# Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.

H)} 1

CH#6

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 2

PROBLEMS
Q#6.1: Show that i = ke
-2t
and i = ke
-t
are solutions of the differential equation
d
2
i di
+ 3 + 2i = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
i + 3si + 2i = 0
s
2
+ 3s + 2 = 0
a 1
b 3
c 2

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get
-3 ± \3
2
– 4(1)(2)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-3 ± \9

– 8
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-3 ± \1
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-3 ± 1
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-3 + 1)/2, (-3 - 1)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-2)/2, (-4)/2
s
1
, s
2
= -1, -2
General solution:
i(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = K
1
e
-1t
+ K
2
e
-2t

Q#6.2: Show that i = Ke
-t
and i = Kte
-t
are solutions of the differential equation
d
2
i di
+ 2 + i = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 3

Here
1s
2
i + 2si + 1i = 0
s
2
+ 2s + 1 = 0
a 1
b 2
c 1

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get

-2 ± \2
2
– 4(1)(1)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2 ± \4

– 4
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2 ± \0
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2 ± 0
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-2 + 0)/2, (-2 - 0)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-1), (-1)
General solution:
i(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
te
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = K
1
e
-1t
+ K
2
te
-1t

Q#6.3: Find the general solution of each of the following equations:
(a)
d
2
i di
+ 3 + 2i = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
i + 3si + 2i = 0
s
2
+ 3s + 2 = 0
a 1
b 3
c 2
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 4

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get
-3 ± \3
2
– 4(1)(2)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-3 ± \9

– 8
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-3 ± \1
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-3 ± 1
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-3 + 1)/2, (-3 - 1)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-2)/2, (-4)/2
s
1
, s
2
= -1, -2
General solution:
i(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = K
1
e
-1t
+ K
2
e
-2t

(b)
d
2
i di
+ 5 + 6i = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
i + 5si + 6i = 0
s
2
+ 5s + 6 = 0
a 1
b 5
c 6

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 5

-5 ± \5
2
– 4(1)(6)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-5 ± \25

– 24
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-5 ± \1
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-5 ± 1
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-5 + 1)/2, (-5 - 1)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-4)/2, (-6)/2
s
1
, s
2
= -2, -3
General solution:
i(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = K
1
e
-2t
+ K
2
e
-3t

(c)
d
2
i di
+ 7 + 12i = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
i + 7si + 12i = 0
s
2
+ 7s + 12 = 0
a 1
b 7
c 12

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get
-7 ± \7
2
– 4(1)(12)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-7 ± \49

– 48
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 6

-7 ± \1
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-7 ± 1
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-7 + 1)/2, (-7 - 1)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-6)/2, (-8)/2
s
1
, s
2
= -3, -4
General solution:
i(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = K
1
e
-3t
+ K
2
e
-4t

(d)
d
2
i di
+ 5 + 4i = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
i + 5si + 4i = 0
s
2
+ 5s + 4 = 0
a 1
b 5
c 4

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get

-5 ± \5
2
– 4(1)(4)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-5 ± \25

– 16
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-5 ± \9
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-5 ± 3
s
1
, s
2
=
2
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 7

s
1
, s
2
= (-5 + 3)/2, (-5 - 3)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-2)/2, (-8)/2
s
1
, s
2
= -1, -4
General solution:
i(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = K
1
e
-1t
+ K
2
e
-4t

(e)
d
2
i di
+ 1 + 6i = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
i + 1si + 6i = 0
s
2
+ 1s + 6 = 0
a 1
b 1
c 6

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get
-1 ± \1
2
– 4(1)(6)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-1 ± \1

– 24
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-1 ± \-23
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-1 ± i4.796
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-1 + i4.796)/2, (-1 - i4.796)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-0.5 + i2.398), (-0.5 - i2.398)
General solution:
i(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = K
1
e
(-0.5 + i2.398)t
+ K
2
e
(-0.5 - i2.398)t

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 8

(f)
d
2
i di
+ 1 + 2i = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
i + 1si + 2i = 0
s
2
+ 1s + 2 = 0
A 1
B 1
C 2

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get
-1 ± \1
2
– 4(1)(2)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-1 ± \1

– 8
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-1 ± \-7
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-1 ± i2.646
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-1 + i2.646)/2, (-1 - i2.646)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-0.5 + i1.323), (-0.5 – i1.323)
General solution:
i(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = K
1
e
(-0.5 + i1.323)t
+ K
2
e
(-0.5 - i1.323)t

(g)
d
2
i di
+ 2 + i = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
i + 2si + i = 0
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 9

s
2
+ 2s + 1 = 0
a 1
b 2
c 1
-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get
-2 ± \2
2
– 4(1)(1)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2 ± \4

– 4
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2 ± \0
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2 ± 0
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-2 + 0)/2, (-2 - 0)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-1), (-1)
General solution:
i(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = K
1
e
(-1)t
+ K
2
te
(-1)t

(h)

d
2
i di
+ 4 + 4i = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
i + 4si + 4i = 0
s
2
+ 4s + 4 = 0
a 1
b 4
c 4

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 10

Putting corresponding values we get
-4 ± \4
2
– 4(1)(4)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-4 ± \16

– 16
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-4 ± \0
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-4 ± 0
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-4 + 0)/2, (-4 - 0)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-2), (-2)
General solution:
i(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = K
1
e
(-2)t
+ K
2
te
(-2)t

Q#6.4: Find the general solution of each of the following homogeneous differential
equations:
(a)
d
2
v dv
+ 2 + 2v = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
v + 2sv + 2v = 0
s
2
+ 2s + 2 = 0
a 1
b 2
c 2

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get
-2 ± \2
2
– 4(1)(2)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 11

-2 ± \4

– 8
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2 ± \-4
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2 ± i2
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-2 + i2)/2, (-2 – i2)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-1 + i1), (-1 – i1)
General solution:
v(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

v(t) = K
1
e
(-1 + i1)t
+ K
2
e
(-1 – i1)t

(b)
d
2
v dv
+ 2 + 4v = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
v + 2sv + 4v = 0
s
2
+ 2s + 4 = 0
a 1
b 2
c 4

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get

-2 ± \2
2
– 4(1)(4)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2 ± \4

– 16
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 12

-2 ± \-12
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2 ± i3.464
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-2 + i3.464)/2, (-2 – i3.464)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-1 + i1.732), (-1 – i1.732)
General solution:
v(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

v(t) = K
1
e
(-1 + i1.732)t
+ K
2
e
(-1 – i1.732)t

(c)
d
2
v dv
+ 4 + 2v = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
v + 4sv + 2v = 0
s
2
+ 4s + 2 = 0
a 1
b 4
c 2

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get

-4 ± \4
2
– 4(1)(2)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-4 ± \16

– 8
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-4 ± \8
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-4 ± 2.828
s
1
, s
2
=
2
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 13

s
1
, s
2
= (-4 + 2.828)/2, (-4 – 2.828)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-0.586), (-3.414)
General solution:
v(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

v(t) = K
1
e
(-0.586)t
+ K
2
e
(-3.414)t

(d)
d
2
v dv
2 + 8 + 16v = 0
dt
2
dt
After simplification
d
2
v dv
+ 4 + 8v = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
v + 4sv + 8v = 0
s
2
+ 4s + 8 = 0
a 1
b 4
c 8

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get

-4 ± \4
2
– 4(1)(8)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-4 ± \16

– 32
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-4 ± \-16
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-4 ± i4
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-4 + i4)/2, (-4 – i4)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-2 + i2), (-2 – i2)
General solution:
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 14

v(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

v(t) = K
1
e
(-2 + i2)t
+ K
2
e
(-2 – i2)t

(e)
d
2
v dv
+ 2 + 3v = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
v + 2sv + 3v = 0
s
2
+ 2s + 3 = 0
a 1
b 2
c 3

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get

-2 ± \2
2
– 4(1)(3)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2 ± \4

– 12
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2 ± \-8
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2 ± i2.828
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-2 + i2.828)/2, (-2 – i2.828)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-1 + i1.414), (-1 – i1.414)
General solution:
v(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

v(t) = K
1
e
(-1 + i1.414)t
+ K
2
e
(-1 – i1.414)t

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 15

(f)
d
2
v dv
+ 3 + 5v = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
v + 3sv + 5v = 0
s
2
+ 3s + 5 = 0
a 1
b 3
c 5

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get

-3 ± \3
2
– 4(1)(5)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-3 ± \9

– 20
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-3 ± \-11
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-3 ± i3.317
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-3 + i3.317)/2, (-3 – i3.317)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-1.5 + i1.659), (-1.5 – i1.659)
General solution:
v(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

v(t) = K
1
e
(-1.5 + i1.659)t
+ K
2
e
(-1.5 – i1.659)t

Q#6.5: Find particular solutions for the differential equations of Prob. 6.3 subject to
the initial conditions:
di
i(0+) = 1, (0+) = 0
dt
(a)
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 16

d
2
i di
+ 3 + 2i = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
i + 3si + 2i = 0
s
2
+ 3s + 2 = 0
a 1
b 3
c 2

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get
-3 ± \3
2
– 4(1)(2)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-3 ± \9

– 8
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-3 ± \1
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-3 ± 1
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-3 + 1)/2, (-3 - 1)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-2)/2, (-4)/2
s
1
, s
2
= -1, -2
General solution:
i(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = K
1
e
-1t
+ K
2
e
-2t
… (i)

At t = 0+
i(0+) = K
1
e
-1(0+)
+ K
2
e
-2(0+)

1 = K
1
e
0
+ K
2
e
0

1 = K
1
(1) + K
2
(1)
1 = K
1
+ K
2
… (ii)

Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 17

di(t)
= -K
1
e
-1t
- 2K
2
e
-2t

dt
di(0+)
= -K
1
e
-1(0+)
- 2K
2
e
-2(0+)

dt
di(0+)
= -K
1
e
0
- 2K
2
e
0

dt
0 = -K
1
(1) - 2K
2
(1)
0 = -K
1
- 2K
2

K
1
= - 2K
2
Putting the value of K
1
in (ii)
1 = -2K
2
+ K
2
K
2
= -1
Putting the value of K
2
in (ii)
1 = K
1
+ (-1)
K
1
= 2
Putting corresponding values we get
i(t) = 2e
-t
+ (-1)e
-2t

i(t) = 2e
-t
– e
-2t

(b)
d
2
i di
+ 5 + 6i = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
i + 5si + 6i = 0
s
2
+ 5s + 6 = 0

A 1
B 5
C 6

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 18

-5 ± \5
2
– 4(1)(6)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-5 ± \25

– 24
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-5 ± \1
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-5 ± 1
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-5 + 1)/2, (-5 - 1)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-4)/2, (-6)/2
s
1
, s
2
= -2, -3
General solution:
i(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = K
1
e
-2t
+ K
2
e
-3t
… (i)

At t = 0+
i(0+) = K
1
e
-2(0+)
+ K
2
e
-3(0+)

i(0+) = K
1
e
0
+ K
2
e
0

i(0+) = K
1
(1) + K
2
(1)
1 = K
1
+ K
2
… (ii)

Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’
di(t)
= -2K
1
e
-2t
- 3K
2
e
-3t

dt
di(0+)
= -2K
1
e
-2(0+)
- 3K
2
e
-3(0+)

dt
di(0+)
= -2K
1
e
0
- 3K
2
e
0

dt

di(0+)
= -2K
1
(1) - 3K
2
(1)
dt
0 = -2K
1
- 3K
2

2K
1
= -3K
2

K
1
= -1.5K
2
1 = K
1
+ K
2
… (ii)

Putting the value of K
1
in (ii)
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 19

1 = -1.5K
2
+ K
2

1 = -0.5K
2

K
2
= -2
K
1
= -1.5(-2)
K
1
= 3.0
Putting corresponding values we get
i(t) = 3e
-2t
+ (-2)e
-3t

i(t) = 3e
-2t
- 2e
-3t

(c)
d
2
i di
+ 7 + 12i = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
i + 7si + 12i = 0
s
2
+ 7s + 12 = 0
a 1
b 7
c 12

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get
-7 ± \7
2
– 4(1)(12)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-7 ± \49

– 48
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)

-7 ± \1
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-7 ± 1
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-7 + 1)/2, (-7 - 1)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-6)/2, (-8)/2
s
1
, s
2
= -3, -4
General solution:
i(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 20

Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = K
1
e
-3t
+ K
2
e
-4t
… (i)

At t = 0+
i(0+) = K
1
e
-3(0+)
+ K
2
e
-4(0+)

i(0+) = K
1
e
0
+ K
2
e
0

i(0+) = K
1
(1) + K
2
(1)
1 = K
1
+ K
2
… (ii)

Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’
di(t)
= -3K
1
e
-3t
- 4K
2
e
-4t

dt
di(0+)
= -3K
1
e
-3(0+)
- 4K
2
e
-4(0+)

dt
di(0+)
= -3K
1
e
0
- 4K
2
e
0

dt
di(0+)
= -3K
1
(1) - 4K
2
(1)
dt
di(0+)
= -3K
1
- 4K
2

dt
0 = -3K
1
- 4K
2
3K
1
= - 4K
2

K
1
= -1.334K
2
Putting the value of K
1
in (ii)
1 = -1.334K
2
+ K
2
1 = -0.334K
2

K
2
= -2.994
K
1
= -1.334(-2.994) = 3.994
Putting corresponding values we get
i(t) = (3.994)e
-3t
+ (-2.994)e
-4t

i(t) = 3.994e
-3t
- 2.994e
-4t

(d)
d
2
i di
+ 5 + 4i = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
i + 5si + 4i = 0
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 21

s
2
+ 5s + 4 = 0
a 1
b 5
c 4

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get

-5 ± \5
2
– 4(1)(4)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-5 ± \25

– 16
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-5 ± \9
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-5 ± 3
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-5 + 3)/2, (-5 - 3)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-2)/2, (-8)/2
s
1
, s
2
= -1, -4
General solution:
i(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = K
1
e
-1t
+ K
2
e
-4t
… (i)

At t = 0+
i(0+) = K
1
e
-1(0+)
+ K
2
e
-4(0+)

i(0+) = K
1
e
0
+ K
2
e
0

i(0+) = K
1
(1) + K
2
(1)
1 = K
1
+ K
2
… (ii)
Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’
di(t)
= -1K
1
e
-1t
- 4K
2
e
-4t

dt
di(0+)
= -1K
1
e
-1(0+)
- 4K
2
e
-4(0+)

dt

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 22

di(0+)
= -1K
1
e
0
- 4K
2
e
0

dt
0 = -1K
1
(1) - 4K
2
(1)
0 = -K
1
- 4K
2

K
1
= -4K
2
Putting the value of K
1
in (ii)
1 = -4K
2
+ K
2
1 = -3K
2
K
2
= -0.334
K
1
= -4(-0.334)
K
1
= 1.336
Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = 1.336e
-1t
– 0.334e
-4t

(e)
d
2
i di
+ 1 + 6i = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
i + 1si + 6i = 0
s
2
+ 1s + 6 = 0
A 1
B 1
C 6

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get

-1 ± \1
2
– 4(1)(6)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-1 ± \1

– 24
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-1 ± \-23
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 23

-1 ± i4.796
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-1 + i4.796)/2, (-1 - i4.796)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-0.5 + i2.398), (-0.5 - i2.398)
General solution:
i(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = K
1
e
(-0.5 + i2.398)t
+ K
2
e
(-0.5 - i2.398)t
… (i)

At t = 0+
i(0+) = K
1
e
(-0.5 + i2.398)0+
+ K
2
e
(-0.5 - i2.398)0+

i(0+) = K
1
e
0
+ K
2
e
0

i(0+) = K
1
(1) + K
2
(1)
1 = K
1
+ K
2
… (ii)
Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’
di(t)
= K
1
e
(-0.5 + i2.398)t
+ K
2
e
(-0.5 - i2.398)t

dt
di(0+)
= (-0.5 + i2.398)K
1
e
(-0.5 + i2.398)0+
+ (-0.5 - i2.398)K
2
e
(-0.5 - i2.398)0+

dt
di(0+)
= (-0.5 + i2.398)K
1
e
0
+ (-0.5 - i2.398)K
2
e
0

dt
0 = (-0.5 + i2.398)K
1
(1) + (-0.5 - i2.398)K
2
(1)
0 = (-0.5 + i2.398)K
1
+ (-0.5 - i2.398)K
2

0.5 + i2.398
K
1
= K
2

-0.5 + i2.398
K
1
= [0.917 – i0.400]K
2
Putting the value of K
1
in (ii)
1 = [0.917 – i0.400]K
2
+ K
2

1 = [[0.917 – i0.400] + 1]K
2
1 = [0.917 – i0.400 + 1]K
2
1 = [1.917 – i0.400]K
2
K
2
= 0.5 + i0.104
1 = K
1
+ K
2
K
1
= 1 – K
2
K
1
= 1 – [0.5 + i0.104]
K
1
= 1 – 0.5 - i0.104
K
1
= 0.5 - i0.104
Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = [0.5 - i0.104]e
(-0.5 + i2.398)t
+ [0.5 + i0.104]e
(-0.5 - i2.398)t

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 24

(f)
d
2
i di
+ 1 + 2i = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
i + 1si + 2i = 0
s
2
+ 1s + 2 = 0
a 1
b 1
c 2

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get
-1 ± \1
2
– 4(1)(2)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-1 ± \1

– 8
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-1 ± \-7
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-1 ± i2.646
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-1 + i2.646)/2, (-1 - i2.646)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-0.5 + i1.323), (-0.5 – i1.323)
General solution:
i(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t
Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = K
1
e
(-0.5 + i1.323)t
+ K
2
e
(-0.5 - i1.323)t
… (i)

At t = 0+
i(0+) = K
1
e
(-0.5 + i1.323)0+
+ K
2
e
(-0.5 - i1.323)0+

i(0+) = K
1
e
0
+ K
2
e
0

i(0+) = K
1
(1) + K
2
(1)
1 = K
1
+ K
2
… (ii)
Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 25

di(t)
= K
1
e
(-0.5 + i1.323)t
+ K
2
e
(-0.5 - i1.323)t

dt

di(0+)
= (-0.5 + i1.323)K
1
e
(-0.5 + i1.323)0+
+ (-0.5 - i1.323)K
2
e
(-0.5 - i1.323)0+

dt
di(0+)
= (-0.5 + i1.323)K
1
e
0
+ (-0.5 - i1.323)K
2
e
0

dt
di(0+)
= (-0.5 + i1.323)K
1
(1) + (-0.5 - i1.323)K
2
(1)
dt
0 = (-0.5 + i1.323)K
1
+ (-0.5 - i1.323)K
2

(-0.5 + i1.323)K
1
= (0.5 + i1.323)K
2

(0.5 + i1.323)
K
1
= K
2

(-0.5 + i1.323)
K
1
= (0.75 – 0.662i)K
2

1 = (0.75 – 0.662i)K
2
+ K
2
1 = [(0.75 – 0.662i) + 1]K
2
1 = [1.75 – 0.662i]K
2
K
2
= 0.5 + 0.189i
Putting corresponding values we get
1 = K
1
+ 0.5 + 0.189i

K
1
= 1 - 0.5 - 0.189i
K
1
= 0.5 - 0.189i
Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = [0.5 - 0.189i]e
(-0.5 + i1.323)t
+ [0.5 + 0.189i]e
(-0.5 - i1.323)t

(g)
d
2
i di
+ 2 + i = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
i + 2si + i = 0
s
2
+ 2s + 1 = 0
a 1
b 2
c 1

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 26

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get
-2 ± \2
2
– 4(1)(1)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)

-2 ± \4

– 4
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2 ± \0
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2 ± 0
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-2 + 0)/2, (-2 - 0)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-1), (-1)
General solution:
i(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = K
1
e
(-1)t
+ K
2
te
(-1)t
… (i)

At t = 0+
i(t) = K
1
e
(-1)t
+ K
2
te
(-1)t

i(0+) = K
1
e
(-1)0+
+ K
2
(0+)e
(-1)0+

i(0+) = K
1
e
0

i(0+) = K
1
(1)
1 = K
1
Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’
di(t)
= -K
1
e
(-1)t
+ K
2
[-te
(-1)t
– e
-t
]
dt
di(0+)
= (-1)K
1
e
(-1)0+
+ K
2
[-(0+)e
-(0+)
– e
-(0+)
]
dt

di(0+)
= (-1)K
1
e
0
+ K
2
[–e
0
]
dt
di(0+)
= (-1)K
1
(1) + K
2
[–(1)]
dt
0 = -K
1
– K
2

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 27

0 = -(1) – K
2

K
2
= -1
Putting corresponding values
i(t) = (1)e
(-1)t
+ (-1)te
(-1)t

i(t) = e
(-1)t
- te
(-1)t

(h)

d
2
i di
+ 4 + 4i = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
i + 4si + 4i = 0
s
2
+ 4s + 4 = 0
A 1
B 4
C 4

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get
-4 ± \4
2
– 4(1)(4)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-4 ± \16

– 16
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-4 ± \0
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-4 ± 0
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-4 + 0)/2, (-4 - 0)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-2), (-2)
General solution:
i(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = K
1
e
(-2)t
+ K
2
te
(-2)t

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 28

At t = 0+
i(0+) = K
1
e
(-2)0+
+ K
2
(0+)e
(-2)0+

1 = K
1
e
0
1 = K
1
(1)
1 = K
1

Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’
di(t)
= -2K
1
e
(-2)t
+ K
2
[-0.5te
-2t
– 0.25e
-2t
]
dt
di(0+)
= -2K
1
e
(-2)0+
+ K
2
[-0.5(0+)e
-2(0+)
– 0.25e
-2(0+)
]
dt
di(0+)
= -2K
1
e
0
+ K
2
[–0.25e
0
]
dt
di(0+)
= -2K
1
(1)

+ K
2
[–0.25(1)]
dt
0 = -2K
1

– 0.25K
2

2K
1
= -0.25K
2

K
1
= -0.125K
2
K
2
= -8
Putting corresponding values
i(t) = (1)e
(-2)t
+ (-8)te
(-2)t

i(t) = e
(-2)t
- 8te
(-2)t

Q#6.6: Find particular solutions for the differential equations of Prob. 6.3 subject to
the initial conditions:
di
i(0+) = 2, (0+) = +1
dt
(a)
d
2
i di
+ 3 + 2i = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
i + 3si + 2i = 0
s
2
+ 3s + 2 = 0
a 1
b 3
c 2

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 29

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get
-3 ± \3
2
– 4(1)(2)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-3 ± \9

– 8
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-3 ± \1
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-3 ± 1
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-3 + 1)/2, (-3 - 1)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-2)/2, (-4)/2
s
1
, s
2
= -1, -2
General solution:
i(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = K
1
e
-1t
+ K
2
e
-2t
… (i)

At t = 0+
i(0+) = K
1
e
-1(0+)
+ K
2
e
-2(0+)

2 = K
1
e
0
+ K
2
e
0

2 = K
1
(1) + K
2
(1)
2 = K
1
+ K
2
… (ii)

Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’
di(t)
= -K
1
e
-1t
- 2K
2
e
-2t

dt
di(0+)
= -K
1
e
-1(0+)
- 2K
2
e
-2(0+)

dt
di(0+)
= -K
1
e
0
- 2K
2
e
0

dt
1 = -K
1
(1) - 2K
2
(1)
1 = -K
1
- 2K
2

K
1
= -1 - 2K
2
Putting the value of K
1
in (ii)
2 = [-1 - 2K
2
] + K
2
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 30

2 = -1 - 2K
2
+ K
2
3 = -K
2
K
2
= -3
Putting the value of K
2
in (ii)
2 = K
1
+ (-3)
K
1
= 5
Putting corresponding values we get
i(t) = 5e
-t
+ (-3)e
-2t

i(t) = 5e
-t
– 3e
-2t

(b)
d
2
i di
+ 5 + 6i = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
i + 5si + 6i = 0
s
2
+ 5s + 6 = 0
A 1
B 5
C 6

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get
-5 ± \5
2
– 4(1)(6)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-5 ± \25

– 24
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-5 ± \1
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-5 ± 1
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-5 + 1)/2, (-5 - 1)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-4)/2, (-6)/2
s
1
, s
2
= -2, -3
General solution:
i(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 31

Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = K
1
e
-2t
+ K
2
e
-3t
… (i)

At t = 0+
i(0+) = K
1
e
-2(0+)
+ K
2
e
-3(0+)

i(0+) = K
1
e
0
+ K
2
e
0

i(0+) = K
1
(1) + K
2
(1)
2 = K
1
+ K
2
… (ii)

Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’
di(t)
= -2K
1
e
-2t
- 3K
2
e
-3t

dt
di(0+)
= -2K
1
e
-2(0+)
- 3K
2
e
-3(0+)

dt
di(0+)
= -2K
1
e
0
- 3K
2
e
0

dt
di(0+)
= -2K
1
(1) - 3K
2
(1)
dt
1 = -2K
1
- 3K
2

2K
1
= -3K
2
- 1
K
1
= -1.5K
2
– 0.5

2 = K
1
+ K
2
… (ii)

Putting the value of K
1
in (ii)
2 = [-1.5K
2
– 0.5] + K
2

2 = -1.5K
2
– 0.5 + K
2
2 = -0.5K
2
– 0.5
K
2
= -5
2 = K
1
+ (-5)
K
1
= 7
Putting corresponding values we get
i(t) = 7e
-2t
+ (-5)e
-3t

i(t) = 7e
-2t
- 5e
-3t

(c)
d
2
i di
+ 7 + 12i = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
i + 7si + 12i = 0
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 32

s
2
+ 7s + 12 = 0
a 1
b 7
c 12

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get
-7 ± \7
2
– 4(1)(12)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-7 ± \49

– 48
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)

-7 ± \1
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-7 ± 1
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-7 + 1)/2, (-7 - 1)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-6)/2, (-8)/2
s
1
, s
2
= -3, -4
General solution:
i(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = K
1
e
-3t
+ K
2
e
-4t
… (i)

At t = 0+
i(0+) = K
1
e
-3(0+)
+ K
2
e
-4(0+)

i(0+) = K
1
e
0
+ K
2
e
0

i(0+) = K
1
(1) + K
2
(1)
2 = K
1
+ K
2
… (ii)

Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’
di(t)
= -3K
1
e
-3t
- 4K
2
e
-4t

dt
di(0+)
= -3K
1
e
-3(0+)
- 4K
2
e
-4(0+)

dt

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 33

di(0+)
= -3K
1
e
0
- 4K
2
e
0

dt
di(0+)
= -3K
1
(1) - 4K
2
(1)
dt

di(0+)
= -3K
1
- 4K
2

dt
1 = -3K
1
- 4K
2
3K
1
= -4K
2
- 1
K
1
= -1.334K
2
– 0.334

Putting the value of K
1
in (ii)
2 = [-1.334K
2
– 0.334] + K
2
2 = -1.334K
2
– 0.334 + K
2
2.334 = -0.334K
2

K
2
= -6.988
2 = K
1
+ (-6.988)
8.988 = K
1

Putting corresponding values we get
i(t) = (8.988)e
-3t
+ (-6.988)e
-4t

i(t) = 8.988e
-3t
– 6.988e
-4t

(d)
d
2
i di
+ 5 + 4i = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
i + 5si + 4i = 0
s
2
+ 5s + 4 = 0
a 1
b 5
c 4

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 34

-5 ± \5
2
– 4(1)(4)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-5 ± \25

– 16
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)

-5 ± \9
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-5 ± 3
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-5 + 3)/2, (-5 - 3)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-2)/2, (-8)/2
s
1
, s
2
= -1, -4
General solution:
i(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = K
1
e
-1t
+ K
2
e
-4t
… (i)

At t = 0+
i(0+) = K
1
e
-1(0+)
+ K
2
e
-4(0+)

i(0+) = K
1
e
0
+ K
2
e
0

i(0+) = K
1
(1) + K
2
(1)
2 = K
1
+ K
2
… (ii)
Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’
di(t)
= -1K
1
e
-1t
- 4K
2
e
-4t

dt
di(0+)
= -1K
1
e
-1(0+)
- 4K
2
e
-4(0+)

dt
di(0+)
= -1K
1
e
0
- 4K
2
e
0

dt
0 = -1K
1
(1) - 4K
2
(1)
0 = -K
1
- 4K
2

K
1
= -4K
2
Putting the value of K
1
in (ii)
1 = -4K
2
+ K
2
1 = -3K
2
K
2
= -0.334
K
1
= -4(-0.334)
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 35

K
1
= 1.336
Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = 1.336e
-1t
– 0.334e
-4t

(e)
d
2
i di
+ 1 + 6i = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
i + 1si + 6i = 0
s
2
+ 1s + 6 = 0
a 1
b 1
c 6

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get

-1 ± \1
2
– 4(1)(6)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-1 ± \1

– 24
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-1 ± \-23
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-1 ± i4.796
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-1 + i4.796)/2, (-1 - i4.796)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-0.5 + i2.398), (-0.5 - i2.398)
General solution:
i(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = K
1
e
(-0.5 + i2.398)t
+ K
2
e
(-0.5 - i2.398)t
… (i)

At t = 0+
i(0+) = K
1
e
(-0.5 + i2.398)0+
+ K
2
e
(-0.5 - i2.398)0+

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 36

i(0+) = K
1
e
0
+ K
2
e
0

i(0+) = K
1
(1) + K
2
(1)
2 = K
1
+ K
2
… (ii)
Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’
di(t)
= K
1
e
(-0.5 + i2.398)t
+ K
2
e
(-0.5 - i2.398)t

dt
di(0+)
= (-0.5 + i2.398)K
1
e
(-0.5 + i2.398)0+
+ (-0.5 - i2.398)K
2
e
(-0.5 - i2.398)0+

dt
di(0+)
= (-0.5 + i2.398)K
1
e
0
+ (-0.5 - i2.398)K
2
e
0

dt
1 = (-0.5 + i2.398)K
1
(1) + (-0.5 - i2.398)K
2
(1)
1 = (-0.5 + i2.398)K
1
+ (-0.5 - i2.398)K
2

After simplification
K
1
= -0.084 – i0.400 + [0.917 – i0.4]K
2
2 = [-0.084 – i0.400 + [0.917 – i0.4]K
2
] + K
2
2 + 0.084 + i0.400 = [1.917 – i0.4]K
2
2.084 + i0.400 = [1.917 – i0.4]K
2
K
2
= 1 + i0.417
2 = K
1
+ 1 + i0.417
2 - 1 - i0.417 = K
1

1 - i0.417 = K
1

Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = [1 - i0.417]e
(-0.5 + i2.398)t
+ [1 + i0.417]e
(-0.5 - i2.398)t

(f)
d
2
i di
+ 1 + 2i = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
i + 1si + 2i = 0
s
2
+ 1s + 2 = 0
a 1
b 1
c 2

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 37

-1 ± \1
2
– 4(1)(2)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-1 ± \1

– 8
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-1 ± \-7
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-1 ± i2.646
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-1 + i2.646)/2, (-1 - i2.646)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-0.5 + i1.323), (-0.5 – i1.323)
General solution:
i(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t
Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = K
1
e
(-0.5 + i1.323)t
+ K
2
e
(-0.5 - i1.323)t
… (i)

At t = 0+
i(0+) = K
1
e
(-0.5 + i1.323)0+
+ K
2
e
(-0.5 - i1.323)0+

i(0+) = K
1
e
0
+ K
2
e
0

i(0+) = K
1
(1) + K
2
(1)
2 = K
1
+ K
2
… (ii)
Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’
di(t)
= K
1
e
(-0.5 + i1.323)t
+ K
2
e
(-0.5 - i1.323)t

dt
di(0+)
= (-0.5 + i1.323)K
1
e
(-0.5 + i1.323)0+
+ (-0.5 - i1.323)K
2
e
(-0.5 - i1.323)0+

dt
di(0+)
= (-0.5 + i1.323)K
1
e
0
+ (-0.5 - i1.323)K
2
e
0

dt
di(0+)
= (-0.5 + i1.323)K
1
(1) + (-0.5 - i1.323)K
2
(1)
dt
1 = (-0.5 + i1.323)K
1
+ (-0.5 - i1.323)K
2

K
1
= -0.25 – i0.662 + [0.75 – i0.662]K
2

2 = -0.25 – i0.662 + [0.75 – i0.662]K
2
+ K
2
2 + 0.25 + i0.662 = [0.75 – i0.662]K
2
+ K
2
2.25 + i0.662 = [1.75 – i0.662]K
2
K
2
= 1 + i0.757
2 = K
1
+ 1 + i0.757
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 38

K
1
= 2 – 1 - i0.757
K
1
= 1 - i0.757

i(t) = [1 - i0.757]e
(-0.5 + i1.323)t
+ [1 + i0.757]e
(-0.5 - i1.323)t

(g)
d
2
i di
+ 2 + i = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
i + 2si + i = 0
s
2
+ 2s + 1 = 0
A 1
B 2
C 1
-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get
-2 ± \2
2
– 4(1)(1)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)

-2 ± \4

– 4
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2 ± \0
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2 ± 0
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-2 + 0)/2, (-2 - 0)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-1), (-1)
General solution:
i(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = K
1
e
(-1)t
+ K
2
te
(-1)t
… (i)

At t = 0+
i(t) = K
1
e
(-1)t
+ K
2
te
(-1)t

i(0+) = K
1
e
(-1)0+
+ K
2
(0+)e
(-1)0+

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 39

i(0+) = K
1
e
0

i(0+) = K
1
(1)
2 = K
1
Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’
di(t)
= -K
1
e
(-1)t
+ K
2
[-te
(-1)t
– e
-t
]
dt
di(0+)
= (-1)K
1
e
(-1)0+
+ K
2
[-(0+)e
-(0+)
– e
-(0+)
]
dt
di(0+)
= (-1)K
1
e
0
+ K
2
[–e
0
]
dt
di(0+)
= (-1)K
1
(1) + K
2
[–(1)]
dt
1 = -K
1
– K
2

1 = -(2) – K
2

K
2
= -3
Putting corresponding values
i(t) = (2)e
(-1)t
+ (-3)te
(-1)t

i(t) = 2e
(-1)t
- 3te
(-1)t

(h)
d
2
i di
+ 4 + 4i = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
i + 4si + 4i = 0
s
2
+ 4s + 4 = 0
A 1
B 4
C 4

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get
-4 ± \4
2
– 4(1)(4)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 40

-4 ± \16

– 16
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-4 ± \0
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-4 ± 0
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-4 + 0)/2, (-4 - 0)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-2), (-2)
General solution:
i(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = K
1
e
(-2)t
+ K
2
te
(-2)t

At t = 0+
i(0+) = K
1
e
(-2)0+
+ K
2
(0+)e
(-2)0+

2 = K
1
e
0
2 = K
1
(1)
2 = K
1

Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’
di(t)
= -2K
1
e
(-2)t
+ K
2
[-0.5te
-2t
– 0.25e
-2t
]
dt
di(0+)
= -2K
1
e
(-2)0+
+ K
2
[-0.5(0+)e
-2(0+)
– 0.25e
-2(0+)
]
dt
di(0+)
= -2K
1
e
0
+ K
2
[–0.25e
0
]
dt
di(0+)
= -2K
1
(1)

+ K
2
[–0.25(1)]
dt
1 = -2K
1

– 0.25K
2

1 = -2(2)

