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Chemistry Honors Midterm Review Chapter 1 Define: Matter- anything that has mass and takes up space; mass

is a measurement that reflects the amount of matter. The thoughts and ideas that fill your head are not matter, neither is heat, light, radio waves, or magnetic fields. Hypothesis- a tentative explanation for what has been observed. Control- a standard for comparison in an experiment. The constant. Theory- an explanation that has been supported by many many experiments. Conclusion- a judgment based on the information obtained. Scientific Law- a relationship in nature that is supported by many experiments. Differentiate Between: Mass / Weight: Weight- a measure not only of the amount of matter but also of the effect of Earth’s gravitational pull on that matter. Mass- a measurement that reflects the amount of matter. Weight is not constant and changes in different locations. Mass is constant and doesn’t change. (Law of conservation of Mass) Precision / Accuracy: Accuracy- how close the measured value is to an excepted matter. Precision- refers to how close a series of measurements are to one another. Chapter 2

Metric Prefixes: Prefix giga mega kilo deci centi milli micro nano pico G M K D C M µ N P Symbol Factor 1 000 000 000 1 000 000 1000 1/10 1/100 1/1000 1/1 000 000 1/1 000 000 000 1/1 000 000 000 000 Scientific Example Notation 109 gigameter (Gm) 6 10 megagram (Mg) 103 10 10 10 10 10 10 -1 -2 -3 -6 -9 -12 kilometer (km) deciliter (dL) centimeter (cm) miligram (mg) microgram (µg) nanometer (nm) picometer (pm) Define and calculate density: Density.a process that involves one or more substances changing into new substances. . Physical Change. Chapter 3 Differentiate between: Chemical / Physical Changes: Chemical Change.The rules of significant figures: Multiplication and Division: when you multiply or divide numbers your answer must have the same number of significant figures as the measurement with the lowest amount of significant figures. Addition and Subtraction: when you add or subtract measurement your answer must have the same amount of digits to the right of the decimal point as the value with the fewest digits to the right of the decimal point.a ratio that compares the mass of an object to its volume.a process that alters a substance without changing its composition.

a uniform mixture that may contain solids.Chemical Change Explode Rust Oxidize Corrode Tarnish Ferment Burn Rot Physical Change Bend Grind Crumple Split Crush Heterogeneous / Homogeneous: Heterogeneous.combination of two or more pure substances in which each pure substance retains its individual chemical properties. Extensive Properties Mass Volume Length Density Intensive Properties .a mixture that has a constant composition throughout. Intensive Properties. Homogeneous.a mixture that does not blend smoothly throughout and in which the individual substances remain distinct. Solution. Physical Property.properties independent of the amount of substance present.properties dependent on the amount of substance present. always has a single phase.also known as Homogeneous mixtures. Extensive Properties. liquids or gases.the ability of a substance to combine with or change into one or more other substances. Define Chemical and Physical Properties: Chemical Property.characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the samples composition. Mixtures / Solutions: Mixture.

Chapter 4 . Crystallization.a technique that uses a porous barrier to separate a solid from a liquid.Physical Properties Density Color Odor Taste Hardness Melting Point Boiling Point Conductivity Properties of: Metals Shiny when smooth and clean Solid at room temperature Good conductors of heat and electricity Nonmetals Chemical Properties Reactivity with Substances Metalloids Generally Gases or brittle Physical and Chemical Dull looking solids properties of both Metals Poor Conductors of heat and Nonmetals and electricity Only nonmetal that is liquid at room temperature is Bromine (Br) Methods of Separating Mixtures: Filtration.a separation technique that results in the formation of pure solid particles of a substance from a solution containing a dissolved substance. When the solution contains as much dissolved substance as it can possibly hold the addition of a tiny amount often causes the dissolved substance to come out of a solution and collect as crystals on some available surface. in distillation a mixture is heating until the substance with the lowest boiling point boils to a vapor that can be condensed into a liquid and collecting.used to separate homogeneous mixtures mostly.a technique that separates the components of a mixture (called the mobile phase) on the basis of the tendency of each to travel or be drawn across the surface of another material (called the stationary phase). Distillation. Chromatography. it is a separation technique that is based on differences in the boiling point of the substances involved.

