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The term software refers to set of computer programs, procedures and associated programs, documents describing the programs and how they are used. A software package is a group of programs that solve a specific problem or performs a specific type of job eg: a word processing package may contain programs for text editing, formatting, drawings, graphics,etc. hence,a multipurpose computer syatem has a several software package one each foe each type of job it can perform.

Software refers to a collection of programmes & associated documents. There are two types of software:o System Software: It is a set of 1 or more programs, which controls the operation &/or extends the processing capability of a computer system. It makes the operation of a computer system more effective & efficient. It helps hardware components work together & provide support for the development & execution of application software (programs).Good system software enables development & execution of application packages on a computer system with less time & efforts. A computer without some kind of system would be very ineffective & most likely impossible to operate. Programs included in a system software package are called system programs & programmers who prepare system software are referred as system programmer. o Application Software: It is a set of 1 or more programs, which solves a specific problem, or does a specific task. Programs included in an application software package are called application programs & programmers who prepare system software are referred as application programmer.





A programming language is an artificial language designed to communicate instructions to a machine, particularly a computer. Programming languages can be used to create programs that control the behavior of a machine and/or to express algorithms precisely. o Object-Oriented Programming Languages:


Known as the newest and most powerful paradigms, object-oriented programming requires the designer to specify the data structures as well as the types of operations to be applied on those data structures. The pairing of data, and the operations that can be done on it is called an object. A program made using this language is therefore made up of a set of cooperating objects instead of an instructions list. The most famous object-oriented programming these days are C#, C , Visual Basic, Java, and Python. o Structured Programming Languages:

An exceptional type of procedural programming, structured programming provides programmers with additional tools to handle the problems created by larger programs. When using this language, programmers are required to cut program structure into small pieces of code that can easily be understood. Instead of using global variables, it employs variables that are local to every subroutine. Among the popular features of structured programming is that it doesn't accept GOTO statement which is usually associated with the top-down approach. Such approach starts with an opening overview of the system with minimal details about the various parts. To add these details, design iterations are then included to complete the design. Commonly used structured languages include C, Pascal, and ADA. o Procedural Programming Languages: Procedural Programming involves a list of operations the program needs to complete to be able to attain the preferred state. It is a simple programming paradigm where every program comes with a starting phase, a list of tasks and operations, and an ending stage. Also called imperative programming, this approach comes with small sections of code that perform certain functions. These sections are made up of procedures, subroutines, or methods. A procedure is made up of a list of computations that should be done. Procedural programming lets a part of the code to be used again without the need to make several copies. It achieves this by dividing programmatic tasks into small sections. Because of this, programmers are also capable of maintaining and understanding program structure. Among the known procedural languages are BASIC and FORTRAN. 2. ASSEMBLERS, COMPILERS & INTERPRETERS o Assemblers: For an assembly language, a computer program to translate between lower-level representations of 2

An interpreter may be a program that either  Executes the source code directly  translates source code into some efficient intermediate representation (code) and immediately executes this  explicitly executes stored precompiled code made by a compiler which is part of the interpreter system OPERATING SYSTEMS Meaning Operating system is a integrated set of programs that control the resources ( programs. A program that translates between high-level languages is usually called a language translator. often having a binary form known as object code). source to source translator. it has two main objectives :1) make a computer system easier to use 2) manage the resources of computer system. 3 . assembly language or machine code). the compiler is known as a cross-compiler.e. ) of a computer system and provides its users with an interface or virtual machine that is easier to use than the bare machine. orlanguage converter. The most common reason for wanting to transform source code is to create an executable program. i. o Interpreters: An interpreter normally means a computer program that executes. If the compiled program can run on a computer whose CPU or operating system is different from the one on which the compiler runs. o Compilers: A compiler is a computer program (or set of programs) that transforms source written in a programming language (the source language) into another computer language (the target language. A language rewriter is usually a program that translates the form of expressions without a change of language. An assembler converts basic computer instructions into a pattern of bits which can be easily understood by the computer and the processor can use it to perform its basic operations. performs. The name "compiler" is primarily used for programs that translate source code from a highlevel programming language to a lower level language (e.g. instructions written in a programming language.i/o devices etc. A program that translates from a low level language to a higher level one is adecompiler..