– 0.25K
2

-5 = 0.25K
2
K
2
= -20
Putting corresponding values
i(t) = (2)e
(-2)t
+ (-20)te
(-2)t

i(t) = 2e
(-2)t
- 20te
(-2)t

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 41

Q#6.7: Find particular solutions for the differential equations of Prob. 6.3 subject to
the initial conditions:
dv
v(0+) = 1, (0+) = -1
dt
(a)
d
2
v dv
+ 2 + 2v = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
v + 2sv + 2v = 0
s
2
+ 2s + 2 = 0
a 1
b 2
c 2

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get
-2 ± \2
2
– 4(1)(2)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2 ± \4

– 8
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2 ± \-4
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2 ± i2
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-2 + i2)/2, (-2 – i2)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-1 + i1), (-1 – i1)
General solution:
v(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

v(t) = K
1
e
(-1 + i1)t
+ K
2
e
(-1 – i1)t
… (i)

At t = 0+
v(0+) = K
1
e
(-1 + i1)0+
+ K
2
e
(-1 – i1)0+

v(0+) = K
1
e
0
+ K
2
e
0

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 42

1 = K
1
(1) + K
2
(1)
1 = K
1
+ K
2
… (ii)
Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’
dv(t)
= (-1 + i1)K
1
e
(-1 + i1)t
+ (-1 – i1)K
2
e
(-1 – i1)t

dt

dv(0+)
= (-1 + i1)K
1
e
(-1 + i1)0+
+ (-1 – i1)K
2
e
(-1 – i1)0+

dt
dv(0+)
= (-1 + i1)K
1
e
0
+ (-1 – i1)K
2
e
0

dt
dv(0+)
= (-1 + i1)K
1
(1) + (-1 – i1)K
2
(1)
dt
-1 = (-1 + i1)K
1
+ (-1 – i1)K
2

K
1
= -iK
2
+ 0.5 + 0.5i
1 = [-iK
2
+ 0.5 + 0.5i] + K
2
1 = -iK
2
+ 0.5 + 0.5i + K
2

K
2
= 0.5
1 = K
1
+ 0.5
K
1
= 0.5

v(t) = 0.5e
(-1 + i1)t
+ 0.5e
(-1 – i1)t

(b)
d
2
v dv
+ 2 + 4v = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
v + 2sv + 4v = 0
s
2
+ 2s + 4 = 0
a 1
b 2
c 4

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get
-2 ± \2
2
– 4(1)(4)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 43

-2 ± \4

– 16
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)

-2 ± \-12
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2 ± i3.464
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-2 + i3.464)/2, (-2 – i3.464)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-1 + i1.732), (-1 – i1.732)
General solution:
v(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

v(t) = K
1
e
(-1 + i1.732)t
+ K
2
e
(-1 – i1.732)t
… (i)

At t = 0+
v(0+) = K
1
e
(-1 + i1.732)0+
+ K
2
e
(-1 – i1.732)0+

1 = K
1
e
0
+ K
2
e
0

1 = K
1
(1) + K
2
(1)
1 = K
1
+ K
2

Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’
dv(t)
= (-1 + i1.732)K
1
e
(-1 + i1.732)t
+ (-1 – i1.732)K
2
e
(-1 – i1.732)t

dt
dv(0+)
= (-1 + i1.732)K
1
e
(-1 + i1.732)0+
+ (-1 – i1.732)K
2
e
(-1 – i1.732)0+

dt
-1 = (-1 + i1.732)K
1
e
0
+ (-1 – i1.732)K
2
e
0

-1 = (-1 + i1.732)K
1
(1) + (-1 – i1.732)K
2
(1)
-1 = (-1 + i1.732)K
1
+ (-1 – i1.732)K
2

(-1 + i1.732)K
1
=

(1 + i1.732)K
2
- 1
K
1
= [0.5 – i0.866]K
2
+ 0.25 + i0.433
1 = [[0.5 – i0.866]K
2
+ 0.25 + i0.433] + K
2

1 = [0.5 – i0.866]K
2
+ 0.25 + i0.433 + K
2

1 - 0.25 - i0.433 = [0.5 – i0.866]K
2
+ K
2

0.75 - i0.433 = [0.5 – i0.866 + 1]K
2

0.75 - i0.433 = [1.5 – i0.866]K
2

K
2
= 0.5
1 = K
1
+ 0.5
K
1
= 0.5
Putting corresponding values

v(t) = 0.5e
(-1 + i1.732)t
+ 0.5e
(-1 – i1.732)t

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 44

(c)
d
2
v dv
+ 4 + 2v = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
v + 4sv + 2v = 0
s
2
+ 4s + 2 = 0
a 1
b 4
c 2

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get

-4 ± \4
2
– 4(1)(2)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-4 ± \16

– 8
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-4 ± \8
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-4 ± 2.828
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-4 + 2.828)/2, (-4 – 2.828)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-0.586), (-3.414)
General solution:
v(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

v(t) = K
1
e
(-0.586)t
+ K
2
e
(-3.414)t
… (i)

At t = 0+
v(0+) = K
1
e
(-0.586)0+
+ K
2
e
(-3.414)0+

1 = K
1
e
0
+ K
2
e
0
1 = K
1
(1) + K
2
(1)
1 = K
1
+ K
2
… (ii)

Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 45

dv(t)
= (-0.586)K
1
e
(-0.586)t
+ (-3.414)K
2
e
(-3.414)t

dt
dv(0+)
= (-0.586)K
1
e
(-0.586)0+
+ (-3.414)K
2
e
(-3.414)0+

dt
-1 = (-0.586)K
1
e
0
+ (-3.414)K
2
e
0
-1 = (-0.586)K
1
(1) + (-3.414)K
2
(1)
-1 = -0.586K
1
- 3.414K
2

K
1
= 1.706 – 5.826K
2
1 = 1.706 – 5.826K
2
+ K
2
0.706 = 4.826K
2
K
2
= 0.146
K
1
= 1.706 – 5.826(0.146)
K
1
= 1.706 – 0.851
K
1
= 0.855
Putting corresponding values we get

v(t) = 0.855e
(-0.586)t
+ 0.146e
(-3.414)t

(d)
d
2
v dv
2 + 8 + 16v = 0
dt
2
dt
After simplification
d
2
v dv
+ 4 + 8v = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
v + 4sv + 8v = 0
s
2
+ 4s + 8 = 0
a 1
b 4
c 8

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get

-4 ± \4
2
– 4(1)(8)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 46

-4 ± \16

– 32
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-4 ± \-16
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-4 ± i4
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-4 + i4)/2, (-4 – i4)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-2 + i2), (-2 – i2)
General solution:
v(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

v(t) = K
1
e
(-2 + i2)t
+ K
2
e
(-2 – i2)t
… (i)

At t = 0+
v(0+) = K
1
e
(-2 + i2)0+
+ K
2
e
(-2 – i2)0+
1 = K
1
e
0
+ K
2
e
0
1 = K
1
(1) + K
2
(1)
1 = K
1
+ K
2
… (ii)

Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’
dv(t)
= (-2 + i2)K
1
e
(-2 + i2)t
+ (-2 – i2)K
2
e
(-2 – i2)t

dt
dv(0+)
= (-2 + i2)K
1
e
(-2 + i2)0+
+ (-2 – i2)K
2
e
(-2 – i2)0+

dt
-1 = (-2 + i2)K
1
e
0
+ (-2 – i2)K
2
e
0

-1 = (-2 + i2)K
1
(1) + (-2 – i2)K
2
(1)
-1 = (-2 + i2)K
1
+ (-2 – i2)K
2

K
1
= -1i + 0.25 + i0.25
K
1
= -0.75i + 0.25
1 = [-0.75i + 0.25] + K
2
1 + 0.75i – 0.25 = K
2
0.75 + 0.75i = K
2

v(t) = [-0.75i + 0.25]e
(-2 + i2)t
+ [0.75 + 0.75i]e
(-2 – i2)t

(e)
d
2
v dv
+ 2 + 3v = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 47

as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
v + 2sv + 3v = 0
s
2
+ 2s + 3 = 0
a 1
b 2
c 3

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get

-2 ± \2
2
– 4(1)(3)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2 ± \4

– 12
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2 ± \-8
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2 ± i2.828
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-2 + i2.828)/2, (-2 – i2.828)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-1 + i1.414), (-1 – i1.414)
General solution:
v(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

v(t) = K
1
e
(-1 + i1.414)t
+ K
2
e
(-1 – i1.414)t

At t = 0+
v(0+) = K
1
e
(-1 + i1.414)0+
+ K
2
e
(-1 – i1.414)0+
1 = K
1
e
0
+ K
2
e
0

1 = K
1
(1) + K
2
(1)
1 = K
1
+ K
2
Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’
dv(t)
= (-1 + i1.414)K
1
e
(-1 + i1.414)t
+ (-1 – i1.414)K
2
e
(-1 – i1.414)t

dt
dv(0+)
= (-1 + i1.414)K
1
e
(-1 + i1.414)0+
+ (-1 – i1.414)K
2
e
(-1 – i1.414)0+

dt
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 48

dv(0+)
= (-1 + i1.414)K
1
e
0
+ (-1 – i1.414)K
2
e
0

dt
dv(0+)
= (-1 + i1.414)K
1
(1) + (-1 – i1.414)K
2
(1)
dt
-1 = (-1 + i1.414)K
1
+ (-1 – i1.414)K
2

K
1
= [0.334 – i0.943]K
2
+ 0.334 + i0.471
1 = [0.334 – i0.943]K
2
+ 0.334 + i0.471 + K
2

1 - 0.334 - i0.471 = [1.334 – i0.943]K
2
(0.666 - i0.471) = [1.334 – i0.943]K
2
K
2
= 0.499
1 = K
1
+ 0.499

0.501 = K
1

Putting corresponding values we get

v(t) = 0.501e
(-1 + i1.414)t
+ 0.499e
(-1 – i1.414)t

(f)
d
2
v dv
+ 3 + 5v = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
v + 3sv + 5v = 0
s
2
+ 3s + 5 = 0
a 1
b 3
c 5

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get

-3 ± \3
2
– 4(1)(5)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-3 ± \9

– 20
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-3 ± \-11
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 49

-3 ± i3.317
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-3 + i3.317)/2, (-3 – i3.317)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-1.5 + i1.659), (-1.5 – i1.659)
General solution:
v(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

v(t) = K
1
e
(-1.5 + i1.659)t
+ K
2
e
(-1.5 – i1.659)t
… (i)

At t = 0+
v(0+) = K
1
e
(-1.5 + i1.659)0+
+ K
2
e
(-1.5 – i1.659)0+

1 = K
1
e
0
+ K
2
e
0
1 = K
1
(1) + K
2
(1)
1 = K
1
+ K
2
… (ii)

Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’
dv(t)
= (-1.5 + i1.659)K
1
e
(-1.5 + i1.659)t
+ (-1.5 – i1.659)K
2
e
(-1.5 – i1.659)t

dt
dv(0+)
= (-1.5 + i1.659)K
1
e
(-1.5 + i1.659)0+
+ (-1.5 – i1.659)K
2
e
(-1.5 – i1.659)0+

dt
dv(0+)
= (-1.5 + i1.659)K
1
e
0
+ (-1.5 – i1.659)K
2
e
0

dt
dv(0+)
= (-1.5 + i1.659)K
1
(1) + (-1.5 – i1.659)K
2
(1)
dt
-1 = (-1.5 + i1.659)K
1
+ (-1.5 – i1.659)K
2

K
1
= 0.401 – i0.664
1 = 0.401 – i0.664 + K
2
K
2
= 0.599 + i0.664
Putting corresponding values we get

v(t) = (0.401 – i0.664)e
(-1.5 + i1.659)t
+ (0.599 + i0.664)e
(-1.5 – i1.659)t

Q#6.8: Find particular solutions to the differential equations given in Prob. 6.4,
given the initial conditions:
dv
v(0+) = 2, (0+) = 1
dt
(a)
d
2
v dv
+ 2 + 2v = 0
dt
2
dt
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 50

Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
v + 2sv + 2v = 0
s
2
+ 2s + 2 = 0
a 1
b 2
c 2

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get
-2 ± \2
2
– 4(1)(2)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2 ± \4

– 8
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2 ± \-4
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2 ± i2
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-2 + i2)/2, (-2 – i2)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-1 + i1), (-1 – i1)
General solution:
v(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

v(t) = K
1
e
(-1 + i1)t
+ K
2
e
(-1 – i1)t
… (i)

At t = 0+
v(0+) = K
1
e
(-1 + i1)0+
+ K
2
e
(-1 – i1)0+

v(0+) = K
1
e
0
+ K
2
e
0

2 = K
1
(1) + K
2
(1)
2 = K
1
+ K
2
… (ii)
Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’
dv(t)
= (-1 + i1)K
1
e
(-1 + i1)t
+ (-1 – i1)K
2
e
(-1 – i1)t

dt
dv(0+)
= (-1 + i1)K
1
e
(-1 + i1)0+
+ (-1 – i1)K
2
e
(-1 – i1)0+

dt
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 51

dv(0+)
= (-1 + i1)K
1
e
0
+ (-1 – i1)K
2
e
0

dt
dv(0+)
= (-1 + i1)K
1
(1) + (-1 – i1)K
2
(1)
dt
1 = (-1 + i1)K
1
+ (-1 – i1)K
2

K
1
= -iK
2
– 0.5 – i0.5
2 = -iK
2
– 0.5 – i0.5 + K
2
2 + 0.5 + i0.5 = -iK
2
+ K
2
2.5 + i0.5 = [-i + 1]K
2
K
2
= 1 + i1.5
2 = K
1
+ 1 + i1.5
1 = K
1
+ i1.5
K
1
= 1 – i1.5

v(t) = (1 – i1.5)e
(-1 + i1)t
+ (1 + i1.5)e
(-1 – i1)t

(b)
d
2
v dv
+ 2 + 4v = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
v + 2sv + 4v = 0
s
2
+ 2s + 4 = 0
a 1
b 2
c 4

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get

-2 ± \2
2
– 4(1)(4)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2 ± \4

– 16
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 52

-2 ± \-12
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2 ± i3.464
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-2 + i3.464)/2, (-2 – i3.464)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-1 + i1.732), (-1 – i1.732)
General solution:
v(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

v(t) = K
1
e
(-1 + i1.732)t
+ K
2
e
(-1 – i1.732)t
… (i)

At t = 0+
v(0+) = K
1
e
(-1 + i1.732)0+
+ K
2
e
(-1 – i1.732)0+

2 = K
1
e
0
+ K
2
e
0

2 = K
1
(1) + K
2
(1)
2 = K
1
+ K
2

Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’
dv(t)
= (-1 + i1.732)K
1
e
(-1 + i1.732)t
+ (-1 – i1.732)K
2
e
(-1 – i1.732)t

dt
dv(0+)
= (-1 + i1.732)K
1
e
(-1 + i1.732)0+
+ (-1 – i1.732)K
2
e
(-1 – i1.732)0+

dt
1 = (-1 + i1.732)K
1
e
0
+ (-1 – i1.732)K
2
e
0

1 = (-1 + i1.732)K
1
(1) + (-1 – i1.732)K
2
(1)
1 = (-1 + i1.732)K
1
+ (-1 – i1.732)K
2

(-1 + i1.732)K
1
=

(1 + i1.732)K
2
+ 1
K
1
= [0.5 – i0.866]K
2
- 0.25 - i0.433
2 = [0.5 – i0.866]K
2
- 0.25 - i0.433 + K
2
2 + 0.25 + i0.433 = [0.5 – i0.866]K
2
+ K
2
2.25 + i0.433 = [0.5 – i0.866 + 1]K
2
2.25 + i0.433 = [1.5 – i0.866]K
2
K
2
= 1 + i0.867
2 = K
1
+ 1 + i0.867
1 – i0.867 = K
1

Putting corresponding values

v(t) = (1 – i0.867)e
(-1 + i1.732)t
+ (1 + i0.867)e
(-1 – i1.732)t

(c)

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 53

d
2
v dv
+ 4 + 2v = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
v + 4sv + 2v = 0
s
2
+ 4s + 2 = 0
a 1
b 4
c 2

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get

-4 ± \4
2
– 4(1)(2)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-4 ± \16

– 8
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-4 ± \8
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-4 ± 2.828
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-4 + 2.828)/2, (-4 – 2.828)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-0.586), (-3.414)
General solution:
v(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

v(t) = K
1
e
(-0.586)t
+ K
2
e
(-3.414)t
… (i)

At t = 0+
v(0+) = K
1
e
(-0.586)0+
+ K
2
e
(-3.414)0+

2 = K
1
e
0
+ K
2
e
0
2 = K
1
(1) + K
2
(1)
2 = K
1
+ K
2
… (ii)

Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 54

dv(t)
= (-0.586)K
1
e
(-0.586)t
+ (-3.414)K
2
e
(-3.414)t

dt
dv(0+)
= (-0.586)K
1
e
(-0.586)0+
+ (-3.414)K
2
e
(-3.414)0+

dt
1 = (-0.586)K
1
e
0
+ (-3.414)K
2
e
0
1 = (-0.586)K
1
(1) + (-3.414)K
2
(1)
1 = -0.586K
1
- 3.414K
2

K
1
= -1.706 – 5.826K
2

2 = [-1.706 – 5.826K
2
] + K
2
2 = -1.706 – 5.826K
2
+ K
2
2 + 1.706 = [–5.826 + 1]K
2
3.706 = [–4.826]K
2
K
2
= -0.768
2 = K
1
+ (-0.768)
2.768 = K
1

Putting corresponding values we get

v(t) = 2.768e
(-0.586)t
– 0.768e
(-3.414)t

(d)
d
2
v dv
2 + 8 + 16v = 0
dt
2
dt
After simplification

d
2
v dv
+ 4 + 8v = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
v + 4sv + 8v = 0
s
2
+ 4s + 8 = 0
a 1
b 4
c 8

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 55

-4 ± \4
2
– 4(1)(8)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-4 ± \16

– 32
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-4 ± \-16
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-4 ± i4
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-4 + i4)/2, (-4 – i4)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-2 + i2), (-2 – i2)
General solution:
v(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

v(t) = K
1
e
(-2 + i2)t
+ K
2
e
(-2 – i2)t

At t = 0+
v(0+) = K
1
e
(-2 + i2)0+
+ K
2
e
(-2 – i2)0+
2 = K
1
e
0
+ K
2
e
0
2 = K
1
(1) + K
2
(1)
2 = K
1
+ K
2
… (ii)

Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’
dv(t)
= (-2 + i2)K
1
e
(-2 + i2)t
+ (-2 – i2)K
2
e
(-2 – i2)t

dt
dv(0+)
= (-2 + i2)K
1
e
(-2 + i2)0+
+ (-2 – i2)K
2
e
(-2 – i2)0+

dt
1 = (-2 + i2)K
1
e
0
+ (-2 – i2)K
2
e
0

1 = (-2 + i2)K
1
(1) + (-2 – i2)K
2
(1)
1 = (-2 + i2)K
1
+ (-2 – i2)K
2

K
1
= -i – 0.25 – i0.25
K
1
= -i1.25 – 0.25
2 = -i1.25 – 0.25 + K
2
2 + i1.25 + 0.25 = K
2
2.25 + i1.25 = K
2

v(t) = [-i1.25 – 0.25]e
(-2 + i2)t
+ [2.25 + i1.25]e
(-2 – i2)t

(e)

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 56

d
2
v dv
+ 2 + 3v = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
v + 2sv + 3v = 0
s
2
+ 2s + 3 = 0
a 1
b 2
c 3

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get

-2 ± \2
2
– 4(1)(3)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2 ± \4

– 12
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2 ± \-8
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2 ± i2.828
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-2 + i2.828)/2, (-2 – i2.828)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-1 + i1.414), (-1 – i1.414)
General solution:
v(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

v(t) = K
1
e
(-1 + i1.414)t
+ K
2
e
(-1 – i1.414)t

At t = 0+
v(0+) = K
1
e
(-1 + i1.414)0+
+ K
2
e
(-1 – i1.414)0+
2 = K
1
e
0
+ K
2
e
0

2 = K
1
(1) + K
2
(1)
2 = K
1
+ K
2
Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 57

dv(t)
= (-1 + i1.414)K
1
e
(-1 + i1.414)t
+ (-1 – i1.414)K
2
e
(-1 – i1.414)t

dt
dv(0+)
= (-1 + i1.414)K
1
e
(-1 + i1.414)0+
+ (-1 – i1.414)K
2
e
(-1 – i1.414)0+

dt
dv(0+)
= (-1 + i1.414)K
1
e
0
+ (-1 – i1.414)K
2
e
0

dt
dv(0+)
= (-1 + i1.414)K
1
(1) + (-1 – i1.414)K
2
(1)
dt
1 = (-1 + i1.414)K
1
+ (-1 – i1.414)K
2

K
1
= [0.334 – i0.943]K
2
– 0.334 – i0.471
2 = [0.334 – i0.943]K
2
– 0.334 – i0.471 + K
2
2

+ 0.334 + i0.471 = [1.334 – i0.943]K
2
2.334 + i0.471 = [1.334 – i0.943]K
2
K
2
= 1 + i1.060
2 = K
1
+ 1 + i1.060
1 - i1.060 = K
1

Putting corresponding values we get

v(t) = (1 - i1.060)e
(-1 + i1.414)t
+ (1 + i1.060)e
(-1 – i1.414)t

(f)
d
2
v dv
+ 3 + 5v = 0
dt
2
dt
Characteristic equation:
as
2
+ bs + c = 0
Here
s
2
v + 3sv + 5v = 0
s
2
+ 3s + 5 = 0
a 1
b 3
c 5

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get

-3 ± \3
2
– 4(1)(5)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 58

-3 ± \9

– 20
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-3 ± \-11
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-3 ± i3.317
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-3 + i3.317)/2, (-3 – i3.317)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-1.5 + i1.659), (-1.5 – i1.659)
General solution:
v(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

v(t) = K
1
e
(-1.5 + i1.659)t
+ K
2
e
(-1.5 – i1.659)t
… (i)

At t = 0+
v(0+) = K
1
e
(-1.5 + i1.659)0+
+ K
2
e
(-1.5 – i1.659)0+

2 = K
1
e
0
+ K
2
e
0
2 = K
1
(1) + K
2
(1)
2 = K
1
+ K
2
… (ii)

Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’
dv(t)
= (-1.5 + i1.659)K
1
e
(-1.5 + i1.659)t
+ (-1.5 – i1.659)K
2
e
(-1.5 – i1.659)t

dt
dv(0+)
= (-1.5 + i1.659)K
1
e
(-1.5 + i1.659)0+
+ (-1.5 – i1.659)K
2
e
(-1.5 – i1.659)0+

dt
dv(0+)
= (-1.5 + i1.659)K
1
e
0
+ (-1.5 – i1.659)K
2
e
0

dt
dv(0+)
= (-1.5 + i1.659)K
1
(1) + (-1.5 – i1.659)K
2
(1)
dt
1 = (-1.5 + i1.659)K
1
+ (-1.5 – i1.659)K
2

K
1
= 0.101 – i0.996 – 0.300 – i0.332
K
1
= -0.199 – i1.328
2 = -0.199 – i1.328 + K
2

2 + 0.199 + i1.328 = K
2

2.199 + i1.328 = K
2

Putting corresponding values we get

v(t) = (-0.199 – i1.328)e
(-1.5 + i1.659)t
+ (2.199 + i1.328)e
(-1.5 – i1.659)t

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 59

Q#6.9: Solve the differential equation
d
3
i d
2
i di
3 + 8 + 10 + 3i = 0
dt dt dt
3s
3
i + 8s
2
i + 10si + 3i = 0
X-TICS EQUATION:
3s
3
+ 8s
2
+ 10s + 3 = 0
We can find roots using synthetic division

1 8 10 3

-1 -1 -07 -3

1 7 3 0 Remainder is zero.

s = -1
So s + 1 is a factor.
(s + 1)(s
2
+ 7s + 3) = 0
s
2
+ 7s + 3 = 0
A 1
B 7
C 3

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get
-7 ± \7
2
– 4(1)(3)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-7 ± \49

– 12
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-7 ± \37
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-7 ± 6.083
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-7 + 6.083)/2, (-7 – 6.083)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-0.917)/2, (-13.083)/2
s
1
, s
2
= -0.459, -6.542
General solution:
i(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 60

Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = K
1
e
-0.459t
+ K
2
e
-6.542t

So –1, -0.459, -6.542 are roots of the X-TICS equation.
General solution:
i(t) = K
1
e
-1t
+ K
2
e
-0.459t
+ K
3
e
-6.542t

Q#6.10: Solve the differential equation
d
3
i d
2
i di
2 + 9 + 13 + 6i = 0
dt dt dt
2s
3
i + 9s
2
i + 13si + 6i = 0
X-TICS EQUATION:
2s
3
+ 9s
2
+ 13s + 6 = 0
We can find roots using synthetic division

2 9 13 6

-1 -2 -07 -6

2 7 6 0 Remainder is zero.

s = -1
So s + 1 is a factor.
(s + 1)(2s
2
+ 7s + 6) = 0
2s
2
+ 7s + 6 = 0
A 2
B 7
C 6

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get
-7 ± \7
2
– 4(1)(6)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-7 ± \49

– 24
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-7 ± \25
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 61

-7 ± 5
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-7 + 5)/2, (-7 – 5)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-2)/2, (-12)/2
s
1
, s
2
= -1, -6
General solution:
i(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = K
1
e
-1t
+ K
2
e
-6t

So –1, -1, -6 are roots of the X-TICS equation.
General solution:
i(t) = K
1
e
-1t
+ K
2
e
-1t
+ K
3
e
-6t
… (i)

At t = 0+
i(0+) = K
1
e
-1(0+)
+ K
2
e
-1(0+)
+ K
3
e
-6(0+)
0 = K
1
e
0
+ K
2
e
0
+ K
3
e
0
0 = K
1
(1) + K
2
(1) + K
3
(1)

0 = K
1
+ K
2
+ K
3

Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’
di
= -K
1
e
-t
- K
2
e
-1t
- 6K
3
e
-6t

dt
di(0+)
= -K
1
e
-(0+)
- K
2
e
-1(0+)
- 6K
3
e
-6(0+)

dt
1 = -K
1
e
0
- K
2
e
0
- 6K
3
e
0

1 = -K
1
(1)

- K
2
(1) - 6K
3
(1)

1 = -K
1

- K
2
- 6K
3

d
2
i
= K
1
e
-t
+ K
2
e
-1t
+ 6K
3
e
-6t

dt
2

d
2
i(0+)
= K
1
e
-(0+)
+ K
2
e
-1(0+)
+ 6K
3
e
-6(0+)

dt
2

-1 = K
1
e
0
+ K
2
e
0
+ 6K
3
e
0

-1 = K
1
(1)

+ K
2
(1) + 6K
3
(1)

-1 = K
1

+ K
2
+ 6K
3

Q#6.11: The response of a network is found to be
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 62

i = K
1
te
-ot
, t > 0

where o is real and positive. Find the time at which i(t) attains a maximum value.
o = 4 K = 1
t = 0 i(0) = 0
t = 1 i(1) = 0.018
t = 2 i(2) = 0.001
t = 3 i(3) = 0

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 63

0
1
2
3
0
0.018
0.001 0 0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
time
c
u
r
r
e
n
t
Series1
Series2
Series1 0 1 2 3
Series2 0 0.018 0.001 0
1 2 3 4
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 64

Q#6.12: In a certain network, it is found that the current is given by the expression
i = K
1
e
-o1t

K
2
e
-o2t
, t > 0, o
1
> o
2

Show that i(t) reaches a maximum value at time
1 o
1
K
1

t = ln
o
1
- o
2
o
2
K
2

1 o
1
K
1

t = ln
o
1
K
2

Solution:
i(t) = K
1
e
-o1t

K
2
e
-o2t

t = 1
i(1) = K
1
e
-o1(1)

K
2
e
-o2(1)
i(1) = K
1
e
-o1

K
2
e
-o2

t = 2
i(2) = K
1
e
-o1(2)

K
2
e
-o2(2)
i(2) = K
1
e
-2o1

K
2
e
-2o2

t = 3
i(3) = K
1
e
-o1(3)

K
2
e
-o2(3)
i(3) = K
1
e
-3o1

K
2
e
-3o2

t = (1/o
1
)ln(o
1
K
1
/K
2
)
i((1/o
1
)ln(o
1
K
1
/K
2
)) = K
1
e
-o1((1/o1)ln(o1K1/K2))

K
2
e
-o2((1/o1)ln(o1K1/K2))

1 o
1
K
1

t = ln
o
1
K
2

Q#6.13: The graph shows a damped sinusoidal waveform having the general form
Ke
-ot
sin(et + |)
From the graph, determine numerical values for K, o, e, and |.
t = 1 sec
1
f =
t
f = 1 Hz
e = 2tf
e = 2t(1)
e = 2t
t V(t)
0 0
0.4 0
0.8 0
Q#6.14: Repeat Prob. 6.13 for the waveform of the accompanying figure.
t = 4 msec
1
f =
t
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 65

f = 250 Hz
e = 2tf
e = 2t(250)
| = 0
0

Q#6.15: In the network of the figure, the switch K is closed and a steady state is
reached in the network. At t = 0, the switch is opened. Find an expression for the
current in the inductor, i
2
(t).
Solution:
Circuit diagram:

K 10 O i
2

+

100 V 1 H
- 20 µF

Equivalent circuit before switching:

At t = 0-
100
i
2
(0-) =
10
i
2
(0-) = 10 A = i
2
(0+)
V
C
(0-) = V
C
(0+) = 0
Equivalent circuit after switching:

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 66

i
2

Using KVL we have
di
2
1
L + }i
2
dt = 0 … (i)
dt C
Differentiating we have
d
2
i
2
i
2

L + = 0
dt
2
C
The characteristic equation is
i
2

Ls
2
i
2
+ = 0
C
1
Ls
2
+ = 0
C
1
s
2
= -
LC

-1
s = ±
LC

1
s = ±j
LC

Roots are pure imaginary so from table 6-1
Form of solution
i = K
1
cos et + K
2
sin et
Here

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 67

1
e =
LC

i = i
2
(t)
i
2
(t) = K
1
cos (1/LC)
1/2
t + K
2
sin (1/LC)
1/2
t … (ii)
From equation (i) at t = 0+
di
2
(0+)

L + V
C
(0+) = 0
dt
Putting corresponding values

di
2
(0+)

= 0 Amp./sec
dt

From (ii) at t = 0+
i
2
(0+) = K
1
cos (1/LC)
1/2
(0+) + K
2
sin (1/LC)
1/2
(0+)
i
2
(0+) = K
1
(1) + 0
K
1
= 10
di
2
(t)

= -(1/LC)
1/2
K
1
sin (1/LC)
1/2
t + (1/LC)
1/2
K
2
cos (1/LC)
1/2
t
dt
At t = 0+
di
2
(0+)

= -(1/LC)
1/2
K
1
sin (1/LC)
1/2
(0+) + (1/LC)
1/2
K
2
cos (1/LC)
1/2
(0+)
dt
di
2
(0+)

= -(1/LC)
1/2
K
1
sin (1/LC)
1/2
(0+) + (1/LC)
1/2
K
2
cos (1/LC)
1/2
(0+)
dt
0 = (1/LC)
1/2
K
2
0 = K
2

i
2
(t) = (10)cos (1/LC)
1/2
(t) + (0)

sin (1/LC)
1/2
(t)
i
2
(t) = (10)cos (1/(1)(20(10
-6
)))
1/2
(t)

i
2
(t) = 10cos 223.607t

Q#6.16: The capacitor of the figure has an initial voltage V
C
(0-) = V
1
, and at the
same time the current in the inductor is zero. At t = 0, the switch K is closed.
Determine an expression for the voltage V
2
(t).
Solution:

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 68

V
1
V
2

C R L

Here
V
C
(0-) = V
C
(0+) = 0 = V
2
(0+)
i
L
(0-) = i
L
(0+) = 0
After switching
dV
2
V
2
1
C + + }V
2
dt = 0 … (i)
dt R L
Differentiating with respect to ‘t’
d
2
V
2
dV
2
V
2

C + + = 0
dt
2
Rdt L
d
2
V
2
dV
2
V
2

+ + = 0
dt
2
RCdt LC
The characteristic equation is
s V
2

s
2
V
2
+ V
2
+ = 0
RC LC
s 1
s
2
+ + = 0
RC LC
a 1
b 1/RC
c 1/LC

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get

-(1/RC) ± \(1/RC)
2
– 4(1)(1/LC)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 69

-(1/RC) ± \(1/R
2
C
2
)

– (4/LC)
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= -(1/2RC) ± \(1/2RC)
2
– (1/LC)
Case (a) if
(1/2RC)
2
– (1/LC) = 0
(1/2RC)
2
= (1/LC)
that is
1 L
R =
2 C

Then
1
s = -
2RC
So form of solution is:
Nature of roots
s
1
, s
2
= (-1/2RC + 0), (-1/2RC - 0)
s
1
, s
2
= (-1/2RC), (-1/2RC)
Negative real and equal
V
2
(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
te
s2t

V
2
(t) = K
1
e
(-1/2RC)t
+ K
2
te
(-1/2RC)t
… (ii)

From equation (i) at t = 0+
dV
2
(0+)

V
2
(0+)

C + + i
L
(0+) = 0
dt R
Putting corresponding values
dV
2
(0+)

-V
1

=
dt RC
At t = 0+
V
2
(0+) = K
1
e
(-1/2RC)0+
+ K
2
(0+)e
(-1/2RC)0+
… (ii)
V
1
= K
1
e
0

V
1
= K
1

Differentiating (ii) with respect to ‘t’
dV
2
(t)
= (-1/2RC)K
1
e
(-1/2RC)t
+ K
2
[-te
(-1/2RC)t
-

e
(-1/2RC)t
]
dt
At t = 0+
dV
2
(0+)
= (-1/2RC)K
1
e
(-1/2RC)0+
+ K
2
[-(0+)e
(-1/2RC)0+
-

e
(-1/2RC)0+
]
dt

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 70

dV
2
(0+)
= (-1/2RC)K
1
e
0
+ K
2
[-e
0
]
dt
-V
1

= (-1/2RC)K
1
(1) + K
2
[-(1)]
RC
V
1

= (1/2RC)K
1
+ K
2

RC
Putting corresponding values
V
1

= (1/2RC)V
1
+ K
2

RC
-V
1

K
2
=
2RC
Putting corresponding values

V
1

V
2
(t) = V
1
e
(-1/2RC)t
- te
(-1/2RC)t
2RC

Q#6.17: The voltage source in the network of the figure is described by the equation,
V
1
= 2 cos 2t for t > 0 and is a short circuit prior to that time. Determine V
2
(t).
Repeat if V
1
= K
1
t for t > 0 and V
1
= 0 for t < 0.
Solution:

V
1
V
2

Here i
L
(0-) = i
L
(0+) = 0 A
V
C
(0-) = V
C
(0+) = 0 = V
2
(0+)
For t > 0
According to KCL
V
2
1 dV
2
1
+ + }(V
2
– V
1
)dt = 0 … (i)
2 2 dt 1
Differentiating we have

+
-
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 71

dV
2
1 d
2
V
2

+ + V
2
– V
1
= 0
2dt 2 dt
2

dV
2
d
2
V
2

+ + 2V
2
– 2V
1
= 0
dt dt
2
dV
2
d
2
V
2

+ + 2V
2
= 2V
1

dt dt
2
dV
2
d
2
V
2

+ + 2V
2
= 2[2 cos 2t]
dt dt
2
dV
2
d
2
V
2

+ + 2V
2
= 4 cos 2t … (ii)
dt dt
2
Equation (ii) is a non-homogeneous differential equation
Characteristic equation is
s
2
V
2
+ sV
2
+ 2V
2
= 0
s
2
+ s + 2 = 0
a 1
b 1
c 2

