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**Module 10: Data Analysis and Interpretation
**

Intervention or Policy Subevaluations Qualitative vs. Quantitative Qualitative Quantitative

Introduction

• • • • Data Analysis Strategy Analyzing Qualitative Data Analyzing Quantitative Data Linking Quantitative Data and Qualitative Data

IPDET

2 2

**Data Collection and Analysis
**

Data Analysis Hours Spent Pilot Data Collection

Time

IPDET

3 3

Qualitative Analysis

• Best used when for in-depth understanding of the intervention • Answers questions like:

– Is the intervention being implemented according to plan? – What are some of the difficulties faced by staff? – Why did some participants drop out early? – What is the experience like for participants? – Are there any unexpected impacts on families and communities? IPDET

4 4

Quantitative Analysis

• Can be used to answer questions like?

– What is the percent distribution? – How do participants rate the usefulness and relevance of the intervention? – How much variability is there in the data? – What is the relationship between a program and the outcome measures? – Are the results statistically significant?

IPDET

5 5

Qualitative Data • Description of program. process. and experiences • To understand context of the situation • To understand perceptions • Research evolves as questions emerge • Flexible design IPDET 6 6 .

Qualitative Data Analysis • Used for any non-numerical data collected as part of the evaluation – – – – – unstructured observations open-ended interviews analysis of written documents focus groups transcripts diaries. observations • Analysis challenging • Take care for accuracy (validity concern) IPDET 7 7 .

Making Good Notes • Capture as much information as possible • Pay close attention to language • Write down observations • Capture your immediate thoughts • Leave time to write up notes immediately IPDET 8 8 .

available data. program records. diaries. questionnaires questionnaires. interviews interviews. expert panels observations. available data IPDET 9 9 .Triangulation • Can use three or more sources of information to verify and substantiate your data • Examples: – – – – interviews. focus groups.

Early Steps in Qualitative Analysis (1 of 3) • While collecting data: – keep good records – write up interview. impressions. notes from focus groups – make constant comparisons as you progress – meet with team regularly to compare notes and make adjustments IPDET 10 10 .

or important? – what new questions need to be explored? IPDET 11 11 .Early Steps in Qualitative Analysis (2 of 3) • Write contact summary report – one page summary after each major interview or focus group – main issues – major information obtained – what was the most interesting. illuminating.

hunches.Early Steps in Qualitative Analysis (3 of 3) • Use tools to help you – create a subjectivity file with your own reactions during the study. including your feelings. and reactions – file your ideas that emerge as you proceed – keep a file of quotations from the data collection IPDET 12 12 .

other ways of interpreting data IPDET 13 13 . questions.Maintain an Iterative Dialogue • Share information early and often with key informants • Have others review early drafts with the intention of eliciting information.

Drawing-out Themes and Patterns • As you review. begin to make notes • Goal is to summarize what you have seen or heard: – – – – common words phrases themes patterns • Also identify where they are so you can find them again if you need to verify • May want to use a spreadsheet IPDET 14 14 .

categorize. and annotate textual and visual data • Help you visualize the relationships among data IPDET 15 15 . organize.Computer Help for Qualitative Data Analysis • Software packages to help you organize data • Search.

Examples of QDA • N6 from QSR (previously called NUD*IST) • Ethnograph • Qualpro • Hyperqual • Anthropax • Atlas-ti IPDET 16 16 .

Controlling for Bias • We tend to see what we want to see and may miss things that do not conform to our expectations • Use well trained recorders • Evaluators review documents and code them in themes IPDET 17 17 .

Concluding Thoughts on Qualitative Data • Qualitative data collection is not the easy option – labor intensive and time consuming – reliability among coders. using a coding scheme is essential • Can reveal valuable information IPDET 18 18 .

Quantitative Data: Statistics • Quantitative data are analyzed with statistics – descriptive statistics: used with census or non-random sample data – inferential statistics: used with random sample data IPDET 19 19 .

Descriptive Statistics • Describes the frequency and/or percentage distribution of a single variable • Tells how many and what percent • Example: – 33% of the respondents are male and 67% are female (table on next slide) IPDET 20 20 .

5: Distribution of Respondents by Gender Male Female Total Number Percent Number Percent Number 100 33% 200 67% 300 Source: Fabricated Data Write up: Of the 300 people in this program. 67% are women and 33% are men.Example of Descriptive Statistics in a Table How many men and women are in the program? Table 11. IPDET 21 21 .

Distributions • Measures of central tendency – how similar are the data? – example: How similar are the ages of this group of people? • Measures of dispersion – how dissimilar are the data? – example: How much variation in the ages? IPDET 22 22 .

ordinal.Measures of Central Tendency • The 3-M’s – mode: most frequent response – median: mid-point of the distribution – mean: arithmetic average • Which to use depends on the type of data you have – nominal. interval/ratio IPDET 23 23 .

Jewish.Nominal Data • Data of names or categories • Examples: – gender (male. Peru) • Use mode as a measure of central tendency IPDET 24 24 . Christian. female) – religion (Buddhist. Muslim) – country of origin (Burma. Ethiopia. China.

Ordinal Data • Data that has an order to it but the “distance” between consecutive responses is not necessarily the same • Lacks a zero point • Examples: – opinion scales that go from “most important” to “least important” or “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree” • Use mode or median as a measure of central tendency IPDET 25 25 .

height • Use mode. income.few low scores. median. mean is best – for data with few high – or . median is best 26 IPDET 26 . weight.Interval/Ratio Data • Data of real numbers. numbers with a zero point and can be divided and compared into other ratio numbers • Examples: – age. or mean as a measure of central tendency — the choice depends on the distribution – for normal data.

