You are on page 1of 12

CHAPTER 6 : NUTRITION LEARNING OUTCOME: state the types of nutrition 1.

Complete the flowchart below NUTRITION
Type

HETEROTROPHIC
Use light energy Use chemical energy Live in or on other organisms

Eat other organisms

CHEMOTROPHIC

H EXAMPLES -Green plants -Algae -Bacteria
EXAMPLES

-

EXAMPLES -Tapeworm -leech -Loranthus

EXAMPLES -

SAPROPHYTIC

Feed on dead organisms

LEARNING OUTCOME: explain the factors affecting the daily energy requirement of the human body, 2. Fil in the missing word Factor Physical activity Age Gander Explanation More activities.

is needed for vigourous activities compare to light

and aldolescents need more energy for growth. need less energy when they grow older. Adult males require energy than adult females. This is because men in general are physically more active and they also have body fat.

Enlargement vein in the wall of rectum 5. compare to those in the energy than another energy to keep countries. LEARNING OUTCOME: Explain the effects of malnutrition using examples 3. A disorder in children cause by deficiency in protein and energy foods 4.Body size Climate An individual or bigger size requires smaller size. Complete the crossword puzzle below 1 2 3 U 4 O S 5 P I 6 7 E 9 10 L A 8 I O R S Across 2. People who live in countries require the body . A condition in which the bone become porous and brittle 7. uncontrollable overeating follow by purging or vomiting .

1.. 3.. Defeciency in roughage causes ...... Down 1..85 kJ g–1 D 9.9...9 g Specifi c latent heat of water = 4. A person who loss desire to eat due to an obsession of maintaining a slim body.. 1... stunted growth. LEARNING OUTCOME: determine the energy value in food samples 4..23 kJ g–1 C 4.... The diagram shows an experiment to measure heat energy produced by the burning of a piece of cashew nut.. Duodenum Fig......1 .......... muscle that waste away.... 6..83 kJ g–1 LEARNING OUTCOME: state the digestive juices and substances that aid in the process of digestion in human 5 Fig.2 J g–1 °C– What is the heat produced by 1 g of cashew nut? A 1.. diarrhoea and oedema which causes the belly to swell are the symptoms of . The abnormal form of leg cause by the lack of Vitamin D 10...1 shows part of the human digestive system.45 kJ g–1 B 2.. Eating more than the body needs may lead to 8... Volume of water = 20 cm3 Initial water temperature = 26°C Final water temperature = 78°C Mass of cashew nut = 0. Fresh fruits especially citrus fruits are important to prevent.

1. Define the term enzyme. 1. Name the food component that amylase digests and name the end product of this digestion. [3marks] (iii) Amylase is a digestive enzyme found in the duodenum. End product:…………………………………………………………………………………………. 1. [2 marks] (c) . label the gall bladder. Z: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. [2 marks] A liquid. Y: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. the oesophagus and the pancreas. [3 marks] (b) (ii) Enzymes are needed to digest the food we eat. Food component :…………………………………………………………………………………. Name the three enzymes in the figure above and state its optimal pH X: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. produced by the liver... does not contain any digestive enzymes. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… . Use label lines and the words ‘gall bladder’ ‘oesophagus’ and ‘pancreas’ on Fig.1. 1. .(a) On Fig.2 shows the activity of three digestive enzymes in solutions of different pH. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… [2 marks] Fig. Name this liquid and state its role in digestion.

LEARNING OUTCOME: explain the digestion of carbohydrates. Explain what happen to the food that he ate. C and D A B C D . in each part labelled A. (b) alkaline.{c) neutral? What class of food is partially digested in the stomach? What is the name of the enzyme in gastric juice? What types of enzymes are produced by the pancreas? Into which part of the alimentary canal does the pancreas secrete pancreatic juice? What is the function of bile in digestion? State three ways in which the absorbing surface of the small intestine is increased. B. glycerol (c) amino acids pass? Ahmad drank a cup of milk and ate two slices of plain white bread spread with butter for breakfast. 6 How does chewing food help to speed up digestion? 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Name the enzyme present in saliva and say what type of food it acts on. Are the contents of the stomach (a) acid. proteins and lipids in the human body. (b) fatty acids. Into what body fluids do (a) glucose.