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get

-1 ± \1
2
– 4(1)(2)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-1 ± \1

– 8
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-1 ± \-7
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-1 ± i2.646
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-1 + i2.646)/2, (-1 – i2.646)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-0.5 + i1.323), (-0.5 – i1.323)
General solution:
v(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 72

Putting corresponding values we get

V
2
(t) = K
1
e
(-0.5 + i1.323)t
+ K
2
e
(-0.5 – i1.323)t
… (ii)

Complementary solution.
The form of particular solution is
V
2P
= Acos 2t + Bsin 2t … (iii)
Substituting (iii) in (ii)
d
2

d
[Acos 2t + Bsin 2t] + [Acos 2t + Bsin 2t] + 2[Acos 2t + Bsin 2t] = 4 cos 2t
dt
2
dt

After simplification
-2Asin 2t + 2B cos 2t – 4Acos 2t – 4Bsin 2t + 2Acos 2t + 2Bsin 2t = 4 cos 2t
Equating coefficients of L.H.S & R.H.S
-2A – 4B + 2B = 0
-2A – 2B = 0
-2A = 2B
-A = B
2B – 4A + 2A = 4
2B – 2A = 4
B – A = 2
-A – A = 2
-2A = 2
A = -1
-(-1) = B
B = 1
V
2P
= -1cos 2t + 1sin 2t
V
2P
= -cos 2t + sin 2t
Therefore particular solution is
V
2
= complementary + particular
V
2
= K
1
e
(-0.5 + i1.323)t
+ K
2
e
(-0.5 – i1.323)t
+ [-cos 2t + sin 2t]
V
2
= K
1
e
(-0.5 + i1.323)t
+ K
2
e
(-0.5 – i1.323)t
- cos 2t + sin 2t … (iV)
dV
2

= (-0.5 + i1.323)K
1
e
(-0.5 + i1.323)t
+ (-0.5 – i1.323)K
2
e
(-0.5 – i1.323)t
+ 2sin 2t + 2cos 2t
dt
V
2
(0+) 1 dV
2
(0+)

+ + i
L
(0+) = 0
2 2 dt
Putting corresponding values
dV
2
(0+)
= 0
dt
At t = 0+
dV
2
(0+)
=
dt
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 73

(-0.5 + i1.323)K
1
e
(-0.5 + i1.323)0+
+ (-0.5 – i1.323)K
2
e
(-0.5 – i1.323)0+
+ 2sin 2(0+) + 2cos 2(0+)
0 = (-0.5 + i1.323)K
1
e
0
+ (-0.5 – i1.323)K
2
e
0
+ 2sin 0 + 2cos 0
0 = (-0.5 + i1.323)K
1
(1) + (-0.5 – i1.323)K
2
(1) + 2(1)
0 = (-0.5 + i1.323)K
1
+ (-0.5 – i1.323)K
2
+ 2 … (V)
At t = 0+ equation (iV)
V
2
(0+) = K
1
e
(-0.5 + i1.323)0+
+ K
2
e
(-0.5 – i1.323)0+
- cos 2(0+) + sin 2(0+)
0 = K
1
e
0
+ K
2
e
0
– 1
0 = K
1
(1) + K
2
(1)

– 1
0 = K
1
+ K
2

– 1
1 = K
1
+ K
2

… (Vi)
K
1
= 1 – K
2

Putting the value of K
1
in (V)
0 = (-0.5 + i1.323)(1 – K
2
) + (-0.5 – i1.323)K
2
+ 2
0 = (-0.5 + i1.323) – K
2
(-0.5 + i1.323) + (-0.5 – i1.323)K
2
+ 2
0 = -0.5 + i1.323 + 0.5K
2
– i1.323K
2
– 0.5K
2
-

i1.323K
2
+ 2
-1.5 - i1.323 = [0.5 – i1.323

– 0.5

-

i1.323]K
2
-1.5 - i1.323 = [–i2.646]K
2
1.5 + i1.323 = [i2.646]K
2

K
2
= 0.5 – i0.567

Putting the value of K
2
in (Vi)
1 = K
1
+ 0.5 – i0.567

0.5 + i0.567 = K
1

V
2
= [0.5 + i0.567]e
(-0.5 + i1.323)t
+ [0.5 – i0.567]e
(-0.5 – i1.323)t
- cos 2t + sin 2t

Part (b)

If V
1
= Kt
dV
2
d
2
V
2

+ + 2V
2
= 2V
1

dt dt
2
dV
2
d
2
V
2

+ + 2V
2
= 2K
1
… (a)
dt dt
2

Equation (ii) is a non-homogeneous differential equation
Characteristic equation is
s
2
V
2
+ sV
2
+ 2V
2
= 0
s
2
+ s + 2 = 0
A 1
B 1
C 2

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 74

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get

-1 ± \1
2
– 4(1)(2)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-1 ± \1

– 8
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-1 ± \-7
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-1 ± i2.646
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-1 + i2.646)/2, (-1 – i2.646)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-0.5 + i1.323), (-0.5 – i1.323)
General solution:
v(t) = C
1
e
s1t
+ C
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

V
2
(t) = C
1
e
(-0.5 + i1.323)t
+ C
2
e
(-0.5 – i1.323)t
… (i)

Complementary solution.
The form of particular solution is
From table 6.2
A
1
t
n
B
0
t
n
+ B
1
t
n- 1
+ … + B
n – 1
t + B
n

V
2P
= At + B … (ii)
Substituting equation (ii) in (a)
d
2

d
[At + B] + [At + B] + 2[At + B] = 2K
1
t
dt
2
dt

After simplification
A + 2At + 2B = 2K
1
t
Equating coefficients
t:
2A = 2K
1

A = K
1
Constants:
A + 2B = 0
K
1
+ 2B = 0
B = -0.5K
1
V
2P
= K
1
t - 0.5K
1
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 75

Therefore
Particular solution
= Complementary + particular
V
2
= C
1
e
(-0.5 + i1.323)t
+ C
2
e
(-0.5 – i1.323)t
+

K
1
t - 0.5K
1
… (ii)

Differentiating
dV
2

= (-0.5 + i1.323)C
1
e
(-0.5 + i1.323)t
+ (-0.5 – i1.323)C
2
e
(-0.5 – i1.323)t
+

K
1

dt
At t = 0+ eq. (ii)
V
2
(0+) = C
1
e
(-0.5 + i1.323)0+
+ C
2
e
(-0.5 – i1.323)0+
+

K
1
(0+) - 0.5K
1

0 = C
1
e
0
+ C
2
e
0
- 0.5K
1
0 = C
1
(1) + C
2
(1) - 0.5K
1

0 = C
1
+ C
2
- 0.5K
1
… (iii)

dV
2
(0+)

= (-0.5 + i1.323)C
1
e
(-0.5 + i1.323)0+
+ (-0.5 – i1.323)C
2
e
(-0.5 – i1.323)0+
+

K
1

dt
0

= (-0.5 + i1.323)C
1
e
0
+ (-0.5 – i1.323)C
2
e
0
+

K
1

0

= (-0.5 + i1.323)C
1
(1) + (-0.5 – i1.323)C
2
(1)

+

K
1

0

= (-0.5 + i1.323)C
1
+ (-0.5 – i1.323)C
2

+

K
1
… (iV)

Putting the value of C
1
from (iii) into (iV)
0

= (-0.5 + i1.323)[0.5K
1
– C
2
] + (-0.5 – i1.323)C
2

+

K
1
After simplification
C
2
= 0.250 – i0.284K
1
Putting the value of C
2
in (iii)
0 = C
1
+ 0.250 – i0.284K
1
- 0.5K
1
C
1
= -0.250 + i0.284K
1
+ 0.5K
1
Putting corresponding values eq. (ii) becomes
V
2
= [-0.250 + i0.284K
1
+ 0.5K
1
]e
(-0.5 + i1.323)t
+ [0.250 – i0.284K
1
]e
(-0.5 – i1.323)t
+

K
1
t - 0.5K
1

Q#6.18: Solve the following nonhomogeneous differential equations for t > 0.
(a)
d
2
i di
+ 2 + i = 1
dt
2
dt
Nonhomogeneous differential equation
i(t) = i
C
+ i
P

Complementary solution
Characteristic equation is
s
2
i + 2si + 1i = 0
s
2
+ 2s + 1 = 0

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 76

A 1
B 2
C 1

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get

-2 ± \2
2
– 4(1)(1)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2 ± \4

– 4
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2 ± \0
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2 ± 0
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-2 + 0)/2, (-2 – 0)/2
s
1
, s
2
= -1, -1
General solution:
i(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
te
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = K
1
e
(-1)t
+ K
2
te
(-1)t

Particular solution
From table 6.2
V(a constant) A
i
P
= A = 1

i(t) = K
1
e
(-1)t
+ K
2
te
(-1)t
+ 1

(b)
d
2
i di
+ 3 + 2i = 5t …(c)
dt
2
dt
Nonhomogeneous differential equation
i(t) = i
C
+ i
P

Complementary solution
Characteristic equation is
s
2
i + 3si + 2i = 0
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 77

s
2
+ 3s + 2 = 0
A 1
B 3
C 2
-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get

-3 ± \3
2
– 4(1)(2)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-3 ± \9

– 8
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-3 ± \1
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-3 ± 1
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-3 + 1)/2, (-3 – 1)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-1), (-2)
General solution:
v(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = K
1
e
(-1)t
+ K
2
e
(-2)t
… (i)

Particular solution
From table 6.2
A
1
t
n
B
0
t
n
+ B
1
t
n- 1
+ … + B
n – 1
t + B
n

i
P
= At + B … (ii)
Putting the value of i
P
from (ii) into eq. (c)
d
2
d
[At + B] + 3 [At + B] + 2[At + B] = 5t
dt
2
dt
After simplification
3A + 2At + 2B = 5t
Equating coefficients
2A = 5
A = 2.5
Constants
3A + 2B = 0
3(2.5) + 2B = 0
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 78

7.5 + 2B = 0
B = -3.75
i
P
= 2.5t – 3.75
i
P
= -15/4 + 5t/2
i(t) = K
1
e
(-1)t
+ K
2
e
(-2)t
- 15/4 + 5t/2

(c)
d
2
i di
+ 3 + 2i = 10 sin 10t … (k)
dt
2
dt
Nonhomogeneous differential equation
i(t) = i
C
+ i
P

Complementary solution
Characteristic equation is
s
2
i + 3si + 2i = 0
s
2
+ 3s + 2 = 0
A 1
B 3
C 2
-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get

-3 ± \3
2
– 4(1)(2)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-3 ± \9

– 8
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-3 ± \1
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-3 ± 1
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-3 + 1)/2, (-3 – 1)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-1), (-2)
General solution:
v(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = K
1
e
(-1)t
+ K
2
e
(-2)t
… (i)

Particular solution
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 79

From table 6.2
i
P
= A sin 10t + B cos 10t
Putting the value of i
P
in (k)
d
2
d

[A sin 10t + B cos 10t] + 3 [A sin 10t + B cos 10t] + 2[A sin 10t + B cos 10t] =
dt
2
dt
10 sin 10t
-100A sin 10t – 100B cos 10t + 3[10A cos 10t - 10B sin 10t] + 2A sin 10t + 2B cos 10t
= 10 sin 10t
-100A sin 10t – 100B cos 10t + 30A cos 10t - 30B sin 10t + 2A sin 10t + 2B cos 10t =
10 sin 10t
Equating coefficients
Sin
-100A – 30B + 2A = 10
-98A – 30B = 10
Cos
-100B + 30A + 2B = 0
-98B + 30A = 0
B = 0.306A
-98A – 30(0.306A) = 10
-98A – 9.18A = 10
-107.18A = 10

A = -0.094
B = 0.306(-0.094)
B = -0.029
Now
i
P
= -0.094 sin 10t + (-0.029) cos 10t
i
P
= -0.094 sin 10t - 0.029 cos 10t
i(t) = K
1
e
(-1)t
+ K
2
e
(-2)t
+

[-0.094 sin 10t - 0.029 cos 10t]

i(t) = K
1
e
(-1)t
+ K
2
e
(-2)t
- 0.094 sin 10t - 0.029 cos 10t

(d)
d
2
q dq
+ 5 + 6q = te
-t
… (m)
dt
2
dt
Nonhomogeneous differential equation
q(t) = q
C
+ q
P

Complementary solution
Characteristic equation is
s
2
q + 5sq + 6q = 0
s
2
+ 5s + 6 = 0
A 1
B 5
C 6

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 80

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get

-5 ± \5
2
– 4(1)(6)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-5 ± \25

– 24
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-5 ± \1
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-5 ± 1
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-5 + 1)/2, (-5 - 1)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-4)/2, (-6)/2
s
1
, s
2
= -2, -3
General solution:
q(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

q(t) = K
1
e
-2t
+ K
2
e
-3t

Particular solution
q
P
= (At + B)te
-t
¬ multiplied by ‘t’ because e
-t
is repeating in both i
P
& i
C

Putting the value of i
P
in eq. m
d
2
d
[(At + B)te
-t
] + 5 [(At + B)te
-t
] + 6[(At + B)te
-t
] = te
-t

dt
2
dt
At
2
e
-t
- 2Ate
-t
– 2Ate
-t
+ 2Ae
-t
+ Bte
-t
– Be
-t
– Be
-t
+ 5[-At
2
e
-t
+ 2Ate
-t
-

Bte
-t
+ Be
-t
]
+ 6[At
2
e
-t
+ Bte
-t
] = te
-t
At
2
e
-t
- 2Ate
-t
– 2Ate
-t
+ 2Ae
-t
- Bte
-t
– Be
-t
– Be
-t
- 5At
2
e
-t
+ 10Ate
-t
-

5Bte
-t
+ 5Be
-t

+ 6At
2
e
-t
+ 6Bte
-t
= te
-t

Equating coefficients
t
2
e
-t
:

A – 5A + 6A = 0
2A = 0
A = 0
te
-t
:
-2A – 2A + 10A = 1
6B = 3
B = 0.5
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 81

e
-t
:
2 – B – B + 5B = 0
2 + 3B = 0
B = -0.667

When B = 0.5
q
P
= (0t + (0.5))te
-t
q
P
= 0.5te
-t
When B = -0.667
q
P
= (0t + (-0.667))te
-t
q
P
= -0.667te
-t

q(t) = K
1
e
-2t
+ K
2
e
-3t
- 0.667te
-t
,

K
1
e
-2t
+ K
2
e
-3t
+

0.5te
-t

(e)
d
2
V dV
+ 5 + 6V = e
-2t
+ 5e
-3t
… (n)
dt
2
dt
Nonhomogeneous differential equation
V(t) = V
C
+ V
P

Complementary solution
Characteristic equation is
s
2
V + 5sV + 6V = 0
s
2
+ 5s + 6 = 0
A 1
B 5
C 6

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get
-5 ± \5
2
– 4(1)(6)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-5 ± \25

– 24
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-5 ± \1
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-5 ± 1
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-5 + 1)/2, (-5 - 1)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-4)/2, (-6)/2
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 82

s
1
, s
2
= -2, -3
General solution:
V(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

V(t) = K
1
e
-2t
+ K
2
e
-3t

Particular solution
V
P
= Ce
-2t
+ Ce
-3t
Substituting the value of V
P
in eq. (n)
d
2
d
[Ce
-2t
+ Ce
-3t
] + 5 [Ce
-2t
+ Ce
-3t
] + 6[Ce
-2t
+ Ce
-3t
] = e
-2t
+ 5e
-3t

dt
2
dt
4Ce
-2t
+ 9Ce
-3t
+ 5[-2Ce
-2t
– 3Ce
-3t
] + 6Ce
-2t
+ 6Ce
-3t
= e
-2t
+ 5e
-3t

4Ce
-2t
+ 9Ce
-3t
- 10Ce
-2t
– 15Ce
-3t
+ 6Ce
-2t
+ 6Ce
-3t
= e
-2t
+ 5e
-3t
Equating coefficients
e
-2t
4C – 10C + 6C = 1
4C – 10C + 6C = 1
C = 0
V
P
= (0)e
-2t
+ (0)e
-3t
V
P
= 0
V(t) = K
1
e
-2t
+ K
2
e
-3t
+ 0
V(t) = K
1
e
-2t
+ K
2
e
-3t

Q#6.19: Solve the differential equations given in Prob. 6.18 subject to the following
initial conditions:
dx
x(0+) = 1 & (0+) = -1
dt
where x is the general dependent variable.
(a)
d
2
i di
+ 2 + i = 1
dt
2
dt
Nonhomogeneous differential equation
i(t) = i
C
+ i
P

Complementary solution
Characteristic equation is
s
2
i + 2si + 1i = 0
s
2
+ 2s + 1 = 0
A 1
B 2
C 1

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 83

s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get
-2 ± \2
2
– 4(1)(1)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2 ± \4

– 4
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2 ± \0
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2 ± 0
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-2 + 0)/2, (-2 – 0)/2
s
1
, s
2
= -1, -1
General solution:
i(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
te
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = K
1
e
(-1)t
+ K
2
te
(-1)t

Particular solution
From table 6.2
V(a constant) A
i
P
= A = 1

i(t) = K
1
e
(-1)t
+ K
2
te
(-1)t
+ 1

At t = 0+
i(0+) = K
1
e
(-1)0+
+ K
2
(0+)e
(-1)0+
+ 1
1 = K
1
e
0
+ 1
1 = K
1
(1)

+ 1
K
1
= 0
di
(0+) = -K
1
e
-(0+)
- K
2
(0+)e
-(0+)
+ K
2
e
-(0+)

dt
-1 = -K
1
e
0
+ K
2
e
0

-1 = -K
1
(1)

+ K
2
(1)
-1 = -K
1

+ K
2
-1 = -(0)

+ K
2
-1 = K
2
i(t) = (0)e
(-1)t
+ (-1)te
(-1)t
+ 1

i(t) = - te
-t
+ 1
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 84

(b)
d
2
i di
+ 3 + 2i = 5t …(c)
dt
2
dt
Nonhomogeneous differential equation
i(t) = i
C
+ i
P

Complementary solution
Characteristic equation is
s
2
i + 3si + 2i = 0
s
2
+ 3s + 2 = 0
A 1
B 3
C 2
-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get

-3 ± \3
2
– 4(1)(2)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-3 ± \9

– 8
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-3 ± \1
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-3 ± 1
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-3 + 1)/2, (-3 – 1)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-1), (-2)
General solution:
v(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = K
1
e
(-1)t
+ K
2
e
(-2)t
… (i)

Particular solution
From table 6.2
A
1
t
n
B
0
t
n
+ B
1
t
n- 1
+ … + B
n – 1
t + B
n

i
P
= At + B … (ii)
Putting the value of i
P
from (ii) into eq. (c)
d
2
d
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 85

[At + B] + 3 [At + B] + 2[At + B] = 5t
dt
2
dt
After simplification
3A + 2At + 2B = 5t
Equating coefficients
2A = 5
A = 2.5
Constants
3A + 2B = 0
3(2.5) + 2B = 0
7.5 + 2B = 0
B = -3.75
i
P
= 2.5t – 3.75
i
P
= -15/4 + 5t/2
i(t) = K
1
e
(-1)t
+ K
2
e
(-2)t
- 15/4 + 5t/2 … (b)
At t = 0+
i(0+) = K
1
e
(-1)0+
+ K
2
e
(-2)0+
- 15/4 + 5(0+)/2
1 = K
1
e
0
+ K
2
e
0
- 15/4
1 = K
1
(1) + K
2
(1)

- 15/4
1 = K
1
+ K
2

- 15/4
1 + 15/4 = K
1
+ K
2

4.75 = K
1
+ K
2
… (A)
Differentiating (b) at t = 0+
di
(0+) = -K
1
e
(-1)0+
- 2K
2
e
(-2)0+
+ 5/2
dt
-1 = -K
1
e
0
- 2K
2
e
0
+ 5/2
-1 = -K
1
(1) - 2K
2
(1) + 5/2
-1 = -K
1
- 2K
2
+ 5/2
-1 – 2.5 = -K
1
- 2K
2
-3.5 = -K
1
- 2K
2

From (A)
K
1
= 4.75 – K
2
-3.5 = -[4.75 – K
2
] - 2K
2

-3.5 = -4.75 + K
2
- 2K
2
-3.5 + 4.75 = -K
2
1.25 = -K
2
K
2
= -1.25
4.75 = K
1
+ (-1.25)
4.75 + 1.25= K
1

K
1
= 6
Putting corresponding values of K
1
& K
2

i(t) = 6e
(-1)t
+ (-1.25)e
(-2)t
- 15/4 + 5t/2

i(t) = 6e
(-1)t
- 1.25e
(-2)t
- 15/4 + 5t/2

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 86

(c)
d
2
i di
+ 3 + 2i = 10 sin 10t … (k)
dt
2
dt
Nonhomogeneous differential equation
i(t) = i
C
+ i
P

Complementary solution
Characteristic equation is
s
2
i + 3si + 2i = 0
s
2
+ 3s + 2 = 0
A 1
B 3
C 2
-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get

-3 ± \3
2
– 4(1)(2)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-3 ± \9

– 8
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-3 ± \1
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-3 ± 1
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-3 + 1)/2, (-3 – 1)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-1), (-2)
General solution:
v(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = K
1
e
(-1)t
+ K
2
e
(-2)t
… (i)

Particular solution
From table 6.2
i
P
= A sin 10t + B cos 10t
Putting the value of i
P
in (k)
d
2
d

[A sin 10t + B cos 10t] + 3 [A sin 10t + B cos 10t] + 2[A sin 10t + B cos 10t] =
dt
2
dt
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 87

10 sin 10t
-100A sin 10t – 100B cos 10t + 3[10A cos 10t - 10B sin 10t] + 2A sin 10t + 2B cos 10t
= 10 sin 10t
-100A sin 10t – 100B cos 10t + 30A cos 10t - 30B sin 10t + 2A sin 10t + 2B cos 10t =
10 sin 10t
Equating coefficients
Sin
-100A – 30B + 2A = 10
-98A – 30B = 10
Cos
-100B + 30A + 2B = 0
-98B + 30A = 0
B = 0.306A
-98A – 30(0.306A) = 10
-98A – 9.18A = 10
-107.18A = 10

A = -0.094
B = 0.306(-0.094)
B = -0.029
Now
i
P
= -0.094 sin 10t + (-0.029) cos 10t
i
P
= -0.094 sin 10t - 0.029 cos 10t
i(t) = K
1
e
(-1)t
+ K
2
e
(-2)t
+

[-0.094 sin 10t - 0.029 cos 10t]

i(t) = K
1
e
(-1)t
+ K
2
e
(-2)t
- 0.094 sin 10t - 0.029 cos 10t

At t = 0+
i(0+) = K
1
e
(-1)0+
+ K
2
e
(-2)0+
- 0.094 sin 10(0+) - 0.029 cos 10(0+) … (c)
1 = K
1
e
0
+ K
2
e
0
- 0.094 sin 0 - 0.029 cos 0
1 = K
1
(1) + K
2
(1) - 0.029 (1)
1 = K
1
+ K
2
- 0.029
1.029 = K
1
+ K
2
… (y)
Differentiating eq. (c) with respect to ‘t’
di
(0+) = -K
1
e
-(0+)
- 2K
2
e
(-2)0+
- 0.094(10) cos 10(0+) + 0.029(10) sin 10(0+)
dt
-1 = -K
1
e
0
- 2K
2
e
0
- 0.94 cos 0 + 0.029(10) sin 0
-1 = -K
1
(1) - 2K
2
(1)

- 0.94 (1)
-1 = -K
1
- 2K
2

- 0.94
0.06 = K
1
+ 2K
2

From eq. (y)
K
1
= 1.029 – K
2

0.06 = [1.029 – K
2
] + 2K
2

0.06 = 1.029 – K
2
+ 2K
2
-0.969 = K
2

Putting the value of K
2
in (y)
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 88

1.029 = K
1
+ (-0.969)
1.029 + 0.969 = K
1

1.998 = K
1

i(t) = 1.998e
(-1)t
+ (-0.969)e
(-2)t
- 0.094 sin 10t - 0.029 cos 10t

i(t) = 1.998e
(-1)t
- 0.969e
(-2)t
- 0.094 sin 10t - 0.029 cos 10t
(d)
d
2
q dq
+ 5 + 6q = te
-t
… (m)
dt
2
dt
Nonhomogeneous differential equation
q(t) = q
C
+ q
P

Complementary solution
Characteristic equation is
s
2
q + 5sq + 6q = 0
s
2
+ 5s + 6 = 0
A 1
B 5
C 6

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get
-5 ± \5
2
– 4(1)(6)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-5 ± \25

– 24
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-5 ± \1
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-5 ± 1
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-5 + 1)/2, (-5 - 1)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-4)/2, (-6)/2
s
1
, s
2
= -2, -3
General solution:
q(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

q(t) = K
1
e
-2t
+ K
2
e
-3t

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 89

Particular solution
q
P
= (At + B)te
-t
¬ multiplied by ‘t’ because e
-t
is repeating in both i
P
& i
C

Putting the value of i
P
in eq. m
d
2
d
[(At + B)te
-t
] + 5 [(At + B)te
-t
] + 6[(At + B)te
-t
] = te
-t

dt
2
dt
At
2
e
-t
- 2Ate
-t
– 2Ate
-t
+ 2Ae
-t
+ Bte
-t
– Be
-t
– Be
-t
+ 5[-At
2
e
-t
+ 2Ate
-t
-

Bte
-t
+ Be
-t
]
+ 6[At
2
e
-t
+ Bte
-t
] = te
-t
At
2
e
-t
- 2Ate
-t
– 2Ate
-t
+ 2Ae
-t
- Bte
-t
– Be
-t
– Be
-t
- 5At
2
e
-t
+ 10Ate
-t
-

5Bte
-t
+ 5Be
-t

+ 6At
2
e
-t
+ 6Bte
-t
= te
-t

Equating coefficients
t
2
e
-t
:

A – 5A + 6A = 0
2A = 0
A = 0
te
-t
:
-2A – 2A + 10A = 1
6B = 3
B = 0.5
e
-t
:
2 – B – B + 5B = 0
2 + 3B = 0
B = -0.667

When B = 0.5
q
P
= (0t + (0.5))te
-t
q
P
= 0.5te
-t
When B = -0.667
q
P
= (0t + (-0.667))te
-t
q
P
= -0.667te
-t

q(t) = K
1
e
-2t
+ K
2
e
-3t
- 0.667te
-t
,

K
1
e
-2t
+ K
2
e
-3t
+

0.5te
-t

At t = 0+
q(0+) = K
1
e
-2(0+)
+ K
2
e
-3(0+)
- 0.667(0+)e
-(0+)
,

K
1
e
-2(0+)
+ K
2
e
-3(0+)
+

0.5(0+)e
-(0+)
1 = K
1
e
0
+ K
2
e
0
,

K
1
e
0
+ K
2
e
0
1 = K
1
(1) + K
2
(1),

K
1
(1) + K
2
(1)

1 = K
1
+ K
2
,

K
1
+ K
2
… (y)

q(t) = K
1
e
-2t
+ K
2
e
-3t
- 0.667te
-t
Differentiating with respect to ‘t’ at t = 0+
dq
(0+) = -2K
1
e
-2(0+)
-3K
2
e
-3(0+)
- 0.667[-(0+)e
-(0+)
+ e
-(0+)
]
dt
-1 = -2K
1
e
0
-3K
2
e
0
- 0.667[e
0
]
-1 = -2K
1
(1) -3K
2
(1)

- 0.667[1]
-1 = -2K
1
-3K
2

- 0.667
0.333 = 2K
1
+ 3K
2

From eq. (y) K
1
= 1 – K
2
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 90

0.333 = 2[1 – K
2
] + 3K
2

0.333 = 2 – 2K
2
+ 3K
2
0.333 = 2 + K
2
K
2
= 0.333 - 2
K
2
= -1.667
1 = K
1
+ (-1.667)
K
1
= 2.667
q(t) = 2.667e
-2t
+ (-1.667)e
-3t
- 0.667te
-t

q(t) = 2.667e
-2t
- 1.667e
-3t
- 0.667te
-t

(e)
d
2
V dV
+ 5 + 6V = e
-2t
+ 5e
-3t
… (n)
dt
2
dt
Nonhomogeneous differential equation
V(t) = V
C
+ V
P

Complementary solution
Characteristic equation is
s
2
V + 5sV + 6V = 0
s
2
+ 5s + 6 = 0
A 1
B 5
C 6

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get
-5 ± \5
2
– 4(1)(6)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-5 ± \25

– 24
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-5 ± \1
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-5 ± 1
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-5 + 1)/2, (-5 - 1)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-4)/2, (-6)/2
s
1
, s
2
= -2, -3
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 91

General solution:
V(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

V(t) = K
1
e
-2t
+ K
2
e
-3t

Particular solution
V
P
= Ce
-2t
+ Ce
-3t
Substituting the value of V
P
in eq. (n)
d
2
d
[Ce
-2t
+ Ce
-3t
] + 5 [Ce
-2t
+ Ce
-3t
] + 6[Ce
-2t
+ Ce
-3t
] = e
-2t
+ 5e
-3t

dt
2
dt
4Ce
-2t
+ 9Ce
-3t
+ 5[-2Ce
-2t
– 3Ce
-3t
] + 6Ce
-2t
+ 6Ce
-3t
= e
-2t
+ 5e
-3t

4Ce
-2t
+ 9Ce
-3t
- 10Ce
-2t
– 15Ce
-3t
+ 6Ce
-2t
+ 6Ce
-3t
= e
-2t
+ 5e
-3t
Equating coefficients
e
-2t
4C – 10C + 6C = 1
4C – 10C + 6C = 1
C = 0
V
P
= (0)e
-2t
+ (0)e
-3t
V
P
= 0
V(t) = K
1
e
-2t
+ K
2
e
-3t
+ 0
V(t) = K
1
e
-2t
+ K
2
e
-3t
… (k)
At t = 0+
V(0+) = K
1
e
-2(0+)
+ K
2
e
-3(0+)

1 = K
1
e
0
+ K
2
e
0

1 = K
1
(1) + K
2
(1)
1 = K
1
+ K
2
… (A)
Differentiating eq. (k) with respect to ‘t’
dV
(0+) = -2K
1
e
-2(0+)
- 3K
2
e
-3(0+)

dt
-1 = -2K
1
e
0
- 3K
2
e
0

-1 = -2K
1
(1) - 3K
2
(1)
-1 = -2K
1
- 3K
2
… (B)
K
1
= 1 – K
2
-1 = -2[1 – K
2
] - 3K
2
… (B)
-1 = -2 + 2K
2
- 3K
2

-1 = K
2
1 = K
1
+ (-1)

… (A)
2 = K
1

V(t) = 2e
-2t
+ (-1)e
-3t
… (k)
V(t) = 2e
-2t
- e
-3t

Q#6.20: Find the particular solutions to the differential equations of Prob. 6.18 for
the following initial conditions:
dx
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 92

x(0+) = 2 & (0+) = -1
dt
where x is the general dependent variable.
(a)
d
2
i di
+ 2 + i = 1
dt
2
dt
Nonhomogeneous differential equation
i(t) = i
C
+ i
P

Complementary solution
Characteristic equation is
s
2
i + 2si + 1i = 0
s
2
+ 2s + 1 = 0
A 1
B 2
C 1

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get

-2 ± \2
2
– 4(1)(1)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2 ± \4

– 4
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2 ± \0
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2 ± 0
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-2 + 0)/2, (-2 – 0)/2
s
1
, s
2
= -1, -1
General solution:
i(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
te
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = K
1
e
(-1)t
+ K
2
te
(-1)t

Particular solution
From table 6.2
V(a constant) A
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 93

i
P
= A = 1

i(t) = K
1
e
(-1)t
+ K
2
te
(-1)t
+ 1

At t = 0+
i(0+) = K
1
e
(-1)0+
+ K
2
(0+)e
(-1)0+
+ 1
2 = K
1
e
0
+ 1
2 = K
1
(1)

+ 1
K
1
= 1
di
(0+) = -K
1
e
-(0+)
- K
2
(0+)e
-(0+)
+ K
2
e
-(0+)

dt
-1 = -K
1
e
0
+ K
2
e
0

-1 = -K
1
(1)

+ K
2
(1)
-1 = -K
1

+ K
2
-1 = -(1)

+ K
2
0 = K
2
i(t) = (1)e
(-1)t
+ (0)te
(-1)t
+ 1

i(t) = e
-t
+ 1

(b)
d
2
i di
+ 3 + 2i = 5t …(c)
dt
2
dt
Nonhomogeneous differential equation
i(t) = i
C
+ i
P

Complementary solution
Characteristic equation is
s
2
i + 3si + 2i = 0
s
2
+ 3s + 2 = 0
A 1
B 3
C 2
-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get

-3 ± \3
2
– 4(1)(2)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-3 ± \9

– 8
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-3 ± \1
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 94

s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-3 ± 1
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-3 + 1)/2, (-3 – 1)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-1), (-2)
General solution:
v(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = K
1
e
(-1)t
+ K
2
e
(-2)t
… (i)

Particular solution
From table 6.2
A
1
t
n
B
0
t
n
+ B
1
t
n- 1
+ … + B
n – 1
t + B
n

i
P
= At + B … (ii)
Putting the value of i
P
from (ii) into eq. (c)
d
2
d
[At + B] + 3 [At + B] + 2[At + B] = 5t
dt
2
dt
After simplification
3A + 2At + 2B = 5t
Equating coefficients
2A = 5
A = 2.5
Constants
3A + 2B = 0
3(2.5) + 2B = 0
7.5 + 2B = 0
B = -3.75
i
P
= 2.5t – 3.75
i
P
= -15/4 + 5t/2
i(t) = K
1
e
(-1)t
+ K
2
e
(-2)t
- 15/4 + 5t/2 … (b)
At t = 0+
i(0+) = K
1
e
(-1)0+
+ K
2
e
(-2)0+
- 15/4 + 5(0+)/2
2 = K
1
e
0
+ K
2
e
0
- 15/4
2 = K
1
(1) + K
2
(1)

- 15/4
2 = K
1
+ K
2

- 15/4
2 + 15/4 = K
1
+ K
2

5.75 = K
1
+ K
2
… (A)
Differentiating (b) at t = 0+
di
(0+) = -K
1
e
(-1)0+
- 2K
2
e
(-2)0+
+ 5/2
dt
-1 = -K
1
e
0
- 2K
2
e
0
+ 5/2
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 95

-1 = -K
1
(1) - 2K
2
(1) + 5/2
-1 = -K
1
- 2K
2
+ 5/2
-1 – 2.5 = -K
1
- 2K
2
-3.5 = -K
1
- 2K
2

From (A)
K
1
= 5.75 – K
2
-3.5 = -[5.75 – K
2
] - 2K
2

-3.5 = -5.75 + K
2
- 2K
2
-3.5 + 5.75 = -K
2
2.25 = -K
2
K
2
= -2.25
5.75 = K
1
+ (-2.25)
5.75 + 2.25= K
1

K
1
= 8
Putting corresponding values of K
1
& K
2

i(t) = 8e
(-1)t
+ (-2.25)e
(-2)t
- 15/4 + 5t/2

i(t) = 8e
(-1)t
- 2.25e
(-2)t
- 15/4 + 5t/2

(c)
d
2
i di
+ 3 + 2i = 10 sin 10t … (k)
dt
2
dt
Nonhomogeneous differential equation
i(t) = i
C
+ i
P

