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Angular displacement, angular velocity, angular acceleration, period, f l ti i d frequency Centripetal acceleration Dynamic equation, Centripetal force Linear vs circular motion Newtons Law of Gravitation Weight, Gravity, and satellite in circular orbit

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Lesson Outcomes

At the end of the lesson, students should be able to: 1. 2. 2 3. 3 4. define angular displacement, angular velocity, angular acceleration, period and frequency. state the relation between the li t t th l ti b t th linear and circular parts of d i l t f the motions. apply Newton s universal laws of gravitation to determine Newtons the weight of a body. use free-body diagrams to solve problems involving f y g p g centripetal forces and accelerations.

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Tie a string to a stone and then swing it above your head horizontally. h dh i ll

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Its a motion of a particle around a circle or circular arc at constant (uniform) speed. The velocity is always directed tangent to the circle in the direction of the motion.

2r v= T

Period T, is the time required to travel once around the circle that is to circle, complete one revolution.

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In Fig. (a), at time t0 the velocity is tangent to the l i i h circle at point O and at a later time t the velocity is a tangent at p point P.

Fig. (a)

As the object moves from O to P, the radius traces out the angle , and the velocity vector change the direction.

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In Fig. (b), the velocity vector at time t is redrawn with its tail at O parallel to itself. ihi il ll l i lf The angle between the two vectors indicates the change i the direction. h in h di i Since the radii CO and CP are perpendicular to the tangent at O and P so it follows that + = 90

FAP 0015 PHYSICS I

Fig. (b)

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The acceleration a, is the change in v in velocity divided be l di id d b elapsed time a = / d i t, v/t. Fig. (c) shows two velocity vectors oriented at the angle , together with the vector that represents the change h ih h v h h h in the velocity vectors (vt0 + v)= vt Th resultant velocity vector, v, The l l i has a new direction after an elapsed time t = t - t0

Fig. (c)

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Fi (d) shows th sector of Fig. h the t f the circle COP. Wh t i very small th When is ll the arc length OP is straight line and equals to the distance vt that traveled by the object. limit, In this limit COP is an isosceles triangle with apex g angle .

Fig. (d)

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Compare COP in Fig (d) with triangle in Fig (c). They i Fi ( ) Th are similar b i il because both are isosceles triangles with apex angles labeled are same. Thus g

to show the magnitude of centripetal acceleration ac,

v vt = v r

Fig. (c)

v v ac = = r t

Fig. (d)

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Linear vs Circular

s = r d 1 ds v = = = dt r dt r

d 1 dv a = = = dt r dt r

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When an object is moving in a uniform circular motion, there is an acceleration towards the center of the i l th circular path. (centripetal acceleration) th ( t i t l l ti ) The magnitude of the acceleration is g

v 2 ac = = r r

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To provide this acceleration, there must be a force acts towards the center of the circular path. The force is called the centripetal force. h f i ll d h i f The magnitude of this force can be calculated by using Newtons 2nd. law of motion.

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Fc = mac

v mv FC = m = r r

C

F

FAP 0014 PHYSICS I

= m r

2

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The bobsled track contained turns with radii of 33 m and 24 m. Find the centripetal acceleration at each turn for a speed of 34 m/s, a speed that was achieved i hi d in th t the two-man event. t Express the answers as multiples of g = 9.8 m/s2.

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Solution

Since the radius r is in the denominator on the right side, the th acceleration i smaller when r i l l ti is ll h is larger For radius =33 and 24 m the centripetal acceleration is

v2 (34 m/s) For r = 33, ac = = = 35m/s2 = 3.6g r 33m 2 v2 (34 m/s) For F r = 24, ac = = = 48m/s2 = 4 9 / 4.9g 24 m r

2

The acceleration approaches to zero when r is very large. UCM along the arc of an infinitely large circle entails no acceleration, because is just like at constant speed along straight line.

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A car moves at a constant speed, and there are three parts to the motion. It moves along a straight line toward a circular turn, goes around the turn, and then moves away along a straight line. In each of the parts, is the car in equilibrium?

