THE UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND INFORMATION ENGINEERING MSC (ELECTRICAL AND INFORMATION ENGINEERING)

UNIT: FEE 650 — RESEARCH METHODOLOGY NAME: KIGEN CHRISTOPHER KIMOSOP REG NO: F56/64415/2010

RESEARCH REPORT:

CONVERSION OF P-Q BUSES INTO P-V BUSES IN ORDER TO MINIMISE POWER SYSTEM LOSSES

Abstract
Power utility companies are constantly seeking ways to increase efficient transmission of power by reducing technical losses. This paper proposes a method that seeks to reduce these transmission losses. In recent times, reduction of such losses has been a subject of interest among many researchers. Most have focussed on optimisation of power transmission networks taking multiple objectives into consideration such as voltage constraints in addition to stability and losses. Recent research has predominantly made use of artificial intelligence techniques such as genetic algorithms and particle swarm optimisation. However, the method proposed in this paper makes use of classical reactive power dispatch to solve the power transmission optimisation problem. In the method proposed, PQ buses are iteratively converted to PV buses. This is done to establish the optimal location for reactive power support in the network. In this way, it is possible to find an optimal network configuration that minimises losses. Implemented in MATLAB, the proposed algorithm is tested on standard IEEE 14-bus, 30-bus and 57-bus test networks. The simulations run using IEEE test networks are successful. In all three test networks, transmission losses are reduced by using the proposed method. The results obtained during simulation are promising. The proposed method can be scaled up and implemented on the Kenyan national power transmission network. This can be done without alterations to the algorithms developed here.

Contents
Abstract ................................................................................................................................................... 2 Contents .................................................................................................................................................. 3 1. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................... 4 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 2. Problem Statement ................................................................................................................. 4 Objectives: .............................................................................................................................. 5 List of Symbols and Abbreviations .......................................................................................... 6 List of Figures .......................................................................................................................... 6

LITERATURE REVIEW ....................................................................................................................... 7 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 2.5. 2.6. Power System Buses ............................................................................................................... 7 Converting PQ Buses to PV ..................................................................................................... 7 Load Flow Problem ................................................................................................................. 8 Newton-Raphson Method ...................................................................................................... 9 Active transmission losses .................................................................................................... 11 Optimal Location of Reactive Power Support ....................................................................... 11 Classical Method of Reactive Power Dispatch .............................................................. 12 Linear Programming Approach ..................................................................................... 12 Newton approach ......................................................................................................... 13 Artificial Intelligence Methods ...................................................................................... 13 Fuzzy Techniques ...................................................................................................... 13 Genetic and Evolutionary Algorithms ....................................................................... 14 Particle swarm optimization techniques .................................................................. 14

2.6.1. 2.6.2. 2.6.3. 2.6.4. 2.6.4.1. 2.6.4.2. 2.6.4.3. 3.

Methodology................................................................................................................................. 15 3.1. 3.2. Objectives.............................................................................................................................. 15 Bus Conversion Algorithm..................................................................................................... 15

4.

Simulation and Results .................................................................................................................. 19 4.1. 4.2. 4.3. 4.4. Test Network: IEEE 14-bus .................................................................................................... 19 Test Network: IEEE 30-bus .................................................................................................... 21 Test Network: IEEE 57-bus .................................................................................................... 23 Summary of Results .............................................................................................................. 26

5.

Conclusion ..................................................................................................................................... 29 5.1. Future Work .......................................................................................................................... 29

6.

References .................................................................................................................................... 31

3

[1] These devices tend to be expensive to install and run. These devices are passive and controlled by system control personnel through SCADA.Problem Statement The problem of minimising real power losses in transmission networks is a major part of the work of a power engineer.1. The power utility company must therefore select the optimal locations within the grid in which to install such devices. They include thyristor-switched capacitor (TSC). Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) have been developed. static VAR controller (SVC) and Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC). This is done through the optimal location of reactive power support. The procedure of identifying these optimal locations is the subject of much research. advances in computing hardware and the affordability of computing power have led to a higher degree of automation in the area of reactive power support. Transmission losses in a network can be reduced in a number of ways such as the use of high efficiency cables and transformers. These are active devices which are power-electronics-based. In recent times.1. 4 . static compensators (STATCOM). This reactive power support to the grid is traditionally achieved by switched capacitors and phase-shifting transformers. They are put into use when the operators deem it necessary through past experience. INTRODUCTION 1. as well as optimal supply of reactive power in the network. The purpose of this paper is therefore to develop a method in which the minimisation of power losses can be achieved.

