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A RESEARCH PROJECT REPORT On A study on level of customer awareness about e-banking services offered by different banks in Ambala district




Submitted to:


I hereby declare that the dissertation entitled A study on level of customer awareness about e- banking services offered by different banks in Ambala district of Haryana. submitted for the Degree of Master of Business Administration is my original work and the dissertation has not formed the basis for the award of any degree, diploma, associateship, fellowship or similar other titles. It has not been submitted to any other University or Institution for the award of any degree or diploma.

Date: Place:


Roll No 1210740


This is to certify that Mr.Lal Rajiv Nath Sahdeo is a bonafide student of MBA final year of MMIM, Mullana. He has carried out a research work on A study on level of customer awareness about e banking services offered by different banks in Ambala district of Haryana. committed in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Business Administration (MBA) from Maharishi Markandeswar University. The work done by him is found satisfactory and original. I forward this project report to Maharishi Markandeswar University for evaluation.

Date: Place: GARG

Asst. Prof. Dr.Bhavet

I am thankful to Asst. Prof. Dr.Bhavet Garg faculty of MMIM, my project guide, for her timely cooperation and efforts for me. Her guidance helped me a lot to complete my report in the allotted time period. I would like to express my sincere gratitude to all of those that had helped me to prepare this report in present form. It strongly feels this duration was too short for this making report. Although I have tried my best in this work yet I dont have misconception of it being perfect. Any criticism will make me more proficient in future work.



A look at the mentioned below various associative banks has entered into and it is obvious that IT is central to banking. The perceptions and the expectation of the customers have undergone a sea change, with the availability of banking services to the customers at their doorsteps through the help of technology. As per IDC estimates, the total number of registered users and multiple accounts (a user having accounts with more than one bank).India has a little less than a million active Internet banking users .And though this is just 0.096 % of the total population. Thus indicating that the concept of Internet Banking is surely catching on. Impressive as these figures might be, the truth is that India lags behind other countries in Internet Banking. In the US, the number of commercial banks with transactional websites is 1, 275 or 12% of the total number of banks. At present, in the US approximately 78% of all commercial banks with assets more than $5 billion, 43% of banks with $ 500 million to $ 5 billion

in assets, and 10% of banks under $ 500 million in assets have transactional websites. In contrast, Indian Banks have an insignificant Internet Banking record. ICICI Bank kicked off online banking way back in 1996 and a host of other banks soon followed suit. But even for the Internet as a whole, 1996 to 1998 marked the adoption phase, while usage increased only in 1999due to lower ISP online charges, increased PC penetration and a techfriendly atmosphere. Today, Banks are looking at newer ways to make a customers banking experience more convenient, efficient and effective. They are using new technology tools and techniques to identify customer needs and are offering tailor-made products to match them. Says C N Ram, head, Information technology, HDFC Bank, Our vision was very clear, we were not enamored by the concept of Internet Banking but looked at it more as an add-on service which our customers should gradually adopt. Earlier, banks could decide when and where they wanted customer interfaces, now customers decide when and where they will access banking channels. The services, which can be availed of as of date, centralized operations and process automation using core-banking applications and IPbased networks improve efficiency and productivity levels tremendously. Core banking applications help a bank to shift from Branch Banking to Bank Banking.

Internet Banking not only helps in acquiring more customers but it also reduces problems if customer visits bank physically. This basically means that a customer will be treated as a banks customer than just the customer of a particular branch, which was the case earlier. Also, I {-networks let a bank offer multiple services over the same network, resulting in costs savings.

CONTENTS Chapter no Declaration Certificate Acknowledgement Executive Summary 1. 2. 3. Introduction Review of Literature Research Methodology
3.1 Selection of the Topic 3.2 Objectives of the Study 3.4 Sampling Procedure and Design 3.5 Method of data Collection 3.6 Analysis and Interpretation of Data 3.7 Scope of the Study 3.8 Sampling Method 3.9 Significance of the Study 3.10 Limitation of the Study


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8-14 15-17 18-21


Profiles of various banks



5. 6. 7. 8.

Comparison of various E-Banking services Analysis and Interpretation Findings and Suggestions Conclusions Annexure (s) (i) Sample Questionnaire (ii) Bibliography INTRODUCTION

48-54 55-67 68-69 70-74

Earlier people would be tired standing in along queue waiting for a passbook to be updated or they would wait for the next day for the demand draft to be prepared but now Internet Technology has invaded the portals of our banking institutions and as the clich goes everything will just be a click away. No doubt, innovations like telebanking and automated teller machines (ATMs) have considerably put customers at ease on the recent past. But with net banking the customer will be able to transact with the help of a mouse and his visits to the neighbourhood bank will become a thing of the past. In the age of electronic technology the regular application of computing, wireless communication, networking, etc, in the banking field has brought revolutionary change in the traditional ways banks do business. Today, your bank can serve you at home, or allow you to serve yourself from anywhere. You can draw your money from ATMs, you can check your accounts through the Internet, and you can phone the bank to send you a representative. Not only that, your physical bank which is still around8

suddenly seems to be doing a lot more things than just banking. It is technology that is making all this possible. Internet banking has gained wide acceptance internationally and seems to be fast catching up in India with more and more banks entering the fray. This is why, most, most modern banks instead of merely dealing with financial deposits and loan apply promote, and distribute the want-satisfying products, services and ideas to start its journey towards development of computer and other technology based digital economy since 1960 to ensure quality service to its customers. TECHNOLOGY THE GOVERNING FACTOR: It is the technology that is making easy operation of banks. Even 10 years back, banks would have found it impossible to provide even basic banking services to millions of small and medium customers with all their branches. At the back end technology is freeing bank employees to concentrate on value-added work rather than just mundane necessities. Today, technology offers options where banks can almost literally address a market of one with a customized product or service. Though a modest start has been made in India, net banking has still a long way to go. This development has been acknowledged by the latest Online Banking Report, which features a listing for ICICI Bank .Some others have also endeavored to make real time banking a reality before this century closes. Reasons why new private and multi-national banks have been able to survive, thrive, and adapt in an increasingly competitive space.

