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THE UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND INFORMATION ENGINEERING MSC (ELECTRICAL AND INFORMATION ENGINEERING)

UNIT: FEE 650 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY NAME: KIGEN CHRISTOPHER KIMOSOP REG NO: F56/64415/2010

RESEARCH REPORT:

CONVERSION OF P-Q BUSES INTO P-V BUSES IN ORDER TO MINIMISE POWER SYSTEM LOSSES

Abstract
Power utility companies are constantly seeking ways to increase efficient transmission of power by reducing technical losses. This paper proposes a method that seeks to reduce these transmission losses. In recent times, reduction of such losses has been a subject of interest among many researchers. Most have focussed on optimisation of power transmission networks taking multiple objectives into consideration such as voltage constraints in addition to stability and losses. Recent research has predominantly made use of artificial intelligence techniques such as genetic algorithms and particle swarm optimisation. However, the method proposed in this paper makes use of classical reactive power dispatch to solve the power transmission optimisation problem. In the method proposed, PQ buses are iteratively converted to PV buses. This is done to establish the optimal location for reactive power support in the network. In this way, it is possible to find an optimal network configuration that minimises losses. Implemented in MATLAB, the proposed algorithm is tested on standard IEEE 14-bus, 30-bus and 57-bus test networks. The simulations run using IEEE test networks are successful. In all three test networks, transmission losses are reduced by using the proposed method. The results obtained during simulation are promising. The proposed method can be scaled up and implemented on the Kenyan national power transmission network. This can be done without alterations to the algorithms developed here.

Contents
Abstract ................................................................................................................................................... 2 Contents .................................................................................................................................................. 3 1. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................... 4 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 2. Problem Statement ................................................................................................................. 4 Objectives: .............................................................................................................................. 5 List of Symbols and Abbreviations .......................................................................................... 6 List of Figures .......................................................................................................................... 6

LITERATURE REVIEW ....................................................................................................................... 7 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 2.5. 2.6. Power System Buses ............................................................................................................... 7 Converting PQ Buses to PV ..................................................................................................... 7 Load Flow Problem ................................................................................................................. 8 Newton-Raphson Method ...................................................................................................... 9 Active transmission losses .................................................................................................... 11 Optimal Location of Reactive Power Support ....................................................................... 11 Classical Method of Reactive Power Dispatch .............................................................. 12 Linear Programming Approach ..................................................................................... 12 Newton approach ......................................................................................................... 13 Artificial Intelligence Methods ...................................................................................... 13 Fuzzy Techniques ...................................................................................................... 13 Genetic and Evolutionary Algorithms ....................................................................... 14 Particle swarm optimization techniques .................................................................. 14

2.6.1. 2.6.2. 2.6.3. 2.6.4. 2.6.4.1. 2.6.4.2. 2.6.4.3. 3.

Methodology................................................................................................................................. 15 3.1. 3.2. Objectives.............................................................................................................................. 15 Bus Conversion Algorithm..................................................................................................... 15

4.

Simulation and Results .................................................................................................................. 19 4.1. 4.2. 4.3. 4.4. Test Network: IEEE 14-bus .................................................................................................... 19 Test Network: IEEE 30-bus .................................................................................................... 21 Test Network: IEEE 57-bus .................................................................................................... 23 Summary of Results .............................................................................................................. 26

5.

Conclusion ..................................................................................................................................... 29 5.1. Future Work .......................................................................................................................... 29

6.

References .................................................................................................................................... 31

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1.Problem Statement
The problem of minimising real power losses in transmission networks is a major part of the work of a power engineer. Transmission losses in a network can be reduced in a number of ways such as the use of high efficiency cables and transformers, as well as optimal supply of reactive power in the network. This reactive power support to the grid is traditionally achieved by switched capacitors and phase-shifting transformers. These devices are passive and controlled by system control personnel through SCADA. They are put into use when the operators deem it necessary through past experience. In recent times, advances in computing hardware and the affordability of computing power have led to a higher degree of automation in the area of reactive power support. Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) have been developed. These are active devices which are power-electronics-based. They include thyristor-switched capacitor (TSC), static

compensators (STATCOM), static VAR controller (SVC) and Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC). [1] These devices tend to be expensive to install and run. The power utility company must therefore select the optimal locations within the grid in which to install such devices. The procedure of identifying these optimal locations is the subject of much research. The purpose of this paper is therefore to develop a method in which the minimisation of power losses can be achieved. This is done through the optimal location of reactive power support.