can be represented as α. Page 107 Radiation Type Alpha Beta Gamma 0 Symbol Mass (amu) 4 Charge +2 -1 0 Nuclear equation: Top # . The beta decay of unstable carbon.a particle with two protons and two neutrons with a +2 charge. Radioactive decay.226 nucleus. Can be represented as β. atoms of one element can change into atoms of another element.Define and explain the formation of alpha and beta particles: Alpha particles.a high speed electron with a -1 charge.the rays and particles emitted by the radioactive material. that is emitted during radioactive decay. Radioactivity. Nuclear reactions.14 atom. Beta particles. is equivalent to a helium(-4) nucleus. and is emitted during radioactive decay.reactions which involve a change in an atoms nucleus. Atomic Number.14 results in the creation of a new Nitrogen. . ** By emitting radiation.222 is created as a result of the alpha decay of the unstable Radium.Atomic Number Gamma Radiation? Define: Isotope.represents the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.number of protons in an atom.when an unstable nuclei loses energy by emitting radiation in a spontaneous process (a process that does not require energy).atoms with the same amount of protons but different number of neutrons.Mass Number Bottom # .process where substances spontaneously emit radiation. A new element Radon. Mass Number. Radiation.

Different atoms combine in simple wholenumber ratios to form compounds. divided into smaller particles. shape. or destroyed. combined. homogeneous. All matter is composed of extremely small particles called atoms. The differing properties of matter are due to the size. indestructible. Atoms are solid. . or rearranged. Performed cathode ray experiments to measure the electron’s charge to mass ratio. Dalton was wrong. and indivisible. In a chemical reaction. the lightest known atom. Proposed the plum pudding model. Thompson concluded that the mass of the charged particle was less than that of a hydrogen model. Atoms cannot be created. Apparent changes in matter result from changes in the groupings of atoms and not from changes in the atoms themselves. and movement of atoms. mass. Different kinds of atoms have different sizes and shapes. Dalton Thompson Rutherford Famous for his gold foil experiment. Atoms were divisible into smaller subatomic particles. and chemical properties.Know the contributions of: Democritus Matter is composed of empty space through which atoms move. All atoms of a given element are identical. atoms are separated. having the same size. Atoms of specific element are different from those of any other element.

Use the periodic table to determine the element.Determined that: Atom contain: Mostly empty space Tiny. dense nucleus which is positively charged Creates new nuclear model of atom: Percent Abundance. Sum the values to determine the Atomic mass. Chapter 5 Define principal quantum number: principal quantum number.the abundance of the isotope that naturally occurs in nature. dense nucleus which is positively charged Creates new nuclear model of atom: Atom contains: Mostly empty space Tiny. Describe the orbitals and sub-levels present in various quantum numbers: Principal quantum number (n) 1 2 Sub-levels (types of orbitals) present s s p Number of orbitals related to sub-level 1 1 3 Total number of orbitals related to principal energy level (n2) 1 4 . Calculate atomic mass given percent abundance and AMU: Multiply percent abundance of each given Isotope by its respective AMU value.the minimum amount of energy that can be gained or lost by an atom.

. Define spectral lines: spectral lines.3 4 s p d s p d f 1 3 5 1 3 5 7 9 16 Determine maximum number of electrons within principal quantum number: Atomic Sub-levels s p d f Number of Electrons 2 6 10 14 Based on the quantum number determine the energy level: Equantum = hv Planck’s Constant (h)=6.626 x 10-34J·s Differentiate between excited and ground state based on electron configuration: Bohr (1913) proposed why the emission spectrum of hydrogen is not continuous. When an electron drops from a higher energy orbit to a lower energy orbit a photon with a specific energy is emitted.the lowest allowable energy state. Electrons can have only certain “energy states” Ground State . Excited State – energy state of an atom when it gains energy .light given off at a specific frequency by an atom or molecule.

Describe the shapes of the: Define electron dot structure: Electron-dot structure consists of the elements symbol which represents the atomic nucleus and inner level electrons. Construct an electron dot structure: Draw an electron dot diagram: . surrounded by dots representing the atoms valence electrons.

