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Béla Bartók is recognised as one of the most important composers of the 20th century * Style grew out of romanticism

and nationalism to embrace new currents heard in Debussy's music * Inspired by Hungarian traditional songs and dances which he collected with Kodály * Incorporated folk modes and irregular rhythmic patterns into his highly original scores * Skills as a pianist are apparent in the novel keyboard writing of Piano Concertos Nos.1-3 and Mikrokosmos * A master of instrumentation, as heard in his ravishing 'night music' movements * Highly sophisticated musical structures often relying on proportional relationships * String Quartets Nos.1-6 are masterpieces of the genre * Works have been championed by the world's leading conductors and performers including Solti, Boulez and Rattle Works by Béla Bartók include: Divertimento (1939) for string orchestra Concerto for Orchestra (1943) Piano Concerto No.3 (1945) Viola Concerto (1945)

At the age of ten Johannes Brahms became known as a child prodigy at the piano in his hometown of Hamburg * Early works composed by 1853 include two Piano Sonatas (op.1 and 2) * On a concert tour, he met Schumann in Düsseldorf, who declared Brahms to be he "who was bound to come" * Failed with the first performance of his first "symphonic" Piano Concerto in Leipzig in 1859 * Afterwards he composed Piano Quartets op.25 and 26, Piano Quintet op.34 * From the fifties onwards he wrote numerous quartets, quintets and sextets for various instruments * From 1863, director of the Wiener Singakademie, 1872-75 directed the concerts of the Wiener Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde * In Vienna, composition of the Paganini Variationsop.35, Symphony No.1, cantata-like choral compositions such as Triumphlied and Deutsches Requiem *1877-79 Symphony No.2, Violin Sonata and Violin Concerto * 1883-85 Symphony No.3 and Symphony No.4* In his final years he wrote a number of chamber-music works (piano, clarinet) and songs. Works by Johannes Brahms include: Haydn Variations op.56 (1873) for orchestra Violin Concerto op.77 (1877-78) Symphony No.4 op.98 (1884-85) Schicksalslied (Song of Destiny) op.54 (1871) for chorus and orchestra

"...once begun I never cool down over a work until it is perfected, unassailable." — Johannes Brahms

The Suite, Op. 14, Sz. 62, BB 70 is a piece for solo piano written by Béla Bartók. It was written in February 1916, [1][2] published in 1918, and debuted by the composer on April 21, 1919, in Budapest. The Suite is one of Bartók's

The 1918 version. that is. "accentuating in some of its movements the percussive character of the piano. AustriaHungary (since 1920 Sânnicolau Mare. he uses exotic scale patterns. as Hungary's greatest composer (Gillies 2001). Originally intending the suite to be a five-movement work. into a more transparent style.Romanian. March 25. considered himself thoroughly Hungarian. such as the Lydian and whole tone [3][4] scales in the first movement. Throughout the piece. he was one of the founders of ethnomusicology. 14 has no folk tunes. Arabic. Childhood and early years (1881–98) Béla Bartók was born in the small Banatian town of Nagyszentmiklós in the Kingdom of Hungary. later publishing it in the October 1955 issue of Úf Zenei [3][4] Szemle (New Musical Review). the changing of piano technique. there is a twelve-tone row in the second movement. Bartók later decided against the idea and discarded the second movement.. He is considered one of the most important composers of the 20th century and is regarded. without the Andante. Allegro molto 4. this suite is one of the few pieces without melodies of folk [3][4][5] origin. along with Liszt. Béla Sr. the earliest Bartók work of its kind. Scherzo 3. Though much of Bartók's work makes frequent use of Eastern European folk music. When this work was composed I had in mind the refining of piano technique. and a North African influence in its ostinato and [2][6] scalar patterns. only comparable with his 1926 Piano Sonata. July 2. [2] —Béla Bartók. 1881 – September 26. originating from Borsod county (Móser 2006. takes between 6 and 7 minutes to perform and is played in four [4] movements: 1. In 1945. Through his collection and analytical study of folk music. A style more of bone and muscle opposing the heavy chordal style of the late. Allegretto 2. In addition.. 1944 According to Bartók. and North African rhythmic influences can still be found in some [3][4][6] movements. 1881. Romania) on March 25. [3] Béla Viktor János Bartók ( /ˈbɑrtɒk/. theAndante. Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈbeːlɒ ˈbɒrtoːk]. he claimed to have used only the most restricted means of piano [2] technique in this work. His father." Though Bartók does not quote from folk melodies in this composition. he makes extensive use of other folk-like [2] elements. Sostenuto  [edit]Analysis .The Suite op. . the Suite is part of a new trend in piano technique that he saw as a break from his [4] earlier Post-romantic writing. unessential ornaments like broken chords and other figures are omitted and it is more a simpler style. Bartók's family reflected some of the ethnocultural diversities of the country.most significant works for piano. because on his father's side the Bartók family was a Hungarian lower noble family. such as a Romanian Ardeleanda rhythm in the first movement. However. It is based entirely on original themes of my own invention. which is [4] probably the only one in Bartók's entire oeuvre. in addition. latter romantic period. 1945) was a Hungarian composer and pianist. the third movement of this Suite shows Arabic influence. radio interview with David Levita..

