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Relative Pronouns

A relative pronoun is a pronoun that introduces a relative clause. It is called a "relative" pronoun because it "relates" to the word that it modifies. Here is an example:

The person who phoned me last night is my teacher.

In the above example, "who":
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relates to "person", which it modifies introduces the relative clause "who phoned me last night"

There are five relative pronouns: who, whom, whose, which, that* Who (subject) and whom (object) are generally only for people. Whose is for possession. Which is for things. That can be used for people** and things and as subject and object in defining relative clauses (clauses that are essential to the sentence and do not simply add extra information). Relative pronouns can refer to singular or plural, and there is no difference between male and female. Look at these examples showing defining and non-defining relative clauses: example sentences S=subject, O=object, P=possessive defining - The person who phoned me last night is my teacher. - The person that phoned me last night is my teacher. - The car which hit me was yellow. - The cars that hit me were yellow. O - The person whom I phoned last night is my teacher. - The people who I phoned last night are my teachers. - The person that I phoned last night is my teacher. - The person I phoned last night is my teacher. - The car which I drive is old. - The car that I drive is old. - The car I drive is old.

notes

That is preferable

S

That is preferable

Whom is correct but very formal. The relative pronoun is optional.

That is preferable to which. The relative pronoun is optional.

. but whose is sometimes possible *Not all grammar sources count "that" as a relative pronoun.Mr and Mrs Pratt. Of which is usual for things. was completely destroyed. are my teachers.Mrs Pratt.The car. . is my teacher. .Students whose parents are wealthy pay extra. which was a taxi.The car. P .The car.The student whose phone just rang should stand up. there is no good reason for such a claim. was completely destroyed. the boy who has just arrived at the airport. That's Peter. who is very kind. . S . whom I like very much. . which I was driving at the time.The car.Mrs Pratt. . O nondefining P Of which is usual for things.The police are looking for the car whose driver was masked.The cars. . suddenly caught fire. . exploded. whose phone you just heard. exploded. is my teacher. We often visit our aunt in Norwich which is in East Anglia. is a doctor.My brother. I talked to the girl whose car had broken down in front of the shop.The police are looking for the car of which the driver was masked. . which were taxis. who I like very much. the driver of which jumped out just before the accident.. whose driver jumped out just before the accident. . but whose is sometimes possible Whom is correct but very formal. Who is normal. . **Some people claim that we cannot use "that" for people but must use "who/whom".

is from Ireland What did you do with the money which your mother lent you? RELATIVEPRONOUN Berarti“yang”merupakan kata penghubung yang digunakan untuk membentuk kalimat yang berasal dari dua buah kalimat . who shouted in the street.g:-Riko is sad. B.g: some girlsare happy.WHOSE Digunakan untuk menggantikan frase orang yang menyatakan kepemilikan/kepunyaan(possessive). e. .WHO Digunakan untuk menggantikan orang yang berkedudukan sebagai subject. whose driver is a young man.WHOM Digunakan untuk menggantikan frasa orang yang berkedudukan sebagai objek atau sebagai pelengkap(complement). Selain itu. digunakan untuk menggantikan satu atau dua frase benda yang identik dan menghubungkan klausa satu dengan yang lainnya yang nantinya kalimat/klausa yang menerangkan bagian kalimat yang lainnya. are not from our school The car. Kedua kalimat itu dapat digabungkan dengan pola relative pronoun menjadi: Riko who has just lost his money is sad. C.E.Defining relative pronoun adalah bentuk yang mempunyai sifat menentukan atau membedakan antara frase benda yang diterangkannya dari benda lain.The children. The girl to whom this letter is addressed has gone to Jakarta. 1. He has just lost his money. I like the girls bisa digabungkan menjadi: the girls whom I like are happy NOTE: Kalau dalam kalimat kedua sebelum frase yang akan digantikan dengan relative pronoun terdapat kata depan(preposisi) maka preposisi harus dipindahkan pada posisi sebelum“whom“. NOTE:Kata“who“yangberartiyangdiletakansetelahkatayangdigantikannya. A.

e. . maka preposisi tersebut harus dipindahkan pada posisi sebelum“which“.tetapi gunakanlah who atau whom.g: Joana’s book whose book is very good to read has been written since two years ago.e.NONDEFINING adalah bentuk pronoun yang bersifat membertambahan informasi/keterangan tambahan mengenai frase yang diterangkannya. Non defining selalu di apit oleh koma(.WHICH Digunakan untuk mengantikan frase benda atau binatang baik berkedudukan sebagai subyek maupun objek. D. NOTE:Untuk menerangkan tuhan tidak boleh menggunakan“that“. is famous for wajit. e.whom. D.THAT Digunakan untuk menggantikan frase orang atau benda yang dalam hal ini“that“sama dengan“who. I see the cat which has been eaten by me.)dan relative pronounnya tidak bisa dihilangkan. e.g:cililin.g:the girl whom met me is very bad. NOTE:Apabila dalam kalimat kedua sebelum frase yang akan digantikan dengan relative pronoun terdapat preposisi(katadepan). E.g:.g::That is the chalk by which I write last night. in which I born. 2.which“ kedudukannya.. Bisa juga the girl that met me is very bad.