Define and give trends for: Electronegativity.c = λh Energy of a quantum. Increases going across) .frequency / velocity h.??????? Calculate: Frequency of Electromagnetic radiationWavelength of Electromagnetic radiationEnergy of a photonFrequency of a photonλ.Equantum= hv Energy of a photon.mass v.relative ability of its atoms to attract electrons in a chemical bond.λ = Chapter 6 Differentiate between and define group and period: Group.wavelength m.rows (horizontal).series of columns (vertical). Period.Ephoton= hv de Broglie’s equation.planks constant EM Wave relationship. (Decreases going down.

energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom.the radius of an atom. Good conductors of heat and electricity. Alkali metals. Alkaline earth metals. located along the bottom of the periodic table. Atomic Radius. (Decreases going down. but each has a unique physical Alkaline Earth metals 2A Boron Group 3A The Carbon Group 4A The Nitrogen Group 5A .Group 8A. decreases going across) Be familiar with the placement and definitions of: Transition metals. Shiny solids harder then alkali metals.Ionization Energy. known as the lanthanide and actinide series.the ability of an atom to attract additional electrons. Extremely unreactive. Define Electron Configuration: electron configuration. Chemically reactive. Chapter 7 List characteristics of various elemental / families: Alkali Metals 1A Shiny gray solids soft enough to be cut by a knife. Possess a wide range of chemical and physical properties. Most compounds of Earth metals do not easily dissolve in water. Inner transition metals.Group 7A.Group 2A elements. Halogens. nonmetals. Chemically reactive.the arrangement of electrons in an atom. Always found combined with other elements in nature. Has a wide mix of metalloids. and metals giving it a wide range of properties Each element might have 5 valence electrons. Form compounds with oxygen besides BeO2.Groups 1B through 8B. Most often found as oxides in earth’s crust.two sets of transition metals. (Increases going down. Increases going across) Electron Affinity.Group 1A elements except hydrogen. Nobel Gasses. Highly reactive.

and brittle solids due to the strong attraction between their ions. made them hard to find by scientists. The formation of ions is always exothermic.positively charged ion. These are all salts. Very stable elements. Often crystal lattice is formed. Antimony and Bismuth expand when they change from a liquid to a solid. They are hard.and chemical property. Colorless and un reactive. Differentiate between a cation and anion: cation. Oxygen Group 6A Halogens 7A Noble Gases 8A With 6 valence electrons the elements act mainly as nonmetals Can form compounds with almost all metals. Charged particles must be free to move for a material to conduct an electric current. rigid. In the solid state. Determine the probable charge of an element based on its periodic placement: **Look at periodic Table . Chapter 8 Define term ion: ion.a three-dimensional geometric arrangement of particles. Ionic Crystals have high melting points and boiling points. Describe the composition of ionic compounds and list their characteristics: The positive and negative ions are packed into a regular repeating pattern that balances the forces of attraction and repulsion. ionic compounds are nonconductors because of the fixed position of ions.An atom or molecule with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons. anion. Ex.negatively charged ion.

Ex. Nonmetal. Hybrid Orbital): Define covalent bond and explain how one works: Covalent bond. and it works by sharing a certain amount of electrons between atoms and the shared electrons are considered be part of the complete outer energy level of both atoms involved .the attraction of a metallic cation for delocalized electrons.Metal Metallic bond.Construct the electron configuration for various ions: **Common Sense Define and give examples for: Ionic bond. Metals Name compounds containing ions and polyatomic ions: **Polyatomics Construct chemical formulas based on chemical name: **Study Nomenclature Chapter 9 Name covalent compounds using numeric prefixes: Number of atoms 1 2 3 4 5 Prefix monoditritetrapentaNumber of atoms 6 7 8 9 10 Prefix hexaheptaoctanonadeca- Write the formula for a covalent compound from its name: **Common Sense Construct Lewis structures compounds: **Review (+Exceptions) Determine (Shape. Bond Angle.the chemical bond that results from the sharing of valence electrons. Usually.the electrostatic force that holds oppositely charged particles together in an ionic compound. Polarity.