nitrogen.LEARNING OUTCOME: describe the process of assimilation 16 Fill in the missing words..... mineral salts.. with …….. The waste product of the process is…….. of leaf cells.. (b) alcohol..... One example of a plant product rich in protein is ……. which is stored..… . it combines ……. chlorophyll... it is changed to ……...... and ……. before entering the general circulation. An animal product rich in protein is ……... In this process. water..... from the ……. The blood from the intestine goes first to the …….. it is broken down into its constituent ……...... and these are later built up in the body to make new ……… Excess proteins which are not used for making new cells or tissues are converted to ……. (c) vitamin A? LEARNING OUTCOME: state the substances required for photosynthesis soil.... which is excreted by the kidneys. LEARNING OUTCOME: explain the main functions of the liver 18 What does the liver do to (a) hormones....... photosynthesis.... chloroplasts..... needed for this process comes from ……. Glucose which passes into the general circulation is taken up by the body cells and used to provide ……. .... It builds up carbohydrates by the process of ……....……. to form ……. The ……. which can be stored or used to provide ……… . the liver converts them to ……............... which is absorbed by the ……... oxygen... If there are excess amino acids in the blood from the intestine........... liver glycogen energy glycogen urea LEARNING OUTCOME: describe the process of assimilation 17 Write down the words omitted from the following paragraph: Proteins are made up of about 20 different ……. If the glucose concentration in the blood is above a certain level.. carbon dioxide... glucose..... energy.......... . from the …….... air. sunlight. respiration... in the ....... When a protein is digested........ and stored. cells.. 19 A green plant can make all the substances it needs..

............1...... the cuticle and a vascular bundle............. [2 marks] (ii) Complete the word equation below to show the process of photosynthesis................................ Suggest an advantage to a plant of this feature..........………………………………………………………………………… [2 marks] (c) Most photosynthesis in plants happens in leaves.. Suggest an advantage to a plant of this feature. 2. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… [2 marks] (iii) State two functions of vascular bundles in leaves. .....……………………………………………..... ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………...... + ..1 shows a section through a leaf............. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……............. LEARNING OUTCOME: identify the factors affecting the rate of photosynthesis... ....... [2 marks] (b) (i) The upper layers of a leaf are transparent.............. 4..... (i) Name the two raw materials needed for photosynthesis... Glucose + ............... 1.. [2 marks] (ii) The cuticle is made of a waxy material....LEARNING OUTCOME: state the function of each part of the leaf with respect to photosynthesis 20 Fig.......... 2..... ……………………………………………………………………............................... ……………………………………………………………………... (a) On Fig. 21 The diagram shows the effect of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis at two different concentrations of carbon dioxide.. label a stoma..........

.................................................................... ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …................................................ [1 mark] (d) State two other environmental factors other than light intensity and carbon dioxide concentration which might limit the rate of photosynthesis..................................................1 % on the rate of photosynthesis.................. ...................... [3 marks] (c) Suggest one way a horticulturist can increase carbon dioxide concentration in a greenhouse.... [1 mark] (ii) State two advantages of using the method of hydroponics and aeroponics in growing crop plants......................................... ………………………………………………………………………………………………...................... ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …......................................04 % carbon dioxide.............……………………………………………………………… ……………………………….....(a) Describe how the rate of photosynthesis varies as light intensity increases for a crop plant grown in an atmosphere containing 0...... ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …............... [2 marks] (e) (i) State one difference between hydroponics and aeroponics..................................................................................... ……………………………………………………………………………………………… [3 marks] (b) Describe the effect of increasing the carbon dioxide to 0.....................................................................................................................................................................................…………………………………………………………… …………………………………............................................................................... ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …............................................................................... ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ….......