1.2.Objectives:
In this report, the main objective is to minimise real transmission power losses in power transmission networks. This paper proposes a method that achieves this through the optimal location for reactive power support. The method proposed is based on classical reactive power dispatch. Instead of identifying the optimal location of a specific type of FACTS device or capacitor, an optimal bus is selected. The reactive power support at the identified bus can be of any type, whether passive or active. Thus the practical implementation of the solution in a network is more flexible with regards to the device used. Based on the literature review in section 2 below, the following research objectives can be pursued: Use MATLAB to perform the iterative conversion of PQ buses into PV buses in a given power network. Calculate total transmission losses in each different configuration of the power network. Analyse the data obtained to identify the configuration that has lowest transmission losses.

The scope of the work will be limited as follows: The criterion for optimisation is real power transmission losses. Voltage limits, network stability and cost of reactive power support will not be considered. During each iteration, only one PQ bus will be converted into a PV bus. The optimised network will have only one converted PQ bus.

1.3.List of Symbols and Abbreviations


Si Pi Qi Vi i Ii Yin in Sij PL Gij Bij Apparent power at bus i Active power at bus i Reactive power at bus i Voltage at bus i Power angle at bus i Current injected into the network at bus i Line admittance Phase angle of line of the line between bus i and bus n apparent power leaving bus i to bus j on line ij Real power transmission losses Conductance of line between bus i and j Susceptance of line between bus i and j

1.4.List of Figures
Figure 1: PV to PQ Bus Conversion Algorithm ...................................................................................... 17 Figure 2: IEEE 14-Bus Network .............................................................................................................. 20 Figure 3: IEEE 14-bus Network Transmission Losses with Converted PQ Buses .................................. 21 Figure 4: IEEE 30 Bus Network .............................................................................................................. 22 Figure 5: IEEE 30-bus Network Transmission Losses with Converted PQ Buses .................................. 23 Figure 6: IEEE 57-bus Network .............................................................................................................. 24 Figure 7: IEEE 57-bus Network Transmission Losses with Converted PQ Buses .................................. 25 Figure 8: Real Power Losses in the Test Networks ............................................................................... 26 Figure 9: Total Reactive Power Injected into Test Networks ................................................................ 27

2. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1.Power System Buses
A given power network has various parameters, which are either specified or unknown. These are real power, P, reactive power, Q, voltage, V, and power angle, . At any given bus, two variables are specified while the other two are variable. Voltage-controlled bus (PV bus) is a bus for which the voltage magnitude (V) and the injected real power (P) are specified. The unknown variables are reactive power (Q) and angle (). A PV bus must have a variable source of reactive power. In all realistic cases, the voltage magnitude is specified at generator buses to take advantage of the generators reactive power capability. Specifying the voltage magnitude at a generator bus requires a variable specified in the simple analysis discussed earlier to become an unknown (in order to bring the number of unknowns back into correspondence with the number of equations). Normally, the reactive power injected by the generator becomes a variable, leaving the real power and voltage magnitude as the specified quantities at the generator bus. Generally, the PV buses and the voltage-controlled buses are grouped together but these buses have physical difference. The voltage controlled bus has also voltage control capabilities, and uses a tap adjustable transformer and/or a static VAR compensator instead of a generator. [1]

2.2.Converting PQ Buses to PV
The proposed method involves converting PQ (load) buses into PV buses. This will allow the converted buses to supply reactive power to the network. In the literature, a similar methodology is used in modelling of SVCs. The SVC is modelled as a PV bus in [6] and [7].

