Course: BUSINESS ECONOMICS Professor: RUI ALPALHÃO

The London 2012 Olympic Games
STUDENTS FROM MSc.BA:
André Olaio, 30639 Bruna Salvado, 30696 Elodie Zeferino, 30731 Francisco Nascimento, 30766 Luís Pereira, 53072 Sónia Filipe, 30764

December, 2011

Index Page Question 1 Question 2 Question 3 Conclusion – Analysis sport by sport 3 7 10 18 2 .

Athletics. If he sets extremely high prices in 3 . taking into consideration the Londoners purchase power. if it is a event stage or not and if there is a presence of a particular team or athlete who is able to make the difference. Rowing and Swimming. the global appeal for sports such as gymnastic and swimming. Sailing. has to evaluate all the supply requirements plus the demand criteria in order to set the ticket prices and to deliver the best possible output. However it is up to Williamson to define the price for each event. maximizing the revenues. Williamson is aiming to fulfill four requirements at the same time: to maximize the revenues. the more he increases the Big Four ticket prices the more he has to increase the remaining ticket prices in order to decrease the price differential and to avoid the unpleasantness among the remaining sports. to maximize the attendance. The amount of tickets issued and its distribution among all the events is already set. and within each event the different price tiers available. What broad tradeoffs does Williamson face as he thinks about his tickets prices? While trying to set the proper prices for all the events of the Olympic Games 2012. This. All four supply requirements are more easily achieved when Williamson just focus on the Big Four events or in the events of beloved teams or athletes. However. Looking at each supply requirement. He could set higher prices. This is probably the biggest tradeoff he has to face. we cannot analyze it ceteris paribus once there is a straight interdependence between each variable. said Williamson. once he is unable to successfully maximize the revenues of the whole program because he needs to pay attention to the disparities among prices and the image transmitted to the audiences of how the sports are valued. People’s willingness to pay for a given event depends on the expectation based on other sporting events in and around London. filling the seats with the right people and leading to the maximum attendance. to fill the seats with the right people and to make the tickets affordable for the average Londoners. once the Big Four are the main attractions of the Olympic Games and that people are willing to pay for those events. the local appeal for Indoor Track Cycling.Question 1.

This is another tradeoff he needs to solve. Once normally those sports have much lower attendances. So Williamson has to decide which requirements he will establish as priorities and which requirements won’t hold. When trying to establish the ticket prices he could also use some guidance from the previous Beijing Olympic Games adjusting merely the inflation. to maximize attendance. compromising one of Williamson’s main goals. Athletics and Rowing are also expected to have high demands and therefore the same concerns arise. Williamson cannot offer discounts to the locals unless he makes available those same discounts to the remaining EU citizens. violating his other goal of making tickets affordable for the locals. having however to compromise some of the requirements in detriment of others. However. Due to the fact that 55% of the tickets purchase is expected to come from the UK residents. he will have to also increase the prices for the remaining sports. London is closer to Europe and therefore more Europeans are expected so. once they are most likely to have a monthly pass. a price increase will make the attendance even worst. The Big Four events are expected to be responsible for 40% of the tickets revenues. but the website crashed due to the huge affluence) and 4 . the tastes. how we previously mentioned. in coming up with a price mix that optimizes the hole picture. who account for 30% of the expected ticket purchases. Despite this fact. or he could look at the trend along the different Olympic Games to decrease the tickets price. the different currency and local purchase power. the local appeal sports such as Indoor Track Cycling. This strategy would also difficult the local access to the tickets. it is the first time that the tickets will be available through internet (Beijing attempted to do so. The challenge lies. culture and atmosphere are dramatically different. Another tradeoff arises from the fact that Londoners. probably are unwilling to cover the percentage of the ticket’s price that is related with the one-day free pass in London transportation. the conditions are different and he needs to decide how he can measure those differences and turn them into feasible prices.the Big Four or in the events with famous teams and athletes. Sailing.