Complementary solution
Characteristic equation is
s
2
i + 3si + 2i = 0
s
2
+ 3s + 2 = 0
A 1
B 3
C 2
-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get

-3 ± \3
2
– 4(1)(2)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-3 ± \9

– 8
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-3 ± \1
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 96

-3 ± 1
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-3 + 1)/2, (-3 – 1)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-1), (-2)
General solution:
v(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = K
1
e
(-1)t
+ K
2
e
(-2)t
… (i)

Particular solution
From table 6.2
i
P
= A sin 10t + B cos 10t
Putting the value of i
P
in (k)
d
2
d

[A sin 10t + B cos 10t] + 3 [A sin 10t + B cos 10t] + 2[A sin 10t + B cos 10t] =
dt
2
dt
10 sin 10t
-100A sin 10t – 100B cos 10t + 3[10A cos 10t - 10B sin 10t] + 2A sin 10t + 2B cos 10t
= 10 sin 10t
-100A sin 10t – 100B cos 10t + 30A cos 10t - 30B sin 10t + 2A sin 10t + 2B cos 10t =
10 sin 10t
Equating coefficients
Sin
-100A – 30B + 2A = 10
-98A – 30B = 10
Cos
-100B + 30A + 2B = 0
-98B + 30A = 0
B = 0.306A
-98A – 30(0.306A) = 10
-98A – 9.18A = 10
-107.18A = 10

A = -0.094
B = 0.306(-0.094)
B = -0.029
Now
i
P
= -0.094 sin 10t + (-0.029) cos 10t
i
P
= -0.094 sin 10t - 0.029 cos 10t
i(t) = K
1
e
(-1)t
+ K
2
e
(-2)t
+

[-0.094 sin 10t - 0.029 cos 10t]

i(t) = K
1
e
(-1)t
+ K
2
e
(-2)t
- 0.094 sin 10t - 0.029 cos 10t

At t = 0+
i(0+) = K
1
e
(-1)0+
+ K
2
e
(-2)0+
- 0.094 sin 10(0+) - 0.029 cos 10(0+) … (c)
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 97

2 = K
1
e
0
+ K
2
e
0
- 0.094 sin 0 - 0.029 cos 0
2 = K
1
(1) + K
2
(1) - 0.029 (1)
2 = K
1
+ K
2
- 0.029
2.029 = K
1
+ K
2
… (y)
Differentiating eq. (c) with respect to ‘t’
di
(0+) = -K
1
e
-(0+)
- 2K
2
e
(-2)0+
- 0.094(10) cos 10(0+) + 0.029(10) sin 10(0+)
dt
-1 = -K
1
e
0
- 2K
2
e
0
- 0.94 cos 0 + 0.029(10) sin 0
-1 = -K
1
(1) - 2K
2
(1)

- 0.94 (1)
-1 = -K
1
- 2K
2

- 0.94
0.06 = K
1
+ 2K
2

From eq. (y)
K
1
= 2.029 – K
2

0.06 = [2.029 – K
2
] + 2K
2

0.06 = 2.029 – K
2
+ 2K
2
-1.969 = K
2

Putting the value of K
2
in (y)
1.029 = K
1
+ (-1.969)
1.029 + 1.969 = K
1

2.998 = K
1

i(t) = 2.998e
(-1)t
+ (-1.969)e
(-2)t
- 0.094 sin 10t - 0.029 cos 10t

i(t) = 2.998e
(-1)t
- 1.969e
(-2)t
- 0.094 sin 10t - 0.029 cos 10t

(d)
d
2
q dq
+ 5 + 6q = te
-t
… (m)
dt
2
dt
Nonhomogeneous differential equation
q(t) = q
C
+ q
P

Complementary solution
Characteristic equation is
s
2
q + 5sq + 6q = 0
s
2
+ 5s + 6 = 0
A 1
B 5
C 6

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get

-5 ± \5
2
– 4(1)(6)
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 98

s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-5 ± \25

– 24
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-5 ± \1
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)

-5 ± 1
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-5 + 1)/2, (-5 - 1)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-4)/2, (-6)/2
s
1
, s
2
= -2, -3
General solution:
q(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

q(t) = K
1
e
-2t
+ K
2
e
-3t

Particular solution
q
P
= (At + B)te
-t
¬ multiplied by ‘t’ because e
-t
is repeating in both i
P
& i
C

Putting the value of i
P
in eq. m
d
2
d
[(At + B)te
-t
] + 5 [(At + B)te
-t
] + 6[(At + B)te
-t
] = te
-t

dt
2
dt
At
2
e
-t
- 2Ate
-t
– 2Ate
-t
+ 2Ae
-t
+ Bte
-t
– Be
-t
– Be
-t
+ 5[-At
2
e
-t
+ 2Ate
-t
-

Bte
-t
+ Be
-t
]
+ 6[At
2
e
-t
+ Bte
-t
] = te
-t
At
2
e
-t
- 2Ate
-t
– 2Ate
-t
+ 2Ae
-t
- Bte
-t
– Be
-t
– Be
-t
- 5At
2
e
-t
+ 10Ate
-t
-

5Bte
-t
+ 5Be
-t

+ 6At
2
e
-t
+ 6Bte
-t
= te
-t

Equating coefficients
t
2
e
-t
:

A – 5A + 6A = 0
2A = 0
A = 0
te
-t
:
-2A – 2A + 10A = 1
6B = 3
B = 0.5
e
-t
:
2 – B – B + 5B = 0
2 + 3B = 0
B = -0.667

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 99

When B = 0.5
q
P
= (0t + (0.5))te
-t
q
P
= 0.5te
-t
When B = -0.667
q
P
= (0t + (-0.667))te
-t
q
P
= -0.667te
-t

q(t) = K
1
e
-2t
+ K
2
e
-3t
- 0.667te
-t
,

K
1
e
-2t
+ K
2
e
-3t
+

0.5te
-t

At t = 0+
q(0+) = K
1
e
-2(0+)
+ K
2
e
-3(0+)
- 0.667(0+)e
-(0+)
,

K
1
e
-2(0+)
+ K
2
e
-3(0+)
+

0.5(0+)e
-(0+)
2 = K
1
e
0
+ K
2
e
0
,

K
1
e
0
+ K
2
e
0
2 = K
1
(1) + K
2
(1),

K
1
(1) + K
2
(1)

2 = K
1
+ K
2
,

K
1
+ K
2
… (y)

q(t) = K
1
e
-2t
+ K
2
e
-3t
- 0.667te
-t
Differentiating with respect to ‘t’ at t = 0+
dq
(0+) = -2K
1
e
-2(0+)
-3K
2
e
-3(0+)
- 0.667[-(0+)e
-(0+)
+ e
-(0+)
]
dt
-1 = -2K
1
e
0
-3K
2
e
0
- 0.667[e
0
]
-1 = -2K
1
(1) -3K
2
(1)

- 0.667[1]
-1 = -2K
1
-3K
2

- 0.667
0.333 = 2K
1
+ 3K
2

From eq. (y) K
1
= 1 – K
2
0.333 = 2[2 – K
2
] + 3K
2

0.333 = 4 – 2K
2
+ 3K
2
0.333 = 4 + K
2
K
2
= 0.333 - 4
K
2
= -3.667
1 = K
1
+ (-3.667)
K
1
= 4.667
q(t) = 4.667e
-2t
+ (-3.667)e
-3t
- 0.667te
-t

q(t) = 4.667e
-2t
- 3.667e
-3t
- 0.667te
-t

(e)
d
2
V dV
+ 5 + 6V = e
-2t
+ 5e
-3t
… (n)
dt
2
dt
Nonhomogeneous differential equation
V(t) = V
C
+ V
P

Complementary solution
Characteristic equation is
s
2
V + 5sV + 6V = 0
s
2
+ 5s + 6 = 0
a 1
b 5
c 6
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 100

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get
-5 ± \5
2
– 4(1)(6)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-5 ± \25

– 24
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-5 ± \1
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-5 ± 1
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-5 + 1)/2, (-5 - 1)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-4)/2, (-6)/2
s
1
, s
2
= -2, -3
General solution:
V(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

V(t) = K
1
e
-2t
+ K
2
e
-3t

Particular solution
V
P
= Ce
-2t
+ Ce
-3t
Substituting the value of V
P
in eq. (n)
d
2
d
[Ce
-2t
+ Ce
-3t
] + 5 [Ce
-2t
+ Ce
-3t
] + 6[Ce
-2t
+ Ce
-3t
] = e
-2t
+ 5e
-3t

dt
2
dt
4Ce
-2t
+ 9Ce
-3t
+ 5[-2Ce
-2t
– 3Ce
-3t
] + 6Ce
-2t
+ 6Ce
-3t
= e
-2t
+ 5e
-3t

4Ce
-2t
+ 9Ce
-3t
- 10Ce
-2t
– 15Ce
-3t
+ 6Ce
-2t
+ 6Ce
-3t
= e
-2t
+ 5e
-3t
Equating coefficients
e
-2t
4C – 10C + 6C = 1
4C – 10C + 6C = 1
C = 0
V
P
= (0)e
-2t
+ (0)e
-3t
V
P
= 0
V(t) = K
1
e
-2t
+ K
2
e
-3t
+ 0
V(t) = K
1
e
-2t
+ K
2
e
-3t
… (k)
At t = 0+
V(0+) = K
1
e
-2(0+)
+ K
2
e
-3(0+)

2 = K
1
e
0
+ K
2
e
0

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 101

2 = K
1
(1) + K
2
(1)
2 = K
1
+ K
2
… (A)
Differentiating eq. (k) with respect to ‘t’
dV
(0+) = -2K
1
e
-2(0+)
- 3K
2
e
-3(0+)

dt
-1 = -2K
1
e
0
- 3K
2
e
0

-1 = -2K
1
(1) - 3K
2
(1)
-1 = -2K
1
- 3K
2
… (B)
K
1
= 2 – K
2
-1 = -2[2 – K
2
] - 3K
2
… (B)
-1 = -4 + 2K
2
- 3K
2

-3 = K
2
1 = K
1
+ (-3)

… (A)
4 = K
1

V(t) = 4e
-2t
+ (-3)e
-3t
… (k)
V(t) = 4e
-2t
- 3e
-3t

Q#6.21: Solve the differential equation
d
3
i d
2
i di
2 + 9 + 13 + 6i = K
0
te
-t
sint … (u)
dt dt dt
2s
3
i + 9s
2
i + 13si + 6i = 0
X-TICS EQUATION:
2s
3
+ 9s
2
+ 13s + 6 = 0
We can find roots using synthetic division

2 9 13 6

-1 -2 -07 -6

2 7 6 0 Remainder is zero.

s = -1
So s + 1 is a factor.
(s + 1)(2s
2
+ 7s + 6) = 0
2s
2
+ 7s + 6 = 0
A 2
B 7
C 6

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get
-7 ± \7
2
– 4(1)(6)
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 102

s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-7 ± \49

– 24
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-7 ± \25
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-7 ± 5
s
1
, s
2
=
2
s
1
, s
2
= (-7 + 5)/2, (-7 – 5)/2
s
1
, s
2
= (-2)/2, (-12)/2
s
1
, s
2
= -1, -6
General solution:
i(t) = K
1
e
s1t
+ K
2
e
s2t

Putting corresponding values we get

i(t) = K
1
e
-1t
+ K
2
e
-6t

So –1, -1, -6 are roots of the X-TICS equation.
General solution:
i(t) = K
1
e
-1t
+ K
2
e
-1t
+ K
3
e
-6t
… (i)

Particular olution
i
P
=

Fte
-t
cos t + Gte
-t
sin t
Putting the value of i
P
in (u)
Here in eq. (u) i = i
P
Simplification
I
st
derivative of i
P
:
= F(1)e
-t
cos t + Ft(-e
-t
)cos t + Fte
-t
(-sin t) + G(1)e
-t
sin t + Gt(-e
-t
)sin t + Gte
-t
cos t

= Fe
-t
cos t - Fte
-t
cos t - Fte
-t
sin t + Ge
-t
sin t - Gte
-t
sin t + Gte
-t
cos t

2
nd
derivative of i
P
:
= F[-e
-t
sin t – e
-t
cos t] – F[e
-t
cos t - te
-t
cos t - te
-t
sin t] – F[e
-t
sin t - te
-t
sin t + te
-t
cos t] +
G[e
-t
cos t – e
-t
sin t] – G[e
-t
sin t - te
-t
sin t + te
-t
cos t] + G[e
-t
cos t - te
-t
cos t - te
-t
sin t]

= -2Fe
-t
sin t – 2Fe
-t
cos t + 2Fte
-t
sin t + 2Ge
-t
cos t – 2Ge
-t
sin t - 2Gte
-t
cos t

3
rd
derivative of i
P
:
= -2F[e
-t
cos t – e
-t
sin t] - 2F[-e
-t
sin t – e
-t
cos t] + 2F[e
-t
sin t - te
-t
sin t + te
-t
cos t]
+ 2G[-e
-t
sin t – e
-t
cos t] – 2G[e
-t
cos t – e
-t
sin t] – 2G[e
-t
cos t - te
-t
cos t - te
-t
sin t]

= 6Fe
-t
sin t – 2Fte
-t
sin t + 2Fte
-t
cos t – 6Ge
-t
cos t + 2Gte
-t
cos t + 2Gte
-t
sin t

2[6Fe
-t
sin t – 2Fte
-t
sin t + 2Fte
-t
cos t – 6Ge
-t
cos t + 2Gte
-t
cos t + 2Gte
-t
sin t] +
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 103

9[-2Fe
-t
sin t – 2Fe
-t
cos t + 2Fte
-t
sin t + 2Ge
-t
cos t – 2Ge
-t
sin t - 2Gte
-t
cos t] +

13[Fe
-t
cos t - Fte
-t
cos t - Fte
-t
sin t + Ge
-t
sin t - Gte
-t
sin t + Gte
-t
cos t] +

6[Fte
-t
cos t + Gte
-t
sin t] = K
0
te
-t
sin t

12Fe
-t
sin t – 4Fte
-t
sin t + 4Fte
-t
cos t – 12Ge
-t
cos t + 4Gte
-t
cos t + 4Gte
-t
sin t

- 18Fe
-t
sin t – 4Fe
-t
cos t + 4Fte
-t
sin t + 4Ge
-t
cos t – 4Ge
-t
sin t - 4Gte
-t
cos t +

13Fe
-t
cos t - 13Fte
-t
cos t - 13Fte
-t
sin t + 13Ge
-t
sin t - 13Gte
-t
sin t + 13Gte
-t
cos t +

6Fte
-t
cos t + 6Gte
-t
sin t = K
0
te
-t
sin t
Comparing coefficients
e
-t
sin t:
12F – 18F – 4G + 13G = 0
-6F + 9G = 0
-2F + 3G = 0 … (7)
te
-t
sin t:
-4F + 4G + 4F – 13F – 13G + 6G = K
0
-3G – 13F = K
0
… (8)
From eq. (7) F = 1.5G put in (8)
-3G – 13(1.5G) = K
0

-3G – 19.5G = K
0

-22.5G = K
0

G = -0.045K
0

Put in (7)
-2F + 3(-0.045K
0
) = 0
-2F – 0.135K
0
= 0
F = -0.068K
0

i
P
=

(-0.068K
0
)te
-t
cos t + (-0.045K
0
)te
-t
sin t
i
P
=

-0.068K
0
te
-t
cos t - 0.045K
0
te
-t
sin t
i(t) = K
1
e
-1t
+ K
2
e
-1t
+ K
3
e
-6t
+

(-0.068K
0
te
-t
cos t - 0.045K
0
te
-t
sin t)

i(t) = K
1
e
-1t
+ K
2
e
-1t
+ K
3
e
-6t
- 0.068K
0
te
-t
cos t - 0.045K
0
te
-t
sin t … (9)

At t = 0+
i(0+) = K
1
e
-1(0+)
+ K
2
e
-1(0+)
+ K
3
e
-6(0+)
- 0.068K
0
(0+)e
-(0+)
cos (0+) - 0.045K
0
(0+)e
-(0+)
sin
(0+)
1 = K
1
e
0
+ K
2
e
0
+ K
3
e
0
1 = K
1
(1) + K
2
(1) + K
3
(1)

1 = K
1
+ K
2
+ K
3

Differentiating eq. (9) with respect to ‘t’
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 104

di
(0+) = -K
1
e
-(0+)
- K
2
e
-1(0+)
- 6K
3
e
-6(0+)
- 0.068K
0
[e
-(0+)
cos (0+)
dt
– (0+)e
-(0+)
cos (0+) – (0+)e
-(0+)
sin (0+)] - 0.045K
0
[e
-(0+)
sin (0+) – (0+)e
-(0+)
sin (0+) +
(0+)e
-(0+)
cos (0+)]
After simplification
-1 = -K1 – K2 – 6K3 - 0.068K
0
[1]
-1 = -K
1
– K
2
– 6K
3
- 0.068K
0

1 = K
1
+ K
2
+ 6K
3
+ 0.068K
0

Q#6.22: A special generator has a voltage variation given by the equation V(t) = t V,
where t is the time in seconds and t > 0. This generator is connected to an RL series
circuit, where R = 2 O and L = 1 H, at time t = 0 by the closing of a switch. Find the
equation for the current as a function of time i(t).

K L

V(t) i
R

At t > 0
According to KVL
di
L + iR = V(t) … (c)
dt
Putting corresponding values
di
+ 2i = t
dt
Nonhomogeneous differential equation
V(t) = V
C
+ V
P

Complementary solution
Characteristic equation is
si + 2i = 0
s + 2 = 0
s = -2
+
-
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 105

i
C
= Ke
st
i
C
= Ke
(-2)t

i
C
= Ke
-2t

Particular solution
From table 6.2
A
1
t
n
B
0
t
n
+ B
1
t
n- 1
+ … + B
n – 1
t + B
n

i
P
= At + B … (ii)
Putting the value of i
P
from (ii) into eq. (c)
d
[At + B] + 2[At + B] = t
dt
After simplifications
A + 2At + 2B = t
Equating coefficients
t:
2A = 1
A = 0.5
Constants:
A + 2B = 0
0.5 + 2B = 0
B = -0.25
i
P
= 0.5t + (-0.25) … (ii)
i
P
= 0.5t - 0.25

i(t) = Ke
-2t
+

0.5t - 0.25

At t = 0+
i(0+) = Ke
-2(0+)
+

0.5(0+) - 0.25
0 = Ke
0
- 0.25 ¬ i(0+) = i(0-) = 0 (due to inductor)
0 = K(1) - 0.25
K = 0.25
i(t) = 0.25e
-2t
+

0.5t - 0.25

Q#6.23: A bolt (flash of lighting) of lightning having a waveform which is
approximated as V(t) = te-t strikes a transmission line having resistance R = 0.1 O
and inductance L = 0.1 H. Find i(t) =?
Solution:

+
-
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 106

At t > 0
According to KVL
di
L + iR = V(t)
dt
Putting corresponding values
di
(0.1) + (0.1)i = te
-t
… (h)
dt
Nonhomogeneous differential equation
V(t) = V
C
+ V
P

Complementary solution
Characteristic equation is
0.1si + 0.1i = 0
s + 1 = 0
s = -1
i
C
= Ke
st
i
C
= Ke
(-1)t

i
C
= Ke
-1t

Particular solution
From table 6.2
Particular solution
i
P
= (At + B)te
-t
¬ multiplied by ‘t’ because e
-t
is repeating in both i
P
& i
C

Putting the value of q
P
in eq. (h)
0.1[-At
2
e
-t
+ 2Ate
-t
-

Bte
-t
+ Be
-t
] + 0.1[At
2
e
-t
+ Bte
-t
] = te
-t
-0.1At
2
e
-t
+ 0.2Ate
-t

0.1Bte
-t
+ 0.1Be
-t
+ 0.1At
2
e
-t
+ 0.1Bte
-t
] = te
-t
Equating coefficients:
t
2
e
-t
:
-0.1A + 0.1A = 0
te
-t
:
0.2A – 0.1B + 0.1B = 1
0.2A = 1
A = 5
e
-t
:
0.1B = 0
B = 0
i
P
= (5t + 0)te
-t
i
P
= 5t
2
e
-t

i(t) = Ke
-1t
+

5t
2
e
-t
i(t) = Ke
-t
+

5t
2
e
-t
At t = 0+
i(0+) = Ke
-(0+)
+

5(0+)
2
e
-(0+)
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 107

0 = Ke
0

0 = K
i(t) = 0e
-1t
+

5t
2
e
-t

i(t) = 5t
2
e
-t
i(0+) = i(0-) = 0 (due to inductor)

Q#6.24: In the network of the figure, the switch K is closed at t = 0 with the
capacitor initially unenergized. For the numerical values given, find i(t).

Here
V
C
(0-) = V
C
(0+) = 0 V
&
10e
-(0+)
sin (0+) u(0+)
i(0+) =
10
10e
0
sin (0) u(0+)
i(0+) =
10
i(0+) = 0 Amp.
For t > 0, KVL
1
10i + }idt = 10e
-t
sin t u(t)
(10(10
-6
))
1
10i + }idt = 10e
-t
sin t
(10(10
-6
))
After simplification
i + 10
4
}idt = e
-t
sin t
Differentiating with respect to ‘t’
di
+ 10
4
i = e
-t
(cost - sin t) … (1)
dt
It is a nonhomogeneous differential equation
Characteristic equation is
si + 10
4
i = 0
+
-

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 108

s + 10
4
= 0
s = -10
4
Therefore complementary function is
i
C
= Ke
-10, 000t

The form of particular integral is
From table 6.2
i
P
= (Acost + Bsint)e
-t
Putting the value of i
P
in eq. (1)
After simplification
-Ae
-t
sint – Ae
-t
cost + Be
-t
cost - Be
-t
sint + 10, 000[(Acost + Bsint)e
-t
] = e
-t
(cost - sin t)
-Ae
-t
sint – Ae
-t
cost + Be
-t
cost - Be
-t
sint + 10, 000Acoste
-t
+ 10, 000Bsinte
-t

= e
-t
cost - e
-t
sin t
Equating coefficients
e
-t
sint:
-A – B + 10, 000B = -1
-A + 9999B = -1 … (2)
e
-t
cost:
-A + B + 10, 000A = 1
B + 9999A = 1 … (3)
From (2)
A = 1 + 9999B
B + 9999[1 + 9999B] = 1 … (3)
B + 9999 + 9999(9999)B = 1
B + 99980001B = -9998
B[1 + 99980001] = -9998
B[99980002] = -9998
B = -10
-4
A = 1 + 9999(-1/10000)

A = 1 – 0.9999
A = 10
-4
i
P
= (10
-4
cost + (-10
-4
)sint)e
-t
i
P
= (10
-4
cost - 10
-4
sint)e
-t
Complete solution is
i(t) = Ke-
10, 000t
+ (10
-4
cost - 10
-4
sint)e
-t
At t = 0+
i(0+) = Ke-
10, 000(0+)
+ (10
-4
cos(0+) - 10
-4
sin(0+))e
-(0+)
0 = Ke
0
+ (10
-4
(1) - 10
-4
(0))e
0
0 = K(1) + (10
-4
(1) - 10
-4
(0))(1)

0 = K + 10
-4
K = -10
-4

i(t) = (-10
-4
)e-
10, 000t
+ (10
-4
cost - 10
-4
sint)e
-t

Q#6.25: In the network shown in the accompanying figure, a steady state is reached
with the switch K open. At t = 0, the switch is closed. For the element values given,
determine the current, i(t) for t > 0.
Solution:
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 109

0.5 µF

R = 1000 O

100 sin 377 t

L = 1 H

Equivalent circuit before switching:
By phasors:
V = 100Z0
0
jX
L
= jeL
jX
L
= j(377)(1)
jX
L
= j377
1
-jXC = -j
eC
-jXC = -j5305.04
Therefore
V
I =
R + jX
L
- jX
C

After simplification
I = 0.0198Z78.53
0

That is
i(t) = 0.0198sin(377t + 78.53
0
)
Also
V
C
= I(-jX
C
)
V
C
= (0.0198Z78.53
0
)(5305.04Z-90
0
)
V
C
= 105.040Z-11.47
0
Therefore
V
C
(t) = 105.040sin(377t + (-11.47
0
))

V
C
(t) = 105.040sin(377t - 11.47
0
)

At t = 0+
i(0+) = 0.0198sin(377(0+) + 78.53
0
)
i(0+) = 0.0198sin(78.53
0
)
i(0+) = 0.0198[0.981]
+
-
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 110

i(0+) = 0.019 amp
At t = 0+
V
C
(0+) = 105.040sin(377(0+) - 11.47
0
)
V
C
(0+) = 105.040sin(-11.47
0
)
V
C
(0+) = 105.040[-sin(11.47
0
)]
V
C
(0+) = 105.040[-0.199]
V
C
(0+) = -20.903 Volts
For t > 0
According to KVL
di 1
L + }idt = 100sin377t … (d)
dt C
Differentiating with respect to ‘t’
d
2
i i
L + = 100(377)cos377t
dt
2
C
d
2
i i 37700cos377t
+ =
dt
2
LC L
d
2
i i 37700cos377t
+ =
dt
2
(1)(0.5(10
-6
)) 1
d
2
i
+ 2(10
6
)i = 37700cos377t … (5)
dt
2

s
2
i + 2(10
6
)i = 37700cos377t
Complementary solution:
s
2
+ 2(10
6
) = 0
s = ±j1414.21
i
C
= K
1
cos1414.21 t + K
2
sin1414.21 t
Particular solution:
i
P
= Acos377t + Bsin377t
Putting the value of i
P
in eq. (5)
After simplification
-(377)
2
Acos377t – (377)
2
Bsin(377)t + 2(10
6
)[Acos(377)t + Bsin(377)t] = 37700cos377t
-(377)
2
Acos377t – (377)
2
Bsin377t + 2000000Acos377t + 2000000Bsin377t =
37700cos377t
Equating coefficients:
cos377t:
-(377)
2
A + 2000000A = 37700
-142129A + 2000000A = 37700
1857871A = 37700
A = 0.020
sin377t:
–(377)
2
B + 2000000B = 0
B = 0
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 111

i
P
= 0.02cos377t + (0)sin377t
i
P
= 0.02cos377t
Complete solution:
i(t) = K
1
cos1414.21 t + K
2
sin1414.21 t + 0.02cos377t … (Q)
At t = 0+
i(0+) = K
1
cos1414.21(0+) + K
2
sin1414.21(0+) + 0.02cos377(0+)
0.019 = K
1
cos(0) + 0.02cos(0)
= K
1
(1) + 0.02(1)
= K
1
+ 0.02
K
1
= 0.019 – 0.02
K
1
= -0.001
Differentiating eq. (Q) with respect to ‘t’
di(t)
= -1414.21K
1
sin1414.21 t + 1414.21K
2
cos1414.21 t + 0.02(-377s)sin377t
dt
From differential eq. (d) at t = 0+
di(0+)
+ V
C
(0+) = 100sin377t … (d)
dt
di(0+)
+ V
C
(0+) = 100sin377(0+)
dt
di(0+)
+ (-20.903) = 0
dt

di(0+)
= 20.903
dt

20.903 = -1414.21K
1
sin1414.21(0+) + 1414.21K
2
cos1414.21(0+)
+ 0.02(-377s)sin377(0+)
20.903 = -1414.21K
1
sin0 + 1414.21K
2
cos0 + 0.02(-377s)sin0
20.903 = 1414.21K
2
(1) + 0
20.903 = 1414.21K
2

K
2
= 0.015
Therefore

i(t) = -0.001cos1414.21 t + 0.015sin1414.21 t + 0.02cos377t

Q#6.26: In the network shown in figure, a steady state is reached with the switch K
open. At t = 0, the value of the resistor R is changed to the critical value, R
cr
defined
by equation (6.88). For the element values given, determine the current i(t) for t > 0.
Solution:

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 112

L
R
cr
= 2
C

R
cr
= 2(1414.214)
R
cr
= 2828.428 O
For t > 0
According to KVL
di 1
R
cr
i + L + }idt = 100sin377t … (x)
dt C
Differentiating with respect to ‘t’
di d
2
i i
R
cr
+ L + = 37700cos377t
dt dt
2
C
After simplification
di d
2
i
2828.428 + (1) + 2(10
6
)i = 37700cos377t … (w)
dt dt
2
Characteristic equation is
s
2
i + 2828.428si + 2(10
6
)i = 0
s
2
+ 2828.428s + 2(10
6
) = 0
A 1
B 2828.428
C 2(10
6
)

-b ± \b
2
– 4ac
s
1
, s
2
=
2a
Putting corresponding values we get
-2828.428 ± \2828.428
2
– 4(1)(2000000)
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2828.428 ± \8000004.952

– 8000000
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2828.428 ± \4.952
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
-2828.428 ± 2.225
s
1
, s
2
=
2(1)
s
1
, s
2
= (-2828.428 + 2.225)/2, (-2828.428 - 2.225)/2
s
1
, s
2
= -1413.102, -1415.326

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 113

i(t) = K
1
e
-1413.102t
+ K
2
e
-1415.326t

Form of particular integral is
i
P
= Acos377t + Bsin377t
Putting the value of i
P
in eq. (w)
-(377)
2
Acos377t – (377)
2
Bsin377t + 2828.428[-377Asin377t + B377sin377t]
+ 2000000[Acos377t + Bsin377t] = 37700cos377t
-142129Acos377t – 142129Bsin377t - 1066317.356Asin377t + 1066317.356Bsin377t
+ 2000000Acos377t + 2000000Bsin377t = 37700cos377t
Equating coefficients:
cos377t:
-142129A + 2000000A = 37700
A = 0.020
sin377t:
–142129B - 1066317.356A + 1066317.356B + 2000000B = 0
2924188.356B - 1066317.356(0.020) = 0
2924188.356B = 1066317.356(0.020)
2924188.356B = 21326.34712
B = 0.007
i
P
= 0.020cos377t + 0.007sin377t
Complete solution:

i(t) = K
1
e
-1413.102t
+ K
2
e
-1415.326t
+

0.020cos377t + 0.007sin377t … (a)

At t = 0+
i(0+) = K
1
e
-1413.102(0+)
+ K
2
e
-1415.326(0+)
+

0.020cos377(0+) + 0.007sin377(0+)
0.019 = K
1
e
0
+ K
2
e
0
+

0.020
0.019 = K
1
(1) + K
2
(1)

+

0.020
-0.001 = K
1
+ K
2
… (z)
Differentiating eq. (a) with respect to ‘t’ at t = 0+
di
(0+) = -1413.102K
1
e
-1413.102(0+)
- 1415.326K
2
e
-1415.326(0+)
+

0.020(-377)sin377(0+) +
dt
0.007(377)cos377(0+) … (g)
At t = 0+ eq. (x) gives
di
(0+) = -32.84
dt
-32.84 = -1413.102K
1
e
-1413.102(0+)
- 1415.326K
2
e
-1415.326(0+)
+

0.020(-377)sin377(0+) +
0.007(377)cos377(0+) … (g)
-32.84 = -1413.102K
1
e
0
- 1415.326K
2
e
0
+ 0.007(377)cos 0
-32.84 = -1413.102K
1
(1) - 1415.326K
2
(1) + 0.007(377)(1)
-32.84 = -1413.102K
1
- 1415.326K
2
+ 2.639
-32.84 – 2.639 = -1413.102K
1
- 1415.326K
2

-35.479 = -1413.102K
1
- 1415.326K
2

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 114

35.479 = 1413.102K
1
+ 1415.326K
2
From eq. (z)
K
1
= -0.001 – K
2

35.479 = 1413.102[-0.001 – K
2
] + 1415.326K
2

35.479 = 1413.102[-0.001] – 1413.102K
2
+ 1415.326K
2

35.479 = -1.413102 + 2.224K
2

K
2
= 16.588
K
1
= -0.001 – 16.588
K
1
= -16.589

i(t) = [-16.589]e
-1413.102t
+ [16.588]e
-1415.326t
+

0.020cos377t + 0.007sin377t

Q#6.27: Consider the network shown in figure P6.24. The capacitor has an initial
voltage, V
C
= 10 V. At t = 0, the switch K is closed. Determine i(t) for t > 0.
Solution:
Here
V
C
(0-) = V
C
(0+) = 10 V
V(t) – V
C
(t)
i(t) =
10
V(0+) – V
C
(0+)
i(0+) =
10
V(0+) = 10e
-(0+)
sin (0+) u(0+)
V(0+) = 10(1)(0)(1)
V(0+) = 0 Volts
0 – 10
i(0+) =
10
i(0+) = -1 amp.
For t > 0, KVL
1
10i + }idt = 10e
-t
sin t u(t)
(10(10
-6
))
1
10i + }idt = 10e
-t
sin t
(10(10
-6
))
After simplification
i + 10
4
}idt = e
-t
sin t
Differentiating with respect to ‘t’
di
+ 10
4
i = e
-t
(cost - sin t) … (1)
dt
It is a nonhomogeneous differential equation
Characteristic equation is
si + 10
4
i = 0
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 115

s + 10
4
= 0
s = -10
4
Therefore complementary function is
i
C
= Ke
-10, 000t

The form of particular integral is
From table 6.2
i
P
= (Acost + Bsint)e
-t
Putting the value of i
P
in eq. (1)
After simplification
-Ae
-t
sint – Ae
-t
cost + Be
-t
cost - Be
-t
sint + 10, 000[(Acost + Bsint)e
-t
] = e
-t
(cost - sin t)
-Ae
-t
sint – Ae
-t
cost + Be
-t
cost - Be
-t
sint + 10, 000Acoste
-t
+ 10, 000Bsinte
-t

= e
-t
cost - e
-t
sin t
Equating coefficients
e
-t
sint:
-A – B + 10, 000B = -1
-A + 9999B = -1 … (2)
e
-t
cost:
-A + B + 10, 000A = 1
B + 9999A = 1 … (3)
From (2)
A = 1 + 9999B
B + 9999[1 + 9999B] = 1 … (3)
B + 9999 + 9999(9999)B = 1
B + 99980001B = -9998
B[1 + 99980001] = -9998
B[99980002] = -9998
B = -10
-4
A = 1 + 9999(-1/10000)

A = 1 – 0.9999
A = 10
-4
i
P
= (10
-4
cost + (-10
-4
)sint)e
-t
i
P
= (10
-4
cost - 10
-4
sint)e
-t
Complete solution is
i(t) = Ke-
10, 000t
+ (10
-4
cost - 10
-4
sint)e
-t
At t = 0+
i(0+) = Ke-
10, 000(0+)
+ (10
-4
cos(0+) - 10
-4
sin(0+))e
-(0+)
-1 = Ke
0
+ (10
-4
(1) - 10
-4
(0))e
0
-1 = K(1) + (10
-4
(1) - 10
-4
(0))(1)

-1 = K + 10
-4
K = -1 - 10
-4

i(t) = (-1 - 10
-4
)e-
10, 000t
+ (10
-4
cost - 10
-4
sint)e
-t

Q#6.28: The network of the figure is operating in the steady state with the switch K
open. At t = 0, the switch is closed. Find an expression for the voltage, V(t) for t > 0.
Solution:

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 116

Equivalent circuit before switching:

V(0-) = V(0+) = I
0
sin et [R
1
+ R
2
]

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 117

Equivalent circuit after switching:

For t > 0
According to KCL
dV(t) V(t)
C + = I
0
sin et
dt R
1
dV(t) V(t) I
0
sin et
+ = … (u)
dt CR
1
C
It is a nonhomogeneous differential equation
Characteristic equation is
1
sV(t) + V(t) = 0
CR
1

1
s + = 0
CR
1

1
s = -
CR
1

Therefore complementary function is
V
C
= Ke
-(1/CR1)t

The form of particular integral is
V
P
= Asin et + Bcos et
Putting the value of V
P
in eq. (u)
eAcos et - eBsin et + [1/CR
1
][Asin et + Bcos et] = (I
0
sin et)/C
eAcos et - eBsin et + [1/CR
1
]Asin et + [1/CR
1
]Bcos et = (I
0
sin et)/C
Equating coefficients:

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 118

cos et:
eA + [1/CR
1
]B = 0 ¬ A = -B/eCR
1

sin et:
-eB + [1/CR
1
]A = I
0
/C
-eB + [1/CR
1
][-B/eCR
1
] = I
0
/C

B = I
0
/C[-e - 1/C
2
R
1
2
]

A = -[I
0
/C[-e - 1/C
2
R
1
2
]]/eCR
1

Complete solution
V(t) = Ke
-(1/CR1)t
+

[-[I
0
/C[-e - 1/C
2
R
1
2
]]/eCR
1
]sin et + [I
0
/C[-e - 1/C
2
R
1
2
]]cos et
At t = 0+
V(0+) = Ke
-(1/CR1)0+
+

[-[I
0
/C[-e - 1/C
2
R
1
2
]]/eCR
1
]sin e(0+) + [I
0
/C[-e - 1/C
2
R
1
2
]]cos
e(0+)
I
0
sin et [R
1
+ R
2
] = K(1) + [I
0
/C[-e - 1/C
2
R
1
2
]]
I
0
sin et [R
1
+ R
2
] = K + [I
0
/C[-e - 1/C
2
R
1
2
]]

K = I
0
sin et [R
1
+ R
2
] - [I
0
/C[-e - 1/C
2
R
1
2
]]

V(t) = [I
0
sin et [R
1
+ R
2
] - [I
0
/C[-e - 1/C
2
R
1
2
]]]e
-(1/CR1)t
+

[-[I
0
/C[-e - 1/C
2
R
1
2
]]/eCR
1
]sin
et + [I
0
/C[-e - 1/C
2
R
1
2
]]cos et

Q#6.29: Consider a series RLC network which is excited by a voltage source.
1.Determine the characteristic equation.
2.Locus of the roots of the equation.
3.Plot the roots of the equation.
Solution:

Formatted: Bullets and Numbering

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} PROBLEMS Q#6.1: Show that i = ke-2t and i = ke-t are solutions of the differential equation d2i di +3 + 2i = 0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2i + 3si + 2i = 0 s2 + 3s + 2 = 0 a 1 b 3 c 2 -b  b2 – 4ac s 1, s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -3  32 – 4(1)(2) s 1, s 2 = 2(1) -3  9 – 8 s 1, s 2 = 2(1) -3  1 s 1, s 2 = 2(1) -3  1 s 1, s 2 = 2 s1, s2 = (-3 + 1)/2, (-3 - 1)/2 s1, s2 = (-2)/2, (-4)/2 s1, s2 = -1, -2 General solution: i(t) = K1 es1t + K2es2t Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = K1 e-1t + K2e-2t Q#6.2: Show that i = Ke-t and i = Kte-t are solutions of the differential equation d2i di +2 +i=0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0

2

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} Here 1s2i + 2si + 1i = 0 s2 + 2s + 1 = 0 a b c -b  b2 – 4ac s 1, s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -2  22 – 4(1)(1) s 1, s 2 = 2(1) -2  4 – 4 s 1, s 2 = -2  0 s 1, s 2 = 2(1) -2  0 s 1, s 2 = 2 s1, s2 = (-2 + 0)/2, (-2 - 0)/2 s1, s2 = (-1), (-1) General solution: i(t) = K1 es1t + K2tes2t Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = K1 e-1t + K2te-1t Q#6.3: Find the general solution of each of the following equations: (a) d2i di +3 + 2i = 0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2i + 3si + 2i = 0 s2 + 3s + 2 = 0 a 1 b 3 c 2 2(1) 1 2 1

3

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)}

4

-b  b2 – 4ac s 1, s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -3  32 – 4(1)(2) s 1, s 2 = 2(1) -3  9 – 8 s 1, s 2 = 2(1) -3  1 s 1, s 2 = 2(1) -3  1 s 1, s 2 = 2 s1, s2 = (-3 + 1)/2, (-3 - 1)/2 s1, s2 = (-2)/2, (-4)/2 s1, s2 = -1, -2 General solution: i(t) = K1 es1t + K2es2t Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = K1 e-1t + K2e-2t (b) d2i +5

di

+ 6i = 0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2i + 5si + 6i = 0 s2 + 5s + 6 = 0 a b c -b  b2 – 4ac s 1, s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get

1 5 6

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} -5  52 – 4(1)(6) s 1, s 2 = 2(1) -5  25 – 24 s 1, s 2 = -5  1 s 1, s 2 = 2(1) -5  1 s 1, s 2 = 2 s1, s2 = (-5 + 1)/2, (-5 - 1)/2 s1, s2 = (-4)/2, (-6)/2 s1, s2 = -2, -3 General solution: i(t) = K1 es1t + K2es2t Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = K1 e-2t + K2e-3t (c) d2i +7 2(1)

5

di

+ 12i = 0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2i + 7si + 12i = 0 s2 + 7s + 12 = 0 a b c -b  b2 – 4ac s 1, s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -7  72 – 4(1)(12) s 1, s 2 = 2(1) -7  49 – 48 s 1, s 2 = 2(1)

1 7 12

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} -7  1 s 1, s 2 = 2(1) -7  1 s 1, s 2 = 2 s1, s2 = (-7 + 1)/2, (-7 - 1)/2 s1, s2 = (-6)/2, (-8)/2 s1, s2 = -3, -4 General solution: i(t) = K1 es1t + K2es2t Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = K1 e-3t + K2e-4t (d) d2i +5

6

di

+ 4i = 0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2i + 5si + 4i = 0 s2 + 5s + 4 = 0 a b c -b  b2 – 4ac s 1, s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -5  52 – 4(1)(4) s 1, s 2 = 2(1) -5  25 – 16 s 1, s 2 = -5  9 s 1, s 2 = 2(1) -5  3 s 1, s 2 = 2 2(1)

1 5 4

796 s 1. s 2 = 2(1) -1  -23 s 1.398).U. (-8)/2 s1. -4 General solution: i(t) = K1 es1t + K2es2t Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = K1 e-1t + K2e-4t (e) d2i +1 7 di + 6i = 0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2i + 1si + 6i = 0 s2 + 1s + 6 = 0 a b c -b  b2 – 4ac s 1. s 2 = 2(1) -1  i4.398)t + K2 e(-0.H)} s1. s 2 = 2 s1. s2 = (-2)/2.796)/2. s2 = (-1 + i4. s2 = -1.796)/2 s1.5 + i2.398) General solution: i(t) = K1 es1t + K2es2t Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = K1 e(-0.5 .i4.398)t 1 1 6 .i2. (-5 . (-1 . s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -1  12 – 4(1)(6) s 1. s2 = (-5 + 3)/2.i2.5 .5 + i2.B. (-0.3)/2 s1.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. s 2 = 2(1) -1  1 – 24 s 1. s2 = (-0.

(-1 .646)/2.i2. s2 = (-0.i1.323)t (g) d2i +2 1 1 2 di +i=0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2i + 2si + i = 0 . s2 = (-1 + i2. (-0.B.5 . s 2 = 2(1) -1  -7 s 1.5 – i1.646 s 1.323)t + K2 e(-0.5 + i1.H)} (f) d2i +1 8 di + 2i = 0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2i + 1si + 2i = 0 s2 + 1s + 2 = 0 A B C -b  b2 – 4ac s 1.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. s 2 = 2(1) -1  1 – 8 s 1.646)/2 s1.323) General solution: i(t) = K1 es1t + K2es2t Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = K1 e(-0. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -1  12 – 4(1)(2) s 1. s 2 = 2 s1.323). s 2 = 2(1) -1  i2.5 + i1.U.

B.H)} s2 + 2s + 1 = 0 a b c -b  b2 – 4ac s 1. s 2 = 2(1) -2  0 s 1. (-1) General solution: i(t) = K1 es1t + K2es2t Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = K1 e(-1)t + K2te(-1)t (h) d2i +4 di 1 2 1 9 + 4i = 0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2i + 4si + 4i = 0 s2 + 4s + 4 = 0 a b c -b  b2 – 4ac s 1. s 2 = 2(1) -2  0 s 1. s 2 = 2 s1. s 2 = 2(1) -2  4 – 4 s 1.0)/2 s1. s 2 = 2a 1 4 4 . s2 = (-1).Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -2  22 – 4(1)(1) s 1. s2 = (-2 + 0)/2. (-2 .U.

4: Find the general solution of each of the following homogeneous differential equations: (a) d2v dv +2 + 2v = 0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2v + 2sv + 2v = 0 s2 + 2s + 2 = 0 a 1 b 2 c 2 -b  b2 – 4ac s 1. s 2 = 2 s1. (-2) General solution: i(t) = K1 es1t + K2es2t Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = K1 e(-2)t + K2te(-2)t Q#6. s2 = (-2).U.B. (-4 .H)} Putting corresponding values we get -4  42 – 4(1)(4) s 1.0)/2 s1. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -2  22 – 4(1)(2) s 1. s 2 = 2(1) -4  16 – 16 s 1. s 2 = 2(1) 10 .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. s 2 = 2(1) -4  0 s 1. s 2 = 2(1) -4  0 s 1. s2 = (-4 + 0)/2.

s2 = (-2 + i2)/2.U.H)} 11 -2  4 – 8 s 1.B. s2 = (-1 + i1). s 2 = 2(1) -2  4 – 16 s 1. (-1 – i1) General solution: v(t) = K1es1t + K2 es2t Putting corresponding values we get v(t) = K1e(-1 + i1)t + K2 e(-1 – i1)t (b) d2v +2 dv + 4v = 0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2v + 2sv + 4v = 0 s2 + 2s + 4 = 0 a b c -b  b2 – 4ac s 1. s 2 = 2(1) 1 2 4 . s 2 = 2(1) -2  i2 s 1. (-2 – i2)/2 s1. s 2 = 2 s1. s 2 = 2(1) -2  -4 s 1.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -2  22 – 4(1)(4) s 1.

(-2 – i3. s2 = (-2 + i3.464)/2 s1.732)t + K2e(-1 – i1.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.732). s 2 = 2(1) -4  16 – 8 s 1. (-1 – i1. s2 = (-1 + i1.732) General solution: v(t) = K1es1t + K2 es2t Putting corresponding values we get v(t) = K1e(-1 + i1. s 2 = 2(1) -2  i3. s 2 = 2 2(1) 1 4 2 .828 s 1. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -4  42 – 4(1)(2) s 1.732)t (c) d2v +4 dv + 2v = 0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2v + 4sv + 2v = 0 s2 + 4s + 2 = 0 a b c -b  b2 – 4ac s 1.B.H)} 12 -2  -12 s 1.464 s 1. s 2 = -4  8 s 1. s 2 = 2 s1.U.464)/2. s 2 = 2(1) -4  2.

s 2 = 2(1) -4  -16 s 1. (-3.U. s2 = (-0.414)t (d) d2v dv 2 +8 + 16v = 0 dt2 dt After simplification d2v dv +4 + 8v = 0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2v + 4sv + 8v = 0 s2 + 4s + 8 = 0 a b c -b  b2 – 4ac s 1. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -4  42 – 4(1)(8) s 1. s2 = (-2 + i2).414) General solution: v(t) = K1es1t + K2 es2t Putting corresponding values we get v(t) = K1e(-0. s 2 = 2(1) -4  16 – 32 s 1. (-4 – 2. s 2 = 2(1) -4  i4 s 1.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. s2 = (-4 + 2.586). s 2 = 2 s1. s2 = (-4 + i4)/2.828)/2 s1. (-4 – i4)/2 s1.586)t + K2 e(-3. (-2 – i2) General solution: 13 1 4 8 .828)/2.H)} s1.B.

828)/2. s2 = (-1 + i1. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -2  22 – 4(1)(3) s 1.414).414)t 1 2 3 .828)/2 s1.414) General solution: v(t) = K1es1t + K2 es2t Putting corresponding values we get v(t) = K1e(-1 + i1.414)t + K2e(-1 – i1.U. s 2 = 2(1) -2  i2.B.828 s 1. (-2 – i2. s 2 = 2(1) -2  4 – 12 s 1. s 2 = 2(1) -2  -8 s 1.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.H)} v(t) = K1es1t + K2 es2t Putting corresponding values we get v(t) = K1e(-2 + i2)t + K2 e(-2 – i2)t (e) d2v +2 14 dv + 3v = 0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2v + 2sv + 3v = 0 s2 + 2s + 3 = 0 a b c -b  b2 – 4ac s 1. s2 = (-2 + i2. (-1 – i1. s 2 = 2 s1.

(-3 – i3.H)} 15 (f) d2v +3 dv + 5v = 0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2v + 3sv + 5v = 0 s2 + 3s + 5 = 0 a b c -b  b2 – 4ac s 1.U. 6.5: Find particular solutions for the differential equations of Prob. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -3  32 – 4(1)(5) s 1.5 – i1. s 2 = 2(1) -3  9 – 20 s 1.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.3 subject to the initial conditions: di i(0+) = 1. (-1. s 2 = 2 s1. s 2 = 2(1) -3  -11 s 1.5 + i1. (0+) = 0 dt (a) .5 – i1.659).659)t 1 3 5 Q#6.317)/2.5 + i1. s2 = (-1.317 s 1.659) General solution: v(t) = K1es1t + K2 es2t Putting corresponding values we get v(t) = K1e(-1.659)t + K2 e(-1.B.317)/2 s1. s2 = (-3 + i3. s 2 = 2(1) -3  i3.

U. s 2 = 2(1) -3  9 – 8 s 1. s2 = (-3 + 1)/2. (-3 . s 2 = 2(1) -3  1 s 1. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -3  32 – 4(1)(2) s 1.B.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.1)/2 s1.H)} d2i +3 di 16 + 2i = 0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2i + 3si + 2i = 0 s2 + 3s + 2 = 0 a b c -b  b2 – 4ac s 1. (-4)/2 s1. s2 = (-2)/2. s 2 = 2 s1. -2 General solution: i(t) = K1 es1t + K2es2t Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = K1 e-1t + K2e-2t … (i) At t = 0+ i(0+) = K1e-1(0+) + K2e-2(0+) 1 = K1 e0 + K2e0 1 = K1(1) + K2(1) 1 = K1 + K2 … (ii) Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’ 1 3 2 . s2 = -1. s 2 = 2(1) -3  1 s 1.

U.2K2e-2(0+) dt di(0+) = -K1 e0 .2K2(1) 0 = -K1 .H)} 17 di(t) = -K1e-1t . s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get 1 5 6 .2K2 K1 = .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.2K2 Putting the value of K1 in (ii) 1 = -2K2 + K2 K2 = -1 Putting the value of K2 in (ii) 1 = K1 + (-1) K1 = 2 Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = 2e-t + (-1)e-2t i(t) = 2e-t – e-2t (b) d2i +5 di + 6i = 0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2i + 5si + 6i = 0 s2 + 5s + 6 = 0 A B C -b  b2 – 4ac s 1.2K2e0 dt 0 = -K1 (1) .B.2K2e-2t dt di(0+) = -K1 e-1(0+) .

(-6)/2 s1.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.3K2e-3t dt di(0+) = -2K1e-2(0+) .U. s 2 = -5  1 s 1.3K2e0 dt di(0+) = -2K1(1) . s2 = -2.3K2 2K1 = -3K2 K1 = -1.B.H)} 18 -5  52 – 4(1)(6) s 1. s 2 = 2(1) -5  25 – 24 s 1.3K2(1) dt 0 = -2K1 . -3 General solution: i(t) = K1 es1t + K2es2t Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = K1 e-2t + K2e-3t … (i) At t = 0+ i(0+) = K1e-2(0+) + K2e-3(0+) i(0+) = K1e0 + K2 e0 i(0+) = K1(1) + K2(1) 1 = K1 + K2 … (ii) Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’ di(t) = -2K1 e-2t .5K2 1 = K1 + K2 … (ii) Putting the value of K1 in (ii) 2(1) .1)/2 s1.3K2e-3(0+) dt di(0+) = -2K1e0 . (-5 . s2 = (-4)/2. s 2 = 2(1) -5  1 s 1. s 2 = 2 s1. s2 = (-5 + 1)/2.

1)/2 s1. s 2 = 2(1) -7  49 – 48 s 1.2e-3t (c) d2i +7 19 di + 12i = 0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2i + 7si + 12i = 0 s2 + 7s + 12 = 0 a b c -b  b2 – 4ac s 1. s2 = (-7 + 1)/2.0 Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = 3e-2t + (-2)e-3t i(t) = 3e-2t .5(-2) K1 = 3.5K2 K2 = -2 K1 = -1. (-8)/2 s1. (-7 . s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -7  72 – 4(1)(12) s 1.H)} 1 = -1. s2 = -3.U. s 2 = 2(1) -7  1 s 1. s2 = (-6)/2.B. s 2 = 2 s1. s 2 = 2(1) -7  1 s 1. -4 General solution: i(t) = K1 es1t + K2es2t 1 7 12 .5K2 + K2 1 = -0.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.

994 Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = (3.4K2 3K1 = .994)e-3t + (-2.2.994)e-4t i(t) = 3.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.994e-3t .U.994) = 3.4K2e-4t dt di(0+) = -3K1e-3(0+) .4K2 dt 0 = -3K1 .994 K1 = -1.H)} Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = K1 e-3t + K2e-4t … (i) At t = 0+ i(0+) = K1e-3(0+) + K2e-4(0+) i(0+) = K1e0 + K2 e0 i(0+) = K1(1) + K2(1) 1 = K1 + K2 … (ii) Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’ di(t) = -3K1 e-3t .334K2 K2 = -2.994e-4t (d) d2i +5 20 di + 4i = 0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2i + 5si + 4i = 0 .4K2e-4(0+) dt di(0+) = -3K1e0 .334K2 + K2 1 = -0.4K2(1) dt di(0+) = -3K1 .334(-2.4K2e0 dt di(0+) = -3K1(1) .B.4K2 K1 = -1.334K2 Putting the value of K1 in (ii) 1 = -1.

(-5 .H)} s2 + 5s + 4 = 0 a b c -b  b2 – 4ac s 1. s 2 = 2 s1. s 2 = 2(1) -5  25 – 16 s 1. s2 = (-5 + 3)/2. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -5  52 – 4(1)(4) s 1.4K2e-4t dt di(0+) = -1K1e-1(0+) . s2 = -1.3)/2 s1. s2 = (-2)/2.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.U.4K2e-4(0+) dt 2(1) 1 5 4 21 . (-8)/2 s1. -4 General solution: i(t) = K1 es1t + K2es2t Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = K1 e-1t + K2e-4t … (i) At t = 0+ i(0+) = K1e-1(0+) + K2e-4(0+) i(0+) = K1e0 + K2 e0 i(0+) = K1(1) + K2(1) 1 = K1 + K2 … (ii) Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’ di(t) = -1K1 e-1t . s 2 = -5  9 s 1. s 2 = 2(1) -5  3 s 1.B.

4K2 (1) 0 = -K1 .334 K1 = -4(-0. s 2 = 2(1) -1  1 – 24 s 1. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -1  12 – 4(1)(6) s 1.4K2e0 dt 0 = -1K1(1) .B.336 Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = 1.H)} di(0+) = -1K1e0 .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. s 2 = 2(1) 1 1 6 .336e-1t – 0.U. s 2 = 2(1) -1  -23 s 1.4K2 K1 = -4K2 Putting the value of K1 in (ii) 1 = -4K2 + K2 1 = -3K2 K2 = -0.334e-4t (e) d2i +1 22 di + 6i = 0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2i + 1si + 6i = 0 s2 + 1s + 6 = 0 A B C -b  b2 – 4ac s 1.334) K1 = 1.

398)K2 0.U.i2.398)K1 e0 + (-0.104 Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = [0.398)t + [0.5 + i2.H)} -1  i4.5 + i2.398)K2e(-0.796)/2 s1.400]K2 + K2 1 = [[0.398).5 .i2.i0.5 .400 + 1]K2 1 = [1.917 – i0.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.i2.398)t 23 .5 .5 .398)0+ dt di(0+) = (-0.i2. (-1 .5 + i0.104 K1 = 0.104 1 = K1 + K2 K1 = 1 – K2 K1 = 1 – [0.5 .i2.i2.398)K2(1) 0 = (-0.5 .i2.i4. s2 = (-0.5 .917 – i0.398 K1 = K2 -0.398)K1 + (-0.5 + i2.i0.5 .5 .5 . (-0.398)K1(1) + (-0.5 + i2.400]K2 Putting the value of K1 in (ii) 1 = [0. s2 = (-1 + i4.5 + i2.796 s 1.5 .398)K2e0 dt 0 = (-0.398) General solution: i(t) = K1 es1t + K2es2t Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = K1 e(-0.5 . s 2 = 2 s1.i0.104]e(-0.917 – i0.5 + i0.5 + i2.398)0+ + (-0.5 .398)0+ i(0+) = K1e0 + K2 e0 i(0+) = K1(1) + K2(1) 1 = K1 + K2 … (ii) Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’ di(t) = K1e(-0.917 – i0.398)t dt di(0+) = (-0.5 + i2.398)0+ + K2e(-0.5 + i2.5 + i2.5 + i2.B.398)K1 e(-0.5 + i0.398)t + K2 e(-0.104]e(-0.i2.i2.400]K2 K2 = 0.i2.5 + i2.5 + i2.398)t + K2 e(-0.400] + 1]K2 1 = [0.796)/2.917 – i0.398)t … (i) At t = 0+ i(0+) = K1e(-0.104] K1 = 1 – 0.398 K1 = [0.

i1. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -1  12 – 4(1)(2) s 1. s2 = (-1 + i2.323)t … (i) At t = 0+ i(0+) = K1e(-0.B. s 2 = 2(1) -1  1 – 8 s 1.i1.H)} (f) d2i +1 24 di + 2i = 0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2i + 1si + 2i = 0 s2 + 1s + 2 = 0 a b c -b  b2 – 4ac s 1.i2. s 2 = 2(1) -1  -7 s 1.5 – i1.5 + i1.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. (-1 .5 + i1.646)/2 s1.323) General solution: i(t) = K1 es1t + K2es2t Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = K1 e(-0. s 2 = 2 s1. s 2 = 2(1) -1  i2.5 + i1.5 .323).323)t + K2 e(-0. s2 = (-0.5 . (-0.646)/2.U.323)0+ + K2e(-0.646 s 1.323)0+ i(0+) = K1e0 + K2 e0 i(0+) = K1(1) + K2(1) 1 = K1 + K2 … (ii) Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’ 1 1 2 .

323)K2e(-0.189i Putting corresponding values we get 1 = K1 + 0.323)K1 = (0.B.H)} 25 di(t) = K1e(-0.75 – 0.0.323)K1(1) + (-0.i1.323)t + K2 e(-0.75 – 0.323) K1 = (0.5 + i1.i1.5 + 0.189i]e(-0.5 .323)K1 e(-0.323)t dt di(0+) = (-0.5 .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.i1.323) K1 = K2 (-0.323)0+ + (-0.323)K2(1) dt 0 = (-0.323)K1 e0 + (-0.5 + 0.5 + i1.5 + i1.323)K2e0 dt di(0+) = (-0.189i K1 = 1 .189i Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = [0.0.0.323)t + [0.i1.323)t (g) d2i +2 di +i=0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2i + 2si + i = 0 s2 + 2s + 1 = 0 a b c 1 2 1 .5 .5 .5 + i1.0.5 .323)K1 + (-0.323)K2 (0.189i]e(-0.189i K1 = 0.662i]K2 K2 = 0.5 + i1.5 + i1.5 + i1.662i)K2 1 = (0.5 + i1.5 .5 + i1.5 .5 .5 .U.5 + i1.i1.i1.75 – 0.5 .5 + 0.323)0+ dt di(0+) = (-0.5 + i1.662i)K2 + K2 1 = [(0.75 – 0.i1.662i) + 1]K2 1 = [1.323)K2 (-0.

0)/2 s1. (-1) General solution: i(t) = K1 es1t + K2es2t Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = K1 e(-1)t + K2te(-1)t … (i) At t = 0+ i(t) = K1 e(-1)t + K2te(-1)t i(0+) = K1e(-1)0+ + K2(0+)e(-1)0+ i(0+) = K1e0 i(0+) = K1(1) 1 = K1 Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’ di(t) = -K1e(-1)t + K2[-te(-1)t – e-t] dt di(0+) = (-1)K1e(-1)0+ + K2[-(0+)e-(0+) – e-(0+)] dt di(0+) = (-1)K1e0 + K2[–e0] dt di(0+) = (-1)K1(1) + K2[–(1)] dt 0 = -K1 – K2 2(1) 26 . s 2 = 2 s1. (-2 .H)} -b  b2 – 4ac s 1.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. s 2 = -2  0 s 1.U. s 2 = 2(1) -2  0 s 1. s2 = (-1).B. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -2  22 – 4(1)(1) s 1. s2 = (-2 + 0)/2. s 2 = 2(1) -2  4 – 4 s 1.

s 2 = 2(1) -4  0 s 1.te(-1)t (h) d2i +4 di 27 + 4i = 0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2i + 4si + 4i = 0 s2 + 4s + 4 = 0 A B C -b  b2 – 4ac s 1. s2 = (-2). (-2) General solution: i(t) = K1 es1t + K2es2t Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = K1 e(-2)t + K2te(-2)t 1 4 4 . (-4 . s 2 = 2(1) -4  0 s 1.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.U.B.0)/2 s1.H)} 0 = -(1) – K2 K2 = -1 Putting corresponding values i(t) = (1)e(-1)t + (-1)te(-1)t i(t) = e(-1)t . s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -4  42 – 4(1)(4) s 1. s2 = (-4 + 0)/2. s 2 = 2(1) -4  16 – 16 s 1. s 2 = 2 s1.

25e-2(0+)] dt di(0+) = -2K1e0 + K2[–0.25K2 2K1 = -0.3 subject to the initial conditions: di i(0+) = 2.25K2 K1 = -0.25e0] dt di(0+) = -2K1(1) + K2[–0.125K2 K2 = -8 Putting corresponding values i(t) = (1)e(-2)t + (-8)te(-2)t i(t) = e(-2)t . 6.8te(-2)t 28 Q#6.H)} At t = 0+ i(0+) = K1e(-2)0+ + K2(0+)e(-2)0+ 1 = K1 e0 1 = K1(1) 1 = K1 Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’ di(t) = -2K1 e(-2)t + K2[-0.5te-2t – 0.25e-2t] dt di(0+) = -2K1e(-2)0+ + K2[-0.6: Find particular solutions for the differential equations of Prob. (0+) = +1 dt (a) d2i di +3 + 2i = 0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2i + 3si + 2i = 0 s2 + 3s + 2 = 0 a 1 b 3 c 2 .U.25(1)] dt 0 = -2K1 – 0.B.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.5(0+)e-2(0+) – 0.

U. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -3  32 – 4(1)(2) s 1. s2 = (-2)/2. s 2 = 2(1) -3  9 – 8 s 1.2K2(1) 1 = -K1 .2K2e-2(0+) dt di(0+) = -K1 e0 .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. s2 = -1.2K2 Putting the value of K1 in (ii) 2 = [-1 . s 2 = 2(1) -3  1 s 1.2K2 K1 = -1 . s 2 = 2 s1.H)} 29 -b  b2 – 4ac s 1. s2 = (-3 + 1)/2. s 2 = 2(1) -3  1 s 1.2K2e-2t dt di(0+) = -K1 e-1(0+) . (-3 . -2 General solution: i(t) = K1 es1t + K2es2t Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = K1 e-1t + K2e-2t … (i) At t = 0+ i(0+) = K1e-1(0+) + K2e-2(0+) 2 = K1 e0 + K2e0 2 = K1(1) + K2(1) 2 = K1 + K2 … (ii) Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’ di(t) = -K1e-1t . (-4)/2 s1.2K2] + K2 .1)/2 s1.B.2K2e0 dt 1 = -K1 (1) .

s 2 = 2(1) -5  1 s 1. s2 = (-5 + 1)/2. (-5 . s 2 = 2(1) -5  25 – 24 s 1.U. s 2 = 2 s1. s2 = -2.2K2 + K2 3 = -K2 K2 = -3 Putting the value of K2 in (ii) 2 = K1 + (-3) K1 = 5 Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = 5e-t + (-3)e-2t i(t) = 5e-t – 3e-2t (b) d2i +5 30 di + 6i = 0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2i + 5si + 6i = 0 s2 + 5s + 6 = 0 A B C -b  b2 – 4ac s 1. s 2 = 2(1) -5  1 s 1. -3 General solution: i(t) = K1 es1t + K2es2t 1 5 6 . s2 = (-4)/2.B.H)} 2 = -1 .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.1)/2 s1. (-6)/2 s1. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -5  52 – 4(1)(6) s 1.

5K2 – 0.5 K2 = -5 2 = K1 + (-5) K1 = 7 Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = 7e-2t + (-5)e-3t i(t) = 7e-2t .5 2 = K1 + K2 … (ii) Putting the value of K1 in (ii) 2 = [-1.5K2 – 0.3K2e-3(0+) dt di(0+) = -2K1e0 .5e-3t (c) d2i +7 31 di + 12i = 0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2i + 7si + 12i = 0 .3K2e-3t dt di(0+) = -2K1e-2(0+) .5] + K2 2 = -1.1 K1 = -1.3K2(1) dt 1 = -2K1 .3K2e0 dt di(0+) = -2K1(1) .5K2 – 0.U.5K2 – 0.H)} Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = K1 e-2t + K2e-3t … (i) At t = 0+ i(0+) = K1e-2(0+) + K2e-3(0+) i(0+) = K1e0 + K2 e0 i(0+) = K1(1) + K2(1) 2 = K1 + K2 … (ii) Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’ di(t) = -2K1 e-2t .B.3K2 2K1 = -3K2 .5 + K2 2 = -0.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.

s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -7  72 – 4(1)(12) s 1. s2 = -3. s 2 = 2(1) -7  1 s 1. (-8)/2 s1.H)} s2 + 7s + 12 = 0 a b c -b  b2 – 4ac s 1. s2 = (-6)/2. s 2 = 2(1) -7  49 – 48 s 1.4K2e-4(0+) dt 1 7 12 32 .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.U. s 2 = 2 s1. -4 General solution: i(t) = K1 es1t + K2es2t Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = K1 e-3t + K2e-4t … (i) At t = 0+ i(0+) = K1e-3(0+) + K2e-4(0+) i(0+) = K1e0 + K2 e0 i(0+) = K1(1) + K2(1) 2 = K1 + K2 … (ii) Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’ di(t) = -3K1 e-3t . s 2 = 2(1) -7  1 s 1.B. (-7 . s2 = (-7 + 1)/2.1)/2 s1.4K2e-4t dt di(0+) = -3K1e-3(0+) .

988e-4t (d) d2i +5 di + 4i = 0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2i + 5si + 4i = 0 s2 + 5s + 4 = 0 a b c -b  b2 – 4ac s 1.988e-3t – 6.988 = K1 Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = (8.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.334 Putting the value of K1 in (ii) 2 = [-1.334K2 – 0.988)e-4t i(t) = 8. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get 1 5 4 .988 2 = K1 + (-6.U.334] + K2 2 = -1.4K2e0 dt di(0+) = -3K1(1) .334 + K2 2.988)e-3t + (-6.4K2 3K1 = -4K2 .334K2 K2 = -6.334K2 – 0.4K2(1) dt di(0+) = -3K1 .4K2 dt 1 = -3K1 .B.334K2 – 0.H)} 33 di(0+) = -3K1e0 .988) 8.1 K1 = -1.334 = -0.

s2 = (-5 + 3)/2.3)/2 s1. (-5 .U. s 2 = 2(1) -5  25 – 16 s 1. s 2 = 2(1) -5  9 s 1.4K2 K1 = -4K2 Putting the value of K1 in (ii) 1 = -4K2 + K2 1 = -3K2 K2 = -0. s 2 = 2 s1.4K2 (1) 0 = -K1 .334) .4K2e0 dt 0 = -1K1(1) .B. (-8)/2 s1. s2 = (-2)/2. -4 General solution: i(t) = K1 es1t + K2es2t Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = K1 e-1t + K2e-4t … (i) At t = 0+ i(0+) = K1e-1(0+) + K2e-4(0+) i(0+) = K1e0 + K2 e0 i(0+) = K1(1) + K2(1) 2 = K1 + K2 … (ii) Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’ di(t) = -1K1 e-1t .334 K1 = -4(-0.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.H)} 34 -5  52 – 4(1)(4) s 1.4K2e-4t dt di(0+) = -1K1e-1(0+) . s2 = -1. s 2 = 2(1) -5  3 s 1.4K2e-4(0+) dt di(0+) = -1K1e0 .

s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -1  12 – 4(1)(6) s 1. s 2 = 2(1) -1  i4.i2.5 .i2.H)} K1 = 1.5 + i2. s 2 = 2 s1.B.398). s 2 = 2(1) -1  -23 s 1. s2 = (-1 + i4.398)t … (i) At t = 0+ i(0+) = K1e(-0.398)0+ + K2e(-0.398)t + K2 e(-0. (-1 .U. s 2 = 2(1) -1  1 – 24 s 1.336e-1t – 0.i4.796)/2. s2 = (-0.i2.334e-4t (e) d2i +1 35 di + 6i = 0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2i + 1si + 6i = 0 s2 + 1s + 6 = 0 a b c -b  b2 – 4ac s 1.398) General solution: i(t) = K1 es1t + K2es2t Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = K1 e(-0.5 + i2.5 .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. (-0.796)/2 s1.336 Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = 1.398)0+ 1 1 6 .796 s 1.5 + i2.5 .