When connected to a bus, it generates reactive power up to the limit of its rated size in VAR. Beyond the rating limits, the bus remains as a PQ bus. The mechanism by which the SVC is modelled is similar to the paradigm used in this research. Therefore, the procedure used in this research will be similar to that used in optimally locating SVCs in a network.

2.3.Load Flow Problem


As shown in [12], complex power injected into the ith bus of a power system is given by (1) The net current injected into the network at bus i is given by

(2) Where Yin represents line admittance of the line between bus i and bus n. The complex conjugate of power injected into the ith bus is given by (3) Substituting (2) into (3), we get

| ||

||

(4)

Equating the real and imaginary parts,

| ||

||

(5)

| ||

|| |

(6)

2.4.Newton-Raphson Method
The Newton Raphson method makes use of the fact that the power flow problem has two sets of known variables and two sets of unknown variables for each equation. The load flow equations are expressed in polar form as follows.

| |

|| |

(7)

| |

|| |

(8)

These equations can be readily differentiated with respect to voltage angles and magnitudes and hence, mismatch equations can be written as follows: For real power Pi the increment Pi is determined by:

| |

| |

| (9)

The terms with voltages can be multiplied and divided by their respective voltage magnitudes without altering their values, and so the following is obtained:
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

(10)

Similarly, mismatch equation can be written for reactive power Qi with increment Qi given by:
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

(11)

Each non-slack bus of the system has two equations like those for Pi and Qi. Collecting all the mismatch equations into a vector-matrix yields

(12) In the above equations, all the elements in the sub matrices J2 and J4 are pre-multiplied by the relevant V, then all V elements in the right-hand vector are divided by the relevant V to compensate. Therefore, the relationship may be rewritten as follows [ This may [
| |] | |

[ be

][

| |] | |

(13) re-written as

(14)

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If the inverse matrix J-1 exists. The solution of the above equation provides the correction vector i.e. for all the PV and PQ buses and V for all the PQ buses which in turn are used to update the values of and V . This iterative process is continued until the elements of the mismatch vector i.e. P for all the PV and PQ type buses and Q for all the PQ buses become less than a tolerance value .

2.5.Active transmission losses


The transmission losses in a line between bus i and bus j are calculated at both the sending and receiving ends of the line. The apparent power leaving bus i to bus j on line ij is ( And the power received at bus j from bus i on line ij is ( ) (16) ) (15)

The transmission loss in each branch of the network is given by the sum of (15) and (16) (17) Therefore the total transmission loss for the entire network is given by:

From this the real transmission losses are given by the real part of the total actual power losses. This is expressed as follows: (19)

2.6.Optimal Location of Reactive Power Support


In the research to be carried out, the location of P-V buses is to be studied. As stated above the PV bus must have a variable source of reactive power. Therefore the location of PV buses is the same as location of reactive power sources.

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The objectives of reactive power (VAR) optimization are to improve the voltage profile, to minimize system active power losses, and to determine optimal VAR compensation placement under various operating conditions. To achieve these objectives, power system operators utilize control options such as adjusting generator excitation, transformer tap changing, shunt capacitors, and SVC. [13] The selection of the optimal location for these sources of reactive power has been carried out in a number of ways. All these methods involve converting the power system into a mathematical model. This model is a function which is then minimised as stated above, usually by linear programming. The techniques of minimisation including the following:
2.6.1. Classical Method of Reactive Power Dispatch

For the classic reactive power dispatch problem, the real power outputs of the generators are already known. The constraint is reactive power balance equation, that is, Where QGi represents generated reactive power at bus i, and QD and QL represent reactive power demand and losses respectively. A Lagrangian factor, is calculated for all reactive power sources. Using this factor, various sources are selected for variation. Increase or decrease of reactive power sources is carried out. Transmission losses are then calculated. This procedure is repeated until the configuration that gives rise to minimum transmission losses is established, as in [13].
2.6.2. Linear Programming Approach

In the classical reactive power dispatch, only transmission losses are taken into consideration. When we include other constraints such as voltage stability and network security the problem becomes more complex.