These banks were able to leverage on low-cost channels such as ATMs and Net Banking to the optimum levels contributing to reduced operating costs. The cost of transactions over channels like ATMs and the Internet are lower than doing it through the branches-Banks have realized that shifting customer access to lower cost channels can help bring down operating costs. These channels are used not only to improve customer service but also to divert traffic from the branches. Customers using ATMs, phones and the Internet not only allow banking transactions, but also cross-selling of other financial products and services. For example, if the cost of a branch banking transaction is taken at Rs100/-, the cost of an ATM transaction would be around Rs30/-, phone banking around Rs20/-, and internet banking around Rs5/-.But this does not mean that branch banking is obsolete. Rather, banks are reinventing their business models to offer new financial services through its branches. At the back-end, technology is freeing bank employees to concentrate on value-added work rather than just mundane necessities. In computerized banks, once a transaction is posted it is auto-reconciled. This system is easy and frees people to concentrate on other customer services.


NEW HORIZONS The important factor that is causing a shift in the industry is that of conveniences for the consumer. People need timely access to banking services, and have less time to spend at banks, and prefer the convenience of long distance banking. Of course, societys view of what is convenient is changing .People were accustomed to associating convenience with doing business in their neighbourhood, and not traveling to a bank across town. Now, however, society has a different definition of bank convenience. Also, we should mention it is directly due to mergers that banks are able to offer more full service branches, and ATM machines. This is more convenient to the customers, and creates bank loyalty. Increased use in ATMs , the growing use of home and office computers, fax machines, and point of sale terminals allowing consumers to make transaction electronically is now considered convenient. Thus, branch location is no longer a priority from the consumers view.





ABN AMRO Bank Abu Commercial Bank Bank of India Deutche Bank Federal Bank HDFC Bank HSBC ICICI Bank IDBI Bank IndusInd Bank

Infosys (Bank Away)

Dhabi Infosys (Bank Away)


BOIonline Db direct

Sanchez i-flex / Satyam

Fed Net Net Banking Online@hsbc

Infosys, ICICI Infotech Infosys (Bank Away) CR2


Infinity i-net banking IndusNet

Punjab National Bank State Bank of India

Infosys (Bank Away) Satyam / Broad vision

THE SERVICES, WHICH CAN BE AVAILED AS OF DATE, ARE: Transfer ones money from one city to any other branch in a city. Open a Fixed deposit (FD) account via the net. One needs to provide data regarding the amount and term of the deposit and also the branch in which the account is opened. Order for an issue of a demand draft can be delivered only to the customers address and not to any other party.

Inquire on the balance in ones saving, current and FD account and also on the tax deducted at source on ones FD account for the current and financial year.

Give instructions over the net for stopping payment on a cheque/s.Request for a chequebook via the Internet, which will take three days to come.

View all the transactions completed on an account for a specified period and get a copy via e-mail. Though relationship tends to look impersonal the customers should feel it personal. The customers need not necessarily positively evaluate the


personalized services offered by the bank. Therefore bank should be cautious to ensure that customers feel the services as personal and useful. With the aid of technology they should further mechanize and automate the services offered to customers.


REVIEW OF LITERATURE Internet Banking in India The Internet banking is changing the banking industry and is having the major effects on banking relationships. Even the Morgan Stanley Dean Witter Internet research emphasized that Web is more important for retail financial services than for many other industries. Internet banking involves use of Internet for delivery of banking products & services. It falls into four main categories, from Level 1 - minimum functionality sites that offer only access to deposit account data - to Level 4 sites highly sophisticated offerings enabling integrated sales of additional products and access to other financial services- such as investment and insurance. In other words a successful Internet banking solution offers Exceptional rates on Savings, CDs, and IRAs Checking with no monthly fee, free bill payment and rebates on ATM surcharges Credit cards with low rates Easy online applications for all accounts.


Adoption of Internet Banking: An Empirical Investigation of Indian Banking Sector By Balwinder Singh, Reader, Department of Commerce and Business Management, GuruNanak Dev University, Amritsar, India The tremendous advances in technology and the aggressive infusion of information technology had brought in a paradigm shift in banking operations. Internet banking that has revolutionized the banking industry world wide has turned out to be the nucleus issue of various studies all over the world. However there has constantly been a literature gap on the issue in India. The purpose of this paper is to help fill significant gaps in knowledge about the Internet banking landscape in India.

Retail and corporate banking Booz Allen Hamilton (1997) conducted a global survey covering 386 retail and corporate banking institutions in 42 countries to assess the strategic impact of Internet banking on the financial service industry. According to the study, there is a huge perception gap between North American/European banks and Japanese banks regarding the future of Internet banking. North American and European banks expect Internet banking to become the most important retail channel within 10 years, but Japanese banks expect traditional branches to remain the most important channel. The study also indicates the rapid growth potential of Internet banking. Many of the banks that responded have plans to upgrade the functionality of their Internet service offerings.


Banks offering Internet banking England (1998) conducted the first important study that estimated the number of U.S. banks offering Internet banking and analyzed the structure and performance characteristics of these banks. They have found no evidence of major differences in the performance of the group of banks offering Internet banking activities compared to those that do not offer such services. Electronic payments and remote banking First et. al. (1998) a U.S. based study found out a significant shift by consumers and businesses to electronic payments. In response to developments in electronic payments and remote banking, banks have greatly increased their investment in technology, particularly in retail banking. The gains from technological advancements in banking and payments are likely to be substantial, both from the point of view of individual financial institutions and economy-wide. In this environment, banks should review and, if necessary, adjust their risk management practices in tandem with upgrading their technology activities.



Research can be defined as scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on the specific topic, so research means careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for new fact in the branch of knowledge. Research methodology comprises of defining the problem, collecting, organizing and evaluating data, reaching conclusions and suggesting solutions.

The purpose of research methodology section is to describe the procedure for conducting the study. It includes research design, sample size, date collection and procedure of analysis of research instrument. Thus, Research Methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. The main steps involved in research process are:

Research Design Types of Research Research Problem Objective of Study Sample design Methods of data collection Analysis and interpretation of data Scope of the study Significance of Study Limitations of the Study


Research design is the framework which determines the course of action towards the collection and analysis of required data. As the research type is descriptive, so we will be using Descriptive Research Design to do our Research work. The methodology of study will be through interviews, observation and library research.

This research employed two types of research: - Descriptive Research - Analytical Research Descriptive research: To conduct the research work accurately, we conducted descriptive research. It kinds. includes surveys and fact-finding inquiries of different

Analytical research: In it, we have to use facts and information already available and analysis these to make an evaluation for project.


OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY 1. To access the present scenario of the services of Internet Banking. 2. To study the scope of Internet Banking in future. 3. To study the problems faced by the consumers in availing the Internet Banking Services. 4. To access the satisfaction level experienced by the users of Internet Banking Services.


Problem Defining: The project was mainly concerned with evaluating the performance of Internet Banking Services and finding out the scope of Internet Banking Services by doing a comparative analysis of the Internet Banking Services provided by ICICI BANK, SBI BANK, HDFC BANK. Sample Unit: Individuals who are availing Internet Banking Services. Sample Size: 40 respondents Sampling Method: Non-Probabilistic convenience sampling. Sampling Area: Ambala Sources of Data: The data was collected from both primary and secondary sources. Primary Data: The primary data collection was done through the survey method. The survey was conducted using the questionnaire method. Secondary Data: Secondary data was collected from the following sources: a) Books on Internet Banking b) Internet c) Journals





Evolution of SBI

The origin of the State Bank of India goes back to the first decade of the nineteenth century with the establishment of the Bank of Calcutta in Calcutta on 2 June 1806. Three years later the bank received its charter and was re-designed as the Bank of Bengal (2 January 1809). A unique institution, it was the first joint-stock bank of British India sponsored by the Government of Bengal. The Bank of Bombay (15 April 1840) and the Bank of Madras (1 July 1843) followed the Bank of Bengal. These three banks remained at the apex of modern banking in India till their amalgamation as the Imperial Bank of India on 27 January 1921.* Primarily Anglo-Indian creations, the three presidency banks came into existence either as a result of the compulsions of imperial finance or by the felt needs of local European commerce and were not imposed from outside in an arbitrary manner to modernise India's economy. Their evolution was, however, shaped by ideas culled from similar developments in Europe and England, and was influenced by changes occurring in the structure of both the local trading environment and those in the relations of the Indian economy to the economy of Europe and the global economic framework.


Bank of Bengal H.O. The establishment of the Bank of Bengal marked the advent of limited liability, joint-stock banking in India. So was the associated innovation in banking, viz. the decision to allow the Bank of Bengal to issue notes, which would be accepted for payment of public revenues within a restricted geographical area. This right of note issue was very valuable not only for the Bank of Bengal but also its two siblings, the Banks of Bombay and Madras. It meant an accretion to the capital of the banks, a capital on which the proprietors did not have to pay any interest. The concept of deposit banking was also an innovation because the practice of accepting money for safekeeping (and in some cases, even investment on behalf of the clients) by the indigenous bankers had not spread as a general habit in most parts of India. But, for a long time, and especially upto the time that the three presidency banks had a right of note issue, bank notes and government balances made up the bulk of the investible resources of the banks. The three banks were governed by royal charters, which were revised from time to time. Each charter provided for a share capital, four-fifth of which were privately subscribed and the rest owned by the provincial government. The members of the board of directors, which managed the affairs of each bank, were mostly proprietary directors representing the large European managing agency houses in India.


Bank of Madras Note Dated 1861 for Rs.10

The presidency Banks Act, which came into operation on 1 May 1876, brought the three presidency banks under a common statute with similar restrictions on business. The proprietary connection of the Government was, however, terminated, though the banks continued to hold charge of the public debt offices in the three presidency towns, and the custody of a part of the government balances. The Act also stipulated the creation of Reserve Treasuries at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras into which sums above the specified minimum balances promised to the presidency banks at only their head offices were to be lodged. The Government could lend to the presidency banks from such Reserve Treasuries but the latter could look upon them more as a favour than as a right. Imperial Bank of India When India attained freedom, the Imperial Bank had a capital base (including reserves) of Rs.11.85 crores, deposits and advances of Rs.275.14 crores and Rs.72.94 crores respectively and a network of 172 branches and more than 200 sub offices extending all over the country.

In 1951, when the First Five Year Plan was launched, the development of rural India was given the highest priority. The commercial banks of the country including the Imperial Bank of India had till then confined their operations to the urban sector and were not equipped to respond to the emergent needs of economic regeneration of the rural areas. In order, therefore, to serve the economy in general and the rural sector in particular, the All India Rural Credit Survey Committee recommended the creation of a state-partnered and state-sponsored bank by taking over the Imperial Bank of India, and integrating with it, the former state-owned or state-associate banks. An act was accordingly passed in Parliament in May 1955 and the State Bank of India was constituted on 1 July 1955. More than a quarter of the resources of the Indian banking system thus passed under the direct control of the State. Later, the State Bank of India (Subsidiary Banks) Act was passed in 1959, enabling the State Bank of India to take over eight former State-associated banks as its subsidiaries (later named Associates). The State Bank of India was thus born with a new sense of social purpose aided by the 480 offices comprising branches, sub offices and three Local Head Offices inherited from the Imperial Bank. The concept of banking as mere repositories of the community's savings and lenders to creditworthy parties was soon to give way to the concept of purposeful banking subserving the growing and diversified financial needs of planned economic development. The State Bank of India was destined to act as the pacesetter in this respect and lead the Indian banking system into the exciting field of national development.


TECHNOLOGY UPGRADATION HIGHLIGHTS SBIs Information Technology Programme aims at achieving efficiency in operations, meeting customer and market expectations and facing competition. Our achievements are summarized below:* FULL BRANCH COMPUTERISATION (FCBs): All the branches of the Bank are now fully computerized. This strategy has contributed to improvement in customer service. ATM SERVICES: There are 4633 ATMs on the ATM Network

including 3181 ATMs of SBI and 1452 from the 7 Associate Banks and Subsidiaries. These ATMs are located in 1521 centres spread across the length and breadth of the country, thereby creating a truly national network of ATMs with an unparalleled reach. Value added services like ATM locator, payment of fees for college students, multilingual screens, voice over and drawal of cash advance by SBI credit card holders have been introduced. INTERNET BANKING (INB): This on-line channel enables customers to access their account information and initiate transactions on a 24x7, boundary less basis. 1994 branches, covering 555 centres, are extending INB service to their customers. All functionalities other than Cash and Clearing have been extended to individual retail customers. A separate Internet Banking Module for Corporate customers has been launched and