As he states. to decrease the prices so it becomes affordable during the crisis or to increase it. Williamson also needs to come up with higher prices for the remaining sports that already suffer from the lack of interest among the audience.that will probably lead to a higher demand and last but not least. present lousy audiences and discourage the teams or athletes that are performing. However. According to the available information. All these facts lead to a huge tradeoff in whether to follow the Beijing example with some adaptations regarding the local appeal and the previously mentioned changes in inflation. the equilibrium changes and the price increases. in an optimistic vision. If he decides to go for high prices he will maximize the revenue of the Big Four but he will sell few tickets for the remaining sports. West Ham etc. Well let’s see how this can come out. we are going through a global crisis that limits people’s ability to afford the tickets. 75% of those who will purchase tickets are either from the UK or the European Union and the data claims that football is one of the most beloved sports among the Europeans so. with a low rate of interest for the majority of the viewers and that the football interest is closely related with the team playing and with the players. These same remaining sports are expected to generate the remaining 50% of ticket revenues and include the local appeal sports. this vision is purely unrealistic once some of the games are of women football. once the online platform leads to an increase in demand. according to the economy equilibrium. so. and therefore. the majority of the football idols won’t be playing and therefore it is harder to set the price because it has nothing to do with a classic match as the ones from Manchester. the task is mildly facilitated by these sports that attract UK citizens. minimize its tickets revenues. etc. As we already mentioned the main problem is that in order to set high prices in the Big Four. Football is loved in England and in Europe and it is expected to contribute with 10% of the ticket revenue. 75% of the ones who purchase the tickets would show interest in watching the games. when the demand highly exceeds the supply. 5 . it stays far behind when in comparison with the European Cup Football but it is also quite different from the England Football Friendly games and the England Under-21 Football games. Once the regulations forbidden players over 23 years old.

So if he looks to the other way around. and the price will be perceived as a last attempt to bring audience. the probability of purchasing a ticket and after not attending the events increases and he is aiming to achieve 85% of the available seats. unworthy. this is another possibility for Williamson to consider. However. This would lead to major problems with the sports foundations and discourage the athletes to perform. In the end. Besides decreasing the revenue. and sets a lower price. the few real fans were able to feel the lack of connection and knowledge regarding the sport and instead of improving the situation it compromised the image and credibility of the Olympic Games. it will harm the image of certain sports and labels them as cheap. In addition to that. However. if the tickets become cheap. 6 . he will lead to the increase of demand and offer affordable prices. that led to a small audience and that was “solved” with the placement of volunteers along the benches. However.an attendance lower than 65% is a disaster so this high price strategy can turn into a dead end. the outcomes he has to evaluate are: to exceed the ticket revenue targets by $50 Million having 70% of attendance or settling with less $50 Million than the established goal in terms of revenue by having 90% of attendance and. One solution adopted in the past Olympic Games involved the practice of higher prices. to evaluate if his current inclination to one of the possible outcomes will hold within the next eighteen months. there is also a huge gap in this line of thinking.

7 . As we saw from Beijing’s Games in 2008. On what dimensions does he need to optimize? Why? Which are less important? In the process of deciding what the optimal price is.  Fill Seats with Right People – The Olympic Games atmosphere was always a topic of great concern for the organizing cities. in London: “Everybody’s Games”. since they are both directly related. This makes the decision process of Ticketing very important at a regional level. do we want higher prices to every sport distributed in an even way or prices set according to the success of the sports?  Maximizing the Attendance – There is a high reputation risk involved in the Olympic Games. It is crucial during this report. to not forget the motto of this next Olympic Games. Giving importance to this dimension means that measures should be taken to keep the arenas full in all events. not just the high appeal ones.9 Million tickets available and another 25% are from other UK residents outside London. we need to consider four different dimensions and how they relate with the decisions needed to make. We will try to assure that this goal will be fulfilled. The Dimensions We identified the dimensions that should be taken into account by Paul Williamson and they are:  Maximizing the Revenues – Ticketing is an important part of the Games bottom line and should be taken into account when making the price of the events. having half full arenas are bad for the image of the Games and the city. and for that to be accomplished. What this means is that more than 50% of all the attendance is from UK itself and price should reflect the reality of the country. It is the intention of the organization of the Olympic Games to make the motto of this year as “Everybody’s Games”. gives a bad image of the Games because the public will not interact with the event and that will give the general audience (TV viewers) the idea that there is no emotional connection. Having the stadiums filled with people that do not understand the sport that is happening.Question 2.  Affordable Tickets to Average Londoners – Residents of London projected attendance on the Olympic Games is about 30% of the full 7. the price for Londoners is a very important issue.