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The linear programming technique provides a solution for the problem through the use of sensitivity matrices. This is described in [14]. The technique uses the sensitivity relationships of power systems to determine the linearized sensitivity relationships linking the dependent and control variables. This is done by taking advantage of the decoupled nature of power systems. Using this, the reactive power at various buses can be linked to voltage. The reactive power allocation problem is then formulated as a linear programming problem and voltage parameters are used as limits.
2.6.3. Newton approach

This is based on Newton approach and the primal-dual logarithmic barrier method [16]. A Lagrangian function is associated with the modified problem. The first order necessary conditions for optimality are fulfilled by Newtons method and by updating the penalty and barrier terms.
2.6.4. Artificial Intelligence Methods

These techniques take into consideration all the equality and inequality constraints [18, 19, and 20]. The improvement in system performance is based on reduction in cost of power generation and active power loss.
2.6.4.1. Fuzzy Techniques

In this technique [15], a strategy for placement of reactive power based on a fuzzy performance index is used. The index is based on three objectivesincrease in loading margin, improvement in voltage profile, and reduction of the system reactive power loss. The index can be used to find the most effective location of the shunt flexible AC transmission systems device.

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2.6.4.2.

Genetic and Evolutionary Algorithms

The simple Genetic Algorithm first expresses the optimisation problem as a population of binary numbers [18, 19, and 20]. In this case, the binary numbers are the degree to which reactive power is added to a bus. The binary numbers are transformed by three genetic operations. Selection or reproduction is the process by which a set of binary numbers are selected to reproduce a set of new strings in a random manner. Crossover is then carried out. This is a process of randomly interchanging digits within a binary number. Mutation is the random changing of the value of digits in a binary number. These genetic operations are performed iteratively on the system until the optimal results are obtained based on predetermined criteria.
2.6.4.3. Particle swarm optimization techniques

Particle swarm optimization (PSO) was introduced as an alternative to Genetic Algorithms. The PSO technique consists of a population refining its knowledge of the given search space. PSO is inspired by particles moving around in the search space. The individuals in a PSO thus have their own positions and velocities. These individuals are denoted as particles. Traditionally, PSO has no crossover between individuals and has no mutation, and particles are never substituted by other individuals during the run. Instead, the PSO refines its search by attracting the particles to positions with good solutions. This method is used in [18] and [21].

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3. Methodology
3.1.Objectives
In this report, the objective is to minimise real transmission power losses. As detailed above, a common solution to the problem is to identify the optimal location for reactive power support. This paper proposes a method that is similar to this. However the method proposed is more generalised. Instead of identifying the optimal location of a specific type of FACTS device or capacitor, an optimal bus is selected. The reactive power support at the identified bus can be of any type, whether passive or active. Thus the practical implementation of the solution in a network is more flexible with regards to the device used.

3.2.Bus Conversion Algorithm


The proposed method is the iterative conversion of PQ buses to PV buses. During an iteration, one PQ bus is selected as a candidate for conversion to PV. This selected bus is converted into a PV bus. This is achieved by changing its characteristics in the network model during load flow analysis. A PQ bus has no power sources, whether real or reactive. However, the bus that is selected for conversion is assumed to have a reactive power source. In other words it is modelled as a PV bus. This is only the case during the current iteration. In the next iteration, the selected bus reverts back to the parameters it had in the original network model. A different PQ bus is then selected for conversion to PV. After all PQ buses have in turn been converted to PV, the configuration with the lowest transmission losses is selected as the optimal configuration.

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In order to find the optimal position for PQ bus to PV bus conversion, the following methodology is used. Step 1: A single PQ bus is selected to be converted to PV, as described in section 4 above. Step 2: The load flow analysis is then carried out with this network configuration using the Newton Raphson method. Step 3: The transmission losses in the network are then calculated using equation (21). Step 4: If the losses are lower than the original network losses, this bus location is noted as a possible optimal location. Step 5: The converted PV bus is then returned to its original PQ bus status. A different PQ bus is selected and the procedure carried out once more from Step 1. This sequence of steps is repeated for all PQ buses in the network. After all PQ buses have each been converted, the network configuration with the lowest transmission losses is noted. The flow chart of this procedure is shown below.

