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CCNA Exploration - Network Fundamentals
7 Data Link Layer
7.0 Chapter Introduction
7.0.1 Chapter Introduction Page 1: To support our communication, the OSI model divides the functions of a data network into layers. To recap: The Application layer provides the interface to the user. The Transport layer is responsible for dividing and managing communications between the processes running in the two end systems. The Network layer protocols organize our communication data so that it can travel across internetworks from the originating host to a destination host. For Network layer packets to be transported from source host to destination host, they must traverse different physical networks. These physical networks can consist of different types of physical media such as copper wires, microwaves, optical fibers, and satellite links. Network layer packets do not have a way to directly access these different media. It is the role of the OSI Data Link layer to prepare Network layer packets for transmission and to control access to the physical media. This chapter introduces the general functions of the Data Link layer and the protocols associated with it. Learning Objectiv es Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to: Explain the role of Data Link layer protocols in data transmission. Describe how the Data Link layer prepares data for transmission on network media. Describe the different types of media access control methods. Identify several common logical network topologies and describe how the logical topology determines the media access control method for that network. Explain the purpose of encapsulating packets into frames to facilitate media access. Describe the Layer 2 frame structure and identify generic fields. Explain the role of key frame header and trailer fields, including addressing, QoS, type of protocol, and Frame Check Sequence.

7.1 Data Link Layer - Accessing the Media
7.1.1 Data Link Layer - Supporting & Connecting to Upper Layer Services Page 1: The Data Link layer provides a means for exchanging data over a common local media.
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The Data Link layer performs two basic services: Allows the upper layers to access the media using techniques such as framing Controls how data is placed onto the media and is received from the media using techniques such as media access control and error detection As with each of the OSI layers, there are terms specific to this layer: Frame - The Data Link layer PDU Node - The Layer 2 notation for network devices connected to a common medium Media/medium (physical)* - The physical means for the transfer of information between two nodes Network (physical)** - Two or more nodes connected to a common medium The Data Link layer is responsible for the exchange of frames between nodes over the media of a physical network. * It is important to understand the meaning of the words medium and media within the context of this chapter. Here, these words refer to the material that actually carries the signals representing the transmitted data. Media is the physical copper cable, optical fiber, or atmosphere through which the signals travel. In this chapter media does not refer to content programming such as audio, animation, television, and video as used when referring to digital content and multimedia. ** A physical network is different from a logical network. Logical networks are defined at the Network layer by the arrangement of the hierarchical addressing scheme. Physical networks represent the interconnection of devices on a common media. Sometimes, a physical network is also referred to as a network segment.

Page 2: Upper Layer Access to Media As we have discussed, a network model allows each layer to function with minimal concern for the roles of the other layers. The Data Link layer relieves the upper layers from the responsibility of putting data on the network and receiving data from the network. This layer provides services to support the communication processes for each medium over which data is to be transmitted. In any given exchange of Network layer packets, there may be numerous Data Link layer and media transitions. At each hop along the path, an intermediary device - usually a router - accepts frames from a medium, decapsulates the frame, and then forwards the packet in a new frame appropriate to the medium of that segment of the physical network. Imagine a data conversation between two distant hosts, such as a PC in Paris with an Internet server in Japan. Although the two hosts may be communicating with their peer Network layer protocols (IP for example), it is likely that numerous Data Link layer protocols are being used to transport the IP packets over various types of LANs and WANs. This packet exchange between two hosts requires a diversity of protocols that must exist at the Data Link layer. Each transition at a router could require a different Data Link layer protocol for transport on a new medium. Notice in the figure that each link between devices uses a different medium. Between the PC and the router may be an Ethernet link. The routers are connected through a satellite link, and the laptop is connected through a wireless link to the last router. In this example, as an IP packet travels from the PC
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Each network environment that packets encounter as they travel from a local host to a remote host can have different characteristics. the device would use the appropriate Network Interface Card (NIC) to connect to the LAN media. The technique used for getting the frame on and off media is called the media access control method. the packet will use a wireless data link frame from the router to the laptop. decapsulate it to the Layer 3 PDU.2/12/2011 CISCO Accessible Theme to the laptop. and then encapsulated into a new data link frame to cross the satellite link.htm 7. that does not need to be aware of which media the communication will use. For the final link.2 Data Link Layer .tcpipguide. This process would hamper protocol and network media innovation and development. it will use Data Link layer services to receive the frame from one medium.http://www. in this case IPv4 or IPv6. The Data Link layer effectively insulates the communication processes at the higher layers from the media transitions that may occur end-to-end. Another environment may consist of a direct connection between only two devices over which data flows sequentially as bits in an orderly way.com/free/t_IPDatagramSizeMaximumTransmissionUnitMTUFragmentat. The range of Data Link layer services has to include all of the currently used types of media and the methods for accessing them.cisco. Internetworking Basics .com/en/US/docs/internetworking/technology/handbook/Intro-toInternet. such as IP. For example. Moreover. and place the ev-iip.http://www. For that reason. The adapter manages the framing and media access control. The router in the figure has an Ethernet interface to connect to the LAN and a serial interface to connect to the WAN.1. it will be encapsulated into Ethernet frame. As the router processes frames. Without the Data Link layer.html MTU . and a suitable media access control method is used to access each link. one network environment may consist of many hosts contending to access the network medium on an ad hoc basis.net/virtuoso/…/main. processed. Because of the number of communication services provided by the Data Link layer. please note that any given protocol may or may not support all these Data Link layer services. A packet is received from and directed to an upper layer protocol. The media access control methods described by the Data Link layer protocols define the processes by which network dev ices can access the network media and transmit frames in div erse network env ironments. different physical interfaces on the router are used to encapsulate the packet into the appropriate frame. re-encapsulate the PDU into a new frame. a Network layer protocol. IP would have to adapt every time a new network technology or medium was developed. decapsulated. At intermediary devices such as a router.html… 3/27 . would have to make provisions for connecting to every type of media that could exist along a delivery path. where the media type could change for each connected network.netacad.Controlling Transfer across Local Media Page 1: Layer 2 protocols specify the encapsulation of a packet into a frame and the techniques for getting the encapsulated packet on and off each medium. it is difficult to generalize their role and provide examples of a generic set of services. This is a key reason for using a layered approach to networking. to connect to a LAN. For the data to be transferred across a number of different media. For example. A node that is an end device uses an adapter to make the connection to the network. different media access control methods may be required during the course of a single communication.