available at 1305 branches. Bulk upload of data for Corporate, Inter-branch funds transfer for Retail customers, online payment of Customs duty and Govt. tax, Electronic Bill Payment, SMS Alerts, E-Poll, IIT GATE Fee Collection, Off-line Customer Registration Process and Railway Ticket Booking are the new features deployed. GOVT. BUSINESS: Software has been developed and rolled out at 7785 fully computerised branches. Electronic generation of all reports for reporting, settlement and reconciliation of Govt. funds, is available. STEPS: Under STEPS, the banks electronic funds transfer system; the Products offered are eTransfer (ET), eRealisation (eR), eDebit (CMP) and ATM reconciliation. STEPS handle payment messages and reconciliation simultaneously. Trade Finance: The solution has been implemented, providing efficiency in handling Trade Finance transactions with Internet access to customers and greatly enhances the banks services to Corporates and Commercial Network branches. This new Trade Finance solution, EXIMBILLS, will be implemented at all domestic branches as well as at Foreign offices engaged in trade finance business during the year. WAN: The bank has set up a Wide Area Network, known as SBI connect, which provides connectivity to 4819 branches/offices of SB Group across 306 cities. This network provides across the board benefits by providing nationwide connectivity for its business applications.


PROFILE OF HDFC BANK The Housing Development Finance Corporation Limited (HDFC) was amongst the first to receive an 'in-principle' approval from the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) to set up a bank in the private sector, as part of the RBI's liberalisation of the Indian Banking Industry in 1994. The bank was incorporated in August 1994 in the name of 'HDFC Bank Limited', with its registered office in Mumbai, India. HDFC Bank commenced operations as a Scheduled Commercial Bank in January 1995. *

Promoter HDFC is India's premier housing finance company and enjoys an impeccable track record in India as well as in international markets. Since its inception in 1977, the Corporation has maintained a consistent and healthy growth in its operations to remain a market leader in mortgages. Its outstanding loan portfolio covers well over a million dwelling units. HDFC has developed significant expertise in retail mortgage loans to different market segments and also has a large corporate client base for its housing related credit facilities. With its experience in the financial markets, a


strong market reputation, large shareholder base and unique consumer franchise, HDFC was ideally positioned to promote a bank in environment. Business Focus HDFC Bank's mission is to be a World-Class Indian Bank. The Bank's aim is to build sound customer franchises across distinct businesses so as to be the preferred provider of banking services in the segments that the bank operates in and to achieve healthy growth in profitability, consistent with the bank's risk appetite. The bank is committed to maintain the highest level of ethical standards professional integrity and regulatory compliance. HDFC Bank's business philosophy is based on four core values: Operational Excellence, Customer Focus, Product Leadership and People.

Capital Structure The authorized capital of HDFC Bank is Rs.450 crore (Rs.45 billion). The paid-up capital is Rs.282 crore (Rs.28.2 billion). The HDFC Group holds 24.2% of the bank's equity while about 13.1% of the equity is held by the depository in respect of the bank's issue of American Depository Shares (ADS/ADR Issue). The Indian Private Equity Fund, Mauritius (IPEF) and Indocean Financial Holdings Ltd., Mauritius (IFHL) (both funds advised by J P Morgan Partners, formerly Chase Capital Partners) together hold about 5.5% of the bank's equity. Roughly 27.5% of the equity is held by FIIs, NRIs/OCBs while the balance is widely held by about 214,000 shareholders. The shares are listed on The Stock Exchange, Mumbai and

the National Stock Exchange. The bank's American Depository Shares are listed on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) under the symbol "HDB".

Distribution Network HDFC Bank is headquartered in Mumbai. The Bank at present has an enviable network of over 451 branches spread over 205 cities across the country. All branches are linked on an online real-time basis. Customers in 90 locations are also serviced through Phone Banking. The Bank's expansion plans take into account the need to have a presence in all major industrial and commercial centres where its corporate customers are located as well as the need to build a strong retail customer base for both deposits and loan products. Being a clearing/settlement bank to various leading stock exchanges, the Bank has branches in the centres where the NSE/BSE has a strong and active member base. The Bank also has a network of over 1054 networked ATMs across

these cities. Moreover, HDFC Bank's ATM network can be accessed by all domestic and international Visa/MasterCard, Visa Electron/Maestro, Plus/Cirrus and American Express Credit/Charge cardholders. Management Mr. Jagdish Capoor took over as the bank's Chairman in July 2001. Prior to this, Mr. Capoor was a Deputy Governor of the Reserve Bank of India.


The Managing Director, Mr. Aditya Puri, has been a professional banker for over 25 years and before joining HDFC Bank in 1994 was heading Citibank's operations in Malaysia.

Technology HDFC Bank operates in a highly automated environment in terms of information technology and communication systems. All the bank's branches have connectivity which enables the bank to offer speedy funds transfer facilities to its customers. Multi-branch access is also provided to retail customers through the branch network and Automated Teller Machines (ATMs). The Bank has made substantial efforts and investments in acquiring the best technology available internationally to build the infrastructure for a world-class bank. In terms of software, the Corporate Banking business is supported by Flexcube, while the Retail Banking business by Finware, both from i-flex Solutions Ltd. The systems are open, scaleable and webenabled. Business Profile HDFC Bank caters to a wide range of banking services covering commercial and investment banking on the wholesale side and transactional / branch banking on the retail side. The bank has three key business areas:-


a) Wholesale Banking Services The Bank's target market is primarily large, blue-chip manufacturing companies in the Indian corporate sector and to a lesser extent, emerging mid-sized corporate. For these corporate, the Bank provides a wide range of commercial and transactional banking services, including working capital finance, trade services, transactional services, cash management, etc. b) Retail Banking Services The objective of the Retail Bank is to provide its target market customers a full range of financial products and banking services, giving the customer a one-stop window for all his/her banking requirements. c) Treasury Operations Within this business, the bank has three main product areas - Foreign Exchange and Derivatives, Local Currency Money Market & Debt Securities, and Equities. With the liberalisation of the financial markets in India, corporate need more sophisticated risk management information, advice and product structures. Demat Account: The customer can conduct hassle-free transactions on his/her shares. The customer can also access his/her Demat Account on the Internet.



Innovative services for your convenience... Phone Banking: 24-hour automated banking services with 39 Phone Banking numbers available. ATM 24-hour banking: Apart from routine transactions, the customer can also pay his/her utility bills and transfer funds, at any of the banks ATMs across the country all year round. Inter-city/Inter-branch Banking: The customer can access his/her account from any of the banks 451 branches in 205 cities.