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Figure 1: PV to PQ Bus Conversion Algorithm

A number of papers use optimal load flow to identify the location of reactive power support. In the method proposed in this paper, classical reactive power dispatch is used, as described in section 2.6.1 above. Because this is a generalised method, the use of optimal load flow is beyond the scope of this report. Various optimization techniques based on linear programming techniques and artificial intelligence algorithms are used in the literature as described in section 2.6 above. The method used in this report does not require these optimization techniques. Classical reactive power dispatch is sufficient for the purposes of the proposed algorithm. The above algorithm is implemented in a MATLAB program. The program is based on [11]. To carry out load flow solution, the Newton Raphson method is used, as described in section

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2.4 above. A tolerance of 10-8 is used in calculations. Power losses are then calculated using the method described in section 2.5 above.

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4. Simulation and Results


Three networks are used to test the algorithm. These are the IEEE 14-bus [8], 30-bus [9] and 57-bus [10] networks. The program iteratively converts each PQ bus in the network under test into a PV bus. A load flow analysis is then carried out on the modified network. The real power losses for the whole network are then calculated. The real losses for each modified network are listed below. The indexes represent the number of the bus that is converted to PV during the iteration in question. (A 0 index indicates the original network configuration.)

4.1.Test Network: IEEE 14-bus


The IEEE 14-bus network comprises five PV buses and nine PQ buses. There are two generator buses and three buses with synchronous generators injecting reactive power. The IEEE 14-bus network is shown below:

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Figure 2: IEEE 14-Bus Network

The IEEE 14-bus network comprises five PV buses. There are two generator buses and three buses injecting reactive power. The bulk of the load buses are concentrated in one region of the network. Total load across the network is 259MW, with total injected reactive power of 105.29MVAr. In its original form, the transmission losses for the IEEE 14-bus network are 13.5929MW. It is these transmission losses that will be minimised. After applying the proposed method, the minimum transmission loss is observed when Bus 5 is converted to PV. In this configuration, the network properties are as follows:

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Table 1: IEEE 14-bus Network Optimal Properties

Transmission Losses Total Injected Reactive Power Reactive Power Injected at Converted Bus

13.5233MW 104.98MVAr 21.95MVAr

Figure 3: IEEE 14-bus Network Transmission Losses with Converted PQ Buses

4.2.Test Network: IEEE 30-bus


The characteristics of the proposed approach are examined with the IEEE 30 - bus system. The IEEE 30 - bus system has 2 generators, 4 synchronous condensers, 21 loads, and 41 branches. Total load across the network is 283.4MW, with total injected reactive power of 150.408MVAr. In its original form, the transmission losses for the IEEE 30-bus network are 17.9145MW. It is these transmission losses that will be minimised.

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The IEEE 30-bus network is illustrated below:

Figure 4: IEEE 30 Bus Network

After applying the proposed method, the following results are observed.

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Figure 5: IEEE 30-bus Network Transmission Losses with Converted PQ Buses

The minimum transmission loss is observed when Bus 21 is converted to PV. In this configuration, the network properties are as follows:
Table 2: IEEE 30-bus Network Optimal Properties

Transmission Losses Total Injected Reactive Power Reactive Power Injected at Converted Bus

17.7897MW 149.954MVAr 5.009MVAr

The IEEE-30 network power losses reduce when the configuration is changed, as shown in Table 2. It is further observed that 21 configurations have lower transmission losses than the original configuration.

4.3.Test Network: IEEE 57-bus


The system consists of seven synchronous machines including three synchronous condensers. Synchronous condensers connected at bus 2, 6, and 9 inject reactive power.