Data Link layer protocols require control information to enable the protocols to function.Creating a Frame Page 1: The description of a frame is a key element of each Data Link layer protocol. Control information may tell: Which nodes are in communication with each other When communication between individual nodes begins and when it ends Which errors occurred while the nodes communicated Which nodes will communicate next The Data Link layer prepares a packet for transport across the local media by encapsulating it with a header and a trailer to create a frame. 7.netacad. Unlike the other PDUs that have been discussed in this course. Not all protocols include all of these fields.Contains control information.Contains control information added to the end of the PDU These frame elements will be discussed in more detail later in this chapter. Examples of frame formats will be discussed at the end of this chapter.net/virtuoso/…/main.3 Data Link Layer . The standards for a specific Data Link protocol define the actual frame format.The beginning and end limits of the frame Naming or addressing fields Type field . and is located at the beginning of the PDU Trailer .html… 4/27 . Page 2: Formatting Data for Transmission When data travels on the media. such as addressing.Flow control services A data field -The frame payload (Network layer packet) Fields at the end of the frame form the trailer. it is converted into a stream of bits. or 1s and 0s.The packet from the Network layer Header . Typical field types include: Start and stop indicator fields . the Data Link layer frame includes: Data . ev-iip. This format gives the physical signals a structure that can be received by nodes and decoded into packets at the destination. If a node is receiving long streams of bits. These fields are used for error detection and mark the end of the frame. how does it determine where a frame starts and stops or which bits represent the address? Framing breaks the stream into decipherable groupings.The type of PDU contained in the frame Control . with control information inserted in the header and trailer as values in different fields.1.2/12/2011 CISCO Accessible Theme frame on the medium of the next link of the network.

The two common LAN sublayers are: Logical Link Control Logical Link Control (LLC) places information in the frame that identifies which Network layer protocol is being used for the frame. the IETF does not define the functions and operation of that model's Network access layer. it prepares the Network layer packets for transmission across some form of media. Data Link layer protocols are generally not defined by Request for Comments (RFCs). The lower sublayer defines the media access processes performed by the hardware.2/12/2011 CISCO Accessible Theme 7.html… 5/27 .4 Data Link Layer . such as IP and IPX. ev-iip. Although the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) maintains the functional protocols and services for the TCP/IP protocol suite in the upper layers.. The upper sublayer defines the software processes that provide services to the Network layer protocols. As such. The NIC is not solely a physical entity.netacad.Standards Page 1: Unlike the protocols of the upper layers of the TCP/IP suite. including Ethernet. the Data Link layer is often divided into two sublayers: an upper sublayer and an lower sublayer. Separating the Data Link layer into sublayers allows for one type of frame defined by the upper layer to access different types of media defined by the lower layer. however. fiber. Media Access Control Media Access Control (MAC) provides Data Link layer addressing and delimiting of data according to the physical signaling requirements of the medium and the type of Data Link layer protocol in use.Connecting Upper Layer Services to the Media Page 1: The Data Link layer exists as a connecting layer between the software processes of the layers above it and the Physical layer below it. 7. be it copper. This information allows multiple Layer 3 protocols.1.5 Data Link Layer . The TCP/IP Network Access layer is the equivalent of the OSI Data Link and Physical layers. In many cases. Such is the case in many LAN technologies.net/virtuoso/…/main. Page 2: Data Link Sublayers To support a wide variety of network functions.1. such as an Ethernet network interface card (NIC). These two layer will be discussed in separate chapters for closer examination. the Data Link layer is embodied as a physical entity. Software associated with the NIC enables the NIC to perform its intermediary functions of preparing data for transmission and encoding the data as signals to be sent on the associated media. to utilize the same network interface and media. which inserts into the system bus of a computer and makes the connection between running software processes on the computer and physical media. or the atmosphere.

Data Link layer services and specifications are defined by multiple standards based on a variety of technologies and media to which the protocols are applied.itu. Communications companies may set and use proprietary protocols to take advantage of new advances in technology or market opportunities. a device implementing the Data Link layer on a computer would be the network interface card (NIC). Among the different implementations of the Data Link layer protocols.netacad. ANSI.2 Media Access Control Techniques 7. Engineering organizations that define open standards and protocols that apply to the Data Link layer include: International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) American National Standards Institute (ANSI) International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Unlike the upper layer protocols. Some of these standards integrate both Layer 2 and Layer 1 services.iso.org http://www. not all roads and entrances are the same. or by obeying signal lights.1 Placing Data on the Media Page 1: Regulating the placement of data frames onto the media is known as media access control.2.ansi. there are different ways to regulate the placing of frames onto the media. http://www. there are different methods of controlling access to the media. In the same way. For a laptop. Some media access ev-iip.org http://www. A driver follows a different set of rules for each type of entrance.net/virtuoso/…/main. The protocols at this layer are implemented within the electronics of the network adapters with which the device connects to the physical network. a wireless PCMCIA adapter is commonly used.int 7.org http://www. However.2/12/2011 CISCO Accessible Theme The functional protocols and services at the Data Link layer are described by engineering organizations (such as IEEE. Each of these adapters is the hardware that complies with the Layer 2 standards and protocols. Traffic can enter the road by merging. which are implemented mostly in software such as the host operating system or specific applications.html… 6/27 .ieee. For example. by waiting for its turn at a stop sign. The absence of any media access control would be the equivalent of vehicles ignoring all other traffic and entering the road without regard to the other vehicles. The protocols at the Data Link layer define the rules for access to different media. Media access control is the equivalent of traffic rules that regulate the entrance of motor vehicles onto a roadway. and ITU) and communications companies. Data Link layer processes occur both in software and hardware. Engineering organizations set public and open standards and protocols. These media access control techniques define if and how the nodes share the media.

If no carrier signal is detected. If this occurs. At any one time. deterministic methods can be inefficient because a device has to wait for its turn before it can use the medium.2.netacad.If and how the nodes share the media Topology . These methods are defined by sophisticated protocols. Contention-based Access for Shared Media Also referred to as non-deterministic. If a carrier signal on the media from another node is detected. Ethernet and wireless networks use contention-based media access control. the probability of successful media access without a collision decreases. Although controlled access is well-ordered and provides predictable throughput. Additionally. This method is also known as scheduled access or deterministic. there may be a number of devices attempting to send and receive data using the network media. To prevent complete chaos on the media. in sequence. However. This is called a data collision. The method of media access control used depends on: Media sharing . As use and the number of nodes increases. The recovery mechanisms required to correct errors due to these collisions further diminishes the throughput. If a device does not need to access the medium.html… 7/27 . There are rules that govern how these devices share the media.2 Media Access Control for Shared Media Page 1: Some network topologies share a common medium with multiple nodes.net/virtuoso/…/main. A mechanism for tracking whose turn it is to access the media is not required.Each node has its own time to use the medium Contention-based . no other device can do so until the frame has arrived at the destination and has been processed by the destination. ev-iip. the opportunity to use the medium passes to the next device in line. There are two basic media access control methods for shared media: Controlled . the contention-based systems do not scale well under heavy media use. When one device places a frame on the media. to access the medium.How the connection between the nodes appears to the Data Link layer 7. the device transmits its data. Contention-based media access control methods do not have the overhead of controlled access methods. which require mechanisms that introduce overhead onto the network. Controlled Access for Shared Media When using the controlled access method. it will wait and try again after a short time period.All nodes compete for the use of the medium Click the tabs in the figure to see the differences in the two methods. contention-based methods allow any device to try to access the medium whenever it has data to send. the data sent by both devices will be corrupted and will need to be resent. these methods use a Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) process to first detect if the media is carrying a signal. network devices take turns. It is possible that the CSMA process will fail and two devices will transmit at the same time. When the device attempting to transmit sees that the media is busy. it means that another device is transmitting.2/12/2011 CISCO Accessible Theme control methods use highly-controlled processes to ensure that frames are safely placed on the media.