the unequal sharing of electrons in a covalent bond. NO2 has five valence electrons from nitrogen and 12 from oxygen. This group is relatively rare. The model is based on a arrangement that minimizes the repulsion of shared and unshared pairs of electrons around the central atom. The repulsions among electron pairs in a molecule result in atoms resulting at fixed angles to each other. Valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory is a model in chemistry used to predict the shape of individual molecules based upon the extent of electron-pair electrostatic repulsion. . It works because atom or ions will loan pairs often form coordinate covalent bonds with atoms or ions that need 2 more electrons. When one atom donates a pair of electrons to be shared with an atom or ion that needs 2 electrons to become stable. For example. totaling 17 which cannot form an exact number of electron pairs. This electron formation is called an expanded octet.Define coordinate covalent bond and explain how one works: Coordinate covalent bond1. Describe the polarity of molecules and the formation of bonds between them: Hydrogen. Example of expanded octet is PCl5. 2. 3. VSEPR theory: Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion model. and BH3 is an example. List the characteristics of covalent bonded molecules: They are very strong. some compounds form with fewer than eight electrons present around an atom. Often called an sp3 orbital. The 3rd group of compounds that does not follow the octet rule has central atoms that contain more than eight valence electrons.always polar Polar molecules. a small group of molecules has an odd number of valence electrons and cannot form an octet around each atom. Define hybrid orbitals: hybridization.a process in which atomic orbitals are mixed to form new identical hybrid orbitals.

In single replacement reactions. The balanced equation tells you what elements are involved and in what quantities (# of moles of each element) List the indicators that a chemical reaction has occurred. Chapter 10 Determine the information that can be determined from a balanced equation. Metal+water=base . Color Change Precipitate Formed Bubbles Formed Odor Gas given off Determine the spontaneity of a reaction. Define spectator ions. They remain unchanged on both sides of the chemical equation. This is because metals differ in reactivity. There is no driving force when the reactants and the products are both aqueous so no reaction occurs.Covalent bonds are molecules (neutral) Do not conduct electricity or heat Low melting and boiling points Are less soluble in water and more soluble in non-aqueous solvents. Balance chemical equations and predict their products. ???? Determine the driving force of reactions. a driving force can be that a liquid or precipitate forms. In double replacement reactions. They are ions in a reaction that don’t take part in the overall reaction. The metal that is doing the replacing has to be higher in the activity series than the metal that was originally part of the compound. the metal will not always replace another metal in a compound dissolved in water.

multiply by 2 4. Write the formula of the hydrate with a dot and the number you get in step 4 in front of H20 Empirical Formula: see Molecular Formula .02*10^23) Moles to molecules: Multiply by Avagadro’s Number Grams to molecules: Divide by molar mass and then multiply by Avagadro’s Number Molecules to grams: Divide by Avagadro’s Number. Subtract mass of hydrate before and after heating to get mass of water. 2.3. If comes out to 1. Get everyone into moles 2. Determine Empirical Formula 5.Nonmetal+water=acid Metal Chlorate=Metal Chloride + Oxygen Oxide+Carbon Dioxide=Carbonate Metallic Oxide=Metal+Oxygen Chapter 11 Moles to grams: Multiply by molar mass Grams to moles: Divide by molar mass Molecules to moles: Divide by Avagadro’s Number (6. multiply by 3. Find multiplier: Molar Mass/Empirical Formula Mass 7. Mole Ratio: divide by smallest mole number 3.5. Multiply by molar mass Determine the: Molar Mass of compounds: look on periodic table Percent Composition: Divide mass of one element by mass of entire molecule and multiply by 100 Molecular Formula: 1. 4. Determine Empirical Formula Mass (look on periodic table) 6. 1. 3. Multiply everything in Empirical Formula by multiplier Hydrates: 1. Convert mass of water and mass of hydrate after heating to moles Divide by smaller amount of moles The number you get after dividing the moles of water by the smaller amount of moles will be the number of molecules of water in your formula 5.

Mass cannot be created nor destroyed.Chapter 12 Define the Law of Conservation of Mass The mass of the reactants has to equal the mass of the products in a chemical reaction.the substance which is least in abundance (or amount in moles). The substance that has less moles is the limiting reagent and the other substance is the excess. Balance equation 2.the substance that is not fully consumed in the reaction. (you can then use the moles of the limiting reagent to find out how much product is formed and how much of the excess reagent is actually used in the reaction. Convert reactants to moles 3. Limiting Reagent.) Define Percent Yield and calculate it from given data. it only changes form. Determine the limiting and excess reagent from given data. The ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield expressed in a percent. dictates the maximum amount of product that can be formed Excess Reagent. 1. Theoretical Yield-the maximum amount of product that can be produced from a given amount of reactant (what you find out in your stoichiometric calculations) Actual Yield-the amount of product actually produced when the chemical reaction is carried on in an experiment (from experimental data) .