Bartók's style in his art music compositions was a synthesis of folk music. 16). and composition under János Koessler at the Royal Academy of Music in Budapest. Bartók studied piano under István Thomán. but he wrote a number of small piano pieces which showed his growing interest in folk music. 1 in A minor (1908). written two years previously: a short piece called "The Course of the Danube" (de Toth 1999). Béla was a small and sickly child and suffered from severe eczema until the age of five (Gillies 1990. Bartók began teaching as a piano professor at the Royal Academy. His mother. a former student of Franz Liszt. Among her closest forefathers there were family names like Polereczky (Magyarized Polish or Slovak) and Fegyveres (Magyar). Bartók 1981. They made some surprising discoveries. Paula (born Paula Voit). 13). The music of Richard Strauss. who influenced him greatly and became his lifelong friend and colleague. such as those of Central Asia and Siberia. Magyar folk music had previously been categorised as Gypsy music. he could distinguish between different dance rhythms that she played on the piano before he learned to speak in complete sentences (Gillies 1990. Ukraine) and then to Pozsony (German: Pressburg. The classic example is Franz Liszt's famous Hungarian Rhapsodies for piano. They both frequently quoted folk song melodies verbatim and wrote pieces derived entirely from authentic songs. When visiting a holiday resort in the summer of 1904. The first piece to show clear signs of this new interest is the String Quartet No. Among the pieces he played was his own first composition. Early musical career (1899–1908) From 1899 to 1903. though she spoke Hungarian fluently. classicism. Béla gave his first public recital at age eleven to a warm critical reception. Bartók overheard a young nanny. which contains folklike elements. Bartók's large-scale orchestral works were still in the style of Johannes Brahms and Richard Strauss. Kossuth. his father (the director of an agricultural school) died suddenly. Béla's mother then took him and his sister. 5). From 1907 he also began to be influenced by the French composer Claude Debussy. he and Kodály traveled into the countryside to collect and research old Magyar folk melodies. hero of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. In 1907. 6). An example is his two volumes entitled For Children for solo piano. In 1903. Erzsébet. today Bratislava. similar to those in Asian folk traditions. a symphonic poem which honored Lajos Kossuth. when he was seven. whom he met in 1902 at the Budapest premiere of Also sprach Zarathustra. his mother began formally teaching him the next year. There he metZoltán Kodály. Ernő Balogh. but was ethnically of "mixed Hungarian" origin: Her maiden name Voit is German. This sparked his life-long dedication to folk music. In 1888. and .44. György Sándor. and Lili Kraus. After Bartók moved to the United States. Lidi Dósa from Kibéd in Transylvania. In 1908. Bartók wrote his first major orchestral work. This position freed him from touring Europe as a pianist and enabled him to work in Hungary. which he based on popular art songs performed by Romani bands of the time. Sir Georg Solti. Béla displayed notable musical talent very early in life: according to his mother. had German as a mother tongue. Bartók and Kodály quickly set about incorporating elements of such Magyar peasant music into their compositions. probably of Saxon origin from Upper Hungary (Since 1920 in Czechoslovakia. to live in Nagyszőlős (today Vinogradiv. In Pozsony. In contrast. he taught Jack Beeson and Violet Archer. Slovakia). since [citation needed] 1993 in Slovakia). though his mother was from a Roman Catholic Serbian family (Bayley 2001. Bartók and Kodály discovered that the old Magyar folk melodies were based on pentatonic scales. sing folk songs to the children in her care. strongly influenced his early work. he was able to play 40 pieces on the piano. containing 80 folk tunes to which he wrote accompaniment. Shortly thereafter László Erkel accepted him as a pupil. By the age of four. Their growing interest in folk music coincided with a contemporary social interest in traditional national culture. whose compositions Kodály had brought back from Paris. Among his notable students were Fritz Reiner.