Net Banking: The customer can access his/her bank account from anywhere in the world, at anytime, at his/her own convenience. The customer can also view his/her Demat Account through Net Banking. International Debit Card: With an ATM card the customer can shop with all over the country and in over 140 countries with. The customer can spend in any currency, and pay in Rupees. Mobile Banking: The customer can access his/her account on his/her mobile phone screen at no airtime cost. The customer can use SMS technology to conduct his/her banking transactions from his/her cellphone.

Bill Pay: The customer can pay his/her telephone, electricity and mobile phone bills through the banks ATMs, Internet, phone or mobile phone.

Current Account: The customer can get a personalised cheque book, monthly account statements, inter-branch banking and much more. Mutual Funds: Apart from a wide choice of mutual funds to suit the customers needs the customer benefits from expert advice on choosing the right funds based on in-depth market analysis. International Credit Card: The customer can get an option of Silver, Gold, or Health plus Credit card, accepted worldwide from a world-class bank. If the the customer has an outstanding balance on his/her credit card the customer can transfer that balance to this card at a lower interest rate.

PROFILE OF ICICI BANK ICICI Bank is India's second-largest bank with total assets of about Rs.146,214 crore at December 31, 2004 and profit after tax of Rs. 1,391 crore in the nine months ended December 31, 2004 (Rs. 1,637 crore in fiscal 2004). ICICI Bank has a network of about 505 branches and extension counters and about 1,850 ATMs. ICICI Bank offers a wide range of banking products and financial services to corporate and retail customers through a variety of delivery channels and through its specialized subsidiaries and affiliates in the areas of investment banking, life and non-life insurance, venture capital and asset management. ICICI Bank set up its international banking group in fiscal 2002 to cater to the


cross-border needs of clients and leverage on its domestic banking strengths to offer products internationally. ICICI Bank currently has subsidiaries in the United Kingdom and Canada, branches in Singapore and Bahrain and representative offices in the United States, China, United Arab Emirates and Bangladesh.* ICICI Bank's equity shares are listed in India on the Stock Exchange, Mumbai and the National Stock Exchange of India Limited and its American Depositary Receipts (ADRs) are listed on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). As required by the stock exchanges, ICICI Bank has formulated a Code of Business Conduct and Ethics for its directors and employees.





Internet Banking Services provided by STATE BANK OF INDIA:* 1. BILL PAYMENT About Bill Payment SBI e-PAY - A simple and convenient service for receiving and paying the customers bills online No more late payments No more queues No more hassles of depositing cheques Online Pay: Using SBI e-PAY the customer can 'see and pay' his/her various bills online, directly from his/her SBI Account. The customer can pay telephone, electricity, insurance; credit card and other bills - from the comfort of his/her house or office, 24 hours a day, 365 days a year! He/she will simply have to logon to to 'see and pay' their bills. The customer can also get an electronic acknowledgment for every bill paid by him/her using e-PAY. Auto Pay: The customer can also set up Auto Pay instructions with an upper limit to ensure that his/her bills are paid automatically whenever they are due. The upper limit ensures that only bills within the specified limit are paid automatically, thereby providing the customer complete control over these payments.

The e-PAY service is available in various cities across the country and the customer can now make payments to several billers in his/her region. To start receiving and paying their bills online, the customers will simply have to login to and use the 'Add Biller' feature to select the billers they wish to make payments to. Alternately, the customers can also fill out the SBI e-PAY Registration Form (SeRF) available at their SBI branch, complete it and submit it to the branch. 2. ONLINE BOOKING OF RAILWAY TICKETS The customer should follow under noted process for booking of railway tickets.

Logon to the site of IRCTC Register yourself on the site (if first time user) or log on with Username and Password (meant for IRCTC site). Provide the requisite information i.e. stations (departure & arrival), date and class of the journey under option of "Plan My Travel and Book Ticket" Select your train from the list of trains displayed by IRCTC and click on "Book Ticket" Provide passenger details and confirm your address for getting delivery of tickets. The amount of ticket will be displayed for payment.


Choose payment option "State Bank of India". You will be taken to our site online SBI. Log in with Username and Password (meant for online SBI ) and confirm the payment.


INTERNET BANKING SERVICES PROVIDED BY ICICI BANK 1. BILL PAYMENT ICICI Bank Internet Banking is the most convenient channel to manage and pay the bills anytime, anywhere. No more hassles of personally visiting the Biller to pay the bills. Its free for all the Customers. 2. ONLINE SHOPPING* ICICI Bank has tied up with more than 75 organizations to facilitate online shopping for all its Internet Banking Customers. The customers have to choose their products online and pay conveniently through ICICI Bank Internet Banking Service. 2. TICKET BOOKING Ticket Booking The customers can now book their Railways and Air Tickets Online The customers can now buy their tickets online and pay using the banks Internet Banking Facility. ICICI Bank has tied up with IRCTC (for Railway Ticket Booking) and Air Deccan (for Air Ticket booking). 3. INSURANCE POLICIES OFFERED BY ICICI BANK * Convenience has always been synonymous with ICICI Bank and keeping in line with this, ICICI bank now offers its customers, the most comprehensive suite of General Insurance products from ICICI Lombard, to cater to their insurance needs and that too online.


ICICI BANKS ONLINE SHARE TRADING. ICICI bank also provides the service of online share trading to its

customers through


NETBANKING FEATURES* 1. Credit card Payment Customers can pay their HDFC Bank Credit card dues through this option. 2. Statement Download The customers can download their account statement onto their PC for the period of 5 months from the given date. 3. Change Customer profile The customers can update their mailing address and all their communication from bank will go to this new address. 4. Funds Transfer The customers cant transfer funds between their accounts, even if they are in different branches/cities. The customer can also transfer funds to any person having an HDFC Bank account anytime. 5. Account Balance Inquiry The customer can check his/her savings or current account balance,

* reference:

including information regarding Uncleared Funds, Ledger Balances, Overdraft Limits and Sweep-In Amounts. 6. Account Statement Inquiry The customer can view all the transactions on his/her account for either the current period (i.e. from date of last statement mailed to him/her), or a specific period determined by him/her/. The customer can also request his/her statement via mail (mailing address will be as per bank records).


