CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background of the Problem Every human beings into the world brought the language potential, it suggests that language skills are a natural fact. Through language human can understand themselve and build a communication with others. According Block and Trager (1942: 5) said that "Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols by means of which a social groups to cooperates”. Generally, human is a social creature. Therefor human holds conversations to establish inter-personal interaction and maintaining social relationships. As a social creature, we need the language as a tool of communication even that oral and written language. It needs to to keeps our social relationship. Without language human can send messages or informations and express something in the process of socialization in society either directly or indirectly, because "The primary function of language is as a communication tool". (Pateda, 1987:4) There are some aspects that involve of communication, like speaker, hearer and context or situation of utterences. The speaker`s ways in expressing their thoughts and feelings to hearer sometimes can be directly or directly. Therefor, the speaker and hearer need to understand each other the language used during

communication, in order to it can run smoothly and uninterrupted. An intelligible Speech usually characterized by an interesting, brief, clear, efficient, and rational utterences. Conversely, the elusive speech usually marked by

1

During the conversation accur. Alan (Wijana. As we know as well. we need cooperative principle to guide our communication both formal or informal situation. the members are also required to understand the context of speech. Its four maxims purpose to analyze conversation which status that speakers try to be informative. class discussion is one of method which 2 . relevant and clear. To avoid misunderstanding. 1994:45) "Stating that every participant of speech act is responsible for the actions and deviations in the interaction of linguistic rules". sentences which are used in communication. maxim of quality. According to Grice in Adisutrisno (2008:71) “there is a cooperative principle which have to be followed by the participants in conversation. it is needed Pragmatics. it is not clear so inefficient may even be irrational. The cooperative principle consists of four maxims. In addition to understanding the language. According to Adisutrisno (2008:63) “Pragmatics is the study of utterences meaning. From the reasons above. at length. the speakers need to convince that the hearers are able to understood about what the speakers means. and also the study of meaning in language interaction between a speaker and a hearer”. like the word "I am Red" could mean that he or she might be called Red or he wanted a red clothes. include during discussions in English class. They are maxim of quantity. truthful. In other words.a less attractive. Therefor. between speakers and hearers are needed a cooperation in order to the communication can occurs smoothly. maxim of relation and maxim of manner. to analysis the meaning of that utterences.

After presenting thier materials. In this way.similarly use by some lectures in their class. the audiences did not comprehence the materials after discussing and time of each group is not efficient. the members will give a questioning chance to the audiences. efficient. for exmaple some members of discussion was able to answer the questions from the audience. 3 . or the audience not enough satisfied to the answers because the members do not answer it clearly and briefly. That`s why cooperative principle is very important thing that should be applied by the members and the audiences during class discussions expecially when the quenstion and answers process accurs. arguments. smoothly. but the answers sometimes did not relate to the questions. Based on the writer`s experiences and observation showed that some of the members and the audiences during class discussions faced some problems in such ways. we often found that some class interpretate their subjects in class discussions. and no misunderstanding concepts between the answers and the questions. the answers which has been given by the participants to be relational. they also communicate sincerely. clearly. opinions and their suggestions based on the explanation of discussion material which is presented by the members. in order to the audiences are able to communicate thier comprehension including ideas. the members of groups discussion must present their discussion materials in front of the class. This case often made misunderstanding between the members and the audiences. concepts. in order to. In English class of FKIP UIR. cooperative. not spend much time.

the writer decides the setting of the problems refer to the indicators of the research as follows: Futhermore.The members and the audiences should be aware to Grice`s concept of cooperative principle. clearly and efficiently. briefly. 4 . One of them is to push away misunderstanding concepts between members and audiences and every audience can get the explanation correctly. The Maxim of Quantity : guides you to make your contibution as informative as required. which mean that the information provided among the English discussion participants should be detailed enough to convey the explanations. Because cooperative principle has positive effects on presentation and question answer process during class discussions. Setting of Problem Based on the explanation above. do not make our contribution more informative than is required.” 1. the writer is interested in carrying out the research which entitle “AN ANALYSIS OF COOPERATIVE PRINCIPLE UTTERED BY THE PARTICIPANTS DURING CLASS DISCUSSION AT THE ENGLISH STUDY PROGRAM OF FKIP UIR PEKANBARU. not more or less than require. That concept consists of four maxims: 1. Grice`s concept of cooperative principle had given us a guide to analyze speech act or utterences that used by the participants during class discussion.2. Reffering to the explanation and the phenomenon above.