He was a master ofcounterpoint. he is sometimes grouped with Johann Sebastian Bach and Ludwig van Beethoven as one of the Three Bs. Brahms. A virtuoso pianist. Brahms created a repertoire of works that amounts to a glowing and majestic apotheosis of the musical traditions of the nineteenthcentury. 3 in F major. a compositional ethos pioneered by Joseph Haydn. chamber ensembles. which many compared to the famous theme of the finale of Beethoven's Ninth symphony. Brahms's popularity and influence were considerable. Brahms studied music as best he was able while supporting himself by playing piano at bars and brothels and by turning out arrangements of light music. In so doing. gentle and melancholy. the complex and highly disciplined art for which Johann Sebastian Bach is famous. His early compositions continued in the progressive direction of the waning romanticism: huge sonatas. 7 May 1833 – 3 April 1897) was a German composer and pianist. While many contemporaries found his music too academic. in the process creating bold new approaches to harmony. Brahms spent much of his professional life in Vienna. 1833 Died: Vienna. an uncompromising perfectionist. destroyed many of his works and left [1] some of them unpublished. including the pianist Clara Schumann and the violinist Joseph Joachim. At this time. 1897 Born to a poor family in the slums of Hamburg. His music is firmly rooted in the structures and compositional techniques of the Baroque and Classical masters. Johannes Brahms (pronounced [joːˈhanəs ˈbʁaːms]. and for voice and chorus. Brahms aimed to honor the "purity" of these venerable "German" structures and advance them into a Romantic idiom.modernism. the Quintet for Clarinet and Strings in B minor. especially. Born: Hamburg. and other nations. as can be heard in the wistful third movement of the Symphony no. Brahms composed for piano. Brahms is often considered both a traditionalist and an innovator. Born in Hamburg. Most of his early compositions offer a blend of nationalist and late Romanticism elements. rhythm. and one of the leading musicians of the Romantic period. Austria. he premiered many of his own works. Op. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart andLudwig van Beethoven. 90. concertos. devoting himself instead to synthesizing the Classical forms with the almost by now forgotten early Romanticism. In his lifetime. his contribution and craftsmanship have been admired by subsequent figures as diverse as Arnold . where he was a leader of the musical scene. and other works like the Piano Quartet in G minor. His melodic and harmonic sense was profoundly influenced by the folk music of Hungary. and the last two of his four symphonies. Germany. Romania. Many of Brahms' later works are undoubtedly his best. he also worked with some of the leading performers of his time. with its slowly unraveling sense of tonality. including the Four Serious Songs. May 7. and also of development. melody and. 68 was dubbed "Beethoven's Tenth" by a famous conductor because of its magesterial and intense tone. for the finale of which Brahms utilizes a flashy gypsy melody. Brahms finally turned to the symphony. heroic. piano music. symphony orchestra. He was especially fond of the asymmetrical dance rhythms and pungent harmonies found in Bulgarian music. 1 in C minor. which was well-known all over Europe by the 1870s. following a comment by the nineteenth-century conductor Hans von Bülow. The Symphony no. and choral pieces. April 3. It also contains in the fourth movement one of Brahms' best loved melodies. Op. Many of his works have become staples of the modern concert repertoire. But Brahms later abandoned this track. having written only chamber works. The symphonies contain much that is stirring. piano trios. This twilight quality is evident in the exquisite German Requiem.