because is a big part of the Ticketing process. mostly because there is expectation from other events and the public is waiting an event with quality. Price should reflect the organization’s effort to make tickets available to the average person and so this dimension needs to be carefully handled as well. Ticket revenues are a big part of the total profit made from the Olympic Games. because tickets will be easily sold. Nevertheless. but not the most necessary to be optimized. The LOCOG wants the Games to be known as “Everybody’s Games” and as so. Paul Williamson cannot forget that making money is one of his main objectives. it is known that the 8 . having Affordable Tickets to Average Londoners rises as an important issue to take into account. Paul Williamson needs to make sure that the right people attend the events. the problem of maximizing attendance is solved. If all of them are balanced. Empty seats are bad for the reputation of the organizing city and country and there should be measures taken to ensure that all events have a high attendance level. the aim of achieving at least 65% of attendance will be fulfilled. we should consider some with more priority than others. The importance of Filling Seats with the Right People comes next in the decision making process of Ticketing. and as such. allow to make sure that there will have great levels of attendance. Even though this is true. Maximizing Revenues must be considered at first. we can say that the Games were a success. However. if they certify that there will be tickets affordable for everybody. all of the above dimensions have an important role in the decision making of the price. in the process of ticketing.What are the most important dimensions? For the 2012 London Olympic Games to be a success. we should not forget Maximizing Attendance. At second place. therefore. And so. Now that one of the biggest aims is Games create revenues and. It is important to involve the associations of the sports with less appeal as they are directly interested in raising awareness to the sports they support.

athletics and ceremonies . although ones will have more importance than others.“Big Four” events: swimming. games with less attendance Type of event BIG FOUR Dimensions to be optimized Maximizing revenues Maximizing Attendance Filling Seats with the Right People Affordable Tickets to Average Londoners 1st 3th 3st 1rd 4rd 1st Football matches Remaining Sports 2nd 4th 3th 4rd 2nd 2nd 9 . to become more efficient the analysis of those dimensions. then the Games have all the conditions to be a success.price for the Big Four tickets have to be. We are sure that if all these dimensions are taken into account in the decision of Ticketing. Furthermore. or tend to be. artistic gymnastics. we think that we can be better divide our analysis in three parts: .Football matches .Remaining games: local appeal. in order to find which must be optimized. higher than the less popular sports.

respectively) according to the inflation rate. Regarding the Ceremonies. which registered a greater difference on athletics. 2004 and 2008 for Sydney. the number of medals won by Great Britain should be a factor to be paid special attention while setting the ticket’s price. The only exception occurs within Indoor Track Cycling. that are represented in the table in the next table. Finally. we can also see that this event is the one with the higher ticket prices. Athens and Beijing. Beijing decided to create those tiers to show that those were “everybody’s games”. We can also notice that the event where we can find a greater difference between tiers is the ceremonies. Then we decided to analyze the difference between the higher and the lower tiers to assess its accessibility towards people from different social segments. Now. analyzing the values that are presented in the referred table. since Australia is the country (from this sample of three countries) that has a larger number of medals won. 10 . After doing that. what had a terrible result in terms of revenues and also in terms of attendance. with the exception of Athens in 2004. we can see that there are events in Sidney and Athens where it doesn’t exist the lower tiers. we can see that there is a larger difference on the countries where there are a major number of medals won in that same sport. we started by analyzing the price of the tickets of the previous editions. It is also important to inform that we did a research about the prices that are already settled for the 2012 Olympic Games. what will influence the price we will define for The London 2012 Olympic Games. what means the cost of the Olympic Games’ ticket if it was bought today (in US dollars). However. What would you do if you were Paul Williamson? In order to determine the possible price that the London 2012 Olympic Games’ tickets should have. like what was previously said in this coursework. We organized the events according to its relevance (which means that first we present “Big Four” events and after. one of “The Big Four” events. track cycling and table tennis) and divided it into the main tiers that compose each one.Question 3. we transformed the price that was current at the time of the Olympic Games (2000. Having this said. like ceremonies and table tennis. so that we could assess the differences between this season and previous ones.