In full-duplex communication. the device monitors the media for the presence of a data signal. In this arrangement. The two commonly used methods are: CSMA/Collision Detection In CSMA/Collision Detection (CSMA/CD). These protocols have simpler rules and procedures for media access control. the device sends a notification across the media of its intent to use it.2/12/2011 CISCO Accessible Theme CSMA is usually implemented in conjunction with a method for resolving the media contention. Other techniques will be covered in later courses. Note: CSMA/CD will be covered in more detail in Chapter 9.2. The Data Link layer assumes that the media is available for transmission for both nodes at any time. Ethernet has established arbitration rules for resolving conflicts arising from instances when more than one station attempts to transmit at the same time. Therefore.4 Logical Topology vs Physical Topology ev-iip. Within this course. which uses CSMA/CD. If the media is free. indicating that the media is free. Data Link layer protocols have little to do for controlling non-shared media access. CSMA/Collision Av oidance In CSMA/Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA).html… 8/27 . Half-duplex communication means that the devices can both transmit and receive on the media but cannot do so simultaneously.net/virtuoso/…/main. The device then sends the data.3 Media Access Control for Non-Shared Media Page 1: Media access control protocols for non-shared media require little or no control before placing frames onto the media. The details of a specific media access control technique can only be examined by studying a specific protocol. Traditional forms of Ethernet use this method.2. 7. both devices can transmit and receive on the media at the same time. the media interconnects just two nodes. there is no media arbitration necessary in the Data Link layer. This method is used by 802. the Data Link layer has to consider whether the communication is halfduplex or full-duplex. the device examines the media for the presence of a data signal. If signals are then detected that show another device was transmitting at the same time. the nodes do not have to share the media with other hosts or determine if a frame is destined for that node.netacad. Click the tabs in the figure to see the differences in the two methods. If a data signal is absent.11 wireless networking technologies. 7. all devices stop sending and try again later. Such is the case for point-to-point topologies. In point-to-point topologies. we will study traditional Ethernet. the device transmits the data. Full Duplex and Half Duplex In point-to-point connections. Therefore.

Access methods will be discussed in more detail later.2. 7. Logical topology of a network is closely related to the mechanism used to manage network access. If data can successfully flow across the link from each node simultaneously. Access methods provide the procedures to manage network access so that all stations have access.5 Point-to-Point Topology Page 1: A point-to-point topology connects two nodes directly together. The frames are placed on the media by the node at one end and taken off the media by the node at the other end of the point-to-point circuit. These logical signal paths are defined by Data Link layer protocols. The Data Link layer "sees" the logical topology of a network when controlling data access to the media. These will be covered in later chapters of this course. it is a full-duplex link. Data Link layer protocols could provide more sophisticated media access control processes for logical point-to-point topologies. it is operating as a half-duplex link. Network topologies can be viewed at the physical level and the logical level. The physical or cabled topology of a network will most likely not be the same as the logical topology.netacad. In data networks with point-to-point topologies. All frames on the media can only travel to or from the two nodes. Logical and physical topologies typically used in networks are: Point-to-Point Multi-Access Ring The logical implementations of these topologies and their associated media access control methods are considered in the following sections.2/12/2011 CISCO Accessible Theme Page 1: The topology of a network is the arrangement or relationship of the network devices and the interconnections between them. It is the logical topology that influences the type of network framing and media access control used. Access methods are applied to networks to regulate this media access. if data can only flow in one direction at a time. Page 2: Logical Point-to-Point Networks ev-iip. the media access control protocol can be very simple. as shown in the figure. This arrangement consists of virtual connections between the nodes of a network independent of their physical layout. some mechanism must be in place to control access. The physical topology is an arrangement of the nodes and the physical connections between them. In point-to-point networks. When several entities share the same media. The representation of how the media is used to interconnect the devices is the physical topology.html… 9/27 . A logical topology is the way a network transfers frames from one node to the next.net/virtuoso/…/main. but this would only add unnecessary protocol overhead.

As the animation progresses. PC B text bubbles: . Play the animation to see how nodes access the media in a multi-access topology.I check for other transmissions. However. Every node sees all the frames that are on the medium. B. C. The media access control methods used by logical multi-access topologies are typically CSMA/CD or CSMA/CA. This occurs even if the frames are directed through intermediary devices. The Data Link layer protocol specifies the media access control method that will provide the appropriate balance between frame control.No other transmissions are detected. The two nodes on either end of the virtual circuit exchange the frames with each other. the nodes access the media as follows. token passing methods can also be used. 7.I need to transmit to E. Having many nodes share access to the medium requires a Data Link media access control method to regulate the transmission of data and thereby reduce collisions between different signals. the source and destination node may be indirectly connected to each other over some geographical distance. frame protection. . but only the node to which the frame is addressed processes the contents of the frame. The animation shows the frame successfully arriving at PC E. ev-iip.2. the logical connection between nodes forms what is called a virtual circuit. . In some cases. and network overhead. A. Virtual circuits are important logical communication constructs used by some Layer 2 technologies.I check for other transmissions.6 Multi-Access Topology Page 1: A logical multi-access topology enables a number of nodes to communicate by using the same shared media. . A number of media access control techniques are available for this type of logical topology. Data from only one node can be placed on the medium at any one time. The media access method used by the Data Link protocol is determined by the logical point-to-point topology. The animation shows the frame successfully arriving at PC D. .Transmitting. However the use of physical devices in the network does not affect the logical topology.2. This means that the logical point-to-point connection between two nodes may not necessarily be between two physical nodes at each end of a single physical link. I'll wait.Multi-Access Topology The animation depicts how nodes access the media in a multi-access topology.6 . and E. . D. not the physical topology.net/virtuoso/…/main.I need to transmit to D.netacad. . As shown in the figure. share a common bus-style media. 7.html… 10/27 . A virtual circuit is a logical connection created within a network between two network devices.Transmitting. Multiple PC's. .2/12/2011 CISCO Accessible Theme The end nodes communicating in a point-to-point network can be physically connected via a number of intermediate devices. PC A text bubbles: .Transmission detected.No other transmissions are detected.

1 Data Link Layer Protocols . 7. PC A text bubble: . Multiple PC's.Is this frame for me? . PC A transmits a frame that travels around the ring as it is passed from PC A to PC B to PC C and then to PC D.7 Ring Topology Page 1: In a logical ring topology.No. and D. However. In a ring. a signal (known as a token) may be placed on the media and a node can only place a data frame on the media when it has the token.No. The actual physical cabling topology could be another topology. PC C text bubbles: . This allows a ring to use a controlled media access control technique called token passing. Nodes in a logical ring topology remove the frame from the ring.netacad. Play the animation to see how nodes access the media in a logical ring topology. PC D text bubbles: . C.2. Remember that the Data Link layer "sees" a logical ring topology.2. As the animation progresses. A. If there is no data being transmitted.net/virtuoso/…/main. the nodes access the media as follows. PC B text bubbles: . 7. each node in turn receives a frame.Is this frame for me? . If the frame is not addressed to the node. ev-iip.3 Media Access Control Addressing and Framing Data 7.Ring Topology The animation depicts how nodes access the media in a logical ring topology.2/12/2011 CISCO Accessible Theme 7. B.between the source and destination node examine the frame.7 . For example.I need to transmit to D.Is this frame for me? . are arranged with the media in a ring formation. all nodes around the ring. each frame type has three basic parts: Header Data Trailer All Data Link layer protocols encapsulate the Layer 3 PDU within the data field of the frame. only one frame at a time is usually carried by the media. depending on the level of control required. the node passes the frame to the next node.3.The Frame Page 1: Remember that although there are many different Data Link layer protocols that describe Data Link layer frames. examine the address. There are multiple media access control techniques that could be used with a logical ring.html… 11/27 .Yes. and send it on if it is not addressed for that node.

