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Characteristics of Baroque music include:  Polyphonic texture: multiple melodic lines in different voices  Unity of mood: each piece

features a single emotion (i.e. a piece that begins happy will remain happy)  Continuity of rhythm: rhythmic patterns are often repeated throughout a piece  Repetition of melody: the melody is repeated; though it is distinct, it is not lyrical  Terraced dynamics: dynamics change suddenly rather than gradually  Ornamentation (music flourishes, often fast notes, to decorate the main note)  Less use of instrumental music; large use of the harpsichord Classical (1750 - 1830)  Music from the Classical period shifted away from the Baroque period's emphasis on polyphonic texture and more towards a single melody with accompaniment. This created music with less texture but with a more clearly defined melody.  Characteristics of Classical music include:  Single melody with accompaniment: one voice carries the primary melody while another voice plays a simpler line that supports the melody  Larger variety of keys, melodies, rhythms, and dynamics  More contrast in a piece  Shorter, clearer melodies than in Baroque music  More emphasis on instrumental music  Primary forms of composition: sonata, trio, string quartet, symphony, concerto

Romantic (1830 - 1920)  Music from the Romantic period is characterized by its much greater passion and expression than that of earlier

from world music to technology  Many classical composers have written for film scores Bach -baroque Vivaldi.  Contemporary classical music can be divided into:  20th-century Contemporary Classical Music:  Varies greatly. and rhythm  Less traditional chord progressions  Program music: more pieces inspired by literary/artistic sources  Greater emphasis on nationalism: many composers infused cultural songs or dances into their works Contemporary (1920 .  Characteristics of Romantic music include:  Freer form and more personal expression of emotion  Emphasis on lyrical melodies and themes  More modulation (change in key) to unexpected keys: the overall effect of this is that it is harder for the listener to predict what will happen next in the piece  More chromaticism and scales other than major/minor  Greater variety in pitch. which include minimalism. experimentalism  Contains a variety of influences. Romantic works display an expansion of form (like the key and instrumentation of a piece). no dominant style  Increased use of dissonance  21st-century Contemporary Classical Music:  Huge variety in style. Whereas music from the Common Practice Period was largely tonal.present):  The most conspicuous differentiation between classical music in the Contemporary period and in previous periods is the shift in tone. Beethoven Mozart hayden Schubert–Classical . much Contemporary music is atonal. dynamics.periods.

1 melody with accompaniment poly.1 voice only eg.Beethoven Schubert Tchaikovsky .imperfect 4 to 1 = plagal Anything else is interrupted “phonic” mono. Bartok.2 or more variations of the same melody performed simultaneously . 1 melody and 1 drone homo. Mendelssohn Chopin strauus Romantic Contemporary.Debussy.2 voices.2 or more melodic lines simultaneously hetero. Religious chant bi. 5 to 1= perfect 1 to 5 =imperfect 2 to 5 = imperfect any inversion.