1 11 .32 52.29 13.54 112.78 115.75 103.74 29.2 597 472 220 63 44 28 19 126 63 31 16 9 6 57 44 25 189 94 715.16 52.67 4.74 28.0 2.03 75.71 78.05 235.91 418.67 78.58 565.5 627 376 188 100 25 38 25 13 75 38 19 25 13 6 100 50 25 100 50 659.67 6.71 105.36 4.9 2.9 5.16 52.97 226.31 105.96 26.05 186.8 4 13.51 52.16 26.2 3.87 53.51 37.9%) Difference Ticket Price Beijing 2008 With Inflation (5.1 25.16 19.91 376.58 4.2%) Difference Difference Tier 1 Opening Ceremony Tier 2 Tier 3 Tier 4 Tier 5 Tier 1 Preliminaries Aquatics Swimming Tier 2 Tier 3 Tier 1 Prelim/Finals Tier 2 Tier 3 Tier 1 Preliminaries Tier 2 Tier 3 Athletics Tier 1 Prelim/Finals Tier 2 Tier 3 Finals Tier 1 Tier 2 869 619 318 66 88 50 22 286 142 60 53 41 22 104 79 41 286 179 1142.71 65.Sydney 2000 Event/ Sport Event Stage Price Tier Ticket With Inflation Price (31.0 13.89 69.7 75.93 136.5 13.98 26.8 2.5 9.0 16.29 13.77 151.7 4.93 376.38 395.69 53.13 86.3 31.0 4.6 9.96 19.58 26.0 2.74 33.91 28.19 68.29 39.5 2.79 7.8 25.18 10.7 4.42 197.5%) Difference Ticket Price Athens 2004 With Inflation (19.56 22.1 2.29 105.3 6.62 813.75 263.2 13.4 4.87 39.

25 26.36 53.67 6.9 1.96 19.67 6.29 2.87 46.95 7.89 115.2 1.31 13.71 69.3 2.77 1.7 25 13 6 38 19 6 13 13 6 38 19 63 25 26.31 39.0 2.29 13.98 6.79 22.31 39.2 2.34 49.68 3.02 61.2 6.67 13.Artistic Preliminaries Prelim/Finals Preliminaries Prelim/Finals Preliminaries Table tennis Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 1 Tier 1 Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 2 Tier 1 Tier 2 60 88 53 223 179 41 66 25 35 47 - 78.96 19.91 86.5 2.69 293.9 5.2 1 1.95 41.14 26.03 89.22 235.8 1.2 Track Cycling Quarter Finals Tier 1 & Semi-finals Finals 12 .2 1.7 4.19 10.98 66.0 2.6 47 41 22 126 75 35 35 6 9 19 - 56.78 32.9 41.5 10.37 151.Tier 3 Gymnastics .

therefore.882 YES(+++) NO Athletics 37. under-23 and women and also due to Euro ’12 competition. since it is really successful in general and also because it is a sport where Britain has won some medals. Swimming. In the second step. there is not the risk of low attendance. despite the few seats available. tickets High revenue Low attendance available OPPORTUNITY RISK per session Outcome The opening and closing ceremonies are the events with higher prices in previous years which demonstrate a really high revenue opportunity and low attendance risk because it is the most successful event of the Olympic Games. SPORTS Avg. as one of the Big Four events. First. In the first step. there is not a high revenue opportunity and a low attendance risk. We follow a two-step methodology. considering two other objectives: getting the right people and giving average Londoners and the local community around the Olympic park the opportunity to watch the games.368 YES(+++) NO Track cycling 3. Since table tennis has both low local and global appeal. British Pounds and. we consider only our two main objectives: maximizing revenue while not compromising attendance.111 YES(++) SOME(-) Table tennis 2. due to the high number of seats available. there is high revenue opportunity.656 NO YES(+) Football 47. However. Since it has so few seats and great importance. which leads to a high revenue opportunity. Artistic gymnastics is other of the "Big Four" events. due to its low global appeal there is still the risk of low attendance. which assures a high revenue opportunity. there is some risk of low attendance. This helps lower the attendance risk.000 YES(+++) NO Swimming 10. due to the number of seats and the interest that Europeans have on football. However. we now move to the actual pricing for the London’s 2012 Olympic Games.800 YES(+++) SOME(-) Artistic gymnastics 12. However. Euros). For football there is a low attendance risk for small teams.Given the aforementioned points. Athletics is the third major winning sport in Great Britain and.024 YES(+) YES Other - SOME(+/-) YES 13 . Therefore there is the low attendance risk but also some revenue opportunity due to the diversity of sports offered Ceremonies 60. For each step we present a table that resumes our analysis and recommendation. we define the number of tiers and specify the upper and lower tiers prices. still. we define for each event an average price and for that. Track cycling is a sport with broad local appeal (namely by the high number of medals won by Great Britain in this sport). The category "others" include several sports. is not a problem in terms of revenue. there is a high revenue opportunity. for the average prices (in USD.

