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Venturi Wireless: The Case for Wireless Cross-Layer Optimization

This document explains how mobile service providers can utilize cross-layer optimization solutions to drive the adoption and long-term success of 3G data services by: • Improving the performance of Web, multimedia streaming, email, and other applications under all RF conditions • Increasing effective coverage and capacity without additional radio/sector investments • Maximizing spectrum and network efficiency

. . . . . . . . . . . 5 Internet Streaming and Variable Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Venturi Wireless Cross Layer Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Key Success Factors for 3G Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 More Users. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Benefits of a Cross-Layer Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . More Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

and multiplayer gaming are potentially powerful sources of new revenue for mobile service providers. If the browsing experience varies from good to bad. Consumers can now take high-speed Internet service on the road. video conferencing. With Venturi Wireless. Venturi maximizes efficiency of RAN resources and spectrum. And they can count on experiencing the same consistent. or if some pages load and others do not. Venturi addresses all of these challenges through its patented Adaptive Airlink Optimization™. they must also respond to consumer pricing sensitivities. Key Success Factors for 3G Services Offering a wide range of attractive services at an attractive price point is critical for broad consumer adoption of 3G services. such as the limitations of the Transport Control Protocol (TCP). however. consumers expect wireless broadband to offer a comparable quality of service to other broadband services like Wi-Fi connected to DSL or cable. and strengthen the economic model for 3G services. Since expectations are naturally shaped by previous experiences. They have invested billions in acquiring 3G spectrum licenses and in building out their network. Worse than being disappointed. they will disconnect. Yet technical and environmental challenges. mobile service providers can deliver a wide range of attractive 3G services that consistently meet or exceed subscriber expectations of performance and reliability. and the physical requirements of video and audio internet streaming. Consumers expect to have fast. Venturi's cross-layer optimization serves to broaden consumer adoption. deepen customer loyalty. While service providers need to recover their costs and deliver their services profitably. Pricing flexibility. And they will need to invest hundreds of millions more for network expansion over time to support subscriber growth and bandwidth intensive services. consistent quality of service is a basic requirement. and suboptimal ROI. consumers who want access to the Internet or online business applications are no longer stuck in Wi-Fi cafés or tethered to desks. and pricing. By both increasing customer satisfaction and improving financial returns for mobile service providers. a cross-layer solution that adapts Internet and multimedia content for efficient wireless transport under all RF (radio frequency) conditions.Introduction The transition from a wired information and communication society to one that is wireless and always on the move is well underway. The popular success of these services is highly dependent upon factors such as service quality. in all places. voice over IP (VoIP). 3 . Or can they? Are consumer expectations really being met with the new 3G mobile data services? The introduction of 3G services such as video and audio streaming. availability. the dynamic nature of radio frequency-based networks. Specifically. can impact all these factors – leading to slow adoption. uninterrupted access to their favorite applications and content at all times. consumers will be disappointed. Overall application performance is another critical driver of 3G mobile data adoption. At the same time. With the rollout of 3G mobile networks. can be difficult due to the high investments that mobile service providers have made and will continue to make to maintain their growing networks. high-quality service outside the home or office as they do inside. customer retention issues. they expect the following from their 3G mobile service provider: Service Consistency: Stable.

Internet Protocol Limitations The root cause of why wireless applications do not always behave as expected lie in the fact that the underlying protocols that Internet applications use were not designed for the wireless environment.Connection Reliability: Reliable connections are extremely important to build consumer confidence in 3G services. it quickly experiences data loss and starts applying recovery algorithms based on the (faulty) assumption that it is experiencing network congestion or routing problems. Less bandwidth is utilized: When congestion control kicks in. Sessions are terminated: When the protocol inaccurately determines that a connection has timed out. the protocol would assume that it was due to routing error or congestion. the rate at which packets are sent is reduced. thereby shedding valuable bandwidth. the state of the transaction is uncertain at best. they will be the mobile service providers’ best evangelists. Seamless Multimedia Streaming: Streaming video and audio are the key services that Internet Protocol Limitations The root cause of why wireless applications do not always behave as expected lie in the fact that the underlying protocols that Internet applications use were not designed for the wireless environment. multi-path. the session will terminate. the subscriber will have to reconnect and start all over again. Fortunately. TCP does not distinguish between packet drops due to congestion and error packets. The nature of Internet protocols require an initial period of buffering before the user can enjoy the streamed content. However. initial buffering times and additional interruptions during viewing.5G networks. Due to this response. If a data session is dropped due to poor connectivity while the user is purchasing an item or trading stock. applying the same congestion control algorithms in a wireless environment will unnecessarily impede application performance and lead to the following network efficiency problems: Redundant data is transmitted: Congestion control algorithms induce retransmissions resulting in redundant data transmissions and multiple acknowledgements of data already received. If data were lost. While buffering works reasonably well over wireline and Wi-Fi networks. 4 . Congestion is rarely the reason for packets being dropped in a RAN environment due to careful capacity planning by wireless carriers. were designed for wireline environments where the biggest challenges were determining how to route data between two points and how to handle network congestion. differentiate 3G from 2G/2. may be impossible to use. they are not as disruptive as similar failures during a wireless data session. If TCP is simply layered over a wireless bearer. and other factors. in a wireless wide area network. “Did the sale go through?”. the subscriber wonders. the impact of RF variations can lead to long. including reducing packet rate transmission and retransmitting data packets. specifically Transport Control Protocol (TCP). Should the subscriber contact customer service? Most likely. energy dissipation due to weather or atmospheric conditions. further driving service adoption. Internet protocols. While drops are not welcomed during a mobile phone call. Venturi’s cross-layer wireless data optimization solution overcomes these issues that impact consumer adoption and loyalty. RAN links do cause a much higher percentage of error packets because of RF conditions that are vulnerable to interference. The protocol takes appropriate actions to recover. some applications. Unfortunately. like e-commerce. When subscriber expectations are met in terms of service quality and value for money.