ONEVIEW OF ONES ACCOUNTS IN 6 BANKS One View. For the first time in India, this convenient service brings together the customers online bank accounts (including those of family members), in one place, in total security. Now, One View puts it all on one screen for its customer, so that tracking and managing his/her online accounts becomes quicker and easier than ever before. It gives its customer a complete picture of his/her finances across multiple accounts. If the customer has one or more accounts with HDFC Bank, Citibank, ICICI Bank, HSBC India, Standard Chartered Bank and/or Global Trust Bank then One View is just right for him/her. Best of all, it's absolutely free! Simply register for Internet banking with these banks and use One View to get a single window access to: 1. Current/Savings account balances 2. Current/Savings account transaction history 3. Fixed deposit summary 4. Saving/Fixed deposit summary 5. Citibank Credit Card 6. Citibank Credit Card transaction history 7. Hdfc bank Demat Profile 8. Hdfc bank Demat Holdings 9. Hdfc bank Demat Status


It will provide the comprehensive information the customer needs at one place. So get the convenience of One View now and get into 6 banks.



PROMISES OF INTERNET BANKING As the potential that the internet held to transform different aspects of our lives manifested itself, it was forecast that its impact on financial services such as stock-broking and banking would be especially profound. Banking transactions could be conducted entirely in a virtual context with no physical exchange necessary. 1. No physical change Historically, as the means of payment substituted gold by paper currency and paper currency by plastic and finally plastic by direct debits, the information intensity kept increasing. In the case of buying physical goods online, a large portion of the value to the customer is derived only after the goods are physically delivered. 2. Reduced transaction costs Additionally various studies showed that as a delivery or distribution channel, the Internet could bring substantial cost advantages for banks. Consultants Booz-Allen & Hamilton estimated that whereas the cost of a customer walking into the branch and using a teller is USD 1.01. 3. Double-edged Sword Reduced delivery costs and the absence of physical exchange is indicative of why the Internet held so much promise to turn banking upside down. In theory, physical branches were not required and the transaction costs over the Internet were much lower.

3. Perfect Information One of the things that the Internet does extremely well is make perfect information available to all market participants by bringing about efficiencies in the search process. For buyers of banking services, there are sites that aggregate information on product offerings from different providers at a single location. 4. Reduced role for intermediaries One of the most successful companies on the Internet is eBay. It offers visitors the ability to participate in online auctions hawking everything from a used car to a perfume bottle collection. More than 60 million auctions have been completed to eBay on an average basis set a new record of 1.782 million.




COMPARISON OF VARIOUS INTERNET BANKING SERVICES PROVIDED BY ICICI BANK, SBI BANK AND HDFC BANK: 1. BILL PAYMENT ICICI BANK ICICI Bank has tied up with more than 60 organizations across the country to facilitate payment of bills for Utility Companies (Electricity and Telephone) Bills, ICICI Bank credit card, Mobile Phone and Insurance Premium bills. SBI BANK SBI e-PAY - It provides a simple and convenient service for receiving and paying of bills online Online Pay: By using SBI e-PAY the customers can 'see and pay' their various bills online, directly from their SBI Account. The customers can pay telephone, electricity, insurance, credit card and other bills - from the comfort of their house or office, 24 hours a day, 365 days a year! Auto Pay: The customers can also set up AutoPay instructions with an upper limit to ensure that their bills are paid automatically whenever they are due. The upper limit ensures that only bills within the specified limit are paid automatically, thereby providing the customers complete control over these payments. HDFC BANK HDFC Bank provides the luxury of paying its customers telephone, electricity and mobile phone bills at their convenience. Through the

Internet, ATMs, your mobile phone and telephone. LIC insurance premiums can also be paid through this facility. It is better for the residents of Hyderabad or Secunderabad and registered for Hdfc NetBanking service. 2. ONLINE SHOPPING ICICI BANK ICICI Bank has tied up with more than 75 organizations to facilitate online shopping for all its Internet Banking Customers. They can now choose their products online and pay conveniently through ICICI Bank Internet Banking Service. SBI BANK It does not provide online shopping service. HDFC BANK HDFC Bank proudly presents the Easy Shop Gold Debit Card. The Easy Shop Gold Debit Card is the first Gold Debit Card in India. Not only does it replaces the customers ATM card, it also revolutionises the way the customers spend through a Debit Card.



ICICI BANK With ICICI Bank one need not visit Train/ Air ticket booking reservation centers any more. One can now buy your tickets online and pay using ICICI Banks Internet Banking Facility. ICICI Bank has tied up with IRCTC (for Railway Ticket Booking) and Air Deccan (for Air Ticket booking).

SBI BANK SBI bank also provides online railway booking and for this one has to log on to and register their on this site and further one has to follow the procedure as given in SBIs site. HDFC BANK It does not provide online booking of tickets.

4. ONLINE SHARE TRADING ICICI BANK It offers online share trading service to its customers through ICICI


SBI BANK It does not provide ONLINE SHARE TRADING services to its customers. HDFC BANK HDFC BANK does not provide ONLINE SHARE TRADING services to its customers but it provides advice on direct equity through research reports based on fundamental and technical parameters across individual stocks / model portfolio / customized client portfolios.


ICICI Bank's 24 Hour ATM network is one of the largest and most widespread ATM Network in India. ICICI Banks ATMs are located in commercial areas, residential localities, major petrol pumps, airports, near railway stations and other places which are conveniently accessible to the customers.


ICICI Bank ATMs features user-friendly graphic screens with easy to follow instructions. The bank has introduced ATMs which interact with customers in their local language for increased convenience. SBI BANK State Bank offers its customers the convenience of over 5067 ATMs in India. This means that one can transact free of cost at the ATMs of State Bank Group (This includes the ATMs of State Bank of India as well as the Associate Banks namely, State Bank of Bikaner & Jaipur, State Bank of Hyderabad, State Bank of Indore, State Bank of Mysore, State Bank of Patiala, State Bank of Saurashtra, and State Bank of Travancore), using the State Bank Cash Plus card. HDFC BANK HDFC bank provides ATM services 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year from any of their over 1054 ATM across India.