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Answer

The object is in equilibrium when i has zero acceleration. h bj i i ilib i h it h l i As the car approaches the turn, both the speed and direction of motion are constant. Thus the velocity vector does not change and there is no acceleration.The same is true when the car moves away from the turn. For these parts of motion the car is in equilibrium. As the car goes around the turn, the direction of the travel changes, changes so car has a centripetal acceleration that is a characteristic of UCM. Because of this acceleration the car is not in equilibrium during the turn turn. An object that is in UCM can never be in equilibrium.

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The model airplane has a mass of 0.90 kg and moves at a constant speed on a circle d i l that is parallel to the ground. The path of the airplane and p p its guideline lie in the same horizontal plane, because the weight of the plane is balanced by the lift generated by its wings. Find the tension in the guideline (length 17 m) for speed of 19 and 38 m/s.

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Solution

Since the plane flies on a circular path, it experiences a centripetal acceleration. that is directed towards the center. This acceleration is produced by a net force which is equal to the tension T. Because T in the guideline is the only force pulling the plane inward it must be the centripetal lli th l i d t b th ti t l force.Thus, Fc= T = mv2/r, T for the two speed are:

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Example

A 1200 0 kg car rounded a corner of a radius r = 45 m If 1200.0 m. the coefficient of static friction s = 0.82, what is the g greatest speed the car can have in the corner without p skidding?

Solution:

The sum of F in x-direction for the force of static friction 2 and is mv

F

y

= f s = s N = ma x = macp =

= N W = ma y Thus N = W = mg

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Thus v = (082)(45 m)(9.81 m/s 2 ) = 19 m/s

The mass of the car has been eliminated. Thus all cars, heavy or light have the same maximum speed. The speed it depends on s, thus the dry road allows greater maximum speed than icy road. road

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Example

If a lateral acceleration of 8.9 m/s2 represents the maximum ac that can be attained without skidding out of the circular path, and if the car is traveling at a constant 45 m/s, what is a minimum radius of curve it can negotiate? If the driver rounding a flat with unbanked curve with radius R. If the coefficient of friction between the tires and road is s, what is the maximum speed v at which he can take the curve without skidding? ith t kiddi ?

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Solution

(a) We have, ac = 8.9 m/s and v = 45 m/s. (45 /8.9 m R = v2/ac,=(45 m/s)2/8 9 m/s2, = 230 m. (b) Acceleration v2/R toward the center of the curve must be caused by friction force Fs, there is no vertical acceleration, Thus, Fs = m v2/R, The normal force FN mg = 0. g We have Fs = s FN,, = s mg, which is constant and determine the cars maximum speed. v = (s gR)1/2, if p g ) s = 0.91, R = 230 m, Then v = 45 m/s.

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Banked Curve

A vehicle can negotiate a circular turn without relying on static friction to provide the centripetal force if the turn is banked at an angle relative to the horizontal.

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v2 tan = rg

For a given speed, v, the centripetal force needed for a turn of radius r can be obtained by banking the turn at an angle , independent of the mass of vehicle. What would happen if a vehicle moves at a speed much larger or much smaller than v?

FAP 0015 PHYSICS I 22/01/2010 26

GRAVITY

Gravity is a fundamental force in sense that cannot be explained in terms of any other force. Fundamental forces are: gravitational, electromagnetic and nuclear forces. These forces seem to be responsible for everything that happens in the universe. Gravitational forces act between all bodies in the universe and hold together planets, stars and galaxies of stars.

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Newton proposed a force law saying that every particle attracts any other particle with a gravitational force. Every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other particle with a force that is directly proportional t th product of th masses of th ti l to the d t f the f the particles and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them them.

