same dimensions image_dims as your training images, the following code will calculate the similarity score to each training image and display the best match: To detect cases where no matching face exists in the training set, you can set a minimum threshold for the similarity score and ignore any matches below this score. We can see that the first eigenvector accounts for 50% of the variance in the data set, while the first 20 eigenvectors together account for just over 85%, and the first 30 eigenvectors for 90%. Increasing the number of eigenvectors generally increases recognition accuracy but also increases computational cost. Note, however, that using too many principal components does not necessarily always lead to higher accuracy, since we eventually reach a point of

diminishing returns where the low-eigenvalue components begin to capture unwanted withinclass scatter. The ideal number of eigenvectors to retain will depend on the application and the data set, but in general a size that captures around 90% of the variance is usually a reasonable trade-off.

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