In 1889. both for business (concert tours) and pleasure. He was proficient in several instruments. Brahms scholars Styra Avins and Kurt Hoffman have suggested that this legend is false. he was able to try out his new orchestral works with the court orchestra of the Duke of Meiningen. in the Gängeviertel quarter of Hamburg. Brahms played an abbreviated version of his first Hungarian dance on the piano. third piano quartet.Schoenberg andEdward Elgar. in Pest. where he felt that he could think more clearly. He was a great walker and especially enjoyed spending time in the open air. Although the spoken introduction to the short piece of music is quite clear.. Johann Jakob gave his son his first musical training. his largest choral work. who was seventeen years older than he was. For a time. Brahms also learned the cello. Initially. (In later life. 1883. Johann Jakob Brahms (1806–72). in Bremen. his first string quartet. He was the soloist at the premiere of his Piano Concerto No. as a boy Brahms played in dance halls and brothels – some of the seediest places in Hamburg – surrounded by drunken sailors and prostitutes that often fondled the boy as he [citation needed] played. and became a proficient choral and orchestral conductor. 2 in 1881. or participant in chamber music. a seamstress never previously married.) He conducted choirs from his early teens. Since Brahms himself clearly originated the story. Johannes Brahms had an older sister and a younger brother. The diligent. Brahms studied piano with Eduard Marxsen. From 1881. though it had been begun (and a version of the first movement seen by some of his friends) in the early 1860s. in 1868. The other three symphonies then followed in 1877. came to Hamburg from Dithmarschen. before moving to a small house on the Dammtorwall. whether as soloist. Modern writers have pointed to this as a reason for Brahms's later inability to have a successful relationship for marriage. whose conductor was Hans von Bülow. his [2] [3] view of women being warped by his experiences. Owing to the family's poverty. who had studied in Vienna with Ignaz von Seyfried (a pupil of Mozart) and Carl Maria von Bocklet (a close friend of Schubert). they lived near the city docks. and most notably his first symphony. accompanist. however. that confirmed Brahms's European reputation and led many to accept that he had conquered Beethoven and the symphony. the piano playing is [6] . highly constructed nature of Brahms's works was a starting point and an inspiration for a generation of composers. He studied piano from the age of seven with Otto Friedrich Willibald Cossel. seeking a career as a town musician. such as the cantata Rinaldo. The recording was later issued on an LP of early piano performances (compiled by Gregor Benko). and he usually sought out a pleasant rural location in which to compose during the summer. a representative of American inventor Thomas Edison. he frequently took part in the performance of his own works. This may have given him the confidence finally to complete a number of works that he had wrestled with over many years. etc. he often visited Italy in the springtime. The young Brahms gave a few public concerts in Hamburg. some have [4][5] questioned Hoffman's theory. a small city in the Inner Alster. Early biographers found this shocking and played down this portion of his life. visited the composer in Vienna and invited him to make an experimental recording. In 1830. he married Johanna Henrika Christiane Nissen (1789–1865). After his early piano lessons with Otto Cossel. Years of popularity It was the premiere of A German Requiem. This appeared in 1876. Recently. From 1878 onwards. but found employment mostly playing the horn and double bass. for six months. but did not become well known as a pianist until he made a concert tour at the age of nineteen. Life [edit]Early years Brahms's father. Brahms frequently travelled. and 1885. one Theo Wangemann.

