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CHAPTER TWO : THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK The writer will use a theory in composing this research.

For instance; Discourse analysis studies based on George Yule “The Study of Language” and Guy Cook “The Discourse of Advertising” become the writer choice for the guidance of this writing. Discourse analysis, which has been mentioned in the previous phase, as the study of language analysis, a proposition that has meaning in the sentence will provide a referral to the authors to analyze the language of advertising and the author chose the “Amazon website” as the data source. It will also be the basis for this study to analyze in the next four chapters, the author will briefly state the theory, but first, I will briefly put the previous studies that guide the authors. 2.1 Previous Researches Dian Kustyasari (2010) wrote a research entitled “Language Patterns in Advertisement Billboards in Malang” as a thesis in English Department, State University of Malang. The study employs a qualitative-descriptive approach. The data of this study are languages in advertisement billboards. The advertisements are located at the corners of T-junctions or crossroads, on the left and right sides of the main streets, on the footbridges, and on the outer of the stores in Malang. In collecting the data, the researcher photographed advertisement billboards along the main streets in Malang, wrote information related to the advertisement and sorted the advertisements. The languages then were classified based on part of speech as it is related to Trudgill (1974) definition of characteristics of registers by vocabulary differences. The classified languages were analyzed further based on the theory of function of advertisement of Smith (1982) and the theory of consumer's buying pattern by Schor (1998) in order to find out the languages patterns in advertisements based on both theories. 2.2 Discourse Verdonk defines the term “discourse” as “the process of activation of a text by relating it to a context of use” (2002:18). It means the reader's reconstruction of the writer's message which should be intended. A discourse analysis considers the text as well as context. According to Widdowson (2007:7) the term “discourse” refers “both to what a text producer meant by a text and what a text means to the receiver”. It follows from this that it is possible that the receiver infers a different discourse from the text than a text producer has intended. Widdowson states that “people produce texts to get a message across, to express ideas and beliefs, to explain something to get other people to do certain things or to think in a certain way” (2007:6). Dontcheva-Navratilova adds the question of the varieties of language and claims that the term “discourse may be also used to refer to the language of a particular language variety” (2005:141), for example spoken and written discourse or the discourse of advertising. To sum up all the above mentioned definitions, speaking about discourse it is necessary to consider not only the text itself and the language used in the text but also the context and the linguistic reality.

2. Nevertheless. for example newspapers. vocabulary. in what kind of society and situation. discourse analysts can study written texts of all kinds. He emphasizes that “there are advertisements which do not sell anything. Cook stresses that some advertisements invoke discussions. Thus. The choice of words and phrases to convey specific message with the purpose to influence people is very important. letters. and so on.3 Discourse Analysis If the term “discourse”. advertising is a part of everyday life and it can be seen everywhere. different levels of formality. and are often denied and regarded as tasteless. Discourse analysis covers “the study of spoken and written interaction” (1991:12). but also to persuade them to buy these products of services.5 Language of Advertising It is generally acknowledged that language has a powerful influence over people and their behaviour.2006:124). spoken or even signed language – can be explored and analysed by different levels. to create and maintain a brand identity or brand image. then “the analysis of discourse is typically concerned with the study of language in text and conversation” (Yule. how different types and acts of communication evolved” (2001:3). There are various media which can be effectively used for advertising. and last but not least to increase the buzz-value of the brand or the company. . and spoken data. brochures. stories. 2. sounds. Regarding written and printed words. the functions of advertising is not only to inform customers about products and services. McCarthy views discourse analysis as “the study of the relationship between language and the contexts in which it is used” (1991:5). but plead or warn or seek support” (Cook. advertisements. grammatical structures.2001:15).2012) Thus. conscious reflective rejection. mentioned in the previous chapter. Advertising can be defined as “the promotion of goods or services for sale through impersonal media” (Cook.2001:15). etc. to increase the sales of products or services. discourse analysts explore newspaper articles.4 Advertising “Advertising is a form of communication that typically attempts to persuade potential customers to purchase or to consume more of a particular brand of product or service” (Wikipedia. radio. the internet. Cook emphasizes the importance to examine “the context of communication: who is communicating with whom and why. television. A particular piece of language – written. magazines. billboards. As this definition suggests. from conversation to highly institutionalised forms of talk. To put it briefly. to communicate a change in the existing product line. recipes. or means of transport.2. billboards. refers to the language beyond the sentence. especially in the field of advertising. In the same way as McCarthy focuses on the context. which will be described in the next chapters. through what medium.

Verdonk. .2001:3) defines the term “an advertisement” as: Ads use fictions. enjoyable and amusing. Peter.wikipedia.language of advertising is supposed to be colourful. and rhythms in ways which are often memorable. cartoons.org/wiki/Advertising>. London: Routledge. Stylistics. George. Masaryk University. Oxford: Oxford University Press. stylized acting. <http://en. Accessed:10 April. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(2005). (2001).(2002). Henry Great. impressive and powerful to persuade a potential customer to buy a product or service. Widdowson. Guy. The words and details of ads often come to people ‟s minds more readily than those of novels and poems and plays. photography. McCarthy. Brno. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Olga. Michael.(1991).(2007). Yule. word play. Dontcheva-Navratilova. Cook. Discourse Analysis for Language Teachers. Grammatical Structures in English: Meaning in Context. compressed storytelling. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2012. Discourse analysis. puns. References: Advertising. (Cook. and they are often recalled with more laughter and enthusiasm (Cook:3). The Discourse of Advertising. The Study of Language.(2006). Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 2nd edn.