Real-time Operating System:A real-time operating system processes inputs simultaneously. the speed and efficiency at which it does this makes it apparent that users are simultaneously using the system. Multi-User Operating System:This type of OS allows multiple users to simultaneously use the system. Multi-Tasking Operating System:In this type of OS several applications maybe simultaneously loaded and used in the memory. Single User Operating System:A single user OS as the name suggests is designed for one user to effectively use a computer at a time. programs and files maybe stored on different storage devices which are located in different geographical locations and maybe accessed from different computer terminals.7. While the processor handles only one application at a particular time it is capable of switching between the applications effectively to apparently simultaneously execute each application. Data and programs that need to be processed are bundled and collected as a ‘batch’ and executed together. while here as well. some network systems utilize this kind of operating system. the processor splits its resources and handles one user at a time. Distributed Operating System:In a distributed system. the Windows operating system would be an example. TYPES OF OPERATING SYSTEMS • Batch Processing Operating System:In a batch processing operating system interaction between the user and processor is limited or there is no interaction at all during the execution of work. Real-time systems are usually used to control complex systems that require a lot of processing like machinery and industrial systems. fast enough to affect the next input or process. This type of operating system is seen everywhere today and is the most common type of OS. software and data maybe distributed around the system. • • • • • 4 .

The Software part consists of DBMS which acts as a bridge between the user and the database or in other words.Users are those persons who need the information from database to carry out their primary business responsibilities Personnel. Managers. therefore proper care should be taken for choosing appropriate hardware devices for a required database. • Data • Hardware • Software • Users 1. Users . magnetic tapes etc.e. A popular data manipulation language is 5 . 4. main memory etc.The hardware consists of the secondary storage devices such as magnetic disks (hard disk. Staff. 2.e. delete and retrieve data. on which data is stored together with the Input/Output devices (mouse. application programs. On the basis of job and requirements made by them they are provided access to database totally or partially. processors. Hardware . QUEL. the i. and database and files system of a particular storage media (hard disk. Gupta SQL or application softwares such as Visual 3asic. Clerical. optical disks (CD-ROM). The data acts a bridge between the machine parts i. zip disk.It is a very important component of the database system. Executives etc. printers). Most of the organizations generate. store and process 1arge amount of data. hardware and software and the users which directly access it or access it through some application programs.DBMS COMPONENTS OF DATABASE SYSTEM A database system is composed of four components. deletion and updation we can either use the Query Languages like SQL. Developer etc. Data . floppy disks). keyboard. the the Database management system concepts 1) Data Definition Language (DDL) statements are used to define the database structure or schema. magnetic tapes etc. software that interacts with the users. Since database can range from those of a single user with a desktop computer to those on mainframe computers with thousand of users.) to insert. For performing these operations such as insertion. 3. update. Software . which are used for storing and retrieving the data in a fast and efficient manner.

updates existing data within a table DELETE . The data types that you will use most frequently are character strings.UPSERT operation (insert or update) CALL . and DATE or related types. the space for the records remain MERGE . which will usually specify a precision..remove all records from a table. numeric types such as NUMBER or INTEGER.delete objects from the database TRUNCATE .retrieve data from the a database INSERT . which might be called VARCHAR or CHAR for variable or fixed length strings. which is used to retrieve and manipulate data in arelational database. . insert and modify database information. including all spaces allocated for the records are removed COMMENT . <attribute name n> <data type n>).call a PL/SQL or Java subprogram EXPLAIN PLAN .to create objects in the database ALTER .deletes all records from a table. The Data Manipulation Language (DML) is a subset of SQL programming language used to retrieve. the only way to be sure is to consult the documentation for your own software.that of Structured Query Language (SQL). These commands will be used by all database users during the routine operation of the database Some examples: o o o o o o o o SELECT .rename an object Syntax : The create table statement does exactly that: CREATE TABLE <table name> ( <attribute name 1> <data type 1>. 2) Data Manipulation Language (DML) statements are used for managing data within schema objects.insert data into a table UPDATE .. Data type syntax is variable from system to system.explain access path to data LOCK TABLE .alters the structure of the database DROP .Some examples: o o o o o o CREATE .control concurrency Syntax : 6 .add comments to the data dictionary RENAME .