Calculating • Mode: the one with the most • Median: place in order then count down to half way • Mean: (most people think of it as the average) IPDET 27 27 .

Example Data Table 11.7: Sample Data Country Bolivia Algeria Central Africa Republic Georgia Panama Turkey Source: Fabricated Data % Urban 65 60 41 61 58 75 IPDET 28 28 .

Example Calculations for % Urban Data • Mode: no mode. with data in order two middle scores are (61 and 60) ÷ 2 = 60.5 • Mean: (65+60+41+61+58+75) ÷6 = 60 IPDET 29 29 . all have only one data point • Median: total entries is 6.

but not very valuable • Standard deviation – measure of the spread of the scores around the mean – superior measure. it allows every case to have an impact on its value IPDET 30 30 .Measures of Dispersion • Range – difference between the highest and lowest value – simple to calculate.

Example Calculation for Range • Range: high score – low score = range range = 75 – 41 range = 34 IPDET 31 31 .

Normal Curve (Bell) y Frequency 0 Value x IPDET 32 32 .

Standard Deviation y Mean One standard deviation from the mean Two standard deviations from the mean 0 68% 95% 98% x Three standard deviations from the mean IPDET 33 33 .

Calculating Standard Deviation • Calculating is time consuming • Can use statistical programs: – SPSS – Excel or other spreadsheet program IPDET 34 34 .

it gets easier with training and practice IPDET 35 35 . raise the benchmark 7 Like any art or skill.Guidelines for Analyzing Quantitative Survey Results 1 Choose a standard way to analyze the data and apply it consistently 2 Do not combine the middle category with each side of the scale 3 Do not report an agree or disagree category without also reporting the strongly agree agree or strongly disagree category 4 Analyze and report percentages (or numbers) 5 Provide the number of respondents for an anchor 6 If there is little difference in the data.

Common Descriptive Statistics • • • • • Frequencies Percent Mean Median Mode • Percent • Ratio • Comparisons IPDET 36 36 .

Describing Two Variables at the Same Time • Two variables at once • Example: What percent were boys and what percent were girls in hands-on and traditional classes? IPDET 37 37 .

Example Two Variables at the Same Time Hands-on Hands-on Traditional Traditional Boys Girls Total 125 28 22 N=50 55% 45% 100% 34 41 N=75 45% 55% 100% Source: Fabricated Data: 2004 Survey IPDET 38 38 .

Two Variables with Crosstabs • Cross tabulation (crosstab) – presented in a matrix format – displays two or more variables simultaneously – each cell shows number of respondents IPDET 39 39 .

Example Crosstabs Hands-on Boys (n=45) Traditional 55% 65% Total % 100% 100% 45% 35% Source: Fabricated Data Girls (n=80) N=125 IPDET 40 40 .

Variables • Independent – Variable which you believe explains a change in the dependent variable – Program evaluation: the program • Dependent – Variable you want to explain – Program evaluation: the outcomes IPDET 41 41 .

400 SA Rand IPDET 42 42 .800 SA Rand 32.Example: Comparison of Means -dependent variable: annual income -independent variable: gender Mean Income Women Men 27.

Measure of Relationship • How strongly variables are related. reported differently • Measures of association – range from zero to 1 • Measures of correlation – range from –1 to +1 IPDET 43 43 .

5: moderate/strong (maybe as good as it gets) – closer to zero: no relationship • .2 .slight/weak relationship IPDET 44 44 .Interpretation of Correlation • Measures of correlation: – perfect relationship: 1 or –1 • closer to 1 or –1: strong relationship • .

Direct Relationship • Plus sign + – both variables change in the same direction – example: • as driving speed increases. death rate goes up IPDET 45 45 .

health status decreases IPDET 46 46 .Inverse Relationship • Minus sign – both variable change but in the opposite direction – example: • as age increases.

Inferential Statistics • Used to analyze data from randomly selected samples • Risk of error because your sample may be different from the population as a whole • To make an inference. you first need to estimate the probability of that error IPDET 47 47 .

Statistical Significance Tests • Tools to estimate how likely the results are in error • Called tests of statistical significance – to estimate how likely it is that you have gotten the results you see in you analysis by chance alone IPDET 48 48 .

Statistical Significance • Benchmark of .5% – .5 IPDET 49 49 .05 Alpha level or P value • It means we are 95% certain that our sample results are not due to chance – or • The results are statistically significant at the .05 level • Most reports do not go beyond .

e marital status and religious affiliation) • Used to compare two ordinal variables or a combination of nominal and ordinal variables • Used to determine if one group of numerical scores is statistically higher or lower than another group of scores – two means IPDET 50 50 .Chi Square and t-Test Chi Square • One of the most popular statistics – easy to calculate and interpret t-Test • Used to compare two sets of nominal data (i.

Hypothesis Testing • Research hypothesis is your best guess as to the relationship between variables – Example: there is a difference between the per capita incomes of men and women in South Africa • Null hypothesis is always a statement that “there is no difference” or “no impact” between our variables – Example: there is no difference between the per capita incomes of men and women in South Africa IPDET 51 51 .

Remember: • A significant test is nothing more than an estimate of the probability of getting the results by chance if there really is no difference in the population IPDET 52 52 .

Linking Qualitative and Quantitative Data • Should qualitative and quantitative data and associated methods be linked during study design? – How? – Why? IPDET 53 53 .

Qualitative-Quantitative Linkages • • • • Confirmation or corroboration – triangulation Richer detail Initiate new lines of thinking Expand the scope IPDET 54 54 .

To continue on to the Next Module click here To return to the Table of Contents click here .

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