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Nursing Theorists This page was last updated on October 17, 2011

Nursing Theorists 1. Florence Nightingale - Environment theory 2. Hildegard Peplau - Interpersonal theory 3. Virginia Henderson - Need Theory 4. Fay Abdella - Twenty One Nursing Problems 5. Ida Jean Orlando - Nursing Process theory 6. Dorothy Johnson - System model 7. Martha Rogers -Unitary Human beings 8. Dorothea Orem - Self-care theory 9. Imogene King - Goal Attainment theory 10. Betty Neuman - System model 11. Sister Calista Roy - Adaptation theory 12. Jean Watson - Philosophy and Caring Model 13. Madeleine Leininger -Transcultural nursing 14. Patricia Benner - From Novice to Expert 15. Lydia E. Hall - The Core, Care and Cure 16. Joyce Travelbee - Human-To-Human Relationship Model 17. Margaret Newman - Health As Expanding Consciousness 18. Katharine Kolcaba - Comfort Theory 19. Rosemarie Rizzo Parse - Human Becoming Theory 20. Ernestine Wiedenbach - The Helping Art of Clinical Nursing 1. Florence Nightingale- Environmental Theory
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First nursing theorist Unsanitary conditions posed health hazard (Notes on Nursing, 1859) 5 components of environment o ventilation, light, warmth, effluvia, noise External influences can prevent, suppress or contribute to disease or death.

Nightingale’s Concepts 1. Person
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Patient who is acted on by nurse Affected by environment Has reparative powers

2. Environment

Foundation of theory. Included everything, physical, psychological, and social

personal. cleanliness. interpersonal process that functions cooperatively with others to make health possible Involves problem-solving 3. therapeutic. Environment  Not defined 3. productive. quiet to facilitate person’s reparative process 2. And to do this in such a way as to help him gain independence as rapidly as possible. Person   An individual. a developing organism who tries to reduce anxiety caused by needs Lives in instable equilibrium 2. Hildegard Peplau -Interpersonal Relations Model     Based on psychodynamic nursing using an understanding of one’s own behavior to help others identify their difficulties Applies principles of human relations Patient has a felt need Peplau’s Concepts 1. Health   Maintaining well-being by using a person’s powers Maintained by control of environment 4.3. constructive. will. in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to peaceful death) that he would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength. sick or well. Virginia Henderson -The Nature of Nursing "The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual. get inside the skin of each of her patients in order to know what he needs". Nursing  Provided fresh air. good diet. and community living 4. or knowledge. She must in a sense. warmth. Health  Implies forward movement of the personality and human processes toward creative. . Nursing   A significant.

Problems are in 3 categories o physical. and community 5. Nursing     A helping profession A comprehensive service to meet patient’s needs Increases or restores self-help ability Uses 21 problems to guide nursing care 2.Deliberative Nursing Process       The deliberative nursing process is set in motion by the patient’s behavior All behavior may represent a cry for help. Environment   Did not discuss much Includes room. rather than automatic Deliberative actions explore the meaning and relevance of an action. Ida Jean Orlando. psychological. feeling Nurses’ actions should be deliberative. Fay Abdella. 4.Topology of 21 Nursing Problems     A list of 21 nursing problems Condition presented or faced by the patient or family. and integrated subsystems Constancy is maintained through biological. Health   Excludes illness No unmet needs and no actual or anticipated impairments 3. The nurse reacts to patient’s behavior and forms basis for determining nurse’s acts. Person   One who has physical. 6. emotional.4. social and emotional The nurse must be a good problem solver Abdella’s Concepts 1. and sociological factors. or social needs The recipient of nursing care. interactive. thought. . interdependent. Perception. Patient’s behavior can be verbal or non-verbal. home. Dorothy Johnson-Behavioral Systems Model   The person is a behavioral system comprised of a set of organized.

infinite.efforts to gain mastery and control Johnson’s Concepts 1. Nursing  External regulatory force that is indicated only when there is instability. Johnson’s 7 Subsystems        Affiliative subsystem . 4. 7. and interactive Pattern   Characteristic of energy field A wave that bonds Dependency . dynamic. A steady state is maintained through adjusting and adapting to internal and external forces. and infinite Unitary man and environmental field Universe of open systems  Energy fields are open. Person  A behavioral system comprised of subsystems constantly trying to maintain a steady state 2. Health  Balance and stability.procreation and gratification Aggressive . becomes complex and diverse . Martha Rogers -Unitary Human Beings Energy fields   Fundamental unity of things that are intake Eliminative .excretion Sexual . Environment  Not specifically defined but does say there is an internal and external environment 3. open.self-protection and preservation Achievement .helping or nuturing Ingestive .

Imogene King-Goal Attainment Theory       Open systems framework Human beings are open systems in constant interaction with the environment Personal System o individual. development. growth. perception. self.Self-Care Model        Self-care comprises those activities performed independently by an individual to promote and maintain person well-being Self care agency is the individual’s ability to perform self care activities Self. body image o Interpersonal o Society Personal System o deficit occurs when the person cannot carry out self-care The nurse then meets the self-care needs by acting or doing for. perception. supporting or providing the environment to promote patient’s ability Wholly compensatory nursing system-Patient dependent Partially compensatory. probabilistic. Dorothea Orem. interaction. teaching. body image Interpersonal o Socialization. but needs assistance with decision making or knowledge 9. guiding. time space. time space. increasing diversity of the human and envrionmental fields. development. growth.Pandimensionality  A nonlinear domain with out time or space Roger’s Definitions Integrality  Continuous and mutual interaction between man and environment Resonancy  Continuous change longer to shorter wave patterns in human and environmental fields Helicy    Continuous. self. Characterized by nonrepeating rhymicities Change 8. communication and transaction Society .Patient can meet some needs but needs nursing assistance Supportive educative-Patient can meet self care requisites.