for rows in a table. to add new rows to a table. you will need a separate INSERT statement for every row. any computed value. 3) The delete statement does just that. or even the result of a SELECT statement that returns a single row and a single column.. DELETE FROM <table name> WHERE <condition>. obviously. and referential integrity as well it is used to control access to database by securing it. The comma-delimited list of values must match the table structure exactly in the number of attributes and the data type of each attribute. user's access privileges to database REVOKE . you will not get a “do you really want to do this?” message. '2006-11-30'). Character type values are always enclosed in single quotes. You can also set multiple attribute values at the same time with a comma-delimited list of attribute=expression pairs. If the WHERE clause is omitted. 3) Data Control Language (DCL) statements DCL is abbreviation of Data Control Language.. date values are often (but not always) in the format 'yyyy-mm-dd' (for example. <value n>). The update expression can be a constant. . permissions. It is used to create roles. then the specified attribute is set to the same value in every row of the table (which is usually not what you want to do). then every row of the table is deleted (which again is usually not what you want to do)—and again. INSERT INTO <table name> VALUES (<value 1>. UPDATE <table name> SET <attribute> = <expression> WHERE <condition>. Some examples: o o GRANT .. If the WHERE clause is omitted. number values are never in quotes.1)The insert statement is used. 2) The update statement is used to change values that are already in a table.withdraw access privileges given with the GRANT command 7 .

3. The solution. Sometimes. therefore. It is therefore quite possible that while the address in the master file for one application has been updated the address in the master file for second application may have not been. Some of this information may be changing. all such programs that access the master file would have to be changed to allow for this new field that would have been added to the master record. In the fast moving and competent business environment of today. TRADITIONAL ENVIORNMENT FILE CONCEPTS AND The traditional file-oriented approach to information processing has for each application a separate master file and its own set of personal files. which is very difficult to implement in the traditional file approach. Data Redundancy: In a file system if an information is needed by two distinct applications. suffered from the following significant disadvantages: 1. Lack of Flexibility: Since the data and programs are strong coupled in a traditional system. The system would normally be capable of producing scheduled records and queries that it has been programmed to create. For example. such as the address. most information retrieval requests would be limited to well anticipated and pre-determined. the particulars of an employee may be stored in payroll and leave record applications separately.9. is to avoid this data redundancy by storing the address at just one place physically. COBOL language supported these file-oriented applications. and financial accounting. In addition. a major limitation of file-based approach is that the programs are dependent on the files and the files are dependent upon the programs. This is referred to as data dependence. in general an organization needs flow of information across these applications also and this requires sharing of data.These file-based approaches. it may not be easy to find that in how many files the repeating items such as the address has occurred. which came into being as the first commercial applications of computers. inventory. It was used for developing applications such as of payroll. and making it accessible to all applications. apart 8 . Program/Data Dependency: In the traditional file oriented approach if a data field (attribute) is to be added to a master file. However. then it may be stored in two or more files. the pay drawn. 2. etc.

