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COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)

COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) is a very widespread lung disease. It is hard to breathe when having this disease. There are 2 major types of CODP: Chronic Bronchitis (coughing a lot with mucus) and Emphysema (lungs get ruined over time), people with CODP usually end up with both types. The disease gets worse over time, because scientists could not find a cure for this disease so far. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001153/) People with COPD struggle with breathing therefore they cannot do any physical activities and as a result loose there muscles. Lack of physical activity leads to heart diseases and immune system weakens. Deficit of breathing prevents people from eating normal portions of meal for that reason their body doesnt receive enough nutritions and vitamins. (http://respifor.nutricia.com/about-respifor/copddetail/how_does_copd_affect_the_whole_body ) Some symptoms and effects of this disease are: coughing (with mucus), fatigue, respiratory infections, and wheezing. The main causes of COPD are direct and second-hand smoking, along with polluted and poisonous gases and the reason it happens is because it irritates the lungs. (http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/copd/causes.html)

Most suitable method of testing for COPD is Spirometery. Patient blows into a machine that measure lung capacity. It measures the rate of inhalation and exhalation. The stethoscope is also another instrument that can be used, however, it is not very reliable. X-rays and ST scans can also be used to detect the COPD in the

lungs. You can also take a blood test called arterial blood gas, which determines the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the patients blood. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001153/ ).

Unfortunately, Science cannot help in curing this disease. But there are treatments that can help slow down the process of decay of lungs, reduce symptoms, to make people a normal member of society. The treatments include: stop smoking (most efficient), prescribing medications for patients to reduce airway inflammation, vaccinations opposed to pneumonia and influenza, taking in oxygen constantly, and pulmonary restoration. (http://www.medicinenet.com/chronic_obstructive_pulmonary_disease_copd/page 6.htm#awhattreatment ).

Smoking is the number one cause of COPD, it is a social issue, educating people and possible harmful consequences of smoking. In most countries advertising cigarettes is prohibited, moreover there are a lot of anti-smoking campaigns held in a lot of countries including the UK, America, Australia and much more. Producers of cigarettes are obliged to put written warnings that have to take up a certain amount of space on the cigarette package that draws attention of the smoker, in most European countries and in the US the prices include very high taxes for cigarettes so people would buy less or stop buying it, these measures make COPD more prevalent. (Al-Mehairbi, 2012)

http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/tables/economics/trends/in dex.htm In this graph you can see that the price for the cigarette has increased, as people are being aware of the consequences of smoking.

http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/tables/trends/cig_smoking/index.htm

As seen in this graph the amount of people that smoke has decreased by the years because of people are being aware of the consequences and health issues. This is probably because America is a more economically developed country rather then less economically developed countries like India, which suffers more then a million deaths every year probably because they are not educated and are not conscious of the consequences. Most people loose there jobs because of COPD because of health issues so it effects the economy of most countries, in 1994 the British American Tobacco Company opened in Uzbekistan and since then it has affected the intake of cigarettes in Uzbekistan and more then 1000 people were hired to work there. (http://www.batcareer.uz/en/company/972) Governments are taking action in reducing COPD by trying to deducting the use of smoking, to lessen second hand smoking, prohibit smoking in public places, less usage of automobiles, reducing air pollution, finding cures and medical advances for COPD, give patients with COPD care and medicines, and educating people about COPD. This is a political issue too because the governments gets involved in this.
(http://www.internationalcopd.org/conference/2011/ICC_Advocacy_Platform.aspx)

Cities are getting polluted and growing rapidly year to year because the number of cars are increasing, in many countries the share of alternative sources of energy is increasing which reduces the pollution of air in that area. Government cannot stop the increase of number of cars but they are trying to encourage car producers to make cars with lower fuel consumption.

COPD is a global issue and people all over the world are trying to take action. The main issue is that people are not being taught and as I observed earlier the MEDC (Most Economically Developed Countries) have less people effected with COPD then in LEDC (Less Economically Developed Countries) which is why people should start aiming on teaching people in LEDCs about COPD so that there are less deaths and so that the country it self becomes more economically developed.

Bibliography: Board, A.D.A.M. Editorial. "Causes, Incidence, and Risk Factors." Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 18 Nov. 0000. Web. 28 Feb. 2012. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001153/>. "British American Tobacco Uzbekistan :: About Company :: BAT Uzbekistan."British American Tobacco Uzbekistan. Web. 29 Feb. 2012. <http://www.batcareer.uz/en/company/972>. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 17 Sept. 2010. Web. 28 Feb. 2012. <http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/tables/economics/trends/index.htm>. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 03 Nov. 2011. Web. 28 Feb. 2012. <http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/tables/trends/cig_smoking/index.htm>. "COPD Effects the Whole Body." Resipifor about Respifor Copd Detail How Does Copd Affect the Whole Body. Web. 28 Feb. 2012. <http://respifor.nutricia.com/aboutrespifor/copd-detail/how_does_copd_affect_the_whole_body>. "MedicineNet.com." MedicineNet. Web. 29 Feb. 2012. <http://www.medicinenet.com/chronic_obstructive_pulmonary_disease_copd/page6.htm >. "What Causes COPD?" - NHLBI, NIH. Web. 29 Feb. 2012. <http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/copd/causes.html>. "ICC Advocacy Platform." World Conference of COPD Patients. Web. 29 Feb. 2012. <http://www.internationalcopd.org/conference/2011/ICC_Advocacy_Platform.aspx>.