The reactive power support at the identified bus can be of any type.Objectives: In this report.  During each iteration.  Analyse the data obtained to identify the configuration that has lowest transmission losses. Instead of identifying the optimal location of a specific type of FACTS device or capacitor. This paper proposes a method that achieves this through the optimal location for reactive power support. an optimal bus is selected. whether passive or active. the main objective is to minimise real transmission power losses in power transmission networks. Based on the literature review in section 2 below. The scope of the work will be limited as follows:  The criterion for optimisation is real power transmission losses. Voltage limits. only one PQ bus will be converted into a PV bus. Thus the practical implementation of the solution in a network is more flexible with regards to the device used. network stability and cost of reactive power support will not be considered. 5 . the following research objectives can be pursued:  Use MATLAB to perform the iterative conversion of PQ buses into PV buses in a given power network.1. The method proposed is based on classical reactive power dispatch. The optimised network will have only one converted PQ bus.2.  Calculate total transmission losses in each different configuration of the power network.

...................List of Figures Figure 1: PV to PQ Bus Conversion Algorithm .............. 20 Figure 3: IEEE 14-bus Network Transmission Losses with Converted PQ Buses .............. 23 Figure 6: IEEE 57-bus Network ....................................................................................................................................................4........................ 27 6 ... 25 Figure 8: Real Power Losses in the Test Networks ........1.........................................................................................3.................................................... 17 Figure 2: IEEE 14-Bus Network ..............................List of Symbols and Abbreviations Si Pi Qi Vi i Ii Yin θin Sij PL Gij Bij Apparent power at bus ‘i’ Active power at bus ‘i’ Reactive power at bus ‘i’ Voltage at bus ‘i’ Power angle at bus ‘i’ Current injected into the network at bus ‘i’ Line admittance Phase angle of line of the line between bus ‘i’ and bus ‘n’ apparent power leaving bus i to bus j on line i—j Real power transmission losses Conductance of line between bus ‘i’ and ‘j’ Susceptance of line between bus ‘i’ and ‘j’ 1....................................... 21 Figure 4: IEEE 30 Bus Network ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 22 Figure 5: IEEE 30-bus Network Transmission Losses with Converted PQ Buses ...... 26 Figure 9: Total Reactive Power Injected into Test Networks ..... 24 Figure 7: IEEE 57-bus Network Transmission Losses with Converted PQ Buses ...............

which are either specified or unknown. Specifying the voltage magnitude at a generator bus requires a variable specified in the simple analysis discussed earlier to become an unknown (in order to bring the number of unknowns back into correspondence with the number of equations).2. reactive power. and uses a tap adjustable transformer and/or a static VAR compensator instead of a generator. LITERATURE REVIEW 2. . This will allow the converted buses to supply reactive power to the network.Power System Buses A given power network has various parameters.Converting PQ Buses to PV The proposed method involves converting PQ (load) buses into PV buses. the reactive power injected by the generator becomes a variable.” [1] 2. Voltage-controlled bus (PV bus) is a bus for which the voltage magnitude (V) and the injected real power (P) are specified. V. “In all realistic cases. and power angle. the voltage magnitude is specified at generator buses to take advantage of the generator’s reactive power capability.2. Normally. At any given bus. 7 .1. the PV buses and the voltage-controlled buses are grouped together but these buses have physical difference. leaving the real power and voltage magnitude as the specified quantities at the generator bus. two variables are specified while the other two are variable. A PV bus must have a variable source of reactive power. a similar methodology is used in modelling of SVCs. Q. The unknown variables are reactive power (Q) and angle (). P. “Generally. The voltage controlled bus has also voltage control capabilities. In the literature. The SVC is modelled as a PV bus in [6] and [7]. These are real power. voltage.