an employee. or ERDs. An entity-type is a category. the proved relationship may have a date attribute. An entity may be a physical object such as a house or a car. a song. following Chen we should really distinguish between an entity and an entity-type. Entity-relationship modeling is a database modeling method. or a concept such as a customer transaction or order. a mathematical theorem. Examples: a computer. a proved relationship between a mathematician and a theorem. is an instance of a given entity-type. used to produce a type of conceptual schema or semantic data model of a system. : Two related entities Entities and relationships can both have attributes.Entityrelationship diagrams don't show single entities or single instances of relations. ER MODELLING An entity-relationship model (ERM) is an abstract and conceptual representation of data. Although the term entity is the one most commonly used. linking two or more nouns. Examples: an owns relationship between a company and a computer. Diagrams created by this process are called entity-relationship diagrams. an event such as a house sale or a car service. Examples: an employee entity might have a Social Security Number (SSN) attribute. ER diagrams. often a relational database. An entity is an abstraction from the complexities of some domain. 11. strictly speaking. they show entity sets and relationship sets.Every entity (unless it is a weak entity) must have a minimal set of uniquely identifying attributes. Example: a 9 . Rather. Relationships can be thought of as verbs. An entity may be defined as a thing which is recognized as being capable of an independent existence and which can be uniquely identified. which is called the entity's primary key. An entity.from such regularly scheduled records. When we speak of an entity we normally speak of some aspect of the real world which can be distinguished from other aspects of the real world. a performs relationship between an artist and a song. a supervises relationship between an employee and a department. and its requirements in atop-down fashion.A relationship captures how two or more entities are related to one another. there is a need for responding to un-anticipatory queries and some kind of investigative analysis that could not have been envisaged professionally.

a relationship set corresponds to a relation in mathematics. INTEGRITY CONSTRAINTS Integrity constraints are used to ensure accuracy and consistency of data in a relational database. • Referential Integrity The referential integrity constraint is specified between two relations and is used to maintain the consistency among tuple's in the two relations. There are many types of integrity constraints that play a role in referential integrity. : An entity with an attribute : A relationship with an attribute : Primary key 12. The collection of all songs in a database is an entity set. in his second version of the relational model. This is because the primary key value is used to identify individual tuples in a relation . In other words. the referential integrity constraint states that a tuple in one relation that refers to another relation must refer to an existing tuple in that relation. while a relationship corresponds to a member of the relation. The eaten relationship between a child and her lunch is a single relationship.particular song is an entity. Having null value for the primary key implies that we cannot identify some tuples.This also specifies that there may not be any duplicate entries in primary key column key row.It is a rule that maintains consistency among the rows of the two relations Domain Integrity The domain integrity states that every element from a relation should respect the type and restrictions of its corresponding attribute. he came up with five integrity constraints: Entity integrity The entity integrity constraint states that no primary key value can be null. Informally. The set of all such child-lunch relationships in a database is a relationship set. A type 10 . Codd initially defined two sets of constraints but. Data integrity is handled in a relational database through the concept of referential integrity.

A candidate key is a field or combination of fields that can act as a primary key field for that table to uniquely identify each record in that table. 4) Primary key . and is closely related to the Superkey concept. a primary key is a candidate key chosen as the main method of uniquely identifying a tuple in a relation.: Age>=18 && Age<=60 Different keys in DBMS 1)Alternate key: An alternate key is any candidate key which is not selected to be the primary key . Employee_Id. In other situations there may be more than one candidate key for a relation. 6) Surrogate keys : A surrogate key can be used as the primary key. Since primary keys exist primarily as a convenience to the programmer. the default value if none is provided. Examples of primary keys are Social Security numbers (associated to a specific person) or ISBNs (associated to a specific book). 7) Unique key : a unique key can uniquely identify each row in a table.Employee_Idprimary_key.g. Restrictions could be the range of values that the element can have. User Defined Integrity e. and if the element can be NULL.Address. For Eg: Emloyee (Name.a foreign key (FK) is a field or group of fields in a database record that points to a key field or group of fields forming a key of another database record in some (usually different) table. and no candidate key is obviously preferred. This is done to prevent incorrect data from entering a table (a duplicate entry is not valid in a unique column) and to make the database more complete and useful. These could be called alternate keys. and employee identity are candidate keys. Ssn. surrogate primary keys are often used—in many cases exclusively—in database application design. Eg:The table: Emloyee (Name. In the relational model of data. 3) Compound key :compound key (also called a composite key or concatenated key) is a key that consists of 2 or more attributes. Attributes are associated with it. A unique key comprises 11 . Usually a foreign key in one table refers to the primary key (PK) of another table. Phone_ext ) In the above example Ssn no.Ssn.a primary key is a value that can be used to identify a unique row in a table. A surrogate key may be used as the primary key to avoid giving one candidate key artificial primacy over the others. 2) Candidate key . Address.Phone_ext) 5) Foreign key .can have a variable length which needs to be respected.