121 songs. a Double Concerto for violin and cello. 122 (1896). and two for clarinet (which were subsequently arranged for viola by the composer). Nevertheless. 120 (1894). Op. [11] a "denoised" version was produced at Stanford University which claims to solve the mystery. His chamber works include three string quartets. His large choral work A German Requiem is not a setting of the liturgical Missa pro defunctis but a setting of texts which Brahms selected from the Lutheran Bible.largely inaudible due to heavy surface noise. including three for violin. which he wrote shortly before his death. and two companion orchestral overtures. however. four symphonies. not long after Robert Schumann's attempted suicide. a clarinet quintet. 2 in B-flat major). the British composer Hubert Parry. as it turned out. The majority of the Requiem was composed after his mother's death in 1865. Op. who wrote over 200 songs. 1897. In 1889. a clarinet trio. as to whether the voice that introduces the piece is that [10] of Wangemann or of Brahms. [12] . two string sextets. the 57-year-old Brahms resolved to give up composing. An early version of the second movement was first composed in 1854. and four piano trios (the fourth being published posthumously). two piano concertos (No. a piano quintet. This was never played in Parry's lifetime. and this was later used in his first piano concerto. [edit]Later years In 1890. a Violin Concerto. His solo piano works range from his early piano sonatas and ballades to his late sets of character pieces. 1 in D minor. He composed several instrumental sonatas with piano. until 1948 the only one born in Hamburg. two string quintets. he was unable to abide by his decision. He also wrote several cycles of piano pieces. who considered Brahms the greatest artist of the time. wrote an orchestral Elegy for Brahms. have become an important part of the organist's repertoire. Analysts and scholars remain divided. 98. The final movement of the Fourth Symphony. the Four Serious Songs (Vier ernste Gesänge). His chorale preludes for organ. and the Eleven Chorale Preludes for organ. Op. Several attempts have been made to improve the quality of this historic recording. among others. and the Variations on a Theme by Haydn in versions for two pianos and for orchestra. clarinetist with the Meiningen orchestra. both for solo piano. No. 115 (1891). 122. His condition gradually worsened and he died on April 3. and in the years before his death he produced a number of acknowledged masterpieces. Op. 121 (1896). the Variations and Fugue on a Theme by Handel and the Paganini Variations. Brahms's works in variation form include. and the two Clarinet Sonatas. Brahms was a significantlieder composer. aged 63. Brahms developed cancer (sources differ on whether this was of the liver or pancreas). [edit]Tributes Later that year. 114. receiving its first performance at a memorial concert for Parry himself in 1918. and the work was published in 1869. is formally a passacaglia. Brahms is buried in the Zentralfriedhof in Vienna. While completing the Op. this remains the earliest recording made by a major composer. Clarinet Quintet. including two serenades. Opp. His admiration for Richard Mühlfeld. However. 116–119. The work was composed in three major periods of his life. The fifth movement was added after the official premiere in 1868. a horn trio. Op. the Academic Festival Overture and the Tragic Overture. Brahms was named an honorary citizen of Hamburg. two for cello. Op. Works See also: Lists of compositions by Brahms by genre and and by opus number Brahms wrote a number of major works for orchestra. Op. three piano quartets. moved him to compose the Clarinet Trio.

for piano duet. Among the most cherished of these lighter works by Brahms are his sets of popular dances—the Hungarian Dances. the term has had several different usages. Like Brahms' other late keyboard works. 6. Romance in F major. some of Brahms's most widely known and most commercially successful compositions during his life were small-scale works of popular intent aimed at the thriving contemporary market for domestic music-making.Brahms strongly preferred writing absolute music that does not refer to an explicit scene or narrative. Haggin. Ballade in G minor. . 118 is overall more introspective than his earlier piano pieces. The six pieces are:      No. 2. Allegretto un poco agitato No. the Waltzes. The Six Pieces for Piano. 4 (published in 1868). H. Andante [citation needed]  No. which fit into two general categories: the opera intermezzo and the instrumental intermezzo. 3. This last was written (to a folk text) to celebrate the birth of a son to Brahms's friend Bertha Faber and is universally known as Brahms's Lullaby. It was also his second to last work composed for piano solo. No. Allegro energico No. such as acts of a play or movements of a larger musical work. complex musical structures. during the 20th century. 4. plural: intermezzi). which tend to be more virtuosic in character. are some of the most beloved items that the composer Johannes Brahms wrote for the solo instrument. In music history. 1. Op. 118. and he never wrote an opera or a symphonic poem. Intermezzo in E flat minor. an intermezzo (Italian pronunciation: [ˌintɛrˈmɛddzo]. Op. Andante teneramente No. Op. Completed in 1893 and dedicated to Clara Schumann. Op. Despite his reputation as a serious composer of large. in the most general sense. rejecting more mainstream views. is a composition which fits between other musical or dramatic entities. Intermezzo in A major. argued in his various guides to recorded music that Brahms was at his best in such works and much less successful in larger forms. 5. indeed. the influential American critic B. 39. notably the Wiegenlied. largo e mesto In music. Intermezzo in A minor. and the Liebeslieder Waltzes for vocal quartet and piano—and some of his many songs. Intermezzo in F minor. Allegro non assai. ma molto appassionato No. Andante. 49. the collection was the second to last composition to be published during Brahms' lifetime.