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Four generators are located at bus 1, 3, 8, and 12. There are 80 branches and 57 buses with 42 loads. Total load is 1250.8 MW and injected reactive power of 305.56MVAR in the original configuration. Transmission losses in the base case are 25.031MW. The IEEE 57-bus network is illustrated below:

Figure 6: IEEE 57-bus Network

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Analysis shows that there are 6 configurations in which the IEEE-57 network has fewer losses than the original network.

Figure 7: IEEE 57-bus Network Transmission Losses with Converted PQ Buses

As seen in the figure above, the optimal bus after conversion to PQ is bus number 34. The properties of the network with bus 34 converted to PV are shown below.
Table 3: IEEE 57-bus Network Optimal Properties

Transmission Losses Total Injected Reactive Power Reactive Power Injected at Converted Bus

24.64MW 304.372MVAr 6.594MVAr

The optimal configuration has total transmission losses of 24.64MW, compared to the base case losses of 25.031MW. It is also worth noting that total reactive power injected is lower than the original configuration. It is 304.372MVAr compared to 305.56MVAr in the original.

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4.4.Summary of Results
The results for the three simulations are as follows:
Table 4: Summary of Power Losses

IEEE Network: Losses in Original Configuration: Losses in Optimal Configuration: Loss reduction Reactive Power Injected at Converted PQ Bus:

14 13.59MW 13.52MW 0.52% 21.95MVAr

30 17.91MW 17.79MW 0.67% 5.01MVAr 150.41MVAr 149.95MVAr

57 25.03MW 24.64MW 1.56% 6.59MVAr 305.56MVAr 304.37MVAr

Total Reactive Power Injected in Original 105.29MVAr Configuration: Total Reactive Power Injected in Optimal 104.98MVAr Configuration:

30

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20 Losses in Original Configuration (MW) Losses in Optimal Configuration (MW)

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10

0 14-BUS 30-BUS 57-BUS

Figure 8: Real Power Losses in the Test Networks

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350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 14-BUS 30-BUS 57-BUS Total Reactive Power Injected in Original Configuration (MVAr) Total Reactive Power Injected in Optimal Configuration (MVAr)

Figure 9: Total Reactive Power Injected into Test Networks

The above summary illustrates the following: In all test simulations, the proposed method has achieved its main objective (reduce total real power transmission losses). In all test cases, the total injected power across the networks was reduced.

The objectives have therefore been achieved. The full results for each network are shown below.
Table 5: Minimum Transmission Losses

IEEE Network: Bus No.


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 5 14 9 0 10 4 13 12 11 7

14 Losses (MW)
13.5233 13.5896 13.5905 13.5929 13.6010 13.6216 13.6683 13.6895 13.6902 13.7209

30 Bus No.
21 23 7 24 25 18 19 3 6 26 10

57 Losses (MW)
17.7897 17.7972 17.7978 17.8067 17.8120 17.8154 17.8265 17.8298 17.8350 17.8422 17.8464

Bus No.
34 31 14 35 26 30 33 32 25 40 15

Losses (MW)
24.6396 24.6467 24.7116 24.7175 24.734 24.7423 24.7683 24.7706 24.8551 24.8798 24.9195

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12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51

17 20 30 15 22 28 16 29 27 14 0 9 12 4

17.8470 17.8620 17.8626 17.8677 17.8678 17.8734 17.8765 17.8783 17.8977 17.9021 17.9145 18.0129 18.0621 18.3637

36 13 57 20 42 56 17 19 11 10 16 21 23 55 0 18 53 22 50 41 39 4 5 27 43 49 38 51 37 7 44 54 24 28 52 29 45 48 47 46

24.9331 24.9351 24.9593 24.9624 24.9628 24.9714 24.9900 24.9928 24.9948 25.0136 25.0142 25.0211 25.0213 25.0293 25.0313 25.0401 25.0419 25.0646 25.1082 25.1267 25.1349 25.1361 25.1433 25.1548 25.1602 25.1635 25.1908 25.1969 25.2178 25.2574 25.2759 25.2767 25.3070 25.3347 25.3418 25.3485 25.5180 25.6827 25.8625 26.7837

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5. Conclusion
In the method proposed, PQ buses are iteratively converted to PV buses. This is done to establish the optimal location for reactive power support in the network. In this way, it is possible to find an optimal network configuration that minimises losses. The proposed algorithm is implemented in MATLAB. It is tested on standard IEEE 14-bus, 30-bus and 57bus test networks. The simulations run using IEEE test networks are successful. In all three test networks, transmission losses are reduced by using the proposed method. In addition to this, total reactive power injected into the system is also reduced. It must however that the loss reductions may not be significant in a practical implementation. In order to have further power loss reduction, more work needs to be carried out, as detailed in section 5.1 below.