When the frame arrives at its destination and the Data Link protocol takes the frame off the media. the framing information is read and discarded. As shown in the figure. Because the purposes and functions of Data Link layer protocols are related to the specific topologies and media.2 Framing .Used to start and stop traffic over the media Congestion control field . resulting in lower overhead and faster transmission rates. each protocol has to be examined to gain a detailed understanding of its frame structure. Fragile environment: The diagram show two routers. each one connected to a satellite dish that is communicating with a satellite. Greater effort is needed to ensure delivery.html… 12/27 . Typical frame header fields include: Start Frame field . the frame arrives at its destination.The Frame The diagram depicts Data Link Layer protocol characteristics in a fragile environment and in a protected environment.1 .Used to establish a logical connection between nodes Physical link control field . the frame header contains the control information specified by the Data Link layer protocol for the specific logical topology and media used. In a fragile environment.Indicates the beginning of the frame Source and Destination address fields .2/12/2011 CISCO Accessible Theme the structure of the frame and the fields contained in the header and trailer vary according to the protocol. ev-iip.Indicates the source and destination nodes on the media Priority/Quality of Service field . Less effort is needed to ensure delivery.Data Link Layer Protocols .netacad. These features of the protocol are integrated into the encapsulation of the frame. The Data Link layer protocol describes the features required for the transport of packets across different media. Protected environment: The diagram shows three PC's communicating on a wired media illustrating a more stable environment.Indicates the upper layer service contained in the frame Logical connection control field . As protocols are discussed in this course. Frame control information is unique to each type of protocol. depending on the environment. resulting in smaller fields and smaller frames.3. Fewer controls are needed. resulting in higher overhead and slower transmission rates. more information about the frame structure will be explained. 7. 7.Used to establish the media link Flow control field . Different Data Link layer protocols may use different fields from those mentioned.3. There is no one frame structure that meets the needs of all data transportation across all types of media.Role of the Header Page 1: As shown in the figure.Indicates congestion in the media The field names above are nonspecific fields listed as examples.Indicates a particular type of communication service for processing Type field . the amount of control information needed in the frame varies to match the media access control requirements of the media and logical topology.net/virtuoso/…/main. It is used by the Layer 2 protocol to provide features demanded by the communication environment. In a protected environment. The header and trailer fields are larger because more control information is needed. more controls are needed to ensure delivery. A rain cloud above the satellite indicates bad weather to illustrate a fragile environment where a higher potential exists for data transmission errors.

The frame header may also contain the source address of the frame. ev-iip.3.3.Stores the source and destination data-link addresses. If the packet in the frame must pass onto another network segment. Because ring and multi-access topologies can connect many nodes on a common medium.Address field . the intermediate device .2/12/2011 CISCO Accessible Theme 7.net/virtuoso/…/main.Tells other devices on the network that a frame is coming along the medium. the frame has only one place it can go. Data Link Layer addresses are required. the node examines the destination address in the header to determine if it is the destination of the frame.3 . physical addresses do not indicate on what network the device is located. .netacad.3 Addressing . Compare this to Layer 3. Because the frame is only used to transport data between nodes across the local media.Role of the Header The diagram depicts a simple frame structure with a focus on the frame header role. Data Link layer addressing is contained within the frame header and specifies the frame destination node on the local network. Logical Multi-Access Topology: The diagram shows multiple PC's sharing a common bus-style media. and send it onto the new segment. where addresses in the packet header are carried from source host to destination host regardless of the number of network hops along the route. A multi-access frame has many possible destinations.html… 13/27 .3.Type/Length field . Device addresses at this layer are referred to as physical addresses.2 .Framing . addressing is required for these typologies. the Data Link layer address is only used for local delivery. . The new frame will use source and destination addressing as necessary to transport the packet across the new media.Addressing .Where the Frame Goes The diagram depicts addressing factors for a logical point-to-point topology and a logical multi-access topology.a router will decapsulate the original frame. Data FCS Stop Frame 7. Unlike Layer 3 logical addresses that are hierarchical. with just two interconnected nodes. When a frame reaches each node in the topology.Optional field used by some protocols to state either what type of data is coming or possible the length of the frame. do not require addressing. Header: . create a new frame for the packet.Start frame field . Once on the medium. If the device is moved to another network or subnet. it will still function with the same Layer 2 physical address. The following components are shown from left to right. 7. Addressing Requirements The need for Data Link layer addressing at this layer depends on the logical topology. Addresses at this layer have no meaning beyond the local network. Point-to-point topologies.Where the Frame Goes Page 1: The data Link layer provides addressing that is used in transporting the frame across the shared local media.

Frame Check Sequence The Frame Check Sequence (FCS) field is used to determine if errors occurred in the transmission and reception of the frame. This is known as the cyclic redundancy check (CRC) value.net/virtuoso/…/main. will determine if error correction will take place.Role of the Trailer Page 1: Data Link layer protocols add a trailer to the end of each frame. of the frame. If they do not match. distortion. When the frame arrives at the destination node. A point-to-point frame has only one possible destination.2/12/2011 CISCO Accessible Theme Logical Point-to-Point Topology: The diagram shows two routers connected to a network cloud via serial WAN links. The source calculates a number based on the frame's data and places that number in the FCS field. . Data Link Layer addresses are not required. but not every protocol will support correcting the error.5 Data Link Layer Protocols . If the CRC value in the FCS differs from the CRC calculated at the receiving node. the destination deletes the frame.The Frame Check Sequence is used for error checking. the receiving node calculates its own logical summary. The FCS is used to detect the error. There is always the small possibility that a frame with a good CRC result is actually corrupt. 7. The destination then recalculates the data to check whether the FCS matches. The signals on the media could be subject to interference. The trailer is used to determine if the frame arrived without error.3. Error detection is added at the Data Link layer because this is where data is transferred across the media.3. The media is a potentially unsafe environment for data.html… 14/27 .Role of the Trailer The diagram depicts a simple frame structure focusing on the frame trailer.4 . An optional field that is used when the length of the frame is not specified in the Type/Length field. Upper layer protocols would then be required to detect and correct this data loss.netacad.Stop Frame field . If the two values are the same. Error detection is accomplished by placing a logical or mathematical summary of the bits that comprise the frame in the trailer. or loss that would substantially change the bit values that those signals represent. The protocol used in the Data Link layer.Also called the Frame Trailer. 7. The receiving node compares the two CRC values. This value is placed in the Frame Check Sequence (FCS) field of the frame to represent the contents of the frame. This process is called error detection.3.4 Framing .FCS field . The error detection mechanism provided by the use of the FCS field discovers most errors caused on the media. the frame is considered to have arrived as transmitted.The Frame ev-iip. Note that this is different from error correction. 7. It indicates the end of the frame when transmitted. or CRC. Start Frame Address Type/Length Data Trailer . the frame is discarded. The following components are shown from left to right. To ensure that the content of the received frame at the destination matches that of the frame that left the source node. Errors in bits may cancel each other out when the CRC is calculated.Framing . a transmitting node creates a logical summary of the contents of the frame.