Formulation of the Problem 5 .4. experts and truthful. reasons. and do not say that for which you lack evidence. the writter only focus on cooperative principle proposed by Grice that uttered by the participants during class discussion at English study program of FKIP UIR Pekanbaru. 3. 1. 4. or concepts which had given should be relevant to the material discussion and audiences questions that concerned. which means thar the answers.2. Specificly. and arguments according to factual and scientific reasons. maxim of quality. The Maxim of Relation: try to be relevant. The Maxim of Manner 1. ideas. the writter limits the problem as describing cooprative principle on the maxim of quantity. so do not say “may be” on your contribution. Class discussion includes to the one of formal situation. The Maxim of Quality: try to make your contribution one that is true. maxim of relation and maxim of manner which will utter by the members and the audiences only at the question and answer session occur in class discussion. ideas. do not say what you believe to be false.3. Limitation of the Problem In this research. reasons. It means that the participants should be brave to defend and try to convince their concepts.

6 .7. Objective of the Research The main objective of this research is to knows and describes the cooperative principle which includes maxim of quantity. The Needs for the Research The writer conducts this research to fulfill the needs as follows: 1. the writer makes assumtion about the research as follows: The writer assumes that 1. maxim of quality.5. maxim of relation and maxim of manner uttered by the participants during class discussion at English class discussion of FKIP UIR Pekanbaru. whether they follow or not on those maxims. Assumtion Based on the formulation of the problem above. 1. especially on the question and answer sessions. To contribute to the English discussions participants to be cooperate to using cooperative principle during discussion occurs.6. maxim of relation and maxim of manner uttered by the participants during class discussion at the English study program of FKIP UIR Pekanbaru? 1.Based on limitation of the problem described above. In order to they can communicate smoothly. maxim of quality. the writer formulates the problem of the research as follows: how is the cooperative principle which includes maxim of quantity.

while convey and provide an information. The Definition of the Terms To avoid misunderstanding and misinterpretation about the terms used in this research. it is necessary to define the following terms: a. sincerely.1. 3. Analysis: An CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 2. As a stimulation for the English students of FKIP UIR and the readers to guide their communications using based on cooperative principle. and clearly.2. 4. in order to they should be communicate smoothly. relevantly. To complete the task in fulfilling the last requirements of 1. The Conceptual 7 .8.

they are: 1. The ------------.as Independent variable (X) 2.as Dependent variable (Y) The operational variable of the research can be drawn as follows: CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 8 . Operational Variable This research consists of two variables.2. The ------------.6.

the writer takes 9 . Population The population is number of the subject being examined.1.3. The Population and Sample of the Research 4.2. The data will be taken on class discussion that will be course by students on one of lesson on six semesters at the English study program of FKIP UIR Pekanbaru. Location and Time of the Research In this study. the writer take an observation research to observe utterences that will utter by the participants during class discussion which is located at the English study program of FKIP UIR Pekanbaru.3.2. in this research. Sample According to Gay (1978) quote by Siregar (2005:23) suggested that the sampling is the process of selecting individuals for a study.1. In qualitative research. According to seno 4. The population of the research include all utterences between the group members and the audiences during class discussion in one of lesson on the English study program at FKIP UIR Pekanbaru in academic year 2012. It will be begun at the first group performance until the fifth group. Research Design This research is carried out based on the descriptive qualitative approach. So. 4. according to Seno Himala (2001) the sample can be one person or more than that ones.3.4. 4.

The descriptive note has the data reached through observation or documents in order to the note still consists raw data (Manase. Data Analysis Technique 4. Therefor. 4. The Procedure of Collection Data 4. Research Procedure 4. the writer will uses tape recorder or video camera.4. The Instrument of the Research An instument is very useful in a research because by using the right instrument.8. In other hand.6. to collect the data in this research.7. we will know the result of the research. as the alternative instruments.5. Basides that. the writer will apply observation to describe all activities and situations that occurs during the research.4. the writer also will use a field note. Hypothesis Testing 10 . 1985:250).