5.1.Future Work
These simulation results are promising. The proposed method can be scaled up and implemented on the Kenyan national power transmission network. This can be done without alterations to the algorithm. Transmission losses can be reduced by applying reactive power support to the converted buses in the optimal solution. The quantity of reactive power injected at the converted buses is obtained during the simulation, as shown in the results above. In this report, the method used was to determine the optimal location of one bus that could be converted to a PV bus. If more then one bus is converted to PV, it may be possible that losses would be further reduced. Also, further constraints could be added to the optimisation process. In particular, the size of reactive support added at the converted buses is significant to a power utility company.

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The larger the reactive support, the more expensive its installation may be. The algorithm could be modified to include this constraint.

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6. References
[1] Grigsby, Leonard Electric Power Engineering Handbook 2nd Edition [2] Laifa Abdelaziz and Boudour Mohamed, Optimal Location of SVC for Voltage Security Enhancement using MOPSO, Journal of electrical systems, Special Issue No. 01: Nov. 2009 [3] Gerbex, S., Cherkaoui, R., Germond, A.J. Optimal location of multi-type FACTS devices in a power system by means of genetic algorithms IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Aug 2001 Volume 16 Issue 3 pp. 537 544 [4] Pezzini P, Gomis-Bellmunt O, Gonzalez-de-Miguel C, Junyent-Ferre, A and Sudri`a-Andreu, A Genetic Algorithm approach in FACTS devices location for the improvement of energy efficiency in distribution networks International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality 2009 [5] Faur Z.T., Effects of FACTS Devices on Static Voltage Collapse Phenomena, M.S. dissertation, Dept. Elect. Eng., Univ. of Waterloo, 1996 [6] Chakrabarti/ Halder Power System Analysis Operation And Control 2ed [7] Thukaram D. and Lomi A., Selection of static VAR compensator location and size for system voltage stability improvement, Electr. Power Syst. Res., 54(2) (2000), 139150. [8]http://www.ee.washington.edu/research/pstca/pf14/pg_tca14bus.htm 28/11/11 [9] http://www.ee.washington.edu/research/pstca/pf30/pg_tca30bus.htm retrieved on 28/11/11 [10] http://www.ee.washington.edu/research/pstca/pf57/pg_tca57bus.htm retrieved on 28/11/11 [11] Newton-Raphson Load Flow MATLAB program retrieved on

http://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/21059-newton-raphson-loadflow by P. G. Praviraj retrieved on 03/10/11

[12]Stevenson, W and Grainger, J Power System Analysis 1994

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[13] Jizhong Zhu, Ph.D Optimization of Power System Operation, 2009 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

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[19] Kwang Y. Lee, Xiaomin Bai, Young -Moon Park (November 1995): Optimization Method for Reactive Power Planning by Using a Modified Simple Genetic Algorithm, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 10, No. 4

[20] Shoorangiz Shams Shamsabad Farahani, Mehdi Nikzad, Mohammad Bigdeli Tabar, Mehdi Ghasemi Naraghi, Ali Javadian (2011): Reactive Power Planning Based on Genetic Algorithms, Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5(7): pp 565-569

[21] Hernandez, J. C., Y. del Valle, G. K. Venayagamoorthy, and R. G. Harley (May 2006): Optimal Allocation of a STATCOM in a 45 Bus Section of the Brazilian Power System Using Particle Swarm Optimization, IEEE Swarm Intelligence Symposium, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA

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