000 # Expected attendance 120.450 619. assigned a weight of available tickets (0.9% 8. For these intermediate tiers (1 or more) we assigned also an average price.000 179. and ii) the amount of tickets available.000 85.2).577.623 $ 144. That is. it is now time to show the average price for ticket that we propose.336 $ 3.2% 100% Here.000 235.427. we present a number that represents those calculations.350 1.644. attendance1 100% 97% 82% 97% 92% 71% 71% 80% 80% Total tickets 120.2% 30. Thus.After presenting a table that mirrors the relation between the different sports and our two main objectives. we expect always an extra 1-2% of higher attendance due the implementation of a yield management systems.000 $ 46. and 0.000 756.000 1.888 $ 164.961. To define either 1 or 2%.127.400. for each sport.875.760 60.975.000 185. preliminaries and finals.3 and 0.250 3.661.801.9% 0.920 227.000 4.304 $ 48.5% 26. we took into consideration i) the popularity of the sport. We did not actually made these as we only considered what would be the top and lower tier (see the next table).3 $ Avg.858.175. price (£) 462 £ 170 £ 183 £ 141 £ 132 £ 51 £ 29 £ 36 £ 55 £ Avg.240 $ % within total revenues 15.600 6.0% 0. SPORTS Ceremonies Swimming Athletics Artistic gymnastics Track cycling Table tennis Football Other TOTALS % Avg. 1 We mean by average price the weighted average of the different tiers. price (€) 546 € 201 € 216 € 167 € 156 € 61 € 34 € 42 € 73 € Total revenue 86.039. price ($)2 720 $ 265 $ 285 $ 220 $ 205 $ 80 $ 45 $ 56 $ 86.297.950 25.6% 8.7% 9.000 7. according to the conclusion we reached previously.880 $ 44.000 28. this method assure us a clean definition of price.402.280 Avg.530 $ 4. that is sensitive to different factors 2 14 .680 $ 543.5 to the remaining tiers/tickets available.

The next table will present the number of tiers and its maximum and minimum values.00 $ 4 15 .00 $ 4 25. SPORTS Weight (Right people and Londoners) Max.00 $ tennis Nevertheless. tickets should be affordable to fans. It might have Table some problems attracting both the right supporters and Londoners. By the same Other token. others will.00 $ 3 25. Being one of the Big Four events. Price must 140. Moreover.800. Getting the Athletics 500. This sport needs the right supporters but that won’t be that hard to Track find as it has huge local support.) should differ accordingly 35. About the right people 500. of (global) (global) tiers There is no such thing as ‘the right people’ for the opening and Ceremonies closing ceremonies but average Londoners should be able to afford 1. with huge affluence and support.00 $ 3 60.00 $ to support. We must guarantee affordable tiers even if Swimming taking advantage of the revenue opportunity./min. support from Londoners 335. as it has not so many tickets available per session. the sport is popular enough to attract a majority of people who love and support it. even a minority of supporters might fill in the space.00 $ cycling and UK citizens is guaranteed because the UK has been winning a lot of OG medals in this sport. Football needs the right people to support but that is not very hard to find as Europe and the UK are huge fans. The UK has won some medals in Athletics. tier No. this is one of the OG main events.00 $ reflect this as it does and tiers (max. 150.00 $ gymnastics not be a major attraction. this should 420.00 $ what is the main event of the OG The UK has won some medals in Swimming and this will be a main attraction for Londoners. women football and the need to travel to support national teams.00 $ 5 25.00 $ as football games have place all around the UK. Other’ includes a variety of sports and events.00 $ right people to watch won’t be a problem but one should guarantee Londoners affordable tickets. tier Min. & no.00 $ 4 15. As for Londoners.00 $ 3 20. Nevertheless. some will attract Londoners while others will not.00 $ 4 40. this sport won’t have many Artistic problems attracting the right people. Besides that. Table tennis has neither a local nor a global appeal. Londoners and locals from other cities Football 150. Some will have no trouble in finding the right supporters. Also to take into consideration is the different status of OG football.