Page 2: ev-iip. in turn. LAN Technology A Local Area Network typically uses a high bandwidth technology that is capable of supporting large numbers of hosts. This means that a number of different network devices can act as nodes that operate at the Data Link layer when implementing these protocols.in terms of the number of hosts and the geographic scope .5 . the actual Layer 2 protocol used depends on the logical topology of the network and the implementation of the Physical layer.and the services to be provided over the network. Router R4 sends an Ethernet frame to switch S1 on a LAN. which then sends the Ethernet frame to wired PC2. all OSI Layer 2 protocols work with the Internet Protocol at OSI Layer 3. Protocols that will be covered in CCNA courses include: Ethernet Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) Frame Relay Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Each protocol performs media access control for specified Layer 2 logical topologies.2/12/2011 CISCO Accessible Theme Page 1: In a TCP/IP network. Step 3. the following occurs. using a high bandwidth technology is usually not cost-effective for Wide Area Networks that cover large geographic areas (cities or multiple cities.3. The wireless router sends a PPP frame to router R2 over a point-to-point WAN link. However. Router R3 sends a Frame Relay frame to router R4 over a WAN link through a Frame Relay cloud. Step 4. WAN Technology However.Data Link Layer Protocols .netacad. determined by the size of the network . Difference in bandwidth normally results in the use of different protocols for LANs and WANs. Wireless PC1 sends an 8 0 2 dot 11 wireless frame to wireless router R1. Step 5.html… 15/27 . The technology is.The Frame The animation depicts examples of changing Data Link Layer protocols as a packet traverses various links in a network. for example). The cost of the long distance physical links and the technology used to carry the signals over those distances typically results in lower bandwidth capacity. These devices include the network adapter or network interface cards (NICs) on computers as well as the interfaces on routers and Layer 2 switches. The Layer 2 protocol used for a particular network topology is determined by the technology used to implement that topology. Step 1. Given the wide range of physical media used across the range of topologies in networking. A LAN's relatively small geographic area (a single building or a multi-building campus) and its high density of users make this technology cost effective. Step 2.net/virtuoso/…/main. Router R2 sends an HDLC frame to router R3 over a point-to-point WAN link. there are a correspondingly high number of Layer 2 protocols in use. As the animation progresses. 7.

PPP uses a layered architecture. To accommodate the different types of media. fiber optic lines. different versions of Ethernet place the bits onto the media differently. At the Data Link layer. as well as for virtual connections.000 Mbps. with information describing each. including twisted pair. However.Data Link Layer Protocols .net/virtuoso/…/main. Indicates which upper layer protocol receives the data after the Ethernet process is complete.html… 16/27 . Ethernet provides unacknowledged connectionless service over a shared media using CSMA/CD as the media access methods. Also contains a delimiter to mark the end of the timing information. and satellite transmission. or 10. Ethernet standards define both the Layer 2 protocols and the Layer 1 technologies.3.2/12/2011 CISCO Accessible Theme Ethernet Protocol for LANs Ethernet is a family of networking technologies that are defined in the IEEE 802. the frame structure is nearly identical for all speeds of Ethernet. Source Address: 6 bytes.netacad.5 . typically an IPv4 packet. Page 3: Point-to-Point Protocol for WANs Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) is a protocol used to deliver frames between two nodes. Each protocol encapsulated over the link establishes its own PPP session. between two nodes. Shared media requires that the Ethernet frame header use a Data Link layer address to identify the source and destination nodes. The PPP session hides the underlying physical media from the upper PPP protocol. as shown in the figure. An Ethernet MAC address is 48 bits and is generally represented in hexadecimal format.2 and 802. PPP establishes logical connections. 48-bit MAC address for the destination node. These sessions also provide PPP with a method for encapsulating multiple protocols over a point-to-point link. Ethernet is such an important part of data networking.The Frame The diagram depicts an Ethernet frame. 1000. Used to check for damaged frames. Frame Check Sequence (FCS): 4 bytes. Data (or payload): 46 to 1500 bytes. Ethernet is the most widely used LAN technology and supports data bandwidths of 10. Preamble: 8 bytes. ev-iip. Type: 2 bytes. Ethernet II is the Ethernet frame format used in TCP/IP networks. We also use it in examples throughout this series of courses. 7. the most common Data Link Layer protocol for LAN's. the PPP standard is defined by RFCs. This is the PDU. As with most LAN protocols. However. The basic frame format and the IEEE sublayers of OSI Layers 1 and 2 remain consistent across all forms of Ethernet. Used for synchronization. the methods for detecting and placing data on the media vary with different implementations. 100. The Ethernet frame has many fields. 48-bit MAC address for the source node. Destination Address: 6 bytes. we have devoted a chapter to it. PPP was developed as a WAN protocol and remains the protocol of choice to implement many serial WANs. called sessions. this address is referred to as the MAC address of the node. Unlike many Data Link layer protocols that are defined by electrical engineering organizations. at the Physical layer.3 standards. that is to be transported over the media. PPP can be used on various physical media. An Ethernet frame's field names and sizes are shown in the following sequence.

commonly referred to as Wi-Fi. However there are many differences at the MAC sublayer and Physical layer. To meet these challenges. Identifies the protocol encapsulated in the data field of the frame. Field names and sizes are shown in the following sequence.2 LLC and 48-bit addressing scheme as other 802 LANs. Normally.Data Link Layer Protocols .5 .11 is an extension of the IEEE 802 standards. Indicates the beginning or end of a frame. The most likely opportunity for medium contention is just after the medium becomes available. It uses the same 802. wireless standards have additional controls. either because the original data frame or the acknowledgment was not received intact. with information describing each. is a contention-based system using a Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) media access process. CSMA/CA specifies a random backoff procedure for all nodes that are waiting to transmit. This includes authentication. 16 bits (2 bytes).netacad. which calls for transmission of user data in an unsequenced frame. If the sending station does not detect the acknowledgement frame. Zero or more bytes that contain the datagram for the protocol specified in the protocol field.11 are authentication. ev-iip. Frame Check Sequence (FCS): 2 or 4 bytes. The Standard IEEE 802. PPP protocol: http://www. The flag consists of the binary sequence 01111110. 802. Contains the standard PPP broadcast address.11 frame in use Type and Subtype fields . Address: 1 byte.2/12/2011 CISCO Accessible Theme PPP also allows the two nodes to negotiate options within the PPP session. therefore.Version of 802.org/rfc/rfc1661. In a wireless environment. consenting PPP implementations can use a 32-bit (4-byte) FCS for improved error detection.ietf. the environment requires special considerations.html… 17/27 .3. By prior agreement. the frame is retransmitted. Page 4: Wireless Protocol for LANs 802. Protocol: 2 bytes.11. Making the nodes back off for a random period greatly reduces the likelihood of a collision. An 802.11 networks also use Data Link acknowledgements to confirm that a frame is received successfully. Flag: 1 byte. Control: 1 byte.org/rfc/rfc2153.txt?number=2153 7. association (connectivity to a wireless device). The most up-todate values of the protocol field are specified in the most recent Assigned Numbers Request For Comments (RFC).Identifies one of three functions and sub functions of the frame: control. There is no definable physical connectivity.11 frame is shown in the figure. compression.net/virtuoso/…/main. Other services supported by 802.ietf. and privacy (encryption). external factors may interfere with data transfer and it is difficult to control access.txt?number=1661 PPP Vendor Extensions: http://www. PPP does not assign individual station addresses. Contains the binary sequence 00000011. and multilink (the use of multiple physical connections). It contains these fields: Protocol Version field . This explicit acknowledgement overcomes interference and other radio-related problems.The Frame The diagram depicts a Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) frame. a common Data Link Layer protocol for WAN's. See the figure for the basic fields in a PPP frame. Data: Variable number of bytes.