complex power injected into the “i”th bus of a power system is given by (1) The net current injected into the network at bus i is given by ∑ (2) Where Yin represents line admittance of the line between bus i and bus n.When connected to a bus. 8 .Load Flow Problem As shown in [12]. The complex conjugate of power injected into the ith bus is given by (3) Substituting (2) into (3). we get ∑ ∑| || || |   (4) Equating the real and imaginary parts. the bus remains as a PQ bus. Beyond the rating limits. The mechanism by which the SVC is modelled is similar to the paradigm used in this research. Therefore.3. the procedure used in this research will be similar to that used in optimally locating SVCs in a network. it generates reactive power up to the limit of its rated size in VAR. 2.

| | ∑ | || |   (7) | | ∑ | || |   (8) These equations can be readily differentiated with respect to voltage angles and magnitudes and hence.4.| |∑| || |   (5) | |∑| || |   (6) 2.Newton-Raphson Method The Newton Raphson method makes use of the fact that the power flow problem has two sets of known variables and two sets of unknown variables for each equation. mismatch equations can be written as follows: For real power Pi the increment ΔPi is determined by: 9 . The load flow equations are expressed in polar form as follows.

Collecting all the mismatch equations into a vector-matrix yields (12) In the above equations. Therefore. all the elements in the sub matrices J2 and J4 are pre-multiplied by the relevant V. and so the following is obtained: | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | (10) Similarly. then all ΔV elements in the right-hand vector are divided by the relevant V to compensate. the relationship may be rewritten as follows [ This may [ | |] | | ] [ be ][ | |] | | (13) re-written as [ ] [ ] (14) 10 . mismatch equation can be written for reactive power Qi with increment ΔQi given by: | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | (11) Each non-slack bus of the system has two equations like those for ΔPi and ΔQi.| | | | | | | | | | | | (9) The terms with voltages can be multiplied and divided by their respective voltage magnitudes without altering their values.

e.If the inverse matrix J-1 exists. ΔP for all the PV and PQ type buses and ΔQ for all the PQ buses become less than a tolerance value ∈. 11 . The solution of the above equation provides the correction vector i.Optimal Location of Reactive Power Support In the research to be carried out. As stated above the PV bus must have a variable source of reactive power. This iterative process is continued until the elements of the mismatch vector i. the location of P-V buses is to be studied. Δδ for all the PV and PQ buses and ΔV for all the PQ buses which in turn are used to update the values of δ and V . The apparent power leaving bus i to bus j on line i—j is ( And the power received at bus j from bus i on line i—j is ( ) (16) ) (15) The transmission loss in each branch of the network is given by the sum of (15) and (16) (17) Therefore the total transmission loss for the entire network is given by: ∑∑ From this the real transmission losses are given by the real part of the total actual power losses. 2.5. Therefore the location of PV buses is the same as location of reactive power sources. This is expressed as follows: (19) 2.6.Active transmission losses The transmission losses in a line between bus i and bus j are calculated at both the sending and receiving ends of the line.e.

and QD and QL represent reactive power demand and losses respectively. as in [13].1. All these methods involve converting the power system into a mathematical model. various sources are selected for variation.6. 2. A Lagrangian factor. Increase or decrease of reactive power sources is carried out. When we include other constraints such as voltage stability and network security the problem becomes more complex. usually by linear programming. and SVC.6. The techniques of minimisation including the following: 2.2. to minimize system active power losses. and to determine optimal VAR compensation placement under various operating conditions. 12 . Classical Method of Reactive Power Dispatch For the classic reactive power dispatch problem. ∑ Where QGi represents generated reactive power at bus ‘i’. transformer tap changing. Linear Programming Approach In the classical reactive power dispatch. the real power outputs of the generators are already known. This model is a function which is then minimised as stated above. shunt capacitors. This procedure is repeated until the configuration that gives rise to minimum transmission losses is established. Using this factor.“The objectives of reactive power (VAR) optimization are to improve the voltage profile. power system operators utilize control options such as adjusting generator excitation. Transmission losses are then calculated. only transmission losses are taken into consideration. To achieve these objectives. The constraint is reactive power balance equation.  is calculated for all reactive power sources. that is.” [13] The selection of the optimal location for these sources of reactive power has been carried out in a number of ways.