5 + i2.5 .417]e(-0.H)} i(0+) = K1e0 + K2 e0 i(0+) = K1(1) + K2(1) 2 = K1 + K2 … (ii) Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’ di(t) = K1e(-0.398)K1 + (-0.417 2 = K1 + 1 + i0.398)K1 e(-0.i2.398)t dt di(0+) = (-0.398)K1 e0 + (-0.398)K2e0 dt 1 = (-0.400 = [1.i2.398)K2(1) 1 = (-0.4]K2] + K2 2 + 0.917 – i0.417]e(-0.5 .398)K2e(-0.917 – i0.5 + i2.5 .400 = [1.4]K2 2.5 .084 – i0.084 + i0.398)0+ + (-0.i2.U.i0.i0.i2.5 .5 .5 + i2.5 + i2.084 – i0.398)K2 After simplification K1 = -0.B.4]K2 K2 = 1 + i0.917 – i0.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.398)t + [1 + i0.5 + i2.417 = K1 Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = [1 .398)0+ dt di(0+) = (-0.i2.i2.084 + i0.417 2 .4]K2 2 = [-0.417 = K1 1 .398)t + K2 e(-0.5 + i2.398)t (f) d2i +1 36 di + 2i = 0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2i + 1si + 2i = 0 s2 + 1s + 2 = 0 a b c -b  b2 – 4ac s 1. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get 1 1 2 .400 + [0.5 + i2.400 + [0.917 – i0.1 .i0.398)K1(1) + (-0.i2.5 .

i1.323)K1 e(-0.5 + i1.i1.323)t + K2 e(-0.5 + i1.323)0+ dt di(0+) = (-0.i1.i1.662]K2 + K2 2. s 2 = 2(1) -1  -7 s 1.i1.323)K1 e0 + (-0.662 = [1. s 2 = 2(1) -1  1 – 8 s 1.323)K2(1) dt 1 = (-0.75 – i0.323)K2e(-0.5 + i1.5 . (-0.i2.646 s 1.75 – i0.5 .323)K2e0 dt di(0+) = (-0.662 + [0.25 + i0.323)K1 + (-0.323) General solution: i(t) = K1 es1t + K2es2t Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = K1 e(-0.323).B.323)t … (i) At t = 0+ i(0+) = K1e(-0.H)} 37 -1  12 – 4(1)(2) s 1.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.323)t + K2 e(-0.5 . s 2 = 2 s1.5 .5 + i1.662 = [0.i1.25 + i0.662]K2 + K2 2 + 0. s 2 = 2(1) -1  i2.323)0+ + K2e(-0.5 + i1.323)0+ + (-0.757 .5 + i1.75 – i0.646)/2 s1.662]K2 K2 = 1 + i0.646)/2. (-1 .i1.5 – i1.323)t dt di(0+) = (-0.25 – i0.662 + [0.25 – i0.662]K2 2 = -0.5 + i1.323)K2 K1 = -0.75 – i0.5 .U.323)0+ i(0+) = K1e0 + K2 e0 i(0+) = K1(1) + K2(1) 2 = K1 + K2 … (ii) Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’ di(t) = K1e(-0.5 .5 + i1.5 + i1.757 2 = K1 + 1 + i0.5 .5 .323)K1(1) + (-0. s2 = (-0. s2 = (-1 + i2.i1.

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. s 2 = -2  0 s 1. s2 = (-2 + 0)/2. s2 = (-1).757]e(-0.i0. s 2 = 2 s1.U. (-2 .H)} K1 = 2 – 1 .323)t + [1 + i0.323)t (g) d2i +2 38 di +i=0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2i + 2si + i = 0 s2 + 2s + 1 = 0 A B C -b  b2 – 4ac s 1.i0.757 K1 = 1 .i1. s 2 = 2(1) -2  0 s 1. s 2 = 2(1) -2  4 – 4 s 1. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -2  22 – 4(1)(1) s 1.757]e(-0.0)/2 s1.757 i(t) = [1 .5 .B.i0.5 + i1. (-1) General solution: i(t) = K1 es1t + K2es2t Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = K1 e(-1)t + K2te(-1)t … (i) At t = 0+ i(t) = K1 e(-1)t + K2te(-1)t i(0+) = K1e(-1)0+ + K2(0+)e(-1)0+ 2(1) 1 2 1 .

U.B. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -4  42 – 4(1)(4) s 1. s 2 = 2(1) 1 4 4 .3te(-1)t (h) d2i +4 39 di + 4i = 0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2i + 4si + 4i = 0 s2 + 4s + 4 = 0 A B C -b  b2 – 4ac s 1.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.H)} i(0+) = K1e0 i(0+) = K1(1) 2 = K1 Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’ di(t) = -K1e(-1)t + K2[-te(-1)t – e-t] dt di(0+) = (-1)K1e(-1)0+ + K2[-(0+)e-(0+) – e-(0+)] dt di(0+) = (-1)K1e0 + K2[–e0] dt di(0+) = (-1)K1(1) + K2[–(1)] dt 1 = -K1 – K2 1 = -(2) – K2 K2 = -3 Putting corresponding values i(t) = (2)e(-1)t + (-3)te(-1)t i(t) = 2e(-1)t .

s 2 = 2 s1. (-4 .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. s2 = (-4 + 0)/2.25K2 1 = -2(2) – 0.5(0+)e-2(0+) – 0.25K2 K2 = -20 Putting corresponding values i(t) = (2)e(-2)t + (-20)te(-2)t i(t) = 2e(-2)t .25e-2(0+)] dt di(0+) = -2K1e0 + K2[–0.U. (-2) General solution: i(t) = K1 es1t + K2es2t Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = K1 e(-2)t + K2te(-2)t At t = 0+ i(0+) = K1e(-2)0+ + K2(0+)e(-2)0+ 2 = K1 e0 2 = K1(1) 2 = K1 Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’ di(t) = -2K1 e(-2)t + K2[-0. s 2 = -4  0 s 1. s2 = (-2).5te-2t – 0.H)} 40 -4  16 – 16 s 1.25K2 -5 = 0.B.25e-2t] dt di(0+) = -2K1e(-2)0+ + K2[-0.0)/2 s1. s 2 = 2(1) -4  0 s 1.25(1)] dt 1 = -2K1 – 0.25e0] dt di(0+) = -2K1(1) + K2[–0.20te(-2)t 2(1) .

s 2 = 2(1) -2  -4 s 1. s 2 = 2(1) -2  4 – 8 s 1. (-1 – i1) General solution: v(t) = K1es1t + K2 es2t Putting corresponding values we get v(t) = K1e(-1 + i1)t + K2 e(-1 – i1)t … (i) At t = 0+ v(0+) = K1e(-1 + i1)0+ + K2e(-1 – i1)0+ v(0+) = K1e0 + K2 e0 . s2 = (-2 + i2)/2. s 2 = 2 s1.U.H)} 41 Q#6. s2 = (-1 + i1).Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B. (-2 – i2)/2 s1. s 2 = 2(1) -2  i2 s 1.3 subject to the initial conditions: dv v(0+) = 1. (0+) = -1 dt (a) d2v dv +2 + 2v = 0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2v + 2sv + 2v = 0 s2 + 2s + 2 = 0 a 1 b 2 c 2 -b  b2 – 4ac s 1.7: Find particular solutions for the differential equations of Prob. 6. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -2  22 – 4(1)(2) s 1.

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.5 K1 = 0.5 + 0.5 1 = K1 + 0.5e(-1 + i1)t + 0.5 v(t) = 0. s 2 = 2(1) 1 2 4 .5 + 0.5 + 0.H)} 1 = K1(1) + K2(1) 1 = K1 + K2 … (ii) Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’ dv(t) = (-1 + i1)K1 e(-1 + i1)t + (-1 – i1)K2e(-1 – i1)t dt dv(0+) dt dv(0+) = (-1 + i1)K1e0 + (-1 – i1)K2e0 dt dv(0+) = (-1 + i1)K1(1) + (-1 – i1)K2(1) dt -1 = (-1 + i1)K1 + (-1 – i1)K2 K1 = -iK2 + 0. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -2  22 – 4(1)(4) s 1.B.5i + K2 K2 = 0.5e(-1 – i1)t (b) d2v +2 = (-1 + i1)K1e(-1 + i1)0+ + (-1 – i1)K2 e(-1 – i1)0+ 42 dv + 4v = 0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2v + 2sv + 4v = 0 s2 + 2s + 4 = 0 a b c -b  b2 – 4ac s 1.U.5i 1 = [-iK2 + 0.5i] + K2 1 = -iK2 + 0.

i0.732)t + K2e(-1 – i1.5 Putting corresponding values v(t) = 0.732)0+ 1 = K1 e0 + K2e0 1 = K1(1) + K2(1) 1 = K1 + K2 Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’ dv(t) = (-1 + i1.866]K2 K2 = 0.732)t + (-1 – i1. s2 = (-2 + i3. (-2 – i3.732)0+ dt -1 = (-1 + i1.732)K1 = (1 + i1.732)K1e0 + (-1 – i1.433 + K2 1 .732)0+ + (-1 – i1.H)} -2  4 – 16 s 1.B.5 – i0.25 + i0. (-1 – i1.5 K1 = 0.732)K1(1) + (-1 – i1.866 + 1]K2 0.433 = [0.5e(-1 – i1.732)0+ + K2e(-1 – i1.732)K2(1) -1 = (-1 + i1.75 . s 2 = 2 s1.25 + i0.866]K2 + K2 0.5 – i0.464)/2.866]K2 + 0.0.433] + K2 1 = [0.732)K1e(-1 + i1.732)K2e(-1 – i1.732)K2 .866]K2 + 0.732)t + 0.732)K1 + (-1 – i1.464)/2 s1.25 + i0.25 .732)t dt dv(0+) = (-1 + i1.732)t … (i) At t = 0+ v(0+) = K1e(-1 + i1.464 s 1.i0.5 – i0.732)K2e0 -1 = (-1 + i1.732)K2 (-1 + i1.732) General solution: v(t) = K1es1t + K2 es2t Putting corresponding values we get v(t) = K1e(-1 + i1.5e(-1 + i1. s2 = (-1 + i1. s 2 = 2(1) -2  -12 s 1.433 1 = [[0.5 – i0.732)t 43 .5 – i0.866]K2 + 0.732)K2e(-1 – i1.5 – i0.732).433 = [1.75 .1 K1 = [0.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.i0.5 1 = K1 + 0.732)K1e(-1 + i1.U. s 2 = 2(1) -2  i3.433 = [0.

s 2 = 2(1) -4  16 – 8 s 1. s 2 = -4  8 s 1. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -4  42 – 4(1)(2) s 1. s 2 = 2(1) -4  2.828 s 1. (-4 – 2.586).586)t + K2 e(-3.828)/2 s1. s 2 = 2 s1.H)} 44 (c) d2v +4 dv + 2v = 0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2v + 4sv + 2v = 0 s2 + 4s + 2 = 0 a b c -b  b2 – 4ac s 1.414)0+ 1 = K1 e0 + K2e0 1 = K1(1) + K2(1) 1 = K1 + K2 … (ii) Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’ 2(1) 1 4 2 .414) General solution: v(t) = K1es1t + K2 es2t Putting corresponding values we get v(t) = K1e(-0. s2 = (-0.U.828)/2. (-3.414)t … (i) At t = 0+ v(0+) = K1e(-0.586)0+ + K2e(-3.B. s2 = (-4 + 2.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.

586)t + 0.706 – 5.146 K1 = 1.414)t (d) d2v dv 2 +8 + 16v = 0 dt2 dt After simplification d2v dv +4 + 8v = 0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2v + 4sv + 8v = 0 s2 + 4s + 8 = 0 a b c -b  b2 – 4ac s 1.U.851 K1 = 0.586)K1 e(-0.855 Putting corresponding values we get v(t) = 0.586)t + (-3.3.855e(-0.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.414)t dt dv(0+) = (-0.706 – 5.826K2 1 = 1.146) K1 = 1.586K1 . s 2 = 2(1) 45 1 4 8 .706 – 0.414)K2(1) -1 = -0.414)K2 e(-3.826K2 + K2 0.826(0.586)K1e(-0.706 = 4.706 – 5.414)K2e0 -1 = (-0.146e(-3.B.414)0+ dt -1 = (-0.414)K2e(-3.586)K1 e0 + (-3.586)K1(1) + (-3.H)} dv(t) = (-0.586)0+ + (-3.414K2 K1 = 1.826K2 K2 = 0. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -4  42 – 4(1)(8) s 1.

75i + 0.25 K1 = -0.75i]e(-2 – i2)t (e) d2v +2 dv + 3v = 0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: . s 2 = 2(1) -4  i4 s 1.75i + 0.B.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. s 2 = 2 s1. (-4 – i4)/2 s1. s2 = (-2 + i2). s2 = (-4 + i4)/2. s 2 = 2(1) -4  -16 s 1.H)} 46 -4  16 – 32 s 1.U.25 + i0.75i + 0.75 + 0.25 1 = [-0.25 = K2 0.25] + K2 1 + 0.75i = K2 v(t) = [-0. (-2 – i2) General solution: v(t) = K1es1t + K2 es2t Putting corresponding values we get v(t) = K1e(-2 + i2)t + K2 e(-2 – i2)t … (i) At t = 0+ v(0+) = K1e(-2 + i2)0+ + K2e(-2 – i2)0+ 1 = K1 e0 + K2e0 1 = K1(1) + K2(1) 1 = K1 + K2 … (ii) Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’ dv(t) = (-2 + i2)K1 e(-2 + i2)t + (-2 – i2)K2e(-2 – i2)t dt dv(0+) = (-2 + i2)K1e(-2 + i2)0+ + (-2 – i2)K2 e(-2 – i2)0+ dt -1 = (-2 + i2)K1e0 + (-2 – i2)K2e0 -1 = (-2 + i2)K1(1) + (-2 – i2)K2(1) -1 = (-2 + i2)K1 + (-2 – i2)K2 K1 = -1i + 0.75i – 0.75 + 0.25]e(-2 + i2)t + [0.

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.H)} as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2v + 2sv + 3v = 0 s2 + 2s + 3 = 0 a b c -b  b2 – 4ac s 1.414)t dt dv(0+) = (-1 + i1. s2 = (-1 + i1.414)K1e(-1 + i1.414)t + K2e(-1 – i1.828 s 1. (-1 – i1.414)0+ + (-1 – i1.828)/2. (-2 – i2.414)0+ 1 = K1 e0 + K2e0 1 = K1(1) + K2(1) 1 = K1 + K2 Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’ dv(t) = (-1 + i1.414)K1e(-1 + i1. s 2 = 2 s1. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -2  22 – 4(1)(3) s 1.828)/2 s1. s2 = (-2 + i2.414)0+ dt 1 2 3 47 .U. s 2 = 2(1) -2  4 – 12 s 1.414)t At t = 0+ v(0+) = K1e(-1 + i1.414)K2e(-1 – i1.B.414) General solution: v(t) = K1es1t + K2 es2t Putting corresponding values we get v(t) = K1e(-1 + i1.414).414)K2e(-1 – i1.414)0+ + K2e(-1 – i1.414)t + (-1 – i1. s 2 = 2(1) -2  i2. s 2 = 2(1) -2  -8 s 1.

666 .334 + i0.414)K2(1) dt -1 = (-1 + i1.i0. s 2 = 2(1) -3  9 – 20 s 1.U.471 1 = [0.334 .i0.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.471 = [1.414)t + 0.943]K2 K2 = 0.471 + K2 1 .H)} dv(0+) = (-1 + i1. s 2 = 2(1) 1 3 5 .943]K2 + 0.414)K2 K1 = [0.943]K2 (0.499 0.414)K1(1) + (-1 – i1.414)K1 + (-1 – i1.414)K1e0 + (-1 – i1.414)K2e0 dt dv(0+) = (-1 + i1.501e(-1 + i1.943]K2 + 0.0.414)t (f) d2v +3 48 dv + 5v = 0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2v + 3sv + 5v = 0 s2 + 3s + 5 = 0 a b c -b  b2 – 4ac s 1.B. s 2 = 2(1) -3  -11 s 1. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -3  32 – 4(1)(5) s 1.334 – i0.471) = [1.501 = K1 Putting corresponding values we get v(t) = 0.334 – i0.499e(-1 – i1.334 + i0.334 – i0.334 – i0.499 1 = K1 + 0.

5 + i1.5 – i1.659)K2e(-1.659)K1e(-1.664)e(-1.659)0+ dt dv(0+) = (-1.659) General solution: v(t) = K1es1t + K2 es2t Putting corresponding values we get v(t) = K1e(-1. given the initial conditions: dv v(0+) = 2.599 + i0.659)t + (0.664 Putting corresponding values we get v(t) = (0.5 – i1.5 + i1. (-1. (0+) = 1 dt (a) d2v dv +2 + 2v = 0 dt2 dt 49 .5 – i1.5 + i1.659)t + (-1.5 – i1.401 – i0.659)0+ + K2e(-1.5 + i1.H)} -3  i3. s 2 = 2 s1.4. s2 = (-3 + i3.659)K1 + (-1.U. (-3 – i3.5 + i1.664 + K2 K2 = 0.659)K2 K1 = 0.B.659)K1(1) + (-1.317)/2 s1.599 + i0.5 + i1.5 – i1.659)t dt dv(0+) = (-1.659)K2e0 dt dv(0+) = (-1.659)t + K2 e(-1.5 – i1.5 + i1.664)e(-1. 6.5 – i1.5 + i1.659)K1e(-1.401 – i0.659)K2(1) dt -1 = (-1.659)K2e(-1.5 – i1.8: Find particular solutions to the differential equations given in Prob.5 – i1.659).664 1 = 0.5 – i1.659)t Q#6.317)/2.5 – i1.401 – i0.5 + i1.659)K1e0 + (-1.659)0+ + (-1.659)t … (i) At t = 0+ v(0+) = K1e(-1.317 s 1.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.659)0+ 1 = K1 e0 + K2e0 1 = K1(1) + K2(1) 1 = K1 + K2 … (ii) Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’ dv(t) = (-1.5 + i1.5 + i1. s2 = (-1.

s2 = (-2 + i2)/2. (-2 – i2)/2 s1. s2 = (-1 + i1). s 2 = 2(1) -2  4 – 8 s 1. s 2 = 2(1) -2  i2 s 1. s 2 = 2(1) -2  -4 s 1. s 2 = 2 s1.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.H)} Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2v + 2sv + 2v = 0 s2 + 2s + 2 = 0 a b c -b  b2 – 4ac s 1.U.B. (-1 – i1) General solution: v(t) = K1es1t + K2 es2t Putting corresponding values we get v(t) = K1e(-1 + i1)t + K2 e(-1 – i1)t … (i) At t = 0+ v(0+) = K1e(-1 + i1)0+ + K2e(-1 – i1)0+ v(0+) = K1e0 + K2 e0 2 = K1(1) + K2(1) 2 = K1 + K2 … (ii) Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’ dv(t) = (-1 + i1)K1 e(-1 + i1)t + (-1 – i1)K2e(-1 – i1)t dt dv(0+) = (-1 + i1)K1e(-1 + i1)0+ + (-1 – i1)K2 e(-1 – i1)0+ dt 50 1 2 2 . s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -2  22 – 4(1)(2) s 1.

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} dv(0+) = (-1 + i1)K1e0 + (-1 – i1)K2e0 dt dv(0+) = (-1 + i1)K1(1) + (-1 – i1)K2(1) dt 1 = (-1 + i1)K1 + (-1 – i1)K2 K1 = -iK2 – 0.5 – i0.5 2 = -iK2 – 0.5 – i0.5 + K2 2 + 0.5 + i0.5 = -iK2 + K2 2.5 + i0.5 = [-i + 1]K2 K2 = 1 + i1.5 2 = K1 + 1 + i1.5 1 = K1 + i1.5 K1 = 1 – i1.5 v(t) = (1 – i1.5)e(-1 + i1)t + (1 + i1.5)e(-1 – i1)t (b) d2v +2

51

dv

+ 4v = 0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2v + 2sv + 4v = 0 s2 + 2s + 4 = 0 a b c -b  b2 – 4ac s 1, s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -2  22 – 4(1)(4) s 1, s 2 = 2(1) -2  4 – 16 s 1, s 2 = 2(1)

1 2 4

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)}

52

-2  -12 s 1, s 2 = 2(1) -2  i3.464 s 1, s 2 = 2 s1, s2 = (-2 + i3.464)/2, (-2 – i3.464)/2 s1, s2 = (-1 + i1.732), (-1 – i1.732) General solution: v(t) = K1es1t + K2 es2t Putting corresponding values we get v(t) = K1e(-1 + i1.732)t + K2e(-1 – i1.732)t … (i) At t = 0+ v(0+) = K1e(-1 + i1.732)0+ + K2e(-1 – i1.732)0+ 2 = K1 e0 + K2e0 2 = K1(1) + K2(1) 2 = K1 + K2 Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’ dv(t) = (-1 + i1.732)K1e(-1 + i1.732)t + (-1 – i1.732)K2e(-1 – i1.732)t dt dv(0+) = (-1 + i1.732)K1e(-1 + i1.732)0+ + (-1 – i1.732)K2e(-1 – i1.732)0+ dt 1 = (-1 + i1.732)K1e0 + (-1 – i1.732)K2e0 1 = (-1 + i1.732)K1(1) + (-1 – i1.732)K2(1) 1 = (-1 + i1.732)K1 + (-1 – i1.732)K2 (-1 + i1.732)K1 = (1 + i1.732)K2 + 1 K1 = [0.5 – i0.866]K2 - 0.25 - i0.433 2 = [0.5 – i0.866]K2 - 0.25 - i0.433 + K2 2 + 0.25 + i0.433 = [0.5 – i0.866]K2 + K2 2.25 + i0.433 = [0.5 – i0.866 + 1]K2 2.25 + i0.433 = [1.5 – i0.866]K2 K2 = 1 + i0.867 2 = K1 + 1 + i0.867 1 – i0.867 = K1 Putting corresponding values v(t) = (1 – i0.867)e(-1 + i1.732)t + (1 + i0.867)e(-1 – i1.732)t (c)

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} d2v +4 dv

53

+ 2v = 0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2v + 4sv + 2v = 0 s2 + 4s + 2 = 0 a b c -b  b2 – 4ac s 1, s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -4  42 – 4(1)(2) s 1, s 2 = 2(1) -4  16 – 8 s 1, s 2 = -4  8 s 1, s 2 = 2(1) -4  2.828 s 1, s 2 = 2 s1, s2 = (-4 + 2.828)/2, (-4 – 2.828)/2 s1, s2 = (-0.586), (-3.414) General solution: v(t) = K1es1t + K2 es2t Putting corresponding values we get v(t) = K1e(-0.586)t + K2 e(-3.414)t … (i) At t = 0+ v(0+) = K1e(-0.586)0+ + K2e(-3.414)0+ 2 = K1 e0 + K2e0 2 = K1(1) + K2(1) 2 = K1 + K2 … (ii) Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’ 2(1)

1 4 2

826K2] + K2 2 = -1.586)t – 0.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.826]K2 K2 = -0.768 2 = K1 + (-0.586K1 .586)K1(1) + (-3.414)K2 e(-3.3.414)K2 (1) 1 = -0.826 + 1]K2 3.768 = K1 Putting corresponding values we get v(t) = 2.414)t dt dv(0+) = (-0.826K2 + K2 2 + 1.414)K2e(-3.586)t + (-3.414)0+ dt 1 = (-0.826K2 2 = [-1.706 – 5.414)K2e0 1 = (-0.B.586)K1e0 + (-3.706 = [–5.586)K1e(-0.768e(-0.768e(-3.586)0+ + (-3.414)t (d) d2v dv 2 +8 + 16v = 0 dt2 dt After simplification d2v +4 dv 54 + 8v = 0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2v + 4sv + 8v = 0 s2 + 4s + 8 = 0 a b c -b  b2 – 4ac s 1.706 – 5.706 – 5.H)} dv(t) = (-0.586)K1 e(-0.768) 2.414K2 K1 = -1.U. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get 1 4 8 .706 = [–4.

25]e(-2 – i2)t (e) .25 + 0.25 K1 = -i1.25 2 = -i1.H)} 55 -4  42 – 4(1)(8) s 1.25 – 0. (-4 – i4)/2 s1. s 2 = 2(1) -4  i4 s 1.B.25 – 0.25 + K2 2 + i1. s 2 = 2(1) -4  -16 s 1.25 = K2 v(t) = [-i1. (-2 – i2) General solution: v(t) = K1es1t + K2 es2t Putting corresponding values we get v(t) = K1e(-2 + i2)t + K2 e(-2 – i2)t At t = 0+ v(0+) = K1e(-2 + i2)0+ + K2e(-2 – i2)0+ 2 = K1 e0 + K2e0 2 = K1(1) + K2(1) 2 = K1 + K2 … (ii) Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’ dv(t) = (-2 + i2)K1 e(-2 + i2)t + (-2 – i2)K2e(-2 – i2)t dt dv(0+) = (-2 + i2)K1e(-2 + i2)0+ + (-2 – i2)K2 e(-2 – i2)0+ dt 1 = (-2 + i2)K1e0 + (-2 – i2)K2e0 1 = (-2 + i2)K1(1) + (-2 – i2)K2(1) 1 = (-2 + i2)K1 + (-2 – i2)K2 K1 = -i – 0. s 2 = 2(1) -4  16 – 32 s 1. s2 = (-2 + i2).25 + i1.25 – 0. s2 = (-4 + i4)/2.25 = K2 2.U.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.25 – i0.25]e(-2 + i2)t + [2.25 + i1. s 2 = 2 s1.

(-2 – i2.414)t + K2e(-1 – i1. (-1 – i1.414)t At t = 0+ v(0+) = K1e(-1 + i1.828)/2 s1.828 s 1. s 2 = 2(1) -2  i2.828)/2.414)0+ + K2e(-1 – i1.414)0+ 2 = K1 e0 + K2e0 2 = K1(1) + K2(1) 2 = K1 + K2 Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’ 1 2 3 . s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -2  22 – 4(1)(3) s 1. s2 = (-2 + i2. s 2 = 2(1) -2  4 – 12 s 1.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.414).U. s 2 = 2(1) -2  -8 s 1.H)} d2v +2 dv 56 + 3v = 0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2v + 2sv + 3v = 0 s2 + 2s + 3 = 0 a b c -b  b2 – 4ac s 1.414) General solution: v(t) = K1es1t + K2 es2t Putting corresponding values we get v(t) = K1e(-1 + i1.B. s2 = (-1 + i1. s 2 = 2 s1.

334 + i0.414)K1e0 + (-1 – i1.471 2 = [0.414)K2e(-1 – i1.414)t (f) d2v +3 dv + 5v = 0 dt2 dt Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here s2v + 3sv + 5v = 0 s2 + 3s + 5 = 0 a b c -b  b2 – 4ac s 1. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -3  32 – 4(1)(5) s 1.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.414)t + (1 + i1.414)0+ + (-1 – i1.334 – i0.334 + i0.414)K1(1) + (-1 – i1.060)e(-1 – i1.H)} dv(t) 57 = (-1 + i1.414)K1e(-1 + i1.943]K2 K2 = 1 + i1.943]K2 – 0.943]K2 2.414)t + (-1 – i1.334 – i0.060)e(-1 + i1.i1.334 – i0.471 + K2 2 + 0.060 1 .060 2 = K1 + 1 + i1.471 = [1.414)K1e(-1 + i1.414)K2e0 dt dv(0+) dt dv(0+) dt dv(0+) = (-1 + i1.414)K2e(-1 – i1.B.060 = K1 Putting corresponding values we get v(t) = (1 .414)K2(1) dt 1 = (-1 + i1.i1.334 – i0.471 = [1.334 – i0.334 – i0.414)K2 K1 = [0.414)0+ = (-1 + i1.U. s 2 = 2(1) 1 3 5 .414)K1 + (-1 – i1.943]K2 – 0.414)t = (-1 + i1.

659)t … (i) At t = 0+ v(0+) = K1e(-1.199 – i1.328)e(-1.199 + i1.659)t dt dv(0+) = (-1.U.5 + i1. s 2 = 2 s1.659)t .659)K1(1) + (-1.199 – i1.317)/2.5 – i1.199 – i1.317)/2 s1.659)K2(1) dt 1 = (-1.5 + i1.199 + i1.5 – i1.659)0+ + (-1.199 + i1.659)0+ dt dv(0+) = (-1.659)K2 K1 = 0.5 + i1.659)K1 + (-1.5 – i1. s 2 = 2(1) -3  i3.659)t + (-1.328 2 = -0. (-1.H)} 58 -3  9 – 20 s 1.5 – i1.5 – i1.5 – i1.300 – i0. s2 = (-1.5 + i1. (-3 – i3.5 + i1.659)K2e0 dt dv(0+) = (-1.5 – i1.328 + K2 2 + 0.5 + i1.5 + i1.659).332 K1 = -0.659)t + (2.996 – 0.328 = K2 Putting corresponding values we get v(t) = (-0.B.5 + i1.328)e(-1.659)K1e(-1.5 – i1.101 – i0.5 + i1.659) General solution: v(t) = K1es1t + K2 es2t Putting corresponding values we get v(t) = K1e(-1. s 2 = 2(1) -3  -11 s 1.659)0+ 2 = K1 e0 + K2e0 2 = K1(1) + K2(1) 2 = K1 + K2 … (ii) Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’ dv(t) = (-1.659)t + K2 e(-1.5 – i1.328 = K2 2.659)K1e(-1.5 + i1.659)K1e0 + (-1.317 s 1.659)0+ + K2e(-1.5 – i1.5 – i1.5 + i1.659)K2e(-1.659)K2e(-1.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. s2 = (-3 + i3.

s 2 = 2(1) -7  37 s 1.083 s 1. s 2 = 2 s1. (s + 1)(s2 + 7s + 3) = 0 s2 + 7s + 3 = 0 A B C -b  b2 – 4ac s 1.H)} Q#6. s 2 = 2(1) -7  49 – 12 s 1. 59 s = -1 So s + 1 is a factor.083)/2 s1. s2 = (-7 + 6. s2 = (-0. (-7 – 6. s 2 = 2(1) -7  6. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -7  72 – 4(1)(3) s 1.U. s2 = -0.459. -6. (-13.9: Solve the differential equation d3i d2i di 3 +8 + 10 + 3i = 0 dt dt dt 3s3i + 8s2i + 10si + 3i = 0 X-TICS EQUATION: 3s3 + 8s2 + 10s + 3 = 0 We can find roots using synthetic division 1 -1 1 8 -1 7 10 -07 3 3 -3 0 Remainder is zero.B.083)/2 s1.083)/2.917)/2.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.542 General solution: i(t) = K1 es1t + K2es2t 1 7 3 .

General solution: i(t) = K1 e-1t + K2e-0.10: Solve the differential equation d3i d2i di 2 +9 + 13 + 6i = 0 dt dt dt 2s3i + 9s2i + 13si + 6i = 0 X-TICS EQUATION: 2s3 + 9s2 + 13s + 6 = 0 We can find roots using synthetic division 2 -1 2 9 -2 7 13 -07 6 6 -6 0 Remainder is zero.542t Q#6.459. -0. s 2 = 2(1) -7  49 – 24 s 1.542 are roots of the X-TICS equation. s 2 = 2(1) 2 7 6 . 60 s = -1 So s + 1 is a factor.542t So –1. (s + 1)(2s2 + 7s + 6) = 0 2s2 + 7s + 6 = 0 A B C -b  b2 – 4ac s 1.459t + K2e-6.459t + K3e-6. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -7  72 – 4(1)(6) s 1.H)} Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = K1 e-0. -6.B.U.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. s 2 = 2(1) -7  25 s 1.

K2 e-1(0+) . -6 are roots of the X-TICS equation. s2 = (-2)/2. (-12)/2 s1.K2 . (-7 – 5)/2 s1. s 2 = 2 s1.6K3(1) 1 = -K1 .6K3e0 1 = -K1 (1) .K2 e-1t .H)} -7  5 s 1.11: The response of a network is found to be 2 61 = K1e-t + K2e-1t + 6K3e-6t .B.6K3e-6t dt di(0+) = -K1 e-(0+) .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. s2 = -1. -6 General solution: i(t) = K1 es1t + K2es2t Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = K1 e-1t + K2e-6t So –1.6K3 d2i dt d2i(0+) = K1e-(0+) + K2e-1(0+) + 6K3 e-6(0+) dt2 -1 = K1 e0 + K2 e0 + 6K3e0 -1 = K1 (1) + K2(1) + 6K3(1) -1 = K1 + K2 + 6K3 Q#6. -1.K2e0 .U.K2(1) . s2 = (-7 + 5)/2.6K3 e-6(0+) dt 1 = -K1 e0 . General solution: i(t) = K1 e-1t + K2e-1t + K3e-6t … (i) At t = 0+ i(0+) = K1e-1(0+) + K2e-1(0+) + K3e-6(0+) 0 = K1 e0 + K2e0 + K3e0 0 = K1(1) + K2(1) + K3 (1) 0 = K1 + K2 + K3 Differentiating (i) with respect to ‘t’ di = -K1 e-t .

001 t=3 i(3) = 0 62 .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. Find the time at which i(t) attains a maximum value.018 t=2 i(2) = 0.B. =4 K=1 t=0 i(0) = 0 t=1 i(1) = 0.U.H)} i = K1te-t. t  0 where  is real and positive.

001 .U.B.5 1 1 0.5 0 Series1 Series2 1 0 0 0 0.001 4 3 0 0 0.5 3 3 2.H)} 63 3.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.5 2 2 current Series1 Series2 1.018 2 1 0.018 time 3 2 0.

4 0 0.12: In a certain network.2  2K2 1  1K1 t= ln 1 K2 Solution: i(t) = K1e-1t – K2 e-2t i(1) = K1 e-1(1) – K2e-2(1) t=1 i(1) = K1 e-1 – K2e-2 i(2) = K1 e-1(2) – K2e-2(2) t=2 i(2) = K1 e-21 – K2e-22 i(3) = K1 e-1(3) – K2e-2(3) t=3 i(3) = K1 e-31 – K2e-32 i((1/ 1)ln( 1K1/K2)) = K1 e-1((1/1)ln(1K1/K2)) – K2e-2((1/1)ln(1K1/K2)) t = (1/ 1)ln( 1K1/K2) 1 t= ln  1K1 1 K2 Q#6. t > 0.H)} 64 Q#6. it is found that the current is given by the expression i = K1 e-1t – K2e-2t.13: The graph shows a damped sinusoidal waveform having the general form Ke-t sin(t + ) From the graph. t = 4 msec 1 f= t .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. and .13 for the waveform of the accompanying figure.28 rad/sec t V(t) 0 0 0. determine numerical values for K. . t = 1 sec 1 f= t f = 1 Hz  = 2f  = 2(1)  = 2  = 6.B.U.  1 >  2 Show that i(t) reaches a maximum value at time 1  1K1 t= ln 1 .8 0 Q#6.14: Repeat Prob. 6. .

Solution: Circuit diagram: 65 K + 100 V - 10  i2 1H 20 F Equivalent circuit before switching: At t = 0100 i2(0-) = 10 i2(0-) = 10 A = i2(0+) VC(0-) = VC(0+) = 0 Equivalent circuit after switching: . At t = 0.B.H)} f = 250 Hz  = 2f  = 2(250)  = 1570 rad/sec  = 00 Q#6. the switch K is closed and a steady state is reached in the network. the switch is opened. Find an expression for the current in the inductor. i2(t).15: In the network of the figure.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.U.

U.B.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.H)} 66 i2 Using KVL we have di2 1 L + i2dt = 0 … (i) dt C Differentiating we have d2i2 i2 L + =0 dt2 C The characteristic equation is i2 Ls2i2 + = 0 C 1 Ls2 + =0 C 1 s2 = LC s= -1 LC s = j 1 LC Roots are pure imaginary so from table 6-1 Form of solution i = K1 cos t + K2 sin t Here .