Depending on its design. a table may have arbitrarily many unique keys but at most one primary key. No two distinct rows in a table can have the same value (or combination of values) in those columns if NULL values are not used. 12 .a single column or a set of columns.

we sometimes use the two terms interchangeably. This type of communication is synchronous.1. How it works is the program sends an initial request to the Data Hub to register for all changes to a data point. The Data Hub then responds by sending the current value of the point. The send and the write are essentially two parts of a single process. so we use the terms pretty much interchangeably. Receive/read data: A program requests to receive the value of a data point. or writes. 'Automatic' Receive: It is possible to set up live data channels. 13 .UNIT III DATA COMMUNICATION & NETWORK 1. Send and Receive Data Send/write data: A program sends a value for a data point. where a program receives updates on data points sent from the Cascade Data Hub. Again. The Data Hub immediately sends the current value of the point. You can write a value to the Data Hub manually using the Data Browser. this type of communication is synchronous. CONCEPT OF DATA COMMUNICATION These basic concepts of data communications are: 1. The Data Hub can receive data automatically in a similar way. and then again whenever it changes. This asynchronous type of communication is sometimes referred to as publish-subscribe. and the Data Hub records. A typical write command from a program using DDE protocol is DDEPoke. the value for that point. We call this reading the value from the Cascade Data Hub. A typical read command from a program using DDE protocol is DDERequest. and again.

so that each party knows that the other is receiving the message. you can be pretty sure that communication didn't occur. 1. Each of these communication types has its own value and purpose in data communications. and the server would respond. A well-known family of communication media is collectively known as Ethernet. It is defined by IEEE 802 and utilizes various standards and 14 . The client-server relationship itself does not determine the direction of data flow. Ghn). natural or man made comes in two basic forms: synchronous or asynchronous.3. and radio waves(wireless LAN). the client might initiate a read or a write. Asynchronous communication means that a message gets sent but the receiver is not expected to reply. or it might write data to the server. and the Cascade Data Hub is capable of both. or as both simultaneously. Synchronous and Asynchronous Communication Every type of communication. like a radio broadcast or a newspaper. There is a back-and-forth exchange. and the server provides the service. where the client requests a service. such as electrical cable (Home PNA. the sender expects to get a reply from the receiver. the DataHub is capable of acting as a client.Server Exchanging data with the Cascade DataHub is done through a clientserver mechanism. optical fiber. If there is no response.A DDEAdvise command sets up this type of connection. Client . as a server. a client may read data from the server. like a telephone call. The data can flow either way. 1.1. Synchronous communication means that for each message. For example.1. COMMUNICATION MEDIA Computer networks can be classified according to the hardware and associated software technology that is used to interconnect the individual devices in the network.2. The specific circumstances and application will determine which form of communication you end up using. power line communication. Depending on the programs it interacts with. which is called an advice loop.

Coaxial cable is widely used for cable television systems. Wireless LAN technology is designed to connect devices without wiring. Computer networking cabling (wired Ethernet as defined by IEEE that enable communication between devices. The use of two wires twisted together helps to reduce crosstalk and electromagnetic induction. Transmission speed range from 200 million to more than 500 million bits per second. Twisted-pair cabling consist of copper wires that are twisted into pairs. Twisted pair cabling comes in two forms which are Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) and Shielded twisted-pair (STP) which are rated in categories which are manufactured in different increments for various scenario. 15 . phone lines and power lines) to create a high-speed (up to 1 Gigabit/s) local area network. Wired technologies Twisted pair wire is the most widely used medium for technology uses existing home wiring (coaxial cable. Ordinary telephone wires consist of two insulated copper wires twisted into pairs. 48 km (30 mi) apart. Path between relay stations spaced approx. These devices use radio waves or infrared signals as a transmission medium. Wireless technologies Terrestrial microwave – Terrestrial microwaves use Earth-based transmitter and receiver. The layers of insulation help minimize interference and distortion. Terrestrial microwaves use low-gigahertz range. The transmission speed of fiber optics is hundreds of times faster than for coaxial cables and thousands of times faster than a twisted-pair wire. Fiber-optic cables are not affected by electromagnetic radiation. Optical fiber cable consists of one or more filaments of glass fiber wrapped in protective layers that carries data by means of pulses of light. all of which are surrounded by a conductive layer. Transmission speed may reach trillions of bits per second. The transmission speed ranges from 2 million bits per second to 10 billion bits per second. The cables consist of copper or aluminum wire wrapped with insulating layer typically of a flexible material with a high dielectric constant. office buildings. which limits all communications to line-of-sight. ITU-T G. It transmits light which can travel over extended distances. and other work-sites for local area networks. The equipment looks similar to satellite dishes.3) consists of 4 pairs of copper cabling that can be utilized for both voice and data transmission.