Implemented on the RAN link. which was developed specifically for wireless networks. A smaller buffer is more likely to cause some subsequent frames to “freeze” after it quickly displays the first frame. 3G users compete for limited resources and experience radio interference – an issue unique to wireless networks. A wireless network not only allocates fewer resources among more users. higher link delay is compounded by delay variations. Network challenges also can lead to costly calls to customer service and. In 3G wireless networks. streaming multimedia. Venturi’s Adaptive Airlink OptimizationTM is a cross-layer solution that works transparently at the transport and application layer to make the Web. 5 . customer churn. Venturi Wireless Cross-Layer Optimization Venturi Wireless is a critical ingredient for successful deployment of next generation wireless services. Venturi’s Adaptive Airlink OptimizationTM is a cross-layer solution that works transparently at the transport and application layer to make the Web. Transport Layer Optimization Starting with the transport layer. Adaptive Airlink OptimizationTM employs the patented Venturi Transport Protocol (VTP). eventually. the more difficult it is for carriers to maintain high service quality. email and other applications perform at a level that users expect. These interruptions are damaging to the perception of streaming media on the wireless handset. TCP is used for the remainder of the network path. As a result. VTP’s packet loss detection and its efficient retransmission mechanism assist TCP in engaging its congestion control procedure only for true congestion. Venturi Wireless helps wireless service providers drive subscriber acquisition and keep customers loyal by providing consistently high performance in every cell throughout their wireless network. From a service provider perspective. which causes longer delay before the initial frame presentation begins. User satisfaction of mobile data is often higher when the service is initially launched because there are fewer subscribers competing for the shared bandwidth. 3G radio conditions and the resulting variations in available bandwidth impact these buffering schemes.it constantly changes due to external conditions as well as load on the network. With fewer users. streaming multimedia. Internet Streaming and Variable Bandwidth Internet streaming relies on a buffering technique that holds a few seconds of display frames to accommodate some slowness in the arrival of subsequent frames. As more users get on the network. As the number of subscribers increase. inserting a transport protocol designed for wireless significantly improves application performance and bandwidth utilization.More Users. A larger buffer takes longer to fill. email and other applications perform at a level that users expect. since a smooth display of visual frames is essential for a good user experience. customer satisfaction. there is also limited radio interference. but also has a radio environment that becomes “crowded” with more users on the network. poor network performance affects service adoption. and the overall success of revenue-generating applications. Similar cell-load conditions can cause aborted mobile data transactions and frustratingly slow speeds. Mobile phone users are already very familiar with the problem of busy tones and dropped calls in a crowded cell. More Challenges The RF environment is dynamic . revenue-generating services such as mobile video suffer unacceptable interruptions due to swings in delay and available bandwidth. Adaptive Airlink OptimizationTM replaces TCP with VTP on the link between the Venturi Client and the Venturi Server.

VTP substitutes TCP’s sliding-window-based flow control with rate-based flow control. next to the Packet Data Serving Node (PDSN) or the Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN). normally sent in many small packets. such as in the case of a user passing through a tunnel. The Venturi solution consists of a Layered Service Provider (LSP) component on the client and a Venturi Venturi Transport Protocol (VTP) VTP is transparent to existing TCP client/server components and complements TCP by operating only on the RAN hop.Depending on available bandwidth. VTP applies transmission rate-based flow control to ensure maximum throughput. VTP is capable of maintaining session during a severe link disruption. Because rate-based transmission is not sensitive to the size of an open window. which ensures that critical applications are usable in a larger coverage area. including residual packet error burst. are 6 . when this window fails to open wide enough due to the residual bit-error rate of an RF link. For example. it is not practical to introduce alternative TCP configurations just for wireless clients. This not only causes frustrations to the mobile data user but also wastes network resources because the incomplete transactions are often restarted from the beginning. and simple loss of connectivity at the cell layer. gateway server at the Radio Access Network (RAN) edge. it allows the maximum throughput that a network connection can handle at any one time. Venturi Wireless Architecture Application-aware Optimization As an optimization solution that crosses several communication layers. the application is unable to use the airlink’s available bandwidth. while letting TCP supply its traditional robust transport layer on the remainder of the hops. while letting TCP supply its traditional robust transport layer on the remainder of the hops. delay swings. Venturi also applies application-aware optimization. Disruptions to transport sessions can occur on wireless links due to various causes. Venturi multiplexes Web requests so that multiple object requests. it is handled very differently and in a superior fashion by VTP on the wireless hop. which further improves performance. In addition to keeping performance levels high in all areas. by continuously monitoring state and then connecting to the Venturi server when available. VTP reduces disruptions by utilizing DO-RNC allocated bandwidth and rate-based transmission. a sliding window must open just wide enough to correspond to the available link bandwidth. Because TCP is an essential component of Internet application servers. VTP is transparent to existing TCP client/server components and complements TCP by operating only on the RAN hop. With TCP. While flow control is an essential component of every transport protocol.