religious groups. 5. who adapts by processes or control mechanisms (throughput) The output can be either adaptive responses or ineffective responses 12. work. Betty Neuman .Health Care Systems Model           The person is a complete system. perceptions to exchange o 10. 4. ideas.   Patiency. Jean Watson .Protective barrier.Surround basic core Internal factors that help defend against stressors Normal line of resistance . schools. with interrelated parts maintains balance and harmony between internal and external environment by adjusting to stress and defending against tension-producing stimuli Focuses on stress and stress reduction Primarily concerned with effects of stress on health Stressors are any forces that alter the system’s stability Flexible lines of resistance .The person receiving care Goal of nursing.Adaptation Model Five Interrelated Essential Elements 1.Normal adaptation state Flexible line of defense .  Family.Facilitating adaptation The person is an open adaptive system with input (stimuli). changing. affected by variables Wellness is equilibrium Nursing interventions are activates to:    strengthen flexible lines of defense strengthen resistance to stressors maintain adaptation 11. establish goals and take action to attain goals Each individual brings a different set of values. 2.Adapting to change Health-Being and becoming a whole person Environment Direction of nursing activities. attitudes. peers The nurse and patient mutually communicate.Philosophy and Science of Caring      Caring can be demonstrated and practiced Caring consists of carative factors Caring promotes growth A caring environment accepts a person as he is and looks to what the person may become A caring environment offers development of potential . 3. Sister Calista Roy .

psychological. sociological and spiritual factors Simultaneity Paradigm o Man is a unitary being in continuous. preventing illness 13. cared for. mutual interaction with environment Originally Man-Living-Health Theory Parse’s Three Principles    Meaning o Man’s reality is given meaning through lived experiences o Man and environment cocreate Rhythmicity o Man and environment cocreate ( imaging. valuing. understood and assisted Environment o Society Health o Complete physical. languaging) in rhythmical patterns Cotranscendence o Refers to reaching out and beyond the limits that a person sets . Rosemary Parse . nurtured.  Caring promotes health better than curing Caring is central to nursing Watson’s 10 Carative Factors           Forming humanistic-altruistic value system Instilling faith-hope Cultivating sensitivity to self and others Developing helping-trust relationship Promoting expression of feelings Using problem-solving for decision making Promoting teaching-learning Promoting supportive environment Assisting with gratification of human needs Allowing for existential-phenomenological forces Watson’s Concepts     Person o Human being to be valued. respected. mental and social well-being and functioning Nursing o Concerned with promoting and restoring health.Human Becoming Theory    Human Becoming Theory includes Totality Paradigm o Man is a combination of biological.

Culture Care Diversity and Universality      According to transcultural nursing. or face death Cultural care accommodation o help adapt to or negotiate for a beneficial health status. Lydia E. Patricia Benner . 2. Care and Cure  The theory contains of three independent but interconnected circles: 1. 3. recover from illness. the core.o   One constantly transforms Person Open being who is more than and different from the sum of the parts Environment o Everything in the person and his experiences o Inseparable. Involves synthesis of values Nursing o A human science and art that uses an abstract body of knowledge to serve people o   14. beliefs. the care and . Hall .The Core. Madeleine Leininger . 4. complimentary to and evolving with Health o Open process of being and becoming. or face death Cultural care re-patterning o help restructure or change lifestyles that are culturally meaningful 15. and practices Sunrise model consists of 4 levels that provide a base of knowledge for delivering cultural congruent care. Cultural care preservation o help maintain or preserve health. the goal of nursing care is to provide care congruent with cultural values. 5.  16.From Novice to Expert  Described 5 levels of nursing experience and developed exemplars and paradigm cases to illustrate each level Novice Advanced beginner Competent Proficient Expert Levels reflect: o movement from reliance on past abstract principles to the use of past concrete experience as paradigms o change in perception of situation as a complete whole in which certain parts are relevant 1. 2.

Wills M. Theoretical Basis for Nursing Philadelphia. Philadelphia.43.Evelyn. The core has goals set by himself and not by any other person. 7. 8. Lippincott Williamsand wilkins. Nursing theory utilization and application. Perry G Anne (1992)Fundamentals Of Nursing –Concepts Process and Practice 3rd ed.M. 5. Appleton and Lange. 2nd Ed. Philadelphia. and value system. Tomey AM. 2009. 2002. the cure The core is the person or patient to whom nursing care is directed and needed. Philadelphia. 2002. McEwen Melanie (2002). Tomey. Alligood. The care circle explains the role of nurse The cure is the attention given to patients by the medical professionals. George B. G. Bordage. London Mosby Year Book. Mosby. Theoretical Nursing : Development and Progress 3rd ed. Norwalk. (5th ed. Nursing Theories. Philadelphia.   3.Lillis Carol (2001)The Art and Science Of Nursing Care 4th ed. 2. 6. 3. MR. Julia . 4. Lippincott. Nursing theorists and their work. References 1. Meleis Ibrahim Afaf (1997) .312-319. A. Alligood M. Lippincott. Taylor Carol. Conceptual frameworks to illuminate and magnify. Potter A Patricia. Mosby.).R. Medical Education. The core behaved according to his feelings.The base for professional Nursing Practice . . 3rd ed.