CONCLUSION: From this comparison of online internet banking services provided by ICICI BANK, STATE BANK OF INDIA (SBI) and HDFC BANK, I have drawn a conclusion that as compared to ICICI BANK and HDFC BANK, SBI provides less online internet banking services. When I compared the online internet banking services provided by ICICI BANK and HDFC BANK, I came to the conclusion that these banks provided online internet banking services almost at the same level. Therefore, the GENERALISED CONCLUSION drawn by me is that the private banks provide more online internet banking services than the public sector banks, so the public sector banks should also start providing more online internet banking services and should expand these services to most of its branches, this will enable them to expand their customer base and to face the competition in a better way.





classified the I have analyzed the data collected through the questionnaire and have data into tables. TABLE-I NO. OF USERS WHO HAVE AVAILED THE ATM FACILITY OF ANY BANK AVAILED THE FACILITY YES NO NO.OF USERS 90% 10%

ATM Users

10% Yes No 90%


TABLE-II The users have used the ATM facility of the following banks:


NO. OF USERS IN PERCENTAGE 25 25 10 15 15 10

ATM Users HDFC Bank SBOP 10 15 25 ICICI Bank Bank of Punjab 15 10 25 SBI Not used the facility of ATM





Satisfaction Level Highly Satisfied 0 0 0 Satisfied 10 20 Indifferent Dissatisfied 70 Highly Dissatisfied Users not availing the facility


TABLE-IV Following number of times in a week the users have used the ATM: NUMBER OF TIMES 1 2 3 5 USERS NOT AVAILING FACILITY OF ATM THE NUMBER OF PERCENTAGE 60 20 5 5 10 USERS IN

ATM usage by user per week 1 5 10 2 3 20 60 5 Users not availing the facility


TABLE-V Preference of the users of ATM card of the benefits of ATM:

BENEFITS OF ATM It is time-saving It is beneficial when cash is needed Urgently It is convenient




Benefits of ATM

It is time saving



Beneficial when cash needed urgently Convenient




No. of users facing problem

40% Yes No 60%



NATURE OF PROBLEM The card got withheld in the machine ATM was not working Instructions to use the ATM were not clear and received no help from employees of the bank



P ro b lem faced u sin g AT M C ard got withheld in m achine 12 25 A TM was not working Received no help from em ployees 63


TABLE-VII Other Internet Banking Services availed by the respondents:

NATURE OF SERVICE Credit card Transferring ones money from one city to any other branch in a city Opening Fixed Deposit account via The Internet Inquire about the balance in ones saving, Current and FD account Tax deducted at source on ones FD account for current financial year Giving instructions over the internet for stopping payments on cheques Request for a internet cheque book via the NO. OF USERS IN PERCENTAGE 15 5 5 0 0 5 5

View all transactions on an account for a specified period and get a copy via e-mail None of the above

0 65


Other Internet Banking Services used by users

Credit Card Transferring ones money from one city to any other branch in a city


Opening FD A/c via Internet

5 5 0 50

Inquire about balance in one's saving, current & FD A/c TDS on one's FD A/c for current financial year Givin instr. Over internet for stopping cheque payments Request for Cheque Book via Internet View all transactions on an A/c for a specified period & get copy via e-mail None of the above



TABLE-VIII providing Whether the respondents ever had any grievance against the bank Internet Banking Services to it:


5% (NO. OF USERS) 95% (NO. OF USERS)

G r ie v a n c e a g a in s t t h e b a n k p r o v id in g In te r n e t B a n k in g S e r v ic e s 5% Yes No 95%


TABLE-IX should start market: Opinion of the respondents on whether all public sector banks providing Internet Banking Services to survive in the



R e sp o d e n t's V ie w o f w h e th e r P S B 's sh o u ld sta rt p ro vid in g IB S 25 Y es No 75


RESPONDENTS REASON FOR SAYING YES IN THE ABOVE TABLE: RESPONDENTS REASONS Internet Banking is time-saving To face the competition Internet Banking is convenient and hassle-free Customer preference and increasing number of people using the internet NO. OF USERS IN PERCENTAGE 20 50 20 10

R e s p o d e n t's r e a s o n s fo r s a y i n g y e s i n th e a b o v e t a b l e 10 20 20 In t e rn e t B a n k in g is T im e S a vin g T o fa c e t h e c o m p e t it io n 50









1. Most of the respondents used ATM facility (90% of them availed this

facility.) 2. Respondents were using the ATM facility of private banks more than the public sector banks. 3. Most of the respondents were satisfied by the ATM facility being used by them. 4. Most of the respondents used ATM facility once in a week. 5. 6. Most of the respondents feel that the benefit of the ATM card is that it when cash is needed urgently. 60% of the respondents faced using the ATM faced no problem in comes handy

using the ATM while 40% of the respondents faced a problem while using the ATM. 7. Major problem faced by the respondents while availing ATM card facility was that the ATM was not working and the second common problem was that the card got withheld in the machine. 8 Most of the respondents used very less Internet Banking facilities other than the ATM. Out of the other facilities, credit card was the most commonly used service and the second service used was opening a Fixed Deposit account via the internet. 9. 95% of the respondents didnt have any grievance against the bank providing them the internet services and the 5% respondents which had a grievance against bank providing them the internet banking services were satisfied with the grievance handling procedure of the bank.


10. Most of the respondents felt that the weakness of internet banking is that it is a one way communication and the second most commonly held weakness was that it is not secure. 11. 55% of the respondents felt that Internet Banking is not secure and the reason behind this is that hackers may hack the password of ones account and this may result in huge losses to the user of Internet Banking. 12. Most of the respondents felt that the public sector banks should start providing the Internet Banking services in order to face the competition from the private banks and also because Internet Banking is time-saving and hassle-free.


SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION E-commerce is rapidly expanding its wings across the globe and India is no exception to this phenomenon. Now, several banks have put their electronic banking facilities on the Internet and are providing many facilities like adopting ECS and EDI for knowing account-status , funds transfer between accounts , Billing payments, Web-shopping, Railway and air-ticket booking, etc to their customers at the click of a button. But since Web is a public space open to all, THESE INTENET BASED SERVICES ALSO RAISE NEW THREATS FOR THE BANKS. Financial institutions like banks and merchant websites like Rediff, Amazon, payment sites like PayPal etc, by virtue of the value of information, their customers share with them are becoming the most lucrative target for the attackers. Attackers are formulating newer strategies for attack and one such attack is Phishing. The use of Ph in the word instead of f has come from the word Phreaks who were involved in Phreaking which was a type of attack on telephone system in 1970s. Later in the 1990s the term was used for the hackers who used these techniques for stealing passwords and user-ids for ISPs. It is believed that the term became popular after its use in the famous hacker newletter alt.2600 in January 1996.* Phishing is based on impersonating, which has been one of the most popular types of trickery used by people and the instances of which are available in plenty, even in our mythology. Phishing can be considered as an e-avatar of tricking by impersonating. Like all identity based attacks ,