Protocol Version .Data Link Layer Protocols . required to transmit the frame or an association identity (AID) for the station that transmitted the frame Destination Address (DA) field .Depending on the type of frame.netacad.Indicates the number for each fragment of a frame Frame Body field .Set to 1 if the frame is a retransmission of an earlier frame Power Management field .Set to 1 in data frames exiting the distribution system More Fragments field .5 .To DS . for data frames.3. a commonly used Data Link Layer protocol for wireless LAN's. typically an IP packet FCS field .html… 18/27 .Set to 1 in data frames destined for the distribution system (devices in the wireless structure) From DS field .Contains the information being transported.Subtype . in microseconds. represents either the time.More Fragments .net/virtuoso/…/main.2/12/2011 CISCO Accessible Theme data. retransmitted frames are identified by duplicate sequence numbers Fragment Number field .MAC address of the node the initiated the frame Receiv er Address (RA) field .The Frame The diagram depicts an 8 0 2 dot 11 Wireless Protocol frame.Set to 1 to indicate that a node will be in power-save mode More Data field .Retry .MAC address of the final destination node in the network Source Address (SA) field .Set to 1 in a data type frame that uses Strictly Ordered service class (does not need reordering) Duration/ID field .Power Management ev-iip.Set to 1 for frames that have another fragment Retry field .MAC address that identifies the wireless device that transmitted the frame Sequence Number field .Contains a 32-bit cyclic redundancy check (CRC) of the frame 7.Set to 1 to indicate to a node in power-save mode that more frames are buffered for that node Wired Equiv alent Priv acy (WEP) field . An 8 0 2 dot 11 frame contains these fields: Frame Control Field: (2 bytes) .Indicates the sequence number assigned to the frame.Type .Set to 1 if the frame contains WEP encrypted information for security Order field .MAC address that identifies the wireless device that is the immediate recipient of the frame Transmitter Address (TA) field . and management To DS field .From DS .

In the WAN connection between the two routers. from top to bottom.Order Duration/ID (2 bytes) Destination Address (DA) (6 bytes) Source Address (SA) (6 bytes) Receiver Address (RA) (6 bytes) Sequence Control (2 bytes) . The client PC is connected to router B. Network Topology: A user at a client PC.4.netacad.2/12/2011 CISCO Accessible Theme .4. We will also assume that the DNS lookup for the WWW server is already cached at the client.1 .4. For this example we will depict an HTTP request between a client and a server.net/virtuoso/…/main. To focus on the data transfer process.Fragment Number .Follow Data Through an Internetwork The diagram depicts the steps involved in an HTTP request between a client and a server.1 Follow Data Through an Internetwork Page 1: The figure on the next page presents a simple data transfer between two hosts across an internetwork. you can step through this communication.4 Putting it All Together 7. This process is explained further through a series of steps. On the next page. we are omitting many elements that may occur in a real transaction.Sequence Number Transmitter Address (TA) (6 bytes) Frame Body (0-2312 bytes) FCS field (4 bytes) 7. we are assuming that a TCP session is already established between the client and server.More Data . Additionally. Network Topology: This example shows an HTTP request between a client and a server. We encourage you to read each explanation carefully and study the operation of the layers for each device.1 . We highlight the function of each layer during the communication. We are assuming that all routing tables are converged and ARP tables are complete.Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) . The topology is the same as diagram 1 with the addition of the O S I model.html… 19/27 . In each step we are only bringing attention to the major elements. as the request from the client to the server is processed. ev-iip. 7. for example. the requesting host. Router A is connected to the server. Router B is connected to router A via a WAN link. is sending a request to a server. we are assuming that PPP has already established a physical circuit and has established a PPP session. the receiving host. Many parts of the headers are ignored.Follow Data Through an Internetwork The diagram depicts a simple data transfer between two hosts across an internetwork. The appropriate layer of the O S I model is highlighted. Page 2: 7.

and the MAC address of the FA0/0 interface of router B is used as the destination MAC address in the frame. Step 5. an address field of 11111111 is added. Router B examines the bits in the preamble looking for the two consecutive 1 bits that indicate that the synching process is completed and the beginning of the frame. the Physical Layer begins encoding the frame onto the WAN media. The Network Layer also identifies the upper layer protocol encapsulated in this packet as a TCP segment. router A generates a CRC of the frame. Router B creates a PPP frame to transport the packet across the WAN. the headers are removed. the client host uses the IP address associated with the WWW server host name that is cached in the host table. The frame trailer ends with a CRC in the FCS for error detection. Step 14. the destination IPv4 address of the packet is compared against the routes in the routing table. When the entire frame is received. The Transport Layer then associates this service with TCP and assigns the port numbers. the bits are encoded using the Manchester Differential encoding.netacad. For the destination address. Step 4. a flag of 01111110 binary is added to indicate the start of the frame. an IP packet is constructed to identify the source and destination hosts. TCP also sends an acknowledgement number that tells the WWW server the sequence number of the next TCP segment that it expects to receive. Flags are also set as appropriate to establish a session. the destination MAC address in the frame is compared to the MAC address of the interface (FA0/0). Step 9. A match is found that is associated with the next-hop out interface S0/0/0. In the PPP header. Because PPP is point-to-point and is used as a direct link between two nodes. At the Network Layer. At the Network Layer. Step 15.2/12/2011 CISCO Accessible Theme Step 1.net/virtuoso/…/main. and the packet is pushed up to the Network Layer of router A. Router B generates a CRC of the frame. It uses a randomly selected source port that is associated with this established session (12345). The Physical Layer begins encoding the frame onto the media. It then uses CSMA/CD to control the placing of the frame onto the media. which is specified as the default gateway. When the frame is confirmed as a good frame. Step 8. A Flag value of 01111110 binary indicates the end of a PPP frame. The segment between router B and the source host is a 10 Base-T segment. Step 11. When the frame is confirmed as a good frame. The Data Link Layer refers to the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) cache to determine the MAC address that is associated with the interface of router B. The receiving router (router A) buffers the bits as they are received. Also included is a Protocol field with a value of 0021 (hex) to indicate that an IPv4 packet is encapsulated. Step 2. Router A examines the bits in the flag to identify the beginning of the frame. It then uses this address to build an Ethernet frame to transport the IPv4 packet across the local media. which is equivalent to a broadcast (it means "send to all stations"). Following that. and the packet is pushed up to the Network Layer. The packet inside router B is then passed to the circuitry for the S0/0/0 interface. Router A then begins buffering the bits as part of the reconstructed frame. The Transport Layer identifies the upper layer service as a World Wide Web (WWW) client. Step 6. A match is found that is directly connected to interface FA0/0. Step 13.html… 20/27 . the destination IPv4 address of the packet is compared against the routes in the routing table. The frame begins with the Preamble and ends with a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) in the Frame Check Sequence at the end of the frame for the error detection. The frame also indicates the upper layer protocol of IPv4 with a value of 0800 (hex) in the Type field. the headers are removed. bit by bit. Step 3. Router B then begins buffering the bits as part of the reconstructed frame. The MAC address of the laptop is used as the source MAC address. ev-iip. Router B buffers the bits as they are received. Step 12. The browser initiates an HTTP Get request. The sequence number indicates where this segment is placed in the series of related segments. With the circuit and PPP session already established between the routers. The Application Layer adds the Layer 7 header to identify the application and data type. bit by bit. Because it matches. At the Network Layer. It uses its own IPv4 address as the source address. When the entire frame is received. This type of bit representation and encoding is dependent on the type of WAN technology being used. The destination port (80) is associated with a WWW service. It then compares this to the FCS at the end of the frame to determine that the frame was received intact. The packet inside router A is then passed to the circuitry for the FA0/0 interface. Step 7. as indicated by the flag in the trailer. It then compares this to the FCS at the end of the frame to determine that the frame was received intact. this field has no real meaning. A user on a LAN wants to access a web page stored on a server that is located on a remote network. therefore. Step 10. The user starts by activating a link on a web page.