The improvement in system performance is based on reduction in cost of power generation and active power loss. Newton approach This is based on Newton approach and the primal-dual logarithmic barrier method [16]. 2.3.4.4. 19. The technique uses the sensitivity relationships of power systems to determine the linearized sensitivity relationships linking the dependent and control variables. the reactive power at various buses can be linked to voltage.The linear programming technique provides a solution for the problem through the use of sensitivity matrices. and reduction of the system reactive power loss. Artificial Intelligence Methods These techniques take into consideration all the equality and inequality constraints [18.1. The index can be used to find the most effective location of the shunt flexible AC transmission systems device.6. The reactive power allocation problem is then formulated as a linear programming problem and voltage parameters are used as limits. improvement in voltage profile. Using this. 2. Fuzzy Techniques In this technique [15]. This is described in [14]. 13 . 2. This is done by taking advantage of the decoupled nature of power systems. and 20].6. The index is based on three objectives—increase in loading margin. The first order necessary conditions for optimality are fulfilled by Newton’s method and by updating the penalty and barrier terms. a strategy for placement of reactive power based on a fuzzy performance index is used.6. A Lagrangian function is associated with the modified problem.

the binary numbers are the degree to which reactive power is added to a bus. the PSO refines its search by attracting the particles to positions with good solutions.6. Genetic and Evolutionary Algorithms The simple Genetic Algorithm first expresses the optimisation problem as a population of binary numbers [18. In this case. This is a process of randomly interchanging digits within a binary number.2. and 20]. 19. The binary numbers are transformed by three genetic operations. Traditionally. These individuals are denoted as particles. and particles are never substituted by other individuals during the run. The individuals in a PSO thus have their own positions and velocities. Particle swarm optimization techniques Particle swarm optimization (PSO) was introduced as an alternative to Genetic Algorithms. Mutation is the random changing of the value of digits in a binary number. This method is used in [18] and [21].4.4. PSO is inspired by particles moving around in the search space. Instead. 2. Crossover is then carried out. Selection or reproduction is the process by which a set of binary numbers are selected to reproduce a set of new strings in a random manner.2. These genetic operations are performed iteratively on the system until the optimal results are obtained based on predetermined criteria.6. PSO has no crossover between individuals and has no mutation. 14 . The PSO technique consists of a population refining its knowledge of the given search space.3.

15 .2. This is achieved by changing its characteristics in the network model during load flow analysis. the objective is to minimise real transmission power losses. Methodology 3. However. This is only the case during the current iteration. a common solution to the problem is to identify the optimal location for reactive power support.Objectives In this report. 3. whether real or reactive. Thus the practical implementation of the solution in a network is more flexible with regards to the device used. This selected bus is converted into a PV bus. whether passive or active. This paper proposes a method that is similar to this.1. A PQ bus has no power sources. The reactive power support at the identified bus can be of any type. Instead of identifying the optimal location of a specific type of FACTS device or capacitor. In the next iteration. one PQ bus is selected as a candidate for conversion to PV. the selected bus reverts back to the parameters it had in the original network model. A different PQ bus is then selected for conversion to PV. However the method proposed is more generalised. In other words it is modelled as a PV bus. As detailed above. During an iteration. the bus that is selected for conversion is assumed to have a reactive power source.Bus Conversion Algorithm The proposed method is the iterative conversion of PQ buses to PV buses. the configuration with the lowest transmission losses is selected as the optimal configuration. an optimal bus is selected.3. After all PQ buses have in turn been converted to PV.