Communications satellites – The satellites use microwave radio as their telecommunications medium which are not deflected by the Earth's atmosphere. data. The satellites are stationed in space. Each area has a low-power transmitter or radio relay antenna device to relay calls from one area to the next area. In most cases. communications protocol used. Networks may be classified according to a wide variety of characteristics such as the medium used to transport the data. INTRANET & EXTRANETS 16 . The key challenge in mobile communications is handing off the user communications from one local coverage area to the next. is a collection of hardware components and computers interconnected by communication channels that allow sharing of resources and information. and organizational scope.000 mi) (for geosynchronous satellites) above the equator. this involves a succession of terrestrial wireless LANs CONCEPT OF COMPUTER NETWORKS A computer network. and TV signals. Wireless LANs – Wireless local area network use a high-frequency radio technology similar to digital cellular and a low-frequency radio technology. Cellular and PCS systems – Use several radio communications technologies. satellite coverage areas. typically 35. which limits the physical positioning of communicating devices. scale.400 km (22. These Earth-orbiting systems are capable of receiving and relaying voice. topology. Wireless LANs use spread spectrum technology to enable communication between multiple devices in a limited area.line-of-sight propagation is used. Infrared communication can transmit signals between devices within small distances of typically no more than 10 meters. In IEEE Project 802. often simply referred to as a network. The systems are divided to different geographic areas. A global area network (GAN) is a network used for supporting mobile across an arbitrary number of wireless LANs. etc.

for specific business or educational purposes. without granting access to an organization's entire network. i. Data (plural of "datum") are typically the results of measurements and can be the basis of graphs. usually partners. It can refer to the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. It can be recorded as signs. unprocessed data. UNIT –IV: SYSTEMS FUNCTIONAL AND ENTERPRISE 1. Information in its most restricted technical sense is a message (utterance or expression) or collection of messages that consists of an ordered sequence of symbols.13(B) EXTRANETS An extranet is a computer network that allows controlled access from the outside. vendors. images or other outputs from devices that collect information to convert physical quantities into symbols. It can be implicit (as with practical skill or expertise) or explicit (as with the theoretical understanding of a 17 . or conveyed as signals by waves. The concept has numerous other meanings in different contexts. An extranet can be viewed as an extension of a company's intranet that is extended to users outside the company. DATA. and/or skills acquired through experience or education. or it is the meaning that can be interpreted from such a message or collection of messages. and suppliers. Knowledge is a familiarity with someone or something. It has also been described as a "state of mind" in which the Internet is perceived as a way to do business with a selected set of other companies (business-to-business. B2B). images. business-to-consumer (B2C) models involve known servers of one or more companies.e. Raw data. facts. Information can be recorded or transmitted. communicating with previously unknown consumer users. refers to a collection of numbers. An extranet is like a DMZ in that it provides access to needed services for channel partners. or observations of a set of variables. in isolation from all other Internet users. which can include information. Information is any kind of event that affects the state of a dynamic system. In contrast. characters. Data are often viewed as the lowest level of abstraction from which information and then knowledge are derived. descriptions. INFORMATION & KNOWLEDGE CONCEPTS The term data refers to qualitative or quantitative attributes of a variable or set of variables.