Phishing also takes the help of impersonating and social engineering to divulge confidential information like account details;passwords;PINs etc. from the users , for various nefarious activities. Most common Phishing attacks are HTML based and are use e-mail as the medium to propagate. Such attacks are easy to perpetrate and enjoy a good success rate. Phishing is The act of sending e-mail to a user falsely claiming to be an established legitimate enterprise in an attempt to scam the user into surrendering private information that will be used for identity theft. It is also called carding or brand spoofing. According to recent studies by Gartner , 57milllion US Internet users have identified the receipt of e-mail as linked to Phishing scams , and about 11million US adult Internet users have clicked in the link in a Phishing email and out of these around 1.78 million are thought to have succumbed to the convincing attacks , which made them divulge their personal information. THREATS TO THE BANKS DUE TO PHISHING The first and foremost threat is loss of customer faith in technology. Such attacks could make customers shun e-banking and reverts towards tradition brick and mortar banking. So, the banks will not be able to leverage the benefits from huge investments they have made for adopting technology. This threat thus spans the whole industry rather than any particular bank. Many a times banks have compensation policies for such cases where customer credit cards are used fraudulently using any of the

techniques. If such attacks increase beyond a proportion the banks will lose control over the provisioning done for compensatory expenses. The bank may face lawsuits filed by customers under various legislatures like Privacy under IT Act 2000. There can be significant wastage of productive resources in handling such attacks and their consequences in the form of lawsuits etc. Another very important threat to banks is Reputation Threat. This is a threat which no bank can afford in todays competitive scenario. The ultimate threat is loss of business, profits, profitability and loss of customers.

PREVENTING BEING PHISHED In order to device methods and doing research in the identity frauds a cross-industry organization called Anti-Phishing Working Group (APWG) has been formed recently. Strong website client authentication. Mail server authentication. Digitally signing e-mails.



EDUCATION AND AWARENESS The banks need to generate awareness among its employees and customers about the attack. Banks need to educate their customers as well as customer facing employees about Phishing, types of attacks, countermeasures etc. Information can be given on the website of the bank regarding handling e-mails that appear to come from legitimate sources. PROTECTING PRIVACY The banks should ensure that customer contact information like e-mail addresses should never fall in wrong hands since this betrays the customer trust and is against the basic protocols of banking. MONITORING Banks can develop some intelligent fraud detection tools to trace fraudulent behaviors by noticing the activities done by an attacker once he gets access to others personal information. This can be integrated with the existing fraud detection and money laundering systems.

LOGIN REPORTS On logging in his account on the website the customer should be provided his last three login times/dates including the exact duration. Also the bank may send monthly login information to the customers.


FRAUD RESPONSE Banks should formulate strategies for responding to such frauds when they occur, so as to minimize the losses. The customer should be educated to immediately inform the bank, in such a case. The bank can then immediately freeze that account and try to catch the fraudster. These response actions should be well understood and documented.

So, Internet Banking is the need of the hour and private banks are already providing efficient Internet Banking Services to their customers. Although Public sector banks are also providing Internet Banking Services but the number of their branches facilitating such services are less as compared to private banks. So, the Public sector banks should concentrate more on providing Internet Banking services. By taking the above measures Internet Banking will become more secure and will help the banks to become more competitive and profitable.



1. Name: 2. Age : 3.Occupation: : ______________________________________________________

4. Do you avail the ATM facility of any bank : Yes ( If yes, then proceed to Q:5 otherwise move to Q:10) 5. You are using the ATM facility of which bank ? No

6. What is the satisfaction level experienced by you with the ATM facility being used by you ? Highly Satisfied Satisfied Indifferent Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied


7. How many times in a week do you use your ATM card?

8. Rank in order of preference the benefits of ATM card in your opinion : It is time-saving It is beneficial when cash is needed urgently It is convenient

9. Have you ever faced any problem while using your ATM card Yes No

If yes , the select any of the following problems which you have faced The card got withheld in the machine ATM was not working While using it for the first time , you faced a problem while understanding the instructions and there was no employee of to help you

the bank

10. Which of the following Internet Banking Services are you availing? Credit card Tranferring ones money from one city to any other branch in a city Open Fixed Deposit (FD) account via the internet


Inquire about balance in ones saving , current and FD account and also the tax Deducted at source on ones FD account for the current and financial year Giving instructions over the internet for stopping payment on cheques Request for a cheque book via the internet

View all transactions on an account for a specified period and get a copy via e-mail None of the above 11. Did you ever had any grievances against the bank providing you Internet Banking service regarding the Internet Banking service provided by it? Yes No

( If yes then answer the next question , If no then move on to Q:13) 12. What was the level of satisfaction experienced by you of the grievance handling procedure of the Bank?

Highly Satisfied Satisfied Indifferent Dissatisfied


Highly Dissatisfied 13. What is in your opinion the weakness of Internet Banking? There is only one way communication

The security is not flawless Lack of first-hand experience gained by a person visiting a bank is not there 14. Do you think Internet Banking is secure? Yes Give a reason for your anwer No

15. Do you think that all public sector banks in India should start providing Internet Banking Services to Survive in the market? Yes If Yes, why? No


Library Sources 1. Internet Banking-The Second Wave: By Sanjeev Singhal, Tata McGraw Hill Publication, 2003 2. Management Trends (A Journal of Department of Business Management) Article- Internet Banking by Kavita Kshatriya Sep 2004 3. Indian Banking 2005, the ICFAI University Press Publication 4. The Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce (Published by Array Development of Ottawa) 5. International Journal of Business Performance Management 2002 (Published by InderScience publishers) 6. The Small Business Guide to Internet Banking by Ray Hurst 7. Internet Banking Shopping for the Older Generation by ---- Greg Chapman 8. Internet Banking: Strategies, Tools and Best Practices by Mona Brewer (Published by Sheshunoff and Co.)


10.Banking and Finance on the Internet (Internet Management Series ) by Mary J. Cronin (Published by John Wiley and Sons) 11.Successful Web Portals in Retail Banking by--- Daniel Singer, Douglas Ross, Albert Avery (Published by --- Wiley)

Internet Sources