B.607t Q#6. At t = 0. the switch K is closed.H)} 1 LC i = i2(t) i2(t) = K1 cos (1/LC)1/2t + K2 sin (1/LC)1/2t … (ii) From equation (i) at t = 0+ di2(0+) L + VC(0+) = 0 dt Putting corresponding values di2(0+) = 0 Amp. Determine an expression for the voltage V2(t).U./sec dt From (ii) at t = 0+ i2(0+) = K1cos (1/LC)1/2(0+) + K2 sin (1/LC)1/2(0+) i2(0+) = K1(1) + 0 K1 = 10 di2(t) = -(1/LC)1/2K1sin (1/LC)1/2t + (1/LC)1/2K2 cos (1/LC)1/2t dt At t = 0+ di2(0+) = -(1/LC)1/2K1sin (1/LC)1/2(0+) + (1/LC)1/2K2 cos (1/LC)1/2(0+) dt di2(0+) = -(1/LC)1/2K1sin (1/LC)1/2(0+) + (1/LC)1/2K2 cos (1/LC)1/2(0+) dt 0 = (1/LC)1/2K2 0 = K2 i2(t) = (10)cos (1/LC)1/2(t) + (0) sin (1/LC)1/2(t) i2(t) = (10)cos (1/(1)(20(10-6)))1/2(t) i2(t) = 10cos 223.16: The capacitor of the figure has an initial voltage VC(0-) = V1. Solution: 67 = . and at the same time the current in the inductor is zero.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.

s 2 = 2(1) 1 1/RC 1/LC .H)} 68 V1 C V2 R L Here VC(0-) = VC(0+) = 0 = V2(0+) iL(0-) = iL(0+) = 0 After switching dV2 V2 1 C + + V2 dt = 0 … (i) dt R L Differentiating with respect to ‘t’ d2V2 dV2 V2 C + + =0 dt2 Rdt L d2 V2 dV2 V2 + + =0 dt2 RCdt LC The characteristic equation is s V2 s2V2 + V2 + =0 RC LC s 1 s2 + + =0 RC LC a b c -b  b2 – 4ac s 1.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.U. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -(1/RC)  (1/RC)2 – 4(1)(1/LC) s 1.B.

s 2 = 2 s1. s2 = -(1/2RC)  (1/2RC)2 – (1/LC) Case (a) if (1/2RC)2 – (1/LC) = 0 (1/2RC)2 = (1/LC) that is 1 L R= 2 C Then 1 s=2RC So form of solution is: Nature of roots s1. s2 = (-1/2RC + 0). s2 = (-1/2RC).B.H)} -(1/RC)  (1/R2C2) – (4/LC) s 1. (-1/2RC) Negative real and equal V2(t) = K1 es1t + K2tes2t V2(t) = K1 e(-1/2RC)t + K2te(-1/2RC)t … (ii) From equation (i) at t = 0+ dV2(0+) V2(0+) C + + iL(0+) = 0 dt R Putting corresponding values dV2(0+) -V1 = dt RC At t = 0+ V2(0+) = K1e(-1/2RC)0+ + K2(0+)e(-1/2RC)0+ … (ii) V1 = K1 e0 V1 = K1 Differentiating (ii) with respect to ‘t’ dV2(t) = (-1/2RC)K1e(-1/2RC)t + K2[-te(-1/2RC)t .e(-1/2RC)t] dt At t = 0+ dV2(0+) = (-1/2RC)K1 e(-1/2RC)0+ + K2[-(0+)e(-1/2RC)0+ . (-1/2RC .U.0) s1.e(-1/2RC)0+] dt 69 .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. Determine V2(t).17: The voltage source in the network of the figure is described by the equation. V1 = 2 cos 2t for t  0 and is a short circuit prior to that time. Repeat if V1 = K1t for t  0 and V1 = 0 for t < 0. Solution: + - V1 V2 Here iL(0-) = iL(0+) = 0 A VC(0-) = VC(0+) = 0 = V2(0+) For t  0 According to KCL V2 1 dV2 1 + + (V2 – V1)dt = 0 … (i) 2 2 dt 1 Differentiating we have .U.B.H)} dV2(0+) dt -V1 = (-1/2RC)K1(1) + K2[-(1)] RC V1 = (1/2RC)K1 + K2 RC Putting corresponding values V1 = (1/2RC)V1 + K2 RC -V1 K2 = 2RC Putting corresponding values V2(t) = V1 e(-1/2RC)t V1 2RC te(-1/2RC)t 70 = (-1/2RC)K1 e0 + K2[-e0] Q#6.

s2 = (-1 + i2.646)/2 s1. s2 = (-0.323).646)/2. s 2 = 2(1) -1  1 – 8 s 1. s 2 = 2 s1. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -1  12 – 4(1)(2) s 1.U.B.646 s 1.H)} dV2 2dt dV2 1 d2 V2 71 + V2 – V1 = 0 2 dt2 d2 V2 + + 2V2 – 2V1 = 0 dt dt2 dV2 d2 V2 + + 2V2 = 2V1 dt dt2 dV2 d2 V2 + + 2V2 = 2[2 cos 2t] dt dt2 dV2 d2 V2 + + 2V2 = 4 cos 2t … (ii) dt dt2 Equation (ii) is a non-homogeneous differential equation Characteristic equation is s2V2 + sV2 + 2V2 = 0 s2 + s + 2 = 0 a b c + -b  b2 – 4ac s 1. s 2 = 2(1) -1  i2. (-1 – i2.323) General solution: v(t) = K1es1t + K2 es2t 1 1 2 .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.5 – i1. (-0.5 + i1. s 2 = 2(1) -1  -7 s 1.

B.323)K2e(-0.5 + i1.cos 2t + sin 2t … (iV) dV2 = (-0.323)t .323)t + 2sin 2t + 2cos 2t dt V2(0+) 1 dV2(0+) + + iL(0+) = 0 2 2 dt Putting corresponding values dV2(0+) =0 dt At t = 0+ dV2(0+) = dt 72 .5 + i1. The form of particular solution is V2P = Acos 2t + Bsin 2t … (iii) Substituting (iii) in (ii) d2 d [Acos 2t + Bsin 2t] + [Acos 2t + Bsin 2t] + 2[Acos 2t + Bsin 2t] = 4 cos 2t dt2 dt After simplification -2Asin 2t + 2B cos 2t – 4Acos 2t – 4Bsin 2t + 2Acos 2t + 2Bsin 2t = 4 cos 2t Equating coefficients of L.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.323)t + K2e(-0.323)K1e(-0.H)} Putting corresponding values we get V2(t) = K1 e(-0.5 – i1.H.5 + i1.5 – i1.5 – i1.323)t + [-cos 2t + sin 2t] V2 = K1 e(-0.H.5 – i1.S -2A – 4B + 2B = 0 -2A – 2B = 0 -2A = 2B -A = B 2B – 4A + 2A = 4 2B – 2A = 4 B– A=2 -A – A = 2 -2A = 2 A = -1 -(-1) = B B=1 V2P = -1cos 2t + 1sin 2t V2P = -cos 2t + sin 2t Therefore particular solution is V2 = complementary + particular V2 = K1 e(-0.S & R.5 + i1.323)t + K2e(-0.323)t … (ii) Complementary solution.323)t + (-0.5 – i1.U.323)t + K2e(-0.5 + i1.

323)0+ + K2e(-0.5 – i1.323 = [–i2.567 = K1 V2 = [0.323)t .323 = [i2.5 – i1.323 + 0.567 Putting the value of K2 in (Vi) 1 = K1 + 0.5 – i1.323)K2 + 2 … (V) At t = 0+ equation (iV) V2(0+) = K1e(-0.5 + i1.5 + i1.i1.323)K2 + 2 0 = -0.323]K2 -1.5 .5 – i1.U.5 + i1.5 + i1.567 0.323)0+ + (-0.5 .5 – i1.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.323)K1e0 + (-0.5 + i1.i1.323K2 + 2 -1.5 + i0.323K2 – 0.323)K1 + (-0.H)} 73 (-0.5 + i1.cos 2(0+) + sin 2(0+) 0 = K1 e0 + K2e0 – 1 0 = K1(1) + K2(1) – 1 0 = K1 + K2 – 1 1 = K1 + K2 … (Vi) K1 = 1 – K2 Putting the value of K1 in (V) 0 = (-0.323) + (-0.5 + i1.323 – 0.323)t + [0.646]K2 K2 = 0.646]K2 1.567]e(-0.323)0+ + 2sin 2(0+) + 2cos 2(0+) 0 = (-0.323)K1e(-0.5 – i0.B.5 – i1.5 – i1.5 .5 + i1.323)K2e(-0.i1.323)K2 + 2 0 = (-0.5 + i1.5 – i1.5 – i1.i1.5 + i1.567]e(-0.5 + i0.323)0+ .5 – i0.323 = [0.5 + i1.5 + i1.323)K2e0 + 2sin 0 + 2cos 0 0 = (-0.5K2 – i1.cos 2t + sin 2t Part (b) If V1 = Kt dV2 d2V2 + + 2V2 = 2V1 dt dt2 dV2 d2V2 + + 2V2 = 2K1 … (a) dt dt2 Equation (ii) is a non-homogeneous differential equation Characteristic equation is s2V2 + sV2 + 2V2 = 0 s2 + s + 2 = 0 A B C 1 1 2 .323)(1 – K2) + (-0.5K2 .323)K1(1) + (-0.323)K2(1) + 2(1) 0 = (-0.5 – i1.323) – K2(-0.5 – i0.

H)} -b  b2 – 4ac s 1.5 – i1.0. (-0.5K1 V2P = K1 t .323)t + C2 e(-0.323).5 – i1. s2 = (-0.2 A1tn B0tn + B1tn.U.5K1 74 . s 2 = 2(1) -1  -7 s 1.1 + … + B n – 1t + Bn V2P = At + B … (ii) Substituting equation (ii) in (a) d2 d [At + B] + [At + B] + 2[At + B] = 2K1t dt2 dt After simplification A + 2At + 2B = 2K1 t Equating coefficients t: 2A = 2K1 A = K1 Constants: A + 2B = 0 K1 + 2B = 0 B = -0.323)t … (i) Complementary solution.646 s 1. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -1  12 – 4(1)(2) s 1. s 2 = 2(1) -1  i2. s 2 = 2 s1.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. s 2 = 2(1) -1  1 – 8 s 1.646)/2 s1. The form of particular solution is From table 6.5 + i1.B. s2 = (-1 + i2.5 + i1.323) General solution: v(t) = C1 es1t + C 2es2t Putting corresponding values we get V2(t) = C1 e(-0.646)/2. (-1 – i2.

0.323)C2e(-0.5K1 Putting corresponding values eq.0.323)C2e(-0.5 + i1.5 + i1.323)[0.250 + i0.323)C2(1) + K1 0 = (-0.5 – i1.5 + i1.323)C1e(-0.5 – i1.5K1 C1 = -0.5K1 0 = C1(1) + C2(1) .323)0+ + (-0.250 + i0.323)C1e(-0.5 + i1.5K1 0 = C1 + C2 .323)C1(1) + (-0.323)C1e0 + (-0. (ii) becomes V2 = [-0.284K1]e(-0.5 + i1.5 + i1.0.5 – i1.250 – i0.B.5 + i1.0.323)C2e0 + K1 0 = (-0.5 – i1.323)t + K1t .323)0+ + C2e(-0.5 – i1.5K1 Q#6.5K1]e(-0.5 – i1.323)t + C2 e(-0.284K1 Putting the value of C2 in (iii) 0 = C1 + 0.5 – i1.5 + i1.323)C1 + (-0.284K1 .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.U.18: Solve the following nonhomogeneous differential equations for t  0.0.0.250 – i0.5K1 0 = C1e0 + C2e0 .323)t + (-0. (ii) V2(0+) = C1e(-0.284K1 + 0.5K1 … (iii) dV2(0+) = (-0.5 – i1.5 + i1.5 + i1.323)t + K1t .5 – i1.323)C2 + K1 … (iV) Putting the value of C1 from (iii) into (iV) 0 = (-0.H)} Therefore Particular solution = Complementary + particular V2 = C1 e(-0.284K1 + 0.250 – i0.5 – i1.5 – i1. (a) d2i di +2 +i =1 dt2 dt Nonhomogeneous differential equation i(t) = iC + iP Complementary solution Characteristic equation is s2i + 2si + 1i = 0 s2 + 2s + 1 = 0 .5K1 – C2] + (-0.323)t + K1 dt At t = 0+ eq.323)0+ + K1(0+) .323)t + [0.323)0+ + K1 75 dt 0 = (-0.5 + i1.5K1 … (ii) Differentiating dV2 = (-0.0.323)C2 + K1 After simplification C2 = 0.

s 2 = 2(1) -2  4 – 4 s 1.B. s 2 = 2 s1. s2 = (-2 + 0)/2. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -2  22 – 4(1)(1) s 1. s2 = -1. s 2 = 2(1) -2  0 s 1.H)} A B C -b  b2 – 4ac s 1.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.U. -1 General solution: i(t) = K1 es1t + K2tes2t Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = K1 e(-1)t + K2te(-1)t Particular solution From table 6. s 2 = -2  0 s 1. (-2 – 0)/2 s1.2 V(a constant) iP = A = 1 i(t) = K1 e(-1)t + K2te(-1)t + 1 (b) d2i 2(1) 1 2 1 76 A di + 3 + 2i = 5t …(c) dt2 dt Nonhomogeneous differential equation i(t) = iC + iP Complementary solution Characteristic equation is s2i + 3si + 2i = 0 .

U.1 + … + B n – 1t + Bn iP = At + B … (ii) Putting the value of iP from (ii) into eq. s 2 = 2(1) -3  9 – 8 s 1.B. s 2 = -3  1 s 1.2 A1tn B0tn + B1tn. s2 = (-3 + 1)/2. (-3 – 1)/2 s1.5 Constants 3A + 2B = 0 3(2.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.H)} s2 + 3s + 2 = 0 A B C -b  b2 – 4ac s 1.5) + 2B = 0 2(1) 1 3 2 77 . s 2 = 2(1) -3  1 s 1. (c) d2 d [At + B] + 3 [At + B] + 2[At + B] = 5t dt2 dt After simplification 3A + 2At + 2B = 5t Equating coefficients 2A = 5 A = 2. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -3  32 – 4(1)(2) s 1. s2 = (-1). s 2 = 2 s1. (-2) General solution: v(t) = K1es1t + K2 es2t Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = K1 e(-1)t + K2e(-2)t … (i) Particular solution From table 6.

(-3 – 1)/2 s1. (-2) General solution: v(t) = K1es1t + K2 es2t Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = K1 e(-1)t + K2e(-2)t … (i) Particular solution 2(1) 1 3 2 . s2 = (-3 + 1)/2.H)} 7.15/4 + 5t/2 (c) d2i 78 di + 3 + 2i = 10 sin 10t … (k) dt2 dt Nonhomogeneous differential equation i(t) = iC + iP Complementary solution Characteristic equation is s2i + 3si + 2i = 0 s2 + 3s + 2 = 0 A B C -b  b2 – 4ac s 1.U.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. s2 = (-1). s 2 = 2(1) -3  1 s 1. s 2 = 2(1) -3  9 – 8 s 1.B. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -3  32 – 4(1)(2) s 1. s 2 = -3  1 s 1.5t – 3. s 2 = 2 s1.75 iP = 2.5 + 2B = 0 B = -3.75 iP = -15/4 + 5t/2 i(t) = K1 e(-1)t + K2e(-2)t .

094 sin 10t .029 cos 10t (d) d2q +5 2 dq + 6q = te-t … (m) dt dt Nonhomogeneous differential equation q(t) = qC + qP Complementary solution Characteristic equation is s2q + 5sq + 6q = 0 s2 + 5s + 6 = 0 A B C 1 5 6 .2 iP = A sin 10t + B cos 10t Putting the value of iP in (k) d2 d [A sin 10t + B cos 10t] + 3 [A sin 10t + B cos 10t] + 2[A sin 10t + B cos 10t] = dt2 dt 10 sin 10t -100A sin 10t – 100B cos 10t + 3[10A cos 10t .306(-0.0.18A = 10 -107.18A = 10 A = -0.094 sin 10t .0.B.306A -98A – 30(0.094) B = -0.094 sin 10t .0.306A) = 10 -98A – 9.094 sin 10t + (-0.029 cos 10t] i(t) = K1 e(-1)t + K2e(-2)t .029) cos 10t iP = -0.30B sin 10t + 2A sin 10t + 2B cos 10t = 10 sin 10t Equating coefficients Sin -100A – 30B + 2A = 10 -98A – 30B = 10 Cos -100B + 30A + 2B = 0 -98B + 30A = 0 B = 0.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.U.H)} 79 From table 6.029 cos 10t i(t) = K1 e(-1)t + K2e(-2)t + [-0.10B sin 10t] + 2A sin 10t + 2B cos 10t = 10 sin 10t -100A sin 10t – 100B cos 10t + 30A cos 10t .094 B = 0.029 Now iP = -0.0.

s2 = -2. s2 = (-4)/2.5At2e-t + 10Ate-t . (-5 .Bte-t + Be-t] + 6[At2e-t + Bte-t] = te-t At2e-t . s2 = (-5 + 1)/2. m d2 d [(At + B)te-t] + 5 [(At + B)te-t] + 6[(At + B)te-t] = te-t dt2 dt At2e-t .5 2(1) 80 .2Ate-t – 2Ate-t + 2Ae-t .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.H)} -b  b2 – 4ac s 1.B. s 2 = 2(1) -5  1 s 1.Bte-t – Be-t – Be-t . -3 General solution: q(t) = K1es1t + K2es2t Putting corresponding values we get q(t) = K1e-2t + K2 e-3t Particular solution qP = (At + B)te-t  multiplied by ‘t’ because e-t is repeating in both i P & iC Putting the value of iP in eq.5Bte-t + 5Be-t + 6At2e-t + 6Bte-t = te-t Equating coefficients t2e-t: A – 5A + 6A = 0 2A = 0 A=0 te-t: -2A – 2A + 10A = 1 6B = 3 B = 0.U. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -5  52 – 4(1)(6) s 1. s 2 = 2(1) -5  25 – 24 s 1.1)/2 s1. s 2 = -5  1 s 1. (-6)/2 s1.2Ate-t – 2Ate-t + 2Ae-t + Bte-t – Be-t – Be-t + 5[-At2 e-t + 2Ate-t . s 2 = 2 s1.

667 qP = (0t + (-0. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -5  52 – 4(1)(6) s 1.5 qP = (0t + (0. s2 = (-4)/2. s 2 = 2(1) -5  1 s 1.5te-t (e) d2V +5 2 81 dV + 6V = e-2t + 5e-3t … (n) dt dt Nonhomogeneous differential equation V(t) = VC + VP Complementary solution Characteristic equation is s2V + 5sV + 6V = 0 s2 + 5s + 6 = 0 A B C -b  b2 – 4ac s 1.667te-t q(t) = K1e-2t + K2e-3t .667))te-t qP = -0.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.1)/2 s1.H)} e-t: 2 – B – B + 5B = 0 2 + 3B = 0 B = -0. (-6)/2 1 5 6 . s2 = (-5 + 1)/2.0.667 When B = 0. s 2 = 2 s1.5te-t When B = -0.U.B. K1e-2t + K2e-3t + 0. (-5 . s 2 = 2(1) -5  25 – 24 s 1.667te-t. s 2 = 2(1) -5  1 s 1.5))te-t qP = 0.

(a) d2i di +2 +i =1 dt2 dt Nonhomogeneous differential equation i(t) = iC + iP Complementary solution Characteristic equation is s2i + 2si + 1i = 0 s2 + 2s + 1 = 0 A 1 B 2 C 1 -b  b2 – 4ac .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.H)} s1. 6. s2 = -2.19: Solve the differential equations given in Prob.18 subject to the following initial conditions: dx x(0+) = 1 & (0+) = -1 dt where x is the general dependent variable.10Ce-2t – 15Ce-3t + 6Ce-2t + 6Ce-3t = e-2t + 5e-3t Equating coefficients e-2t 4C – 10C + 6C = 1 4C – 10C + 6C = 1 C=0 VP = (0)e-2t + (0)e-3t VP = 0 V(t) = K1 e-2t + K2e-3t + 0 V(t) = K1 e-2t + K2e-3t 82 Q#6. -3 General solution: V(t) = K1 es1t + K2es2t Putting corresponding values we get V(t) = K1 e-2t + K2e-3t Particular solution VP = Ce-2t + Ce-3t Substituting the value of VP in eq.U. (n) d2 d [Ce-2t + Ce-3t] + 5 [Ce-2t + Ce-3t] + 6[Ce-2t + Ce-3t] = e-2t + 5e-3t dt2 dt 4Ce-2t + 9Ce-3t + 5[-2Ce-2t – 3Ce-3t] + 6Ce-2t + 6Ce-3t = e-2t + 5e-3t 4Ce-2t + 9Ce-3t .B.

s 2 = 2(1) -2  0 s 1. s2 = -1.B. (-2 – 0)/2 s1.te-t + 1 83 A .K2(0+)e-(0+) + K2 e-(0+) dt -1 = -K1e0 + K2 e0 -1 = -K1(1) + K2(1) -1 = -K1 + K2 -1 = -(0) + K2 -1 = K2 i(t) = (0)e(-1)t + (-1)te(-1)t + 1 i(t) = .U. s2 = (-2 + 0)/2.2 V(a constant) iP = A = 1 i(t) = K1 e(-1)t + K2te(-1)t + 1 At t = 0+ i(0+) = K1e(-1)0+ + K2(0+)e(-1)0+ + 1 1 = K1 e0 + 1 1 = K1(1) + 1 K1 = 0 di (0+) = -K1e-(0+) . s 2 = 2 s1.H)} s 1. s 2 = 2(1) -2  4 – 4 s 1. -1 General solution: i(t) = K1 es1t + K2tes2t Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = K1 e(-1)t + K2te(-1)t Particular solution From table 6.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -2  22 – 4(1)(1) s 1. s 2 = 2(1) -2  0 s 1.

s2 = (-3 + 1)/2.H)} 84 (b) d2i di + 3 + 2i = 5t …(c) dt2 dt Nonhomogeneous differential equation i(t) = iC + iP Complementary solution Characteristic equation is s2i + 3si + 2i = 0 s2 + 3s + 2 = 0 A B C -b  b2 – 4ac s 1.1 + … + B n – 1t + Bn iP = At + B … (ii) Putting the value of iP from (ii) into eq. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -3  32 – 4(1)(2) s 1. (c) d2 d 2(1) 1 3 2 . s2 = (-1). s 2 = -3  1 s 1.2 A1tn B0tn + B1tn. s 2 = 2(1) -3  1 s 1.B.U. (-3 – 1)/2 s1.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. s 2 = 2 s1. s 2 = 2(1) -3  9 – 8 s 1. (-2) General solution: v(t) = K1es1t + K2 es2t Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = K1 e(-1)t + K2e(-2)t … (i) Particular solution From table 6.

2K2e(-2)0+ + 5/2 dt -1 = -K1e0 .5 + 2B = 0 B = -3.25e(-2)t .15/4 + 5t/2 … (b) At t = 0+ i(0+) = K1e(-1)0+ + K2e(-2)0+ .25)e(-2)t .2K2 -3.25) 4.25 4.2K2e0 + 5/2 -1 = -K1(1) .15/4 + 5t/2 85 .75 = K1 + (-1.75 iP = 2.2K2(1) + 5/2 -1 = -K1 .5 = -K1 .75 + K2 .75 = K1 + K2 … (A) Differentiating (b) at t = 0+ di (0+) = -K1e(-1)0+ .15/4 1 + 15/4 = K1 + K2 4.5 = -K1 .15/4 + 5t/2 i(t) = 6e(-1)t .5 = -[4.25= K1 K1 = 6 Putting corresponding values of K1 & K2 i(t) = 6e(-1)t + (-1.2K2 From (A) K1 = 4.5 = -4.U.5 Constants 3A + 2B = 0 3(2.25 = -K2 K2 = -1.75 + 1.75 – K2] .75 – K2 -3.75 = -K2 1.5t – 3.B.2K2 -3.5 + 4.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.1.H)} [At + B] + 3 [At + B] + 2[At + B] = 5t dt2 dt After simplification 3A + 2At + 2B = 5t Equating coefficients 2A = 5 A = 2.15/4 + 5(0+)/2 1 = K1 e0 + K2e0 .2K2 + 5/2 -1 – 2.75 iP = -15/4 + 5t/2 i(t) = K1 e(-1)t + K2e(-2)t .15/4 1 = K1(1) + K2(1) .15/4 1 = K1 + K2 .5) + 2B = 0 7.2K2 -3.

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. s2 = (-1). (-3 – 1)/2 s1. s 2 = 2(1) -3  1 s 1. (-2) General solution: v(t) = K1es1t + K2 es2t Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = K1 e(-1)t + K2e(-2)t … (i) 2(1) 1 3 2 Particular solution From table 6.B. s2 = (-3 + 1)/2.2 iP = A sin 10t + B cos 10t Putting the value of iP in (k) d2 d [A sin 10t + B cos 10t] + 3 [A sin 10t + B cos 10t] + 2[A sin 10t + B cos 10t] = dt2 dt . s 2 = 2 s1. s 2 = 2(1) -3  9 – 8 s 1. s 2 = -3  1 s 1. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -3  32 – 4(1)(2) s 1.U.H)} (c) d2i 86 di + 3 + 2i = 10 sin 10t … (k) dt2 dt Nonhomogeneous differential equation i(t) = iC + iP Complementary solution Characteristic equation is s2i + 3si + 2i = 0 s2 + 3s + 2 = 0 A B C -b  b2 – 4ac s 1.

94 cos 0 + 0.029 cos 10t At t = 0+ i(0+) = K1e(-1)0+ + K2e(-2)0+ .0.029 = K1 + K2 … (y) Differentiating eq.94 0.0.029 cos 10(0+) … (c) 1 = K1 e0 + K2e0 .094) B = -0.H)} 87 10 sin 10t -100A sin 10t – 100B cos 10t + 3[10A cos 10t .0. (c) with respect to ‘t’ di (0+) = -K1 e-(0+) .029) cos 10t iP = -0.094 sin 0 .029 – K2 + 2K2 -0.06 = [1.029 cos 10t] i(t) = K1 e(-1)t + K2e(-2)t .306(-0.2K2(1) .0.10B sin 10t] + 2A sin 10t + 2B cos 10t = 10 sin 10t -100A sin 10t – 100B cos 10t + 30A cos 10t .094 sin 10t .0.029 – K2 0.094(10) cos 10(0+) + 0.2K2 .029(10) sin 0 -1 = -K1(1) .094 sin 10t + (-0.06 = 1.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.0.B.306A -98A – 30(0.U.029 cos 0 1 = K1(1) + K2(1) .0.18A = 10 -107.969 = K2 Putting the value of K2 in (y) .094 sin 10t .0.029 – K2] + 2K2 0.94 (1) -1 = -K1 .029 (1) 1 = K1 + K2 .2K2e(-2)0+ .18A = 10 A = -0.30B sin 10t + 2A sin 10t + 2B cos 10t = 10 sin 10t Equating coefficients Sin -100A – 30B + 2A = 10 -98A – 30B = 10 Cos -100B + 30A + 2B = 0 -98B + 30A = 0 B = 0.0.0.094 B = 0.06 = K1 + 2K2 From eq.306A) = 10 -98A – 9.094 sin 10t .0.094 sin 10(0+) .0.2K2e0 .0.029 cos 10t i(t) = K1 e(-1)t + K2e(-2)t + [-0.0.029(10) sin 10(0+) dt -1 = -K1e0 .029 Now iP = -0.029 1. (y) K1 = 1.

-3 General solution: q(t) = K1es1t + K2es2t Putting corresponding values we get q(t) = K1e-2t + K2 e-3t 88 1 5 6 .969e(-2)t . s2 = (-5 + 1)/2.0.094 sin 10t . s 2 = 2(1) -5  25 – 24 s 1.029 + 0.029 = K1 + (-0.029 cos 10t i(t) = 1.998e(-1)t + (-0.969 = K1 1. s 2 = 2(1) -5  1 s 1.998e(-1)t . s 2 = 2 s1. s2 = -2.969)e(-2)t .B. s2 = (-4)/2. (-6)/2 s1. s 2 = 2(1) -5  1 s 1.998 = K1 i(t) = 1.U.029 cos 10t (d) d2q dq +5 + 6q = te-t … (m) 2 dt dt Nonhomogeneous differential equation q(t) = qC + qP Complementary solution Characteristic equation is s2q + 5sq + 6q = 0 s2 + 5s + 6 = 0 A B C -b  b2 – 4ac s 1.0.0.969) 1.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.1)/2 s1.0. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -5  52 – 4(1)(6) s 1.H)} 1.094 sin 10t .0. (-5 .

0.667te-t.667[e0] -1 = -2K1(1) -3K2(1) .5te-t At t = 0+ q(0+) = K1 e-2(0+) + K2e-3(0+) . K1 e-2(0+) + K2e-3(0+) + 0.Bte-t + Be-t] + 6[At2 e-t + Bte-t] = te-t At2e-t .0.667te-t q(t) = K1e-2t + K2e-3t .0.0.667 qP = (0t + (-0.0.667 0.667te-t Differentiating with respect to ‘t’ at t = 0+ dq (0+) = -2K1 e-2(0+) -3K2e-3(0+) .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.5At2e-t + 10Ate-t .5Bte-t + 5Be-t + 6At2 e-t + 6Bte-t = te-t Equating coefficients t2e-t: A – 5A + 6A = 0 2A = 0 A=0 te-t: -2A – 2A + 10A = 1 6B = 3 B = 0.0.U.2Ate-t – 2Ate-t + 2Ae-t .5te-t When B = -0.667[1] -1 = -2K1 -3K2 .667(0+)e-(0+).667 When B = 0. m d2 d [(At + B)te-t] + 5 [(At + B)te-t] + 6[(At + B)te-t] = te-t dt2 dt At2e-t .5 e-t: 2 – B – B + 5B = 0 2 + 3B = 0 B = -0.5 qP = (0t + (0.5))te-t qP = 0.333 = 2K1 + 3K2 From eq.2Ate-t – 2Ate-t + 2Ae-t + Bte-t – Be-t – Be-t + 5[-At2e-t + 2Ate-t . K1 e0 + K2e0 1 = K1(1) + K2(1). (y) K1 = 1 – K2 89 .5(0+)e-(0+) 1 = K1e0 + K2e0. K1 + K2 … (y) q(t) = K1e-2t + K2e-3t .B.H)} Particular solution qP = (At + B)te-t  multiplied by ‘t’ because e-t is repeating in both i P & iC Putting the value of iP in eq.0. K1(1) + K2(1) 1 = K1 + K2.Bte-t – Be-t – Be-t .667))te-t qP = -0. K1e-2t + K2e-3t + 0.667[-(0+)e-(0+) + e-(0+)] dt -1 = -2K1 e0 -3K2e0 .

0.B. (-5 .H)} 0.U.1.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. s2 = -2.667 1 = K1 + (-1.333 = 2 – 2K2 + 3K2 0.667te-t q(t) = 2. s 2 = 2 s1.667 q(t) = 2.0.333 . s 2 = 2(1) -5  25 – 24 s 1. -3 1 5 6 .667te-t 90 (e) d2 V +5 2 dV + 6V = e-2t + 5e-3t … (n) dt dt Nonhomogeneous differential equation V(t) = VC + VP Complementary solution Characteristic equation is s2V + 5sV + 6V = 0 s2 + 5s + 6 = 0 A B C -b  b2 – 4ac s 1. (-6)/2 s1.1)/2 s1. s2 = (-5 + 1)/2.667e-2t .667e-2t + (-1.667e-3t .333 = 2 + K2 K2 = 0. s 2 = 2(1) -5  1 s 1.2 K2 = -1.333 = 2[1 – K2] + 3K2 0. s 2 = 2(1) -5  1 s 1.667)e-3t .667) K1 = 2. s2 = (-4)/2. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -5  52 – 4(1)(6) s 1.

B.10Ce-2t – 15Ce-3t + 6Ce-2t + 6Ce-3t = e-2t + 5e-3t Equating coefficients e-2t 4C – 10C + 6C = 1 4C – 10C + 6C = 1 C=0 VP = (0)e-2t + (0)e-3t VP = 0 V(t) = K1 e-2t + K2e-3t + 0 V(t) = K1 e-2t + K2e-3t … (k) At t = 0+ V(0+) = K1e-2(0+) + K2 e-3(0+) 1 = K1 e0 + K2e0 1 = K1(1) + K2(1) 1 = K1 + K2 … (A) Differentiating eq.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.18 for the following initial conditions: dx .20: Find the particular solutions to the differential equations of Prob. (k) with respect to ‘t’ dV (0+) = -2K1 e-2(0+) .U.3K2(1) -1 = -2K1 .3K2 -1 = K2 1 = K1 + (-1) … (A) 2 = K1 V(t) = 2e-2t + (-1)e-3t … (k) V(t) = 2e-2t .H)} General solution: V(t) = K1 es1t + K2es2t Putting corresponding values we get V(t) = K1 e-2t + K2e-3t 91 Particular solution VP = Ce-2t + Ce-3t Substituting the value of VP in eq.3K2 e-3(0+) dt -1 = -2K1 e0 . (n) d2 d [Ce-2t + Ce-3t] + 5 [Ce-2t + Ce-3t] + 6[Ce-2t + Ce-3t] = e-2t + 5e-3t dt2 dt 4Ce-2t + 9Ce-3t + 5[-2Ce-2t – 3Ce-3t] + 6Ce-2t + 6Ce-3t = e-2t + 5e-3t 4Ce-2t + 9Ce-3t .3K2e0 -1 = -2K1(1) .3K2 … (B) -1 = -2 + 2K2 .3K2 … (B) K1 = 1 – K2 -1 = -2[1 – K2] .e-3t Q#6. 6.

s2 = (-2 + 0)/2. -1 General solution: i(t) = K1 es1t + K2tes2t Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = K1 e(-1)t + K2te(-1)t Particular solution From table 6. s 2 = 2(1) -2  0 s 1.U.B. s 2 = -2  0 s 1. (-2 – 0)/2 s1. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -2  22 – 4(1)(1) s 1. s 2 = 2(1) -2  4 – 4 s 1. s2 = -1.2 V(a constant) 2(1) 92 1 2 1 A .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. (a) d2i di +2 +i =1 dt2 dt Nonhomogeneous differential equation i(t) = iC + iP Complementary solution Characteristic equation is s2i + 2si + 1i = 0 s2 + 2s + 1 = 0 A B C -b  b2 – 4ac s 1.H)} x(0+) = 2 & (0+) = -1 dt where x is the general dependent variable. s 2 = 2 s1.

s 2 = -3  1 2(1) 1 3 2 .B. s 2 = 2(1) -3  9 – 8 s 1.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -3  32 – 4(1)(2) s 1.K2(0+)e-(0+) + K2 e-(0+) dt -1 = -K1e0 + K2 e0 -1 = -K1(1) + K2(1) -1 = -K1 + K2 -1 = -(1) + K2 0 = K2 i(t) = (1)e(-1)t + (0)te(-1)t + 1 i(t) = e-t + 1 (b) d2i 93 di + 3 + 2i = 5t …(c) dt2 dt Nonhomogeneous differential equation i(t) = iC + iP Complementary solution Characteristic equation is s2i + 3si + 2i = 0 s2 + 3s + 2 = 0 A B C -b  b2 – 4ac s 1.H)} iP = A = 1 i(t) = K1 e(-1)t + K2te(-1)t + 1 At t = 0+ i(0+) = K1e(-1)0+ + K2(0+)e(-1)0+ + 1 2 = K1 e0 + 1 2 = K1(1) + 1 K1 = 1 di (0+) = -K1e-(0+) .U.

