integrated circuit (IC

An integrated circuit (IC), sometimes called a chip or microchip, is a semiconductor wafer on which thousands or millions of tiny resistors, capacitors, and transistors are fabricated. An IC can function as an amplifier, oscillator, timer, counter, computer memory, or microprocessor. A particular IC is categorized as either linear (analog) or digital, depending on its intended application.

A resistor is an electrical component that limits or regulates the flow of electrical current in an electronic circuit. Resistors can also be used to provide a specific voltage for an active device such as a transistor.

A diode is a specialized electronic component with two electrodes called the anode and thecathode. Most diodes are made with semiconductor materials such as silicon, germanium, or selenium. Some diodes are comprised of metal electrodes in a chamber evacuated or filled with a pure elemental gas at low pressure. Diodes can be used as rectifiers, signal limiters, voltage regulators, switches, signal modulators, signal mixers, signal demodulators, and oscillators.

The bread board has strips of metal which run underneath the board and connect the holes on the top of the board. The metal strips are laid out as shown below. Note that the top and bottom rows of holes are connected horizontally while the remaining holes are connected vertically

The transistor, invented by three scientists at the Bell Laboratories in 1947, rapidly replaced the vacuum tube as an electronic signal regulator. A transistor regulates current or voltageflow and acts as a switch or gate for electronic signals. A transistor consists of three layers of a semiconductor material, each capable of carrying a current. A semiconductor is a material such as germanium and silicon that conducts electricity in a "semi-enthusiastic" way. It's somewhere between a real conductor such as copper and an insulator (like the plastic wrapped around wires).

12V. 15V. a capacitor consists of two conducting plates separated by an insulating material called thedielectric. The difference between the two displays is the common cathode has all the cathodes of the 7-segments connected directly together and . There are two types of LED 7-segment displays: common cathode (CC) and common anode (CA). Like jumpers. it is indeed possible to use external components in order to obtain DC output voltages of: 5V. 20V. They are: Input voltage.capacitor A capacitor is a passive electronic component that stores energy in the form of an electrostatic field. of course. modems. In its simplest form. 8V. sound cards. 6V. so that it can be regulated downwards. and is inversely proportional to the separation between the plates. The capacitance is directly proportional to the surface areas of the plates. motherboards. Capacitance also depends on the dielectric constant of the substance separating the plates. Output Voltage. the 7805 is a positive voltage DC regulator that has only 3 terminals. 10V. 18V. Ground. DipSwitch Small switches found on computer hardware that can be turned to the ON or OFF position as shown in the images to the right. be greater that the required output voltage. etc. dip switches are used to configure computer peripherals such as hard drives. 7805IC Regulator Encapsulated in a single chip/package (IC). 24V. 9V. Note that the input voltage must. Although the 7805 were primarily designed for a fixed-voltage output (5V).

An additional resistor must be added to the circuit to limit the amount of current flowing thru each LED segment. power must be applied externally to the the anode connection that is common to all the segments. A typical pinout for a seven segment common anode display is shown below. When working with a CA seven segment display. Shown below is a common anode seven segment. Then by applying a ground to a particular segment connection (a-g). The above diagram shows the instance when power is applied to the CA connection and segments b & c are grounded causing these two segments to light up. the appropriate segment will light up. As shown above all the anode segments are connected together. .the common anode has all the anodes of the 7-segments connected together.

A common cathode seven segment is different from a common anode segment in that the cathodes of all the LEDs are connected together. For the use of this seven segment the common cathode connection must be grounded and power must be applied to appropriate segment in order to illuminate that segment. .