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Basic Mathematics

Trigonometry 1
R Horan & M Lavelle The aim of this document is to provide a short, self assessment programme for students who wish to acquire a basic understanding of some trigonometric functions.

Copyright c 2004 rhoran@plymouth.ac.uk , mlavelle@plymouth.ac.uk Last Revision Date: March 4, 2005 Version 1.0

Table of Contents
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Trigonometry 1 (Introduction) Using the Sine Function Using the Cosine Function Using the Tangent Function Quiz on Trigonometric Functions Solutions to Exercises Solutions to Quizzes

cos θ A/H A . A is the side adjacent to the angle θ and H. O is the side opposite the angle θ. The three trigonometric functions dealt with in this package are the sine. is the hypotenuse of the triangle. the side opposite the right angle.Section 1: Trigonometry 1 (Introduction) 3 1. Trigonometry (Introduction) In the right angled triangle shown in diagram 1. cosine and tangent functions: O H A cos θ = H sin θ = H θ tan θ = O A O A Diagram 1 One useful observation is the following relationship between the three functions: sin θ O/H O = = = tan θ .

5 = 10 × 0. Solution Using the sine function O x sin 22. sin θ = 15 cm H 15 6 cm Using a calculator will show that θ ≈ 23.5◦ = = 10 cm x H 10 ◦ ◦ ∴ 10 sin 22.83 cm where the value of sin 22.5 Diagram 2 i. Solution Using the sine function O 6 = = 0.Section 2: Using the Sine Function 4 2. θ Diagram 3 .5◦ was found using a calculator.58◦ . Using the Sine Function Example 1 Find the length of the side marked x in diagram 2. Example 2 Find the value of the angle denoted by θ in diagram 3.383 = x 22. x = 3.4 .e.

z. θ. Solution Using the sine function again: O 6. In the exercises below. .574 = 6. are given.3 cm Diagram 4 0. z = 10. θ = 50◦ . two of the three values of x.5 z= = 11. Diagram 5 sin 35◦ = (c) x = 10.574 Exercise 1.5 cm H z 35◦ ∴ z × sin 35◦ = z × 0. θ = 47◦ . Find the value of x cm the missing one.5 z cm = 6. (Click on the green letters θ for solutions.5 6. (b) x = 4.Section 2: Using the Sine Function 5 Example 3 Use the sine function to find z from diagram 4. referring to z cm diagram 5.) (a) x = 5.

0 cm Diagram 6 Example 5 Use the cosine function to find the value of z in diagram 7.766 = 25 i.e.6 cm Diagram 7 .e. Solution A y 15 cm cos 30◦ = = H 15 ∴ 15 × cos 30◦ = 15 × 0. z = 25 0.Section 3: Using the Cosine Function 6 3.766 z cm 40◦ 25 cm = 32.866 = y 30◦ y cm i. y = 13. Using the Cosine Function Example 4 Use the cosine function to find the value of y in diagram 6. A 25 Solution cos 40◦ = = H z ∴ z × cos 40◦ = z × 0.

35◦ 22 cm Diagram 9 .) (a) y = 5.4.6. z. (Click on the green letters for solutions. θ = 47◦ . referring to diagram 8. θ = 50◦ . z = 10. (d) 12. which is the value of y? y cm y cm θ z cm (a) 18.Section 3: Using the Cosine Function 7 Exercise 2. (b) y = 4.0. are given. (b) 26. Find the value of the missing one. In the exercises below. (c) 38. (c) z = 12. θ.9 . Diagram 8 Quiz Referring to diagram 9. two of the three values of y.

Solution O 17 x cm tan 40◦ = = 40◦ A x ∴ x × tan 40◦ = x × 0. Using the Tangent Function Example 6 Use the tangent function to Solution O tan 60◦ = A ∴ 5 × tan 60◦ = 5 × 1. use the tangent function to find the value of x.3 Diagram 11 17 cm .839 = 20. y find the value of y in diagram 10.732 i.e.e.Section 4: Using the Tangent Function 8 4.7 cm = y cm 5 cm 60◦ Diagram 10 Example 7 In diagram 11. x = 17 0. y 5 = y = 8.839 = 17 i.

In the exercises below. θ = 56◦ . y = 10. (d) 38. (Click on the green letters for solutions. y. (c) x = 12. which is the value of y? y cm (a) 33.7. (b) 54.Section 4: Using the Tangent Function 9 Exercise 3. two of the three values of x. θ y cm x cm Diagram 12 Quiz Referring to diagram 13. Find the value of the missing one.6.2. (c) 67. 67◦ 23 cm Diagram 13 . θ. (b) y = 4. are given.2. θ = 25◦ . referring to diagram 12.) (a) x = 5.