therefore.5. The unique source and destination port identifies an existing session to the web server service. Step 19. The server buffers the bits as they are received.5 Labs and Activities 7. Because it matches.html… 21/27 . When it has received the entire frame. The segment between router A and the server is a 100 Base-T segment. The MAC address of the FA0/0 interface of router A is used as the source MAC address.1 Investigating Layer 2 Frame Headers Page 1: In this activity. It then uses CSMA/CD to control the placing of the frame onto the media.5. The Data Link Layer refers to the ARP cache of router A to determine the MAC address that is associated with the interface of the Web Server. the headers are removed and the packet is pushed up to the Network Layer. Step 21. This is done by examining the source and destination ports. the bits are encoded using 4B/5B encoding. Step 18. Because this address matches its own IPv4 address.netacad. the destination MAC address in the frame is compared to the MAC address of the NIC in the server. It then compares this to the FCS at the end of the frame to determine that the frame was received intact. 7. It then uses this MAC address to build an Ethernet frame to transport the IPv4 packet across the local media to the server. The Network Layer identifies the upper layer protocol as TCP and directs the contained segment to the TCP service at the Transport Layer. Page 3: In this activity. the TCP segment is examined to determine the session to which the data contained in the segment belongs.Follow Data Through an Internetwork Link to Packet Tracer Exploration: Packet Tracing Across an Internetwork In this activity. 7.1 Inv estigating Layer 2 Frame Headers Link to Packet Tracer Exploration: Investigate the Layer 2 Frame Headers In this activity. you can examine in further detail the step-by-step animation on the previous page. ev-iip. The frame begins with the Preamble and ends with a CRC in the FCS at the end of the frame for the error detection. you can examine in further detail the step-by-step animation on the previous page. Step 17. At the Network Layer. you can explore some of the most common Layer 2 encapsulations. Step 20.net/virtuoso/…/main. 7. and the MAC address of the server is used as the destination MAC address in the frame. The server then begins buffering the bits as part of the reconstructed frame. When the frame is confirmed as a good frame. the HTTP Get request is delivered to the Web Server service (httpd).1 . The service can then formulate a response to the request. The Physical Layer begins encoding the frame onto the media. looking for the two consecutive 1 bits that indicate that the synching process is completed and the beginning of the frame. the packet is processed by the server.2/12/2011 CISCO Accessible Theme Step 16. Router B examines the bits in the preamble.4. the destination IPv4 address of the packet is examined to identify the destination host. you can explore some of the most common Layer 2 encapsulations. Click the Packet Tracer icon to launch the Packet Tracer activ ity. At the Application Layer. The frame also indicates the upper layer protocol of IPv4 with a value of 0800 (hex) in the Type field. Step 22. bit by bit. The sequence number is used to place this segment in the proper order to be sent upward to the Application Layer. the server generates a CRC of the frame. At the Transport Layer of the server.

Describe the Layer 2 frame structure and identify generic fields. A frame has header and trailer fields that include Data Link source and destination addresses. and Frame Check Sequence values.Frame Examination Link to Hands-on Lab: Frame Examination In this lab.6. The logical topology and physical medium help determine the media access method. including addressing.Describe how the Data Link Layer prepares data for transmission on network media.html… 22/27 . . .Identify several common logical network topologies.netacad.6 Chapter Summary 7.net/virtuoso/…/main. you will use Wireshark to capture and analyze Ethernet II frame header fields.2 Lab .Frame Examination Page 1: In this lab. Questions and answers are provided.Describe the different types of media access control methods. type of protocol.1 . you use Wireshark to capture and analyze Ethernet II frame header fields. Question 1: How does the Data Link Layer prepare packets for transmission? Answer: The Data Link Layer prepares a packet for transport across the local media by encapsulating it with a header and a trailer to create a frame. Click the Lab icon to for more information. Page 2: 7.5. ev-iip.Explain the purpose of encapsulating packets into frames to facilitate media access.2/12/2011 CISCO Accessible Theme 7. .1 Summary and Review Page 1: The OSI Data Link layer prepares Network layer packets for placement onto the physical media that transports data. and describe how the logical topology determines the media access control method for that network. The Data Link layer prepares the data for placement on the media by encapsulating the Layer 3 packet into a frame. you learned to: .1 . 7. 7.5. and Frame Check Sequence. Q o S.2 Lab . .Explain the role of Data Link Layer protocols in data transmission. Media access can be orderly and controlled or it can be contention-based. . 7. .Explain the role of key frame header and trailer fields. The wide range of data communications media requires a correspondingly wide range of Data Link protocols to control data access to these media. type of protocol. QoS.Summary and Rev iew In this chapter.6.6.Summary and Rev iew This is a review and is not a quiz.