It is rightly said that a problem well-defined is a problem half-solved. Analyzing the Problem: After defining the problem. while diagnosing the real problem the manager should consider causes and find out whether they are controllable or uncontrollable. and it can be more or less formal or systematic. This is how the problem can be diagnosed. Clear distinction should be made between the problem and the symptoms which may cloud the real issue. 2. and there are numerous theories to explain it. It is the point at which the choice applies. Information relevant to the problem should be gathered so that critical analysis of the problem is possible. DECISION MAKING PROCESS The figure given below suggests the steps in the decision-making process:- • • Identifying the Problem: Identification of the real problem before a business enterprise is the first step in the process of decision-making. In brief. [1] In philosophy. Similarly." There is however no single agreed upon definition of knowledge. 18 . communication. and the philosopher Plato famously defined knowledge as "justified true belief. the next step in the decision-making process is to analyze the problem in depth. the study of knowledge is called epistemology. while knowledge is also said to be related to the capacity of acknowledgment in human beings.subject). Knowledge acquisition involves complex cognitive processes: perception. This is necessary to classify the problem in order to know who must take the decision and who must be informed about the decision taken. association and reasoning. the manager should search the 'critical factor' at work. learning.

the decision will remain merely a declaration of good intentions. PHYSICAL COMPONENTS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM 19 . Converting Decision into Action: After the selection of the best decision.• • • • • Uniqueness of the decision. the manager has to determine available alternative courses of action that could be used to solve the problem at hand. the manager has to convert 'his decision into 'their decision' through his leadership. the next step in the decision-making process is to select an alternative that seems to be most rational for solving the problem. diagnosed on the basis of relevant information. Thereafter. the next step is to obtain the relevant information/ data about it. There is information flood in the business world due to new developments in the field of information technology. Here. the subordinates should be taken in confidence and they should be convinced about the correctness of the decision. Selecting the Best Solution: After preparing alternative solutions. Only realistic alternatives should be considered. group participation techniques may be used while developing alternative solutions as depending on one solution is undesirable. the next step is to convert the selected decision into an effective action. It is equally important to take into account time and cost constraints and psychological barriers that will restrict that number of alternatives. If necessary. the manager has to make built-in arrangements to ensure feedback for continuously testing actual developments against the expectations. The alternative thus selected must be communicated to those who are likely to be affected by it. Feedback is possible in the form of organised information. the manager has to take follow-up steps for the execution of decision taken. Here. For this. Acceptance of the decision by group members is always desirable and useful for its effective implementation. Without such action. Feed back is necessary to decide whether the decision already taken should be continued or be modified in the light of changed conditions. Ensuring Feedback: Feedback is the last step in the decisionmaking process. Developing Alternative Solutions: After the problem has been defined. 3. It is like checking the effectiveness of follow-up measures.: Collecting Relevant Data: After defining the problem and analyzing its nature. This brings clarity to all aspects of the problem. reports and personal observations. All available information should be utilized fully for analysis of the problem.

Information System Resources: (i) People Resources: People are required for the operation of all information systems. that is. or managers. engineers. clerks. but also all data media. programmers prepare computer programs based on the specifications of systems analysts. This information system model highlights the relationships among the components and activities of information systems. Briefly. These people resources include: • End users (also called users or clients) are people who use an information system or the information it produces. Most of us are information system end users. such as computers and other equipment. called procedures.It is important to understand that even information systems that don’t use computers have a software resource component. (iii) Software Resources: The concept of Software Resources includes all sets of information processing instructions. This generic concept of software includes not only the sets of operating instructions called programs. which direct and control computer hardware. computer operators. salespersons. Specially. or the manual and machine- 20 . They can be accountants. and computer operators operate large computer systems. • IS Specialists are people who develop and operate information systems. This is true even for the information systems of ancient times. from sheets of paper to magnetic disks. customers.An information system is a system that accepts data resources as input and processes them into information products as output. but also the sets of information processing instructions needed by people. and clerical IS personnel. it includes not only machines. They include systems analysts. (ii) Hardware Resources: The concept of Hardware resources includes all physical devices and materials used in information processing. systems analysts design information systems based on the information requirements of end uses. all tangible objects on which data is recorded. programmers. and other managerial technical.