5 + 2B = 0 B = -3.5 Constants 3A + 2B = 0 3(2.15/4 2 = K1 + K2 . s2 = (-3 + 1)/2.15/4 2 = K1(1) + K2(1) .U.15/4 + 5t/2 … (b) At t = 0+ i(0+) = K1e(-1)0+ + K2e(-2)0+ . (-3 – 1)/2 s1.B.75 iP = -15/4 + 5t/2 i(t) = K1 e(-1)t + K2e(-2)t .2 A1tn B0tn + B1tn. s2 = (-1).1 + … + B n – 1t + Bn iP = At + B … (ii) Putting the value of iP from (ii) into eq.2K2e(-2)0+ + 5/2 dt -1 = -K1e0 .2K2e0 + 5/2 94 . s 2 = 2(1) -3  1 s 1.15/4 + 5(0+)/2 2 = K1 e0 + K2e0 .75 iP = 2. s 2 = 2 s1. (-2) General solution: v(t) = K1es1t + K2 es2t Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = K1 e(-1)t + K2e(-2)t … (i) Particular solution From table 6.75 = K1 + K2 … (A) Differentiating (b) at t = 0+ di (0+) = -K1e(-1)0+ .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.15/4 2 + 15/4 = K1 + K2 5.5t – 3.H)} s 1.5) + 2B = 0 7. (c) d2 d [At + B] + 3 [At + B] + 2[At + B] = 5t dt2 dt After simplification 3A + 2At + 2B = 5t Equating coefficients 2A = 5 A = 2.

5 = -[5.75 + 2.25) 5.2K2 -3.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.5 = -K1 . s 2 = 2(1) -3  9 – 8 s 1. s 2 = 2(1) 2(1) 1 3 2 .25e(-2)t . s 2 = -3  1 s 1.25 = -K2 K2 = -2.5 = -5.25)e(-2)t .25 5.75 + K2 .15/4 + 5t/2 i(t) = 8e(-1)t .U. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -3  32 – 4(1)(2) s 1.75 = K1 + (-2.2K2 -3.2K2 + 5/2 -1 – 2.2K2 From (A) K1 = 5.75 – K2 -3.2.15/4 + 5t/2 (c) d2i 95 di + 3 + 2i = 10 sin 10t … (k) dt2 dt Nonhomogeneous differential equation i(t) = iC + iP Complementary solution Characteristic equation is s2i + 3si + 2i = 0 s2 + 3s + 2 = 0 A B C -b  b2 – 4ac s 1.B.75 – K2] .5 + 5.H)} -1 = -K1(1) .2K2 -3.2K2(1) + 5/2 -1 = -K1 .25= K1 K1 = 8 Putting corresponding values of K1 & K2 i(t) = 8e(-1)t + (-2.5 = -K1 .75 = -K2 2.

(-2) General solution: v(t) = K1es1t + K2 es2t Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = K1 e(-1)t + K2e(-2)t … (i) 96 Particular solution From table 6.2 iP = A sin 10t + B cos 10t Putting the value of iP in (k) d2 d [A sin 10t + B cos 10t] + 3 [A sin 10t + B cos 10t] + 2[A sin 10t + B cos 10t] = dt2 dt 10 sin 10t -100A sin 10t – 100B cos 10t + 3[10A cos 10t . s2 = (-1).10B sin 10t] + 2A sin 10t + 2B cos 10t = 10 sin 10t -100A sin 10t – 100B cos 10t + 30A cos 10t .029 cos 10t At t = 0+ i(0+) = K1e(-1)0+ + K2e(-2)0+ .H)} -3  1 s 1.029 cos 10t] i(t) = K1 e(-1)t + K2e(-2)t .30B sin 10t + 2A sin 10t + 2B cos 10t = 10 sin 10t Equating coefficients Sin -100A – 30B + 2A = 10 -98A – 30B = 10 Cos -100B + 30A + 2B = 0 -98B + 30A = 0 B = 0.0.0.18A = 10 -107.U. s 2 = 2 s1.0.094 sin 10t . s2 = (-3 + 1)/2.306(-0.029 cos 10t i(t) = K1 e(-1)t + K2e(-2)t + [-0.029 Now iP = -0.094 sin 10t + (-0.0.094 sin 10t .094 sin 10(0+) .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.18A = 10 A = -0.094 sin 10t .B. (-3 – 1)/2 s1.0.094) B = -0.306A) = 10 -98A – 9.029 cos 10(0+) … (c) .0.306A -98A – 30(0.094 B = 0.029) cos 10t iP = -0.

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.969 = K2 Putting the value of K2 in (y) 1.998e(-1)t .06 = K1 + 2K2 From eq.029(10) sin 10(0+) dt -1 = -K1e0 .94 (1) -1 = -K1 .029 – K2 + 2K2 -1.029 – K2] + 2K2 0.969) 1.2K2(1) .2K2e0 .969e(-2)t .029 cos 0 2 = K1(1) + K2(1) .0.998e(-1)t + (-1.0.969)e(-2)t .094 sin 0 .969 = K1 2.029 = K1 + (-1.029 – K2 0.94 0.029 2.94 cos 0 + 0.0.1.0.998 = K1 i(t) = 2. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -5  52 – 4(1)(6) 1 5 6 .0.B.029 cos 10t i(t) = 2.029 (1) 2 = K1 + K2 .0.0.0.0.H)} 2 = K1 e0 + K2e0 .06 = 2.2K2 .094(10) cos 10(0+) + 0.094 sin 10t .06 = [2.029 = K1 + K2 … (y) Differentiating eq.029 + 1.0.029 cos 10t (d) d2q +5 2 97 dq + 6q = te-t … (m) dt dt Nonhomogeneous differential equation q(t) = qC + qP Complementary solution Characteristic equation is s2q + 5sq + 6q = 0 s2 + 5s + 6 = 0 A B C -b  b2 – 4ac s 1. (y) K1 = 2.029(10) sin 0 -1 = -K1(1) .U.094 sin 10t . (c) with respect to ‘t’ di (0+) = -K1 e-(0+) .0.2K2e(-2)0+ .0.

(-6)/2 s1.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.5Bte-t + 5Be-t + 6At2e-t + 6Bte-t = te-t Equating coefficients t2e-t: A – 5A + 6A = 0 2A = 0 A=0 te-t: -2A – 2A + 10A = 1 6B = 3 B = 0. m d2 d [(At + B)te-t] + 5 [(At + B)te-t] + 6[(At + B)te-t] = te-t dt2 dt At2e-t .5 e-t: 2 – B – B + 5B = 0 2 + 3B = 0 B = -0.H)} s 1. s2 = (-5 + 1)/2.667 2(1) 98 .B.1)/2 s1.5At2e-t + 10Ate-t .U.2Ate-t – 2Ate-t + 2Ae-t + Bte-t – Be-t – Be-t + 5[-At2 e-t + 2Ate-t . s 2 = 2 s1. (-5 . -3 General solution: q(t) = K1es1t + K2es2t Putting corresponding values we get q(t) = K1e-2t + K2 e-3t Particular solution qP = (At + B)te-t  multiplied by ‘t’ because e-t is repeating in both i P & iC Putting the value of iP in eq. s2 = -2.Bte-t + Be-t] + 6[At2e-t + Bte-t] = te-t At2e-t . s2 = (-4)/2.Bte-t – Be-t – Be-t .2Ate-t – 2Ate-t + 2Ae-t . s 2 = 2(1) -5  25 – 24 s 1. s 2 = 2(1) -5  1 s 1. s 2 = -5  1 s 1.

(y) K1 = 1 – K2 0.5te-t When B = -0.667)e-3t .5))te-t qP = 0.667))te-t qP = -0.667(0+)e-(0+).H)} When B = 0.333 = 4 – 2K2 + 3K2 0.3.0. K1 + K2 … (y) q(t) = K1e-2t + K2 e-3t .667e-2t + (-3.0. K1e0 + K2e0 2 = K1(1) + K2(1).667te-t (e) d2 V +5 2 99 dV + 6V = e-2t + 5e-3t … (n) dt dt Nonhomogeneous differential equation V(t) = VC + VP Complementary solution Characteristic equation is s2V + 5sV + 6V = 0 s2 + 5s + 6 = 0 a b c 1 5 6 .667) K1 = 4.B.5 qP = (0t + (0.667te-t Differentiating with respect to ‘t’ at t = 0+ dq (0+) = -2K1 e-2(0+) -3K2 e-3(0+) .0.0. K1 e-2t + K2e-3t + 0.667te-t q(t) = K1e-2t + K2 e-3t .667te-t q(t) = 4.5te-t At t = 0+ q(0+) = K1e-2(0+) + K2e-3(0+) .667[1] -1 = -2K1 -3K2 .333 = 2K1 + 3K2 From eq.333 = 2[2 – K2] + 3K2 0.667 qP = (0t + (-0.667[-(0+)e-(0+) + e-(0+)] dt -1 = -2K1 e0 -3K2 e0 .0.667e-2t .667te-t.667[e0] -1 = -2K1(1) -3K2(1) .4 K2 = -3. K1e-2(0+) + K2e-3(0+) + 0.667 0.667 q(t) = 4.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.0.5(0+)e-(0+) 2 = K1 e0 + K2e0. K1(1) + K2(1) 2 = K1 + K2.667e-3t .0.667 1 = K1 + (-3.0.333 .U.333 = 4 + K2 K2 = 0.0.

U. s 2 = 2 s1.B. -3 General solution: V(t) = K1 es1t + K2es2t Putting corresponding values we get V(t) = K1 e-2t + K2e-3t Particular solution VP = Ce-2t + Ce-3t Substituting the value of VP in eq.H)} 100 -b  b2 – 4ac s 1. s2 = (-4)/2. s 2 = 2(1) -5  25 – 24 s 1. (-6)/2 s1.10Ce-2t – 15Ce-3t + 6Ce-2t + 6Ce-3t = e-2t + 5e-3t Equating coefficients e-2t 4C – 10C + 6C = 1 4C – 10C + 6C = 1 C=0 VP = (0)e-2t + (0)e-3t VP = 0 V(t) = K1 e-2t + K2e-3t + 0 V(t) = K1 e-2t + K2e-3t … (k) At t = 0+ V(0+) = K1e-2(0+) + K2 e-3(0+) 2 = K1 e0 + K2e0 . s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -5  52 – 4(1)(6) s 1. (n) d2 d [Ce-2t + Ce-3t] + 5 [Ce-2t + Ce-3t] + 6[Ce-2t + Ce-3t] = e-2t + 5e-3t dt2 dt 4Ce-2t + 9Ce-3t + 5[-2Ce-2t – 3Ce-3t] + 6Ce-2t + 6Ce-3t = e-2t + 5e-3t 4Ce-2t + 9Ce-3t .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. s 2 = 2(1) -5  1 s 1. s2 = (-5 + 1)/2. s2 = -2. s 2 = 2(1) -5  1 s 1. (-5 .1)/2 s1.

3K2 -3 = K2 1 = K1 + (-3) … (A) 4 = K1 V(t) = 4e-2t + (-3)e-3t … (k) V(t) = 4e-2t . s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -7  72 – 4(1)(6) 2 7 6 . (k) with respect to ‘t’ dV (0+) = -2K1 e-2(0+) . 101 s = -1 So s + 1 is a factor.3e-3t Q#6.3K2 … (B) K1 = 2 – K2 -1 = -2[2 – K2] .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. (s + 1)(2s2 + 7s + 6) = 0 2s2 + 7s + 6 = 0 A B C -b  b2 – 4ac s 1.3K2 … (B) -1 = -4 + 2K2 .B.H)} 2 = K1(1) + K2(1) 2 = K1 + K2 … (A) Differentiating eq.U.3K2(1) -1 = -2K1 .21: Solve the differential equation d3i d2i di 2 +9 + 13 + 6i = K0te-tsint … (u) dt dt dt 2s3i + 9s2i + 13si + 6i = 0 X-TICS EQUATION: 2s3 + 9s2 + 13s + 6 = 0 We can find roots using synthetic division 2 -1 2 9 -2 7 13 -07 6 6 -6 0 Remainder is zero.3K2 e-3(0+) dt -1 = -2K1 e0 .3K2e0 -1 = -2K1(1) .

Fte-tcos t . (-7 – 5)/2 s1.H)} s 1.B.te-tsin t + te-tcos t] + G[e-tcos t . s 2 = 2(1) -7  49 – 24 s 1. (-12)/2 s1.te-tcos t .2Gte-tcos t 3 rd derivative of iP: = -2F[e-tcos t – e-tsin t] .Fte-tsin t + Ge-tsin t .2F[-e-tsin t – e-tcos t] + 2F[e-tsin t . General solution: i(t) = K1 e-1t + K2e-1t + K3e-6t … (i) Particular olution iP = Fte-tcos t + Gte-tsin t Putting the value of iP in (u) Here in eq. s2 = -1.te-tcos t . s 2 = 2(1) -7  5 s 1. (u) i = i P Simplification Ist derivative of iP: = F(1)e-tcos t + Ft(-e-t)cos t + Fte-t(-sin t) + G(1)e-tsin t + Gt(-e-t)sin t + Gte-tcos t = Fe-tcos t .Gte-tsin t + Gte-tcos t 102 2nd derivative of iP: = F[-e-tsin t – e-tcos t] – F[e-tcos t .te-tcos t .te-tsin t] = -2Fe-tsin t – 2Fe-tcos t + 2Fte-tsin t + 2Ge-tcos t – 2Ge-tsin t . s2 = (-7 + 5)/2. s 2 = 2(1) -7  25 s 1.te-tsin t + te-tcos t] + 2G[-e-tsin t – e-tcos t] – 2G[e-tcos t – e-tsin t] – 2G[e-tcos t . -6 are roots of the X-TICS equation. s 2 = 2 s1.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. -1.te-tsin t + te-tcos t] + G[e-tcos t – e-tsin t] – G[e-tsin t .te-tsin t] = 6Fe-tsin t – 2Fte-tsin t + 2Fte-tcos t – 6Ge-tcos t + 2Gte-tcos t + 2Gte-tsin t 2[6Fe-tsin t – 2Fte-tsin t + 2Fte-tcos t – 6Ge-tcos t + 2Gte-tcos t + 2Gte-tsin t] + . -6 General solution: i(t) = K1 es1t + K2es2t Putting corresponding values we get i(t) = K1 e-1t + K2e-6t So –1.te-tsin t] – F[e-tsin t . s2 = (-2)/2.U.

Gte-tsin t + Gte-tcos t] + 6[Fte-tcos t + Gte-tsin t] = K0te-tsin t 12Fe-tsin t – 4Fte-tsin t + 4Fte-tcos t – 12Ge-tcos t + 4Gte-tcos t + 4Gte-tsin t .18Fe-tsin t – 4Fe-tcos t + 4Fte-tsin t + 4Ge-tcos t – 4Ge-tsin t .068K0te-tcos t .045K0) = 0 -2F – 0.045K0te-tsin t) i(t) = K1 e-1t + K2e-1t + K3e-6t .13Fte-tsin t + 13Ge-tsin t .045K0 Put in (7) -2F + 3(-0.0.B. (7) F = 1.068K0 iP = (-0.5G = K0 G = -0.U.5G put in (8) -3G – 13(1.4Gte-tcos t + 13Fe-tcos t .068K0te-tcos t .Fte-tsin t + Ge-tsin t .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.045K0)te-tsin t iP = -0.0.068K0)te-tcos t + (-0.0.045K0te-tsin t i(t) = K1 e-1t + K2e-1t + K3e-6t + (-0.13Gte-tsin t + 13Gte-tcos t + 6Fte-tcos t + 6Gte-tsin t = K0te-tsin t Comparing coefficients e-tsin t: 12F – 18F – 4G + 13G = 0 -6F + 9G = 0 -2F + 3G = 0 … (7) te-tsin t: -4F + 4G + 4F – 13F – 13G + 6G = K0 -3G – 13F = K0 … (8) From eq.5G) = K0 -3G – 19.0.135K0 = 0 F = -0. (9) with respect to ‘t’ .0.13Fte-tcos t .Fte-tcos t .0.045K0te-tsin t … (9) At t = 0+ i(0+) = K1e-1(0+) + K2e-1(0+) + K3e-6(0+) .045K0(0+)e-(0+)sin (0+) 1 = K1 e0 + K2e0 + K3e0 1 = K1(1) + K2(1) + K3 (1) 1 = K1 + K2 + K3 Differentiating eq.H)} 103 9[-2Fe-tsin t – 2Fe-tcos t + 2Fte-tsin t + 2Ge-tcos t – 2Ge-tsin t .2Gte-tcos t] + 13[Fe-tcos t .068K0te-tcos t .5G = K0 -22.068K0(0+)e-(0+)cos (0+) .

U. Find the equation for the current as a function of time i(t).0.068K0[e-(0+)cos (0+) dt – (0+)e-(0+)cos (0+) – (0+)e-(0+)sin (0+)] . where R = 2  and L = 1 H.068K0 104 Q#6.068K0 1 = K1 + K2 + 6K3 + 0.0.6K3e-6(0+) .B.H)} di (0+) = -K1 e-(0+) . K + V(t) L i R At t  0 According to KVL di L + iR = V(t) … (c) dt Putting corresponding values di + 2i = t dt Nonhomogeneous differential equation V(t) = VC + VP Complementary solution Characteristic equation is si + 2i = 0 s+2 =0 s = -2 . at time t = 0 by the closing of a switch.0.068K0[1] -1 = -K1 – K2 – 6K3 . This generator is connected to an RL series circuit.22: A special generator has a voltage variation given by the equation V(t) = t V.K2e-1(0+) .0. where t is the time in seconds and t  0.045K0[e-(0+)sin (0+) – (0+)e-(0+)sin (0+) + (0+)e-(0+)cos (0+)] After simplification -1 = -K1 – K2 – 6K3 .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.

0.2 A1tn B0tn + B1tn.5t .0.5(0+) .1  and inductance L = 0. (c) d [At + B] + 2[At + B] = t dt After simplifications A + 2At + 2B = t Equating coefficients t: 2A = 1 A = 0.25) … (ii) iP = 0.B.25  i(0+) = i(0-) = 0 (due to inductor) 0 = K(1) .25 iP = 0.25 At t = 0+ i(0+) = Ke-2(0+) + 0.25 i(t) = 0.5 Constants: A + 2B = 0 0.0.25 i(t) = Ke-2t + 0.5t .25 105 Q#6.25 0 = Ke0 .0.5t + (-0.U. Find i(t) =? Solution: + - .5 + 2B = 0 B = -0.25e-2t + 0.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.5t .25 K = 0.0.23: A bolt (flash of lighting) of lightning having a waveform which is approximated as V(t) = te-t strikes a transmission line having resistance R = 0.1 + … + B n – 1t + Bn iP = At + B … (ii) Putting the value of iP from (ii) into eq.1 H.H)} iC = Kest iC = Ke(-2)t iC = Ke-2t Particular solution From table 6.0.

1i = 0 s+1 =0 s = -1 iC = Kest iC = Ke(-1)t iC = Ke-1t Particular solution From table 6.H)} 106 At t  0 According to KVL di L + iR = V(t) dt Putting corresponding values di (0.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.2Ate-t – 0.1) + (0.2 Particular solution iP = (At + B)te-t  multiplied by ‘t’ because e-t is repeating in both i P & iC Putting the value of qP in eq.1Be-t + 0.1)i = te-t … (h) dt Nonhomogeneous differential equation V(t) = VC + VP Complementary solution Characteristic equation is 0.1At2e-t + 0.2A – 0.1At2e-t + 0.1Bte-t + 0. (h) 0.1B = 1 0.1B = 0 B=0 iP = (5t + 0)te-t iP = 5t2 e-t i(t) = Ke-1t + 5t2e-t i(t) = Ke-t + 5t2e-t At t = 0+ i(0+) = Ke-(0+) + 5(0+)2 e-(0+) .Bte-t + Be-t] + 0.U.1[-At2e-t + 2Ate-t .1si + 0.1Bte-t] = te-t Equating coefficients: t2e-t: -0.1B + 0.2A = 1 A=5 e-t: 0.1[At2e-t + Bte-t] = te-t -0.1A + 0.1A = 0 te-t: 0.B.

For t  0. find i(t).24: In the network of the figure.H)} 0 = Ke0 0=K i(t) = 0e-1t + 5t2e-t i(t) = 5t2 e-t i(0+) = i(0-) = 0 (due to inductor) Q#6. 107 + - Here VC(0-) = VC(0+) = 0 V & 10e-(0+) sin (0+) u(0+) i(0+) = 10 10e0 sin (0) u(0+) i(0+) = 10 i(0+) = 0 Amp. KVL 1 10i + idt = 10e-t sin t u(t) -6 (10(10 )) 1 10i + idt = 10e-t sin t -6 (10(10 )) After simplification i + 104idt = e-t sin t Differentiating with respect to ‘t’ di 4 -t + 10 i = e (cost .B. the switch K is closed at t = 0 with the capacitor initially unenergized.U.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.sin t) … (1) dt It is a nonhomogeneous differential equation Characteristic equation is si + 104i = 0 . For the numerical values given.

Be-tsint + 10. 000B = -1 -A + 9999B = -1 … (2) e-tcost: -A + B + 10. At t = 0. 000t The form of particular integral is From table 6.e-t sin t Equating coefficients e-tsint: -A – B + 10.10-4sint)e-t Q#6.10-4(0))(1) 0 = K + 10-4 K = -10-4 i(t) = (-10-4)e-10. 000A = 1 B + 9999A = 1 … (3) From (2) A = 1 + 9999B B + 9999[1 + 9999B] = 1 … (3) B + 9999 + 9999(9999)B = 1 B + 99980001B = -9998 B[1 + 99980001] = -9998 B[99980002] = -9998 B = -10-4 A = 1 + 9999(-1/10000) A = 1 – 0. For the element values given. a steady state is reached with the switch K open.10-4sint)e-t At t = 0+ i(0+) = Ke-10. the switch is closed. 000t + (10-4cost .10-4sin(0+))e-(0+) 0 = Ke0 + (10-4(1) . 000Bsinte-t = e-t cost .9999 A = 10-4 iP = (10-4cost + (-10-4)sint)e-t iP = (10-4cost . 000t + (10-4cost . 000[(Acost + Bsint)e-t] = e-t (cost .25: In the network shown in the accompanying figure.10-4sint)e-t Complete solution is i(t) = Ke-10.B.H)} 108 s + 104 = 0 s = -104 Therefore complementary function is iC = Ke-10.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. i(t) for t  0. 000Acoste-t + 10. 000(0+) + (10-4cos(0+) .Be-tsint + 10. determine the current.U. (1) After simplification -Ae-tsint – Ae-tcost + Be-tcost .2 iP = (Acost + Bsint)e-t Putting the value of iP in eq.sin t) -Ae-tsint – Ae-tcost + Be-tcost . Solution: .10-4(0))e0 0 = K(1) + (10-4(1) .

0198[0.019878.040sin(377t + (-11.040-11.11.530) i(0+) = 0.04 Therefore V I= R + jXL .530)(5305.04-900) VC = 105.U.530) Also VC = I(-jXC) VC = (0.040sin(377t .0198sin(377(0+) + 78.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.H)} 109 0.470 Therefore VC(t) = 105.jXC After simplification I = 0.470) At t = 0+ i(0+) = 0.5 F + 100 sin 377 t L=1 H R = 1000  Equivalent circuit before switching: By phasors: V = 10000 jXL = jL jXL = j(377)(1) jXL = j377 1 -jXC = -j C -jXC = -j5305.530) i(0+) = 0.0198sin(377t + 78.470)) VC(t) = 105.0198sin(78.B.530 That is i(t) = 0.019878.981] .

040sin(-11.U.5(10-6)) 1 d2i + 2(106)i = 37700cos377t … (5) 2 dt s2i + 2(106)i = 37700cos377t Complementary solution: s2 + 2(106) = 0 s = j1414.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.21 iC = K1cos1414.040[-sin(11.903 Volts For t  0 According to KVL di 1 L + idt = 100sin377t … (d) dt C Differentiating with respect to ‘t’ d2i i L + = 100(377)cos377t dt2 C d2i i 37700cos377t + = dt2 LC L d2i i 37700cos377t + = dt2 (1)(0.B. (5) After simplification -(377)2Acos377t – (377)2Bsin(377)t + 2(106)[Acos(377)t + Bsin(377)t] = 37700cos377t -(377)2Acos377t – (377)2Bsin377t + 2000000Acos377t + 2000000Bsin377t = 37700cos377t Equating coefficients: cos377t: -(377)2A + 2000000A = 37700 -142129A + 2000000A = 37700 1857871A = 37700 A = 0.020 sin377t: –(377)2B + 2000000B = 0 B=0 .21 t Particular solution: iP = Acos377t + Bsin377t Putting the value of iP in eq.21 t + K2sin1414.470) VC(0+) = 105.470) VC(0+) = 105.H)} 110 i(0+) = 0.470)] VC(0+) = 105.11.040sin(377(0+) .040[-0.019 amp At t = 0+ VC(0+) = 105.199] VC(0+) = -20.

26: In the network shown in figure.02(-377s)sin377t dt From differential eq. a steady state is reached with the switch K open. (Q) with respect to ‘t’ di(t) = -1414.H)} iP = 0. the value of the resistor R is changed to the critical value.019 = K1cos(0) + 0.21K1sin0 + 1414.21K1sin1414.02cos377t … (Q) At t = 0+ i(0+) = K1cos1414.21(0+) + 0.903 = 1414.21(0+) + 1414.02cos377t Complete solution: i(t) = K1 cos1414.903 = -1414.02cos377(0+) 0.903 = -1414.21 t + K2sin1414.02(-377s)sin0 20.02 K1 = 0.21K2cos1414.02cos377t + (0)sin377t iP = 0.02cos(0) = K1(1) + 0.02(1) = K1 + 0.U. Solution: .B. Rcr defined by equation (6.02cos377t 111 Q#6. determine the current i(t) for t  0.21 t + 0.88). (d) at t = 0+ di(0+) + VC(0+) = 100sin377t … (d) dt di(0+) + VC(0+) = 100sin377(0+) dt di(0+) + (-20.21K1sin1414.21(0+) + 0.019 – 0. For the element values given.21 t + 0.903) = 0 dt di(0+) = 20.21K2cos0 + 0.903 = 1414.001 Differentiating eq.21 t + 0.001cos1414. At t = 0.015sin1414.21 t + 1414.21(0+) + K2sin1414.903 dt 20.02(-377s)sin377(0+) 20.21 t + 0.015 Therefore i(t) = -0.21K2cos1414.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.21K2(1) + 0 20.21K2 K2 = 0.02 K1 = -0.

4282 – 4(1)(2000000) s 1.428 .428s + 2(106) = 0 A B C -b  b2 – 4ac s 1.102.428  2.H)} L Rcr = 2 C Rcr = 2(1414. s 2 = 2a Putting corresponding values we get -2828.428 2(106) . (-2828.428 + (1) + 2(106)i = 37700cos377t … (w) 2 dt dt Characteristic equation is s2i + 2828.U. -1415.428si + 2(106)i = 0 s2 + 2828. s 2 = 2(1) -2828.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.225)/2.952 s 1.428  4. s2 = (-2828.428  8000004. s 2 = 2(1) s1.428  2828. s 2 = 2(1) -2828.326 112 1 2828.428  For t  0 According to KVL di 1 Rcri + L + idt = 100sin377t … (x) dt C Differentiating with respect to ‘t’ di d2i i Rcr + L + = 37700cos377t dt dt2 C After simplification di d2i 2828.428 + 2. s 2 = 2(1) -2828.214) Rcr = 2828.225 s 1.B.225)/2 s1.2. s2 = -1413.952 – 8000000 s 1.

020(-377)sin377(0+) + 0.102K1e-1413.326K2e-1415.326t Form of particular integral is iP = Acos377t + Bsin377t Putting the value of iP in eq.1415.326K2e0 + 0.007sin377(0+) 0.007(377)cos 0 -32.1415.639 -32.019 = K1(1) + K2(1) + 0.356B = 21326.007(377)(1) -32.102t + K2 e-1415. (x) gives di (0+) = -32. (a) with respect to ‘t’ at t = 0+ di (0+) = -1413.356B = 1066317.326(0+) + 0.326K2 .356(0.34712 B = 0.020cos377t + 0.020) 2924188.84 = -1413.84 = -1413.326(0+) + 0.326(0+) + 0.1415.007 iP = 0.020 sin377t: –142129B .356Asin377t + 1066317.356B + 2000000B = 0 2924188.428[-377Asin377t + B377sin377t] + 2000000[Acos377t + Bsin377t] = 37700cos377t -142129Acos377t – 142129Bsin377t .102(0+) .102(0+) .326t + 0.356(0.102K1 .019 = K1e0 + K2 e0 + 0.1066317.639 = -1413.020cos377t + 0.020cos377(0+) + 0.356B .102K1(1) .H)} 113 i(t) = K1 e-1413.007sin377t … (a) At t = 0+ i(0+) = K1e-1413. (w) -(377)2Acos377t – (377)2Bsin377t + 2828.007(377)cos377(0+) … (g) -32.1415.020 -0.U.84 = -1413.1415.1415.84 dt -32.84 – 2.356Bsin377t + 2000000Acos377t + 2000000Bsin377t = 37700cos377t Equating coefficients: cos377t: -142129A + 2000000A = 37700 A = 0.001 = K1 + K2 … (z) Differentiating eq.102K1e-1413.020(-377)sin377(0+) + dt 0.84 = -1413.479 = -1413.326K2(1) + 0.356A + 1066317.326K2e-1415.102K1 .326K2 -35.020 0.102K1e0 .007sin377t Complete solution: i(t) = K1 e-1413.1066317.326K2 + 2.1066317.007(377)cos377(0+) … (g) At t = 0+ eq.102t + K2 e-1415.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.020) = 0 2924188.1415.B.102(0+) + K2e-1415.102K1 .

102[-0.413102 + 2. Determine i(t) for t  0.001 – K2] + 1415.27: Consider the network shown in figure P6. (z) K1 = -0.H)} 35.326K2 35.479 = 1413.102K1 + 1415.U.007sin377t 114 Q#6. The capacitor has an initial voltage. KVL 1 10i + idt = 10e-t sin t u(t) -6 (10(10 )) 1 10i + idt = 10e-t sin t -6 (10(10 )) After simplification i + 104idt = e-t sin t Differentiating with respect to ‘t’ di 4 -t + 10 i = e (cost .24.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.020cos377t + 0. Solution: Here VC(0-) = VC(0+) = 10 V V(t) – VC(t) i(t) = 10 V(0+) – VC(0+) i(0+) = 10 V(0+) = 10e-(0+) sin (0+) u(0+) V(0+) = 10(1)(0)(1) V(0+) = 0 Volts 0 – 10 i(0+) = 10 i(0+) = -1 amp.589]e-1413.479 = -1.B.589 i(t) = [-16.326K2 35. At t = 0.001 – 16.588 K1 = -16.326K2 From eq.001] – 1413.102K2 + 1415. VC = 10 V.001 – K2 35. the switch K is closed.326t + 0. For t  0.102t + [16.479 = 1413.588]e-1415.sin t) … (1) dt It is a nonhomogeneous differential equation Characteristic equation is si + 104i = 0 .224K2 K2 = 16.588 K1 = -0.479 = 1413.102[-0.

10-4sint)e-t Complete solution is i(t) = Ke-10. 000Bsinte-t = e-t cost .9999 A = 10-4 iP = (10-4cost + (-10-4)sint)e-t iP = (10-4cost .Be-tsint + 10. 000Acoste-t + 10.10-4sint)e-t At t = 0+ i(0+) = Ke-10.Be-tsint + 10.10-4sint)e-t Q#6. Solution: . the switch is closed. 000(0+) + (10-4cos(0+) . 000A = 1 B + 9999A = 1 … (3) From (2) A = 1 + 9999B B + 9999[1 + 9999B] = 1 … (3) B + 9999 + 9999(9999)B = 1 B + 99980001B = -9998 B[1 + 99980001] = -9998 B[99980002] = -9998 B = -10-4 A = 1 + 9999(-1/10000) A = 1 – 0. 000B = -1 -A + 9999B = -1 … (2) e-tcost: -A + B + 10.10-4sin(0+))e-(0+) -1 = Ke0 + (10-4(1) . 000t The form of particular integral is From table 6. (1) After simplification -Ae-tsint – Ae-tcost + Be-tcost .2 iP = (Acost + Bsint)e-t Putting the value of iP in eq.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.e-t sin t Equating coefficients e-tsint: -A – B + 10. 000t + (10-4cost . 000t + (10-4cost .sin t) -Ae-tsint – Ae-tcost + Be-tcost .10-4 i(t) = (-1 .B. At t = 0.10-4(0))(1) -1 = K + 10-4 K = -1 .10-4)e-10. 000[(Acost + Bsint)e-t] = e-t (cost .10-4(0))e0 -1 = K(1) + (10-4(1) . V(t) for t  0.H)} 115 s + 104 = 0 s = -104 Therefore complementary function is iC = Ke-10.28: The network of the figure is operating in the steady state with the switch K open. Find an expression for the voltage.U.

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)} 116 Equivalent circuit before switching: V(0-) = V(0+) = I0sin t [R1 + R2] .

(u) Acos t .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P.U.H)} Equivalent circuit after switching: 117 For t  0 According to KCL dV(t) V(t) C + = I0sin t dt R1 dV(t) V(t) I0sin t + = … (u) dt CR1 C It is a nonhomogeneous differential equation Characteristic equation is 1 sV(t) + V(t) = 0 CR1 1 s+ =0 CR1 1 s=CR1 Therefore complementary function is VC = Ke-(1/CR1)t The form of particular integral is VP = Asin t + Bcos t Putting the value of VP in eq.B.Bsin t + [1/CR1][Asin t + Bcos t] = (I0sin t)/C Acos t .Bsin t + [1/CR1]Asin t + [1/CR1]Bcos t = (I0sin t)/C Equating coefficients: .

U.1/C2R12]] I0sin t [R1 + R2] = K + [I0/C[- .1/C2R12]]]e-(1/CR1)t + [-[I0/C[- .Locus of the roots of the equation. 2.1/C2R12]]/CR1 Complete solution V(t) = Ke-(1/CR1)t + [-[I0/C[- .[I0/C[- .1/C2R12]] 118 V(t) = [I0 sin t [R1 + R2] .1/C2R12]]/CR1]sin (0+) + [I0/C[- .[I0/C[- .29: Consider a series RLC network which is excited by a voltage source.1/C2R12]]cos t Q#6.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf {Peon of Holy Prophet (P. 1.Plot the roots of the equation.1/C2R12]]/CR1]sin t + [I0/C[- . Solution: Formatted: Bullets and Numbering .B.H)} cos t: A + [1/CR1]B = 0  A = -B/CR1 sin t: -B + [1/CR1]A = I0/C -B + [1/CR1][-B/CR1 ] = I0/C B = I0/C[- .1/C2R12] A = -[I0/C[- .1/C2R12]]cos (0+) I0sin t [R1 + R2] = K(1) + [I0/C[- .1/C2R12]]cos t At t = 0+ V(0+) = Ke-(1/CR1)0+ + [-[I0/C[- .Determine the characteristic equation.1/C2R12]] K = I0 sin t [R1 + R2] . 3.1/C2R12]]/CR 1]sin t + [I0/C[- .