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A uniform sphere with a radius R and mass M, and object of mass m is brought near the sphere at the distance r from the center. t Newton showed that, the net force exerted b th sphere on f t d by the h the mass, m is the same as if all t e asses o t e sp e e we e the masses of the sphere were concentrated at its center this force is,

F =

GmM r2

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The force of gravity between any two point objects of mass m1 an m2 is attractive and of magnitude

Gm1m2 F = 2 r

where G is the universal gravitational g constant, G = 6.67 x 10-11 Nm2/kg2 F-gravity forms action-reaction pair.

Gm1m2 F = 2 r

The force diminishes rapidly with the distance, but never completely vanishes. Thus, gravity is a force of infinite range

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Weight

Previously we defined the weight of a body as the attractive gravitational force exerted on it by the earth. Now, we can broaden the definition as: the weight of the body is the total gravitational force exerted on the body by all other bodies in the universe universe. When the body near the earth, we can neglect all other gravitational forces and consider the weight as just the earths gravitational attraction. At the surface of the moon we can neglect all others forces g and consider the bodys weight to be gravitational attraction of the moon, and so on.

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GmM e F = mg = 2 re

where Me and re are the mass and radius of the earth respectively.

GM e so, g = 2 re GM e g= 2 (h + re )

FAP 0015 PHYSICS I

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We have had two definitions of mass: The property of an object that resists change i state h f bj h i h in of motion. A Appears as th constant i N t second l the t t in Newtons d law F = ma. It is called inertial mass. The property of an object that d Th f bj h determines the i h strength of the gravitational force F = mg. It is called gravitational mass.

FAP 0015 PHYSICS I 22/01/2010 36

Example

Find the acceleration of gravity on the surface of the th moon. The lunar rover has a mass of 225 kg. What is its weight on th earth and on th moon? i ht the th d the ? [note, th [ t the mass of the moon is Mm = 7 35 x 1022 k f th i 7.35 kg and its radius is Rm = 1.74 x 106 m.]

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Solution:

For the moon the acceleration of gravity is GM m 6.67 x10 11 7.35 10 22 gm = = = 1.62 m/s 2 6 2 Rm 1.74 10 This is about 1/6 of the g on the earth. On th O the earth the rovers weight was th th i ht

2

2

FAP 0015 PHYSICS I 22/01/2010 38

Conceptual Q p Question

Other things being equal would it be equal, easier to drive at high speed around unbanked h i b k d horizontal curve on th moon t l the than to drive around the same curve on the earth? Explain.

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The maximum safe speed with which a car can round an unbanked horizontal curve of radius r is given by .

v = s rg

Since the acceleration due to gravity on the moon is roughly one sixth that on earth, the safe speed for the same curve on the moon would be less than that on earth. In earth other words, other things being equal, it would be more difficult to drive at high speed around an unbanked curve on the moon as compared to driving around the same curve on the earth.

FAP 0015 PHYSICS I 22/01/2010 40

Conceptual Q p Question

A stone is tied to a string and whirled around in a circular path at a constant speed. Is string more likely to break when the circle is y horizontal or when it vertical? Account for to your answer assuming the constant speed is the same in each case.

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When the string is whirled in a horizontal circle, the tension in the string, FT, provides the centripetal string force which causes the stone to move in a circle. Since the speed of the stone is constant, and the tension in the string is constant. When the string is whirled in a vertical circle the circle, tension in the string and the weight of the stone both contribute to the centripetal force, depending on p , p g where the stone is on the circle.

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Now, however, the tension increases and decreases as the stone traverses the vertical circle. When the stone is at the lowest point in its swing, the tension in the string pulls the stone upward, while the weight of the stone acts downward. Therefore, the centripetal force is .

mv = FT mg r

Thus

mv FT = + mg r

mv 2 FT = r

Therefore the string has a greater chance of breaking Therefore, when the stone is whirled in a vertical circle.

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The rider who perform the loop-the loop trick know that he must have a minimum speed at the top f the i l to th t of th circle t remain on the track.

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1 . FN1

mv 12 mg = r

2 mv 2 = r

2 mv 3 + mg = r

2.

FN2

3 . FN3

4.

FN4

2 mv 4 = r

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