The Venturi server also stores pre-compressed content on its local cache which saves CPU cycles and avoids compression delays. Improved Coverage Transport optimization. Venturi applies content-aware compression schemes. which has a huge positive impact on service adoption. Storing compressed objects in cache offsets the server capacity by the average cache hit ratio (typically 30%). combined with other cross-layer techniques. the key to consumer satisfaction is limiting the inherent variations in application and network performance. Venturi widens the usable radius of a wireless data cell.combined and sent in a single packet. and be able to deliver an unsurpassed subscriber experience. using specific compressors for different object types. With Venturi. including PPM lossless compression for Microsoft documents and JavaScript and advanced JPEG compression for reducing file size while preserving high image quality. Content-aware Optimization Venturi combines transport optimization and application-aware optimization with content-aware optimization. Additionally. Since consumers expect the same consistent and reliable experience every time they connect. Benefits of a Cross-Layer Solution Venturi’s Adaptive Airlink OptimizationTM technology will spur the mobilization of a larger number of mission-critical applications and provide a more satisfying user experience by making 3G wireless access faster and more reliable under all RF conditions. Venturi Increases Usable Cell Radius 7 . mobile service providers will realize improved coverage and capacity. a user can now do so quickly with Venturi. Venturi intelligently pre-fetches content and makes it available to a standard browser when needed. On the client-side. can significantly increase effective cell coverage. Carriers are able to deliver consistent service quality over a larger area without the need to add more towers. They can also extend their geographic reach more quickly and broaden service availability. HTTP optimization is performed by applying caching on the server side so that content can be made available more quickly to the mobile consumer while significantly reducing demands on the carrier’s Internet backhaul. In areas where previously a user could not download a Web page due to poor signal quality. The streamlined content can be transmitted in a shorter time frame and with higher probability of successful receipt. which further decreases download time.

mobile service providers gain much more efficient network and spectrum utilization. Usable bandwidth is freed up earlier. so that additional CAPEX investments can be delayed. which results in more available capacity. With this increased capacity.More Capacity. With Venturi. Faster Delivery Time with Venturi Frees Additional Capacity Increased Throughput Based on field tests. such as PN code on CDMA. The requirement to share these limited resources forces a carrier to limit the number of simultaneous users and thereby the number of subscribers that they can accommodate in a given region. achieving greater consumer reach. operators can serve more customers with their existing network resources. Venturi optimization makes the greatest impact in areas where speeds are most challenged. Not only can operators offer a better. Venturi ensures a seamless subscriber experience throughout the network – faster browsing. shorter buffering times for multimedia. and fewer interruptions in all cell areas. Higher Returns Wireless networks have limited capacity due to available radio resources. spectral bands in Frequency Division (FDD) technologies and frame time slots in Time Division Multiplexed (TDD) techniques. thereby vastly improving the user experience. Venturi Significantly Accelerates Data Throughput (Good RF Conditions) 8 . Venturi cross-layer optimization increases application throughput two to nine times. Venturi cross-layer optimization extends the capacity of the current network infrastructure. faster service but they can save money while doing so.

With improved network efficiency. maximize ROI. Venturi virtually eliminates freezes (re-buffering) during streaming and delivers superior image quality – necessary improvements for the success of 3G data services. The combination of a better user experience from Venturi with competitive service pricing will create faster 3G wireless data service adoption and strengthen customer loyalty. Venturi Adaptive Airlink OptimizationTM helps wireless carriers reduce churn. 9 . since data optimized by Venturi utilizes a smaller buffering size. music. By improving the subscriber’s mobile data experience. decrease customer service costs. In addition. Video and audio streams start two to three times faster with Venturi. Conclusion The Venturi optimization solution enables a consistent quality of service and maximum utilization of network resources that are necessary for the demands of revenue-generating 3G services such as video.Improved Multimedia Performance Venturi improves multimedia performance by offering higher frame rates. and increase average revenue per user. and VoIP. and fewer interruptions during streaming. fewer frame drops. and pass their savings on to consumers in the form of greater flexibility in the pricing and packaging of innovative services. carriers can also better leverage their existing infrastructure to reduce costs.

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