the network configuration with the lowest transmission losses is noted. this bus location is noted as a possible optimal location.In order to find the optimal position for PQ bus to PV bus conversion. Step 4: If the losses are lower than the original network losses. Step 2: The load flow analysis is then carried out with this network configuration using the Newton Raphson method. the following methodology is used. This sequence of steps is repeated for all PQ buses in the network. Step 5: The converted PV bus is then returned to its original PQ bus status. Step 3: The transmission losses in the network are then calculated using equation (21). The flow chart of this procedure is shown below. as described in section 4 above. A different PQ bus is selected and the procedure carried out once more from Step 1. 16 . After all PQ buses have each been converted. Step 1: A single PQ bus is selected to be converted to PV.

6 above. as described in section 17 .6. The method used in this report does not require these optimization techniques. To carry out load flow solution. In the method proposed in this paper.Figure 1: PV to PQ Bus Conversion Algorithm A number of papers use optimal load flow to identify the location of reactive power support. classical reactive power dispatch is used. the use of optimal load flow is beyond the scope of this report. The program is based on [11]. Classical reactive power dispatch is sufficient for the purposes of the proposed algorithm. The above algorithm is implemented in a MATLAB program. as described in section 2. Because this is a generalised method. the Newton Raphson method is used. Various optimization techniques based on linear programming techniques and artificial intelligence algorithms are used in the literature as described in section 2.1 above.

5 above. A tolerance ∈ of 10-8 is used in calculations.2. Power losses are then calculated using the method described in section 2. 18 .4 above.

The program iteratively converts each PQ bus in the network under test into a PV bus. (A ‘0’ index indicates the original network configuration. The real power losses for the whole network are then calculated.) 4.Test Network: IEEE 14-bus The IEEE 14-bus network comprises five PV buses and nine PQ buses. 30-bus [9] and 57-bus [10] networks. Simulation and Results Three networks are used to test the algorithm. The indexes represent the number of the bus that is converted to PV during the iteration in question. There are two generator buses and three buses with synchronous generators injecting reactive power.1.4. The real losses for each modified network are listed below. These are the IEEE 14-bus [8]. The IEEE 14-bus network is shown below: 19 . A load flow analysis is then carried out on the modified network.

Total load across the network is 259MW. the minimum transmission loss is observed when Bus 5 is converted to PV. The bulk of the load buses are concentrated in one region of the network.Figure 2: IEEE 14-Bus Network The IEEE 14-bus network comprises five PV buses. It is these transmission losses that will be minimised. with total injected reactive power of 105. the transmission losses for the IEEE 14-bus network are 13. There are two generator buses and three buses injecting reactive power.5929MW. the network properties are as follows: 20 .29MVAr. After applying the proposed method. In this configuration. In its original form.

bus system.bus system has 2 generators. 4 synchronous condensers.Table 1: IEEE 14-bus Network Optimal Properties Transmission Losses Total Injected Reactive Power Reactive Power Injected at Converted Bus 13. The IEEE 30 .408MVAr.Test Network: IEEE 30-bus The characteristics of the proposed approach are examined with the IEEE 30 . 21 loads. It is these transmission losses that will be minimised.9145MW.5233MW 104. the transmission losses for the IEEE 30-bus network are 17. In its original form.2.4MW. with total injected reactive power of 150. 21 .98MVAr 21. Total load across the network is 283.95MVAr Figure 3: IEEE 14-bus Network Transmission Losses with Converted PQ Buses 4. and 41 branches.

the following results are observed.The IEEE 30-bus network is illustrated below: Figure 4: IEEE 30 Bus Network After applying the proposed method. 22 .