are also important forms of data. composed of numbers and alphabetical and other characters that describe business transactions and other events and entities.supported information systems still used in the world today. They all require software resources in the form of information processing instructions and procedures in order to properly capture. and case examples about successful business practices. rules. iv) Data Resources: Data is more than the raw material of information systems. weekly. Data can take many forms. The data resources of information systems are typically organized into: • • Database that hold processed and organized data. Thus. consisting of sentences and paragraphs used in written communications. the human voice and other sounds. They realize that data constitutes a valuable organization resource. image data. pharmacy purchasing. 4. process. and disseminate information to their users. Its use at operational level and focuses on the data. CLASSIFICATION OF INFORMATION SYSTEM • Transaction Processing System (TPS): Applications of information systems that process business transaction data. and audio data. and monthly sales analysis reports for management. The concept of data resources has been broadened by managers and information systems professionals. Knowledge bases that hold knowledge in variety of forms such as facts. you should view data as data resources that must be managed effectively to benefit all end users in an organization.) Examples are computer applications for hospital services. For example. data about sales transactions may be accumulated and stored in a sales database for subsequent processing that yields daily. Text data. Management Information System (MIS):Applications of information system that aims to provide information used in the field of management (management-oriented reporting. including traditional alphanumeric data. such as graphic shapes and figures. Knowledge bases are used by knowledge management systems and expert systems to share knowledge and give expert advice on specific subjects. scheduling of production machinery and others. An example is a computer application for typing. • 21 .

the methodologies used. disruption. Expert System (ES):Information system designed to produce a decision by reproducing knowledge and expertise of the decision maker and problem solver and then simulate it. face recognition and so forth. hospitals. there are some subtle differences between them. products.• Decision Support System (DSS):Applications of information systems that provide decision-oriented information and especially in situations where decision-making. integrity and availability of data regardless of the form the data may take: electronic. Office automation system: Systems that support business activities on a large scale. print. or other forms. corporations. Examples ERP applications for the company. financial institutions. • • 5. processed and stored on electronic computers and transmitted acrossnetworks to other computers. The terms information security. computer security and information assurance are frequently incorrectly used interchangeably. disclosure. use. and financial status. research. For example a computer application to determine the purchase of drug stocks at the hospital. customers. and privatebusinesses amass a great deal of confidential information about their employees. These fields are interrelated often and share the common goals of protecting the confidentiality. modification. however. For example advanced applications of artificial neural networks. and the areas of concentration. At the executive level often called Executive Information System. military. Most of this information is now collected. Information security is concerned with the confidentiality. perusal.Governments. OVERVIEW OF SECURITY ISSUES IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Information security means protecting information and information systems from unauthorized access. recording or destruction.These differences lie primarily in the approach to the subject. integrity and availability of information. inspection.Computer security can focus on ensuring the availability and correct operation of acomputer system without concern for the information stored or processed by the computer. the determination of sugar distribution system and others.Should confidential information 22 .

about a business' customers or finances or new product line fall into the hands of a competitor. use of information system (IS)/IT standards for information security is mostly voluntary. 23 . or have engaged in. and the business school curricula is inadequate to the needs of Icelandic corporations with respect to IT demands. information security has a significant effect on privacy. offshore subcontractors sometimes place their employees within Icelandic companies. and in many cases also an ethical and legal requirement. securing applications and databases. the establishment of IS/IT strategy does not remain with board of directors. security remains a serious concern. information systems auditing.The field of information security has grown and evolved significantly in recent years. law suits or even bankruptcy of the testing. business continuity planning and digital forensics science. outsourcing over the past five years (11 sub-trends are identified). There are many ways of gaining entry into the field as a career.For the individual. etc. establishment of strategy resides entirely within the IT management. mid. It offers many areas for specialization including: securing network(s) and allied infrastructure. generally. EMERGING TRENDS OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Ten trends are identified consisting of aspects of: the difficulty of hiring qualified labor in-country. virtually all Icelandic corporations engage in. such a breach of security could lead to lost business. 6. Protecting confidential information is a business requirement. which is viewed very differently in different cultures.and upper-level employees who can strategically develop networks and systems are in strong demand.