a signal (known as a token) can be placed on the media.A node can both transmit and receive at the same time. Every node sees all the frames that are on the medium. Answer: Media access control methods for shared media: Controlled . The media usually carries only one frame at a time. Answer: In a logical ring topology. physical addresses do not indicate on which network the device is located. In point-to-point networks.Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) . Having many nodes share access to the medium requires a Data Link media access control method to regulate the transmission of data and thereby reduce collisions between different signals. If the device is moved to another network or subnet. high-bandwidth link. Question 3: Compare and contrast the logical point-to-point and logical multi-access topologies. Question 7: What are the possible header field types in Data Link frames? Answer: Typical frame header fields include: .Start Frame field .2/12/2011 CISCO Accessible Theme Question 2: Describe four general Data Link Layer media access methods. but only the node to which the frame is addressed processes the contents of the frame. it still functions with the same Layer 2 physical address. it is operating as a half-duplex link.html… 23/27 . All frames on the media can only travel to or from the two nodes. a bus topology.Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Question 6: How do Data Link Layer addresses differ from Network Layer addresses? Answer: Unlike Layer 3 logical addresses that are hierarchical. each node in turn receives a frame. If the frame is not addressed to a node. In data networks with point-to-point topologies. This allows a ring to use a controlled media access control technique called token passing. The frames are placed on the media by the node at one end and taken off the media by the node at the other end. if data can only flow in one direction at a time. low-bandwidth link.All nodes compete for the use of the medium.Source and Destination address fields . Compare this to Layer 3.Indicates the source and destination nodes on the media. it is a full-duplex service.Ethernet . ev-iip. Suggest data communications environments in which these access methods may be appropriately implemented. a ring topology. a long-distance. Answer: A logical point-to-point topology connects two nodes directly together.net/virtuoso/…/main. .netacad. Question 4: Describe the features of a logical ring topology. Data from only one node can be placed on the medium at any one time. A logical multi-access topology enables a number of nodes to communicate by using the same shared media. the node passes the frame to the next node.Indicates the beginning of the frame. the Data Link Layer address is only used for local delivery. Media access control in point-to-point connections: Half duplex .High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) .Each node has its own time to use the medium.Frame Relay . a long-distance. Addresses at this layer have no meaning beyond the local network. If there is no data being transmitted. Full duplex . the media access control protocol can be very simple.A node can only transmit or receive at one time. A node can place a data frame on the media only when it has the token. regardless of the number of network hops along the route. If data can successfully flow across the link from each node simultaneously. -Contention-based . Because the frame is only used to transport data between nodes across the local media. Question 5: Name five Layer 2 protocols. where addresses in the packet header are carried from source host to destination host. Answer: .

Summary and Rev iew The diagram depicts a collage of people using computers and networks. If the two values are the same.Indicates congestion in the media. There is always the small possibility that a frame with a good FCS result is actually corrupt. Logical connection control field . Question 8: Give the purpose of the Frame Check Sequence field in a Data Link frame trailer.html… 24/27 .Summary and Rev iew Link to Packet Tracer Exploration: Skills Integration Challenge: Data Link Layer Issues In this activity. you will continue to build a more complex model of the Exploration lab network. the frame is discarded. The signals on the media could be subject to interference. Flow control field . 7. The receiving node compares the two FCS values.6. Errors in bits can cancel each other out when the FCS is calculated.6. Upper layer protocols would then be required to detect and correct this data loss.1 . you continue to build a more complex model of the Exploration lab network. Congestion control field . Discuss and consider the issues that the developers of a new physical data communications medium have to resolve to ensure interoperability with the existing upper layer TCP/IP protocols.7. Page 3: In this activity. Physical link control field . Click the Packet Tracer icon to launch the Packet Tracer activ ity. If the FCS values differ. When the frame arrives at the destination node.net/virtuoso/…/main.1 . Page 4: To Learn More Reflection Questions How did the widespread adoption of the OSI model change the development of network technologies? How does today's data communications environment differ from that of twenty years ago because of the adoption of the model? Discuss and compare Carrier Sense Multi-Access Data Link media access protocol features and operation with those of deterministic media access protocols. the receiving node calculates its own logical summary.netacad.Establishes the media link. or FCS.1 Chapter Quiz Page 1: ev-iip. Answer: The media is a potentially unsafe environment for data. distortion.2/12/2011 CISCO Accessible Theme - Priority/Quality of Service field . Type field .7 Chapter Quiz 7.Starts and stops traffic over the media. 7. or loss that would substantially change the bit values that those signals represent.Indicates the upper layer service contained in the frame.Establishes a logical connection between nodes.Indicates a particular type of communication service for processing. a transmitting node creates a logical summary of the contents of the frame. of the frame. This is known as the Frame Check Sequence (FCS) and is placed in the trailer to represent the contents of the frame. 7. the frame is considered to have arrived as transmitted. To ensure that the content of the received frame at the destination matches that of the frame that left the source node.

MAC. Data is converted into packets. Which frame field is created by a source node and used by a destination node to ensure that a transmitted data signal has not been altered by interference.Chapter Quiz 1. What is achieved by the encapsulation process at the Data Link Layer? A.net/virtuoso/…/main. LLC 7.) A. User Datagram Protocol field D. Ring addressing D.html… 25/27 .7. trailer F. Flow control field 2. Error correction E. Packets are packaged into frames. D. Frame Check Sequence field C. data E. Packets are divided into segments. Any station can transmit at any time. Local and remote delivery C. It is known as a deterministic access method. D. C. MTU size D. O S I. distortion.1 . Remote delivery using routers 4. header B. type field C. Stations must determine if the media is carrying a signal before they can transmit. MAC. IPv6 addressing C. Which of the following are sublayers of the Data Link Layer? A. B. CRC value 5. Packets are changed into bits for Internet travel. LAC C. E. Which Data Link Layer addressing scheme is used in a point-to-point logical topology? A. LLC D. D. B. What are two characteristics of the controlled media access method? (Choose two. E.) A. or signal loss? A.2/12/2011 CISCO Accessible Theme 7. Remote delivery B. ACL.) A. B. A header and trailer are added. IPv4 addressing B. 8. Multilayer addressing E. Which two of the following are Data Link Layer encapsulation details? (Choose two. Bandwidth is more efficiently utilized than in a contention-based access method. C. Data is converted for Internet transmission. Frames are divided into segments. C. There are no collisions when this type of method is in use. LMC B. What do network hosts use Data Link Layer addresses for? A. Layer 2 addressing not required for this topology 3. Data is packaged into a packet. Which three basic parts are common to all frame types supported by the Data Link Layer? (Choose three.netacad. Local delivery D. 6. Packets are put into frames. Transport Layer error check field B. ev-iip.

(Not all characteristics are used. Match the characteristic to the associated media access control method.) Characteristics: Connects two nodes directly CSMA/CD Deterministic Logical virtual circuit Frame header not required Token passing Shared media Topology types: Point-to-Point Multi-access Ring Go To Next Go To Previous Scroll To Top All contents copyright © 2007-2009 Cisco Systems. About ev-iip.netacad. Inc. Match the characteristic to the topology type. (Not all characteristics are used.) Characteristics: Deterministic Ethernet Physical ring topology No collisions Non-deterministic Only one station can transmit at a time Stations can transmit at any time Token passing More efficient use of bandwidth Media access control methods: Controlled access Contention-based access 10.2/12/2011 CISCO Accessible Theme 9.net/virtuoso/…/main. All | Translated by the Cisco Networking Academy.html… 26/27 .

html… 27/27 .net/virtuoso/…/main.netacad.2/12/2011 CISCO Accessible Theme ev-iip.