It is relevant to mention that Beijing 2008 show an attendance of 100% but that only means that all the tickets available were sold.3 Ratio 0. ticket price 51.7 3. we also calculated some ratios that allowed us to prepare our recommendation and evaluate it. not that all the seats were occupied (there were sports where the organizers of the Olympic Games had to count with the help of volunteers to fill in the empty seats).7 3.8 6.3 6.88 0.3 6. we can admit that our main goal is to guarantee an attendance of at least 80%.00 0.8 7.79 Looking at the first auxiliary table. As we can notice.6 5.2 $ 82. that is. 16 .2 $ The previous table shows the revenue won from the tickets in each of the Olympic Games.So that all this results were possible. compare attendance and revenues from different Olympic Games.72 1.8 6.0 $ 29.76 0.8 6. Available Atlanta ‘96 Sydney ‘00 Athens ‘04 Beijing ‘08 London ‘12 11 7.4 $ 86.8 6.96 Sold 8.3 6. our goal is to present revenue from tickets of about 550 million dollars. Revenue from tickets Atlanta ‘96 Sydney ‘00 Athens ‘04 Beijing ‘08 London ‘12 425 551 228 200 543 Tickets sold 8.2 $ 60.3 Avg.

something that was really useful when defining the average price.78 Swimming Athletics 17 185000 10882 0. that do not have the same popularity as the major teams. It is also important to make clear that the price of Euro 2012’ tickets have a higher price when compared to the tickets of Olympic Games due to the fact that in OG there will also be female football and sub-23 teams. that will play in Euro 2012.05 We decided to do the previous table. Euro 2012 Opening match Group matches Quarter-final Semi-final Final Category 1 250 € 120 € 150 € 270 € 600 € Category 2 140 € 70 € 80 € 150 € 330 € Category 3 45 € 30 € 40 € 45 € 50 € Another important data that we used to calculate the value of ticket prices for the 2012 Olympic Games.04 Track cycling 9 28000 3111 0.Ceremonies Total sessions Total tickets per sport Tickets per session Ratio/ Ceremonies 2 120000 60000 1 Football 42 1975000 47024 0.21 Table tennis 32 85000 2656 0. which mirrors the average number of tickets per session.63 Artistic gymnastics 19 235000 12368 0. because that way we understood the low attendance risk and high revenue opportunity. and also the number of tiers. regarding football. 17 .18 20 756000 37800 0. was the price of tickets for Euro 2012 that will also occur in Europe (Ukraine).

we went up on the average. Athletics. we recommend a larger or smaller number of tiers to attract the right people and the average Londoners even if charging always an extra in the upper tier. which might reveal itself important (see below). The attendance level may be at risk in the sense that track cycling is not that popular abroad. For this reason. mainly by increasing the maximum tier.Conclusion – Analysis sport by sport The Big Four (Ceremonies. Depending on the amount of tickets available. 18 . we expect to naturally expect the right people. and China has won some medals in artistic gymnastics. For the same reason. Swimming. it does not have many tickets available per session and as there is less offer. As there is not a great demand for this sport but the amount of tickets is relatively low. Besides that. Artistic gymnastics) As we said. Therefore. Notwithstanding. as table tennis has a huge tradition in China and they have won a lot of medals in this sport. we draw on higher prices (higher than in previous Olympic Games) even if we follow the motto Everybody’s Games by lowering the minimum tier. table tennis may attract Chinese tourists. these represent a huge revenue opportunity. allowing average Londoners and the local community to participate. Table tennis Table tennis does not have any particular appeal and does not represent a revenue opportunity. we expect a huge affluence from UK supporters and prices must be affordable to average Londoners. while not compromising the revenue opportunity. Note that the UK has won some medals in swimming and athletics. that now travel a lot. we increased a bit the average price. we do not recommend a large number of tiers. Track cycling For this sport.

19 . the Euro. football in the OG is not that important as i) there is another more important competition. it may be hard to fill in stadiums as each event has many available tickets and football does need cheerful attendance. Note that usually. we chose to lower the average price.. in the Summer 2012. On the other hand. i. Notwithstanding. iv) football games do not fit that well as other sport in the OG spirit as games are spread all over the UK and not concentrated in the Olympic village or the city of London. Thus. Also.e. Nevertheless. with sub-23 players. For this matter. football gives other UK cities the opportunity to participate in the OG. football games may be able to attract people that otherwise wouldn’t attend any OG event. it makes sense to have a larger number of tiers and charge a little extra in the maximum tier to maximize revenues. of course. iii) women football is less appealing (and these games correspond to 45% of the total football games). ii) there are lot of teams less attractive.Football Football is the most important sport in Europe. the countries who win the OG in football are not top teams. beyond Londoners and those who will choose to travel to London. giving the amount of tickets available.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.