11 The pancreas produces enzymes which act on proteins (proteases). Aneroxia . Bulimia. 9 Proteins are partially digested in the stomach. 10 The enzyme in gastric juice is pepsin. bile. neutralises acidity of material from stomach 11 Digestion .2 (component) starch. emulsifies fats / oils / OWTTE. 1. 4. 2. Osteoporosis. phototrophic. oesophagus correctly labelled. Kwashiorkor. 7. optimal pH 8. holozoic. pancreas correctly labelled. Rickets. 10. optimal pH 7 enzyme z is lipase . Marasmus.answers 4 5(a) (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (c) 6 Chewing reduces food to portions small enough to be swallowed and increases the surface area of the food for digestive enzymes to act on. 5. optimal pH 2 enzyme y is amylase . Haemorrhoids. gall bladder correctly labelled. parasitc. (biological) catalyst. 3. 8.MARKING SCHEMES 1 2 3 Autotrophic. 8 (a) The stomach contents are acid. . 7 The enzyme in saliva is salivary amylase and it acts on starch. (product) maltose. Scurvy . 6. made of protein enzyme X is pepsin . Constipation. 9. Obesity.

If there are excess amino acids in the blood from the intestine. If the glucose concentration in the blood is above a certain level. and urea which is excreted by the kidneys 16 17 The liver (a) converts hormones to inactive compounds. 18 19 . (b) fatty acids and glycerol may enter the blood or the lymph. (c) stores vitamin A. which can be stored or used to provide energy ……… . it is changed to glycogen and stored. One example of a plant product rich in protein is soya bean. The blood from the intestine goes first to the liver before entering the general circulation. (c) having villi. it is broken down into its constituent amino acids. and these are later built up in the body to make new cells. A green plant can make all the substances it needs. 15 (a) Glucose and (c) amino acids enter the blood stream. In this process it combines water from the soil with carbon dioxide from the air to form glucose. 13 Bile emulsifies fats (breaks fats into small droplets). 16 glycogen which is stored. An animal product rich in protein is meat When a protein is digested. (d) micro-villi on the epithelial cells. Glucose which passes into the general circulation is taken up by the body cells and used to provide energy. 14 The absorbing surface of the small intestine is increased by (a) being very long. It builds up carbohydrates by the process of photosynthesis. the liver converts them to Proteins are made up of about 20 different amino acid. (b) oxidises alcohol to carbon dioxide and water. Excess proteins which are not used for making new cells or tissues are converted to glucose. (b) having internal folds. The energy needed for this process comes from sunlight which is absorbed by the chlorophyll in the chloroplasts of leaf cells.starch (amylase) and fat (lipase). . The waste product of the process is oxygen. 12 The pancreas releases pancreatic juice into the duodenum.

• Plants are less infected by pathogens/no herbicide or pesticides are (c) (i) 21 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (i) (ii) .1%. the plant roots are suspended in the air. any two – 1 mark each [2] carbon dioxide. • The rate of photosynthesis will increase until a new saturation point is reached. availability of water Hydroponics is a method of growing plants in a nutrient solution and not in the soil whereas in aeroponics. • At this point the rate of photosynthesis remains constant. • This is because other factors such as carbon dioxide concentration becomes the limiting factor and limits the increase in the rate of photosynthesis. vascular bundle correctly labelled allows light to penetrate / OWTTE (for photosynthesis) reduces water loss / transpiration from leaf 1 bring water (to leaf cells) 2 bring minerals / named mineral (to leaf cells) 3 carry away glucose / amino acids / products of photosynthesis (from leaf cells). • A soil medium is not required. 4 provide support / skeleton for leaf / OWTTE.20(a) (b) (i) (ii) (iii) stoma correctly labelled. The rate of photosynthesis is increased by an increase (0. cuticle correctly labelled. Temperature. • The rate of photosynthesis increase with an increase in light intensity until a saturation point is reached. Burning fuels such as paraffi n to increase carbon dioxide concentration to about 0. • At this point any further increase in light intensity will not increase the rate of photosynthesis.1%) in carbon dioxide concentration. Any further increase in light intensity does not increase the rate of photosynthesis. water • The rate of photosynthesis is directly proportional to the light intensity.

• Plants can be grown all year round. . • Less space is needed.required.