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1.7 Understanding light and sight 1.7.1 Reflection and refraction of light 1.

Take place when light rays fall on the surface of an opaque object and bounce off it. 2. Plane mirrors and shiny metals are good light reflectors 3. Flat and smooth surface reflects light in regular patterns (regular reflection)

4. Irregular surfaces like paper and cloth will reflects scattered in different directions of reflected light.(diffused reflection)

5. a) Periscopes – used in submarines b) Kaleidoscope c) Mirrors 7. Refraction occur when the speed of light changes 9. reflected ray and normal are at the same plane 6. Refraction of light occurs when light travels through different media at certain angle 8. The speed of light decreases when light enters a denser medium 10. Applications of the reflection of light .The speed of light increases when light enters a less dense medium A) From less dense to a denser medium i) The light refracted towards the normal ii) Angle of incident is bigger than the angle of refraction B) From Denser to a less dense medium i) The light refracted away from normal ii) Angle of incident is smaller than the angle of refraction . The law of reflection states: i) angle of incidence = angle of reflection i=r ii) Incident ray.

11. Phenomena of the refraction of light: .

Focusing object: 4.Short-sightedness (myopia) a) See near objects clearly but distant objects are blurred. Normal vision can see close and near objects clearly 2.1. b) The lens is too thick c) The eyeball is too long . The thickness of the lens is changed when looking at near or distant object 3.7.2 Vision defects and ways to correct them 1.

Correcting long-sightedness . Long-sightedness (hypermetropia) a) See distant objects clearly b) Can’t focus on near object c) The eye lens too thin d) Eyeball too short 7. Correcting short-sightedness 6.5.

Astigmatism .Image formed distorted and not clear.Can be corrected by wearing cylindrical lenses . Comparison between short-sightedness and long-sightedness 9. .Image cannot be focused at same time .Caused by the irregular surface of the cornea or lens not evenly curved .8.

7.Overlapping .Does not give 3D view.Both eyes in front of the head . Blind spot .Smaller field of vision .Wider field of vision .the point where the optic nerve enters the retina.1.One eye at each side of the head . . not sensitive to light B.3 Limitation of sight A. Optical illusions .Give 3 dimensional (3D). C. can estimate distance accurately .Most predators and human ii) Monocular vision . Stereoscopic and monocular vision i) Stereoscopic vision .The brain cannot interpret accurately the information sent bye eye.Most prey . cannot estimate distant accurately.Caused by disturbances to the impulses going to the brain .Do not overlap .

4 Device to overcome limitation .Example of device to overcome limitation of sight: Magnifying glass Binocular Microscope .1.7.

curtains.Soft and porous surface can absorb sound. Hearing defects . liquid.1.implanted electronic gadget . kinetic energy is changed to sound energy. damaged cochlea by local infections or by exposured to loud sound. gas) is needed for sound to travel.Reflection of sound is called echoes . glass.temporary loss .ossicles fused together. (metal. 3. Ways to rectifying hearing defects .puntured eardrum can be repair by surgery .Medium (solid.Sound cannot travel through vacuum. sponge 2. .the earwax in the auditory canal block sound waves.Produced by vibrations . cotton. brick wall) . Properties of Sound . (carpets.uses syringes and warm water to remove wax .8 Understanding sound and hearing 1. . .Sound can be reflected by hard and smooth surfaces.Sound is form of energy .total hearing loss .When and object vibrates. .

4. Limitation of Hearing 5. Ways to overcome hearing limitations Earphones Stethoscope Loud Speaker .

Growth response in a particular direction .Ability to hear using both ears .Response of plant towards gravity .Important for the survival of animals especially for prey 1.Occurs slowly.Enables to detect the direction of the sound accurately .Roots grow downwards (positive geotropism) and shoot grow upwards (negative geotropism) . Stereophonic hearing . not noticeable .Response of plant towards light .6. A. Tropism .Shoot grow towards light (positive phototropism) while root grow away light (negative phototropism) ii) Geotropism – gravity .4 types : i) Phototropism – light .9 The stimuli and responses in plants 1. Two types of responses: tropism and nastic movement.

.Stem or tendrils grow towards the objects that come into contact with.iii) Hydrotropism – water .Root grow towards water (positive hydrotropism) and shoot grow away from water (negative hydrotropism) iv) Thigmotropism – touch or contact .Response of plant towards water .Plant response towards touch or contact .Root grow away from solid objects such as stones .

B) Nastic Movements .Example: Mimosa pudica. Venus fly trap .To ensure plant get their basic need.Movement is reversible .Does not depend on the direction of the stimulus . light and heat . Importance of plant responses . . .Response part of plant towards touch.Geotropism and hydrotropism enables the plant to obtain water and minerals salt.Plant depend on phototropism to get sunlight for photosynthesis. .