(d) 36◦ . (b) 64 cm. (d) 16 cm . (c) 25 cm. find x. . If y = 30 cm and θ = 25◦ . End Quiz Score: (b) 17 cm. find θ. Begin Quiz 1. If x = 15 cm and θ = 25◦ .Section 5: Quiz on Trigonometric Functions 10 5. (a) 24 cm. (a) 18◦ . 3. Quiz on Trigonometric Functions y cm The following questions all refer to diagram 14. If y = 13 cm and z = 22 cm. (b) 43◦ (c) 35◦ . (a) 69 cm. find z. (c) 38 cm . z cm Diagram 14 θ x cm 2. Correct (d) 14 cm.

5 . 10 . we use the sine function: sin θ = Using a calculator will show that θ = 30◦ . Click on the green square to return 10 cm 5 cm θ 5 = 0.Solutions to Exercises 11 Solutions to Exercises Exercise 1(a) To find the value of the angle θ in the diagram.

5 cm . 0.732 was found using a calculator. Click on the green square to return . the length of the hypotenuse of the triangle.732 = 4 4 z= = 5. we use the sine function: z cm 4 cm 47◦ 4 z ∴ z × sin 47◦ = z × 0.732 sin 47◦ = where the value of sin 47◦ ≈ 0.Solutions to Exercises 12 Exercise 1(b) To find z.

Solutions to Exercises 13 Exercise 1(c) To find z.1 cm .766 = 10 10 z= = 13.766 sin 50◦ = Here the value of sin 50◦ ≈ 0. 0. we use the sine function: z cm 10 cm 50◦ 10 z ∴ z × sin 50◦ = z × 0.766 was found using a calculator. the length of the hypotenuse of the triangle. Click on the green square to return .

Solutions to Exercises 14 Exercise 2(a) 5 cm To find the value of the angle θ in the triangle given here. 10 2 θ = 60◦ . Click on the green square to return . use the cosine function: θ 10 cm cos θ = Using a calculator one finds that 5 1 = .

682 = 5.9 cm Click on the green square to return .Solutions to Exercises 15 Exercise 2(b) 4 cm To find z. the length of the hypotenuse of the triangle given in the picture. z 47◦ z cm = = = 4 z z × 0.e.682 = 4 4 0. we use the cosine function: cos 47◦ ∴ z × cos 47◦ i.

e.7 cm Click on the green square to return . y = 50◦ 12 cm y 12 12 × 0. the length of the side adjacent to the angle θ = 50◦ in the triangle given here. we use the cosine function: cos 50◦ = ∴ 12 × cos 50◦ i.643 = y = 7.Solutions to Exercises 16 Exercise 2(c) y cm To find y.

Solutions to Exercises 17 Exercise 3(a) To find the value of the angle θ of the triangle given in the picture. we use the tangent function: 5 cm θ 10 cm tan θ = 5 = 0.5 10 Using a calculator will show that θ ≈ 27◦ . Click on the green square to return .

9 cm Click on the green square to return . the length of the side opposite the angle θ = 25◦ of the triangle given in the picture. we use the tangent function: x cm 25◦ 4 cm tan 25◦ = x 4 ∴ 4 × tan 25◦ = 4 × 0.466 = x i.e. x = 1.Solutions to Exercises 18 Exercise 3(b) To find x.

483 Click on the green square to return . the length of the side adjacent to the angle θ = 25◦ of the triangle given in the picture.e.1 cm 1. y = = = 12 cm 56◦ y cm 12 y y × 1.Solutions to Exercises 19 Exercise 3(c) To find y.483 = 12 12 = 8. we use the tangent function: tan 56◦ ∴ y × tan 56◦ i.

the length of the hypotenuse of the triangle given in the picture.Solutions to Quizzes 20 Solutions to Quizzes Solution to Quiz: To find y. we use the cosine function: y cm 35◦ 22 cm = = = 22 y y × 0.819 End Quiz cos 35◦ ∴ y × cos 35◦ i.819 = 22 22 = 26. y .9 cm 0.e.

2 cm End Quiz y cm 23 cm 67◦ . we use the tangent function: tan 67◦ ∴ 23 × tan 67◦ i.e.Solutions to Quizzes 21 Solution to Quiz: To find y.356 = y 54. y = = = y 23 23 × 2. the length of the side opposite to the angle 67◦ of the triangle given in the picture.