In this configuration. Synchronous condensers connected at bus 2. the network properties are as follows: Table 2: IEEE 30-bus Network Optimal Properties Transmission Losses Total Injected Reactive Power Reactive Power Injected at Converted Bus 17. It is further observed that 21 configurations have lower transmission losses than the original configuration.009MVAr The IEEE-30 network power losses reduce when the configuration is changed. and 9 inject reactive power.Test Network: IEEE 57-bus The system consists of seven synchronous machines including three synchronous condensers. as shown in Table 2. 23 .3. 6.7897MW 149. 4.Figure 5: IEEE 30-bus Network Transmission Losses with Converted PQ Buses The minimum transmission loss is observed when Bus 21 is converted to PV.954MVAr 5.

and 12. 8.8 MW and injected reactive power of 305. 3. Total load is 1250. There are 80 branches and 57 buses with 42 loads.Four generators are located at bus 1. The IEEE 57-bus network is illustrated below: Figure 6: IEEE 57-bus Network 24 .56MVAR in the original configuration.031MW. Transmission losses in the base case are 25.

031MW.Analysis shows that there are 6 configurations in which the IEEE-57 network has fewer losses than the original network.372MVAr 6.594MVAr The optimal configuration has total transmission losses of 24.64MW 304. It is 304. It is also worth noting that total reactive power injected is lower than the original configuration. compared to the base case losses of 25. Figure 7: IEEE 57-bus Network Transmission Losses with Converted PQ Buses As seen in the figure above.64MW. Table 3: IEEE 57-bus Network Optimal Properties Transmission Losses Total Injected Reactive Power Reactive Power Injected at Converted Bus 24. 25 .372MVAr compared to 305. the optimal bus after conversion to PQ is bus number 34. The properties of the network with bus 34 converted to PV are shown below.56MVAr in the original.

41MVAr 149.67% 5.52% 21.59MW 13.98MVAr Configuration: 30 25 20 Losses in Original Configuration (MW) Losses in Optimal Configuration (MW) 15 10 5 0 14-BUS 30-BUS 57-BUS Figure 8: Real Power Losses in the Test Networks 26 .Summary of Results The results for the three simulations are as follows: Table 4: Summary of Power Losses IEEE Network: Losses in Original Configuration: Losses in Optimal Configuration: Loss reduction Reactive Power Injected at Converted PQ Bus: 14 13.64MW 1.03MW 24.4.95MVAr 30 17.56% 6.95MVAr 57 25.4.29MVAr Configuration: Total Reactive Power Injected in Optimal 104.91MW 17.52MW 0.37MVAr Total Reactive Power Injected in Original 105.59MVAr 305.79MW 0.56MVAr 304.01MVAr 150.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 5 14 9 0 10 4 13 12 11 7 14 Losses (MW) 13.734 24. the total injected power across the networks was reduced. Table 5: Minimum Transmission Losses IEEE Network: Bus No.5233 13.5929 13.5905 13.7972 17.8067 17.5896 13.8120 17.8551 24.7116 24.9195 27 .8798 24.6396 24.6216 13. 34 31 14 35 26 30 33 32 25 40 15 Losses (MW) 24. The objectives have therefore been achieved.8422 17. the proposed method has achieved its main objective (reduce total real power transmission losses).8154 17.8350 17.7897 17.8464 Bus No. 21 23 7 24 25 18 19 3 6 26 10 57 Losses (MW) 17.6010 13.8265 17.6467 24.7706 24.6683 13.350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 14-BUS 30-BUS 57-BUS Total Reactive Power Injected in Original Configuration (MVAr) Total Reactive Power Injected in Optimal Configuration (MVAr) Figure 9: Total Reactive Power Injected into Test Networks The above summary illustrates the following:  In all test simulations.8298 17.6895 13.  In all test cases.7209 30 Bus No.7683 24.7978 17.6902 13.7423 24. The full results for each network are shown below.7175 24.

8677 17.2767 25.9714 24.9331 24.9928 24.0211 25.1349 25.0136 25.8783 17.6827 25.3485 25.2759 25.1548 25.8734 17.0646 25.1908 25.3070 25.9021 17.8977 17.0419 25.12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 17 20 30 15 22 28 16 29 27 14 0 9 12 4 17.3418 25.7837 28 .1082 25.0313 25.9900 24.1267 25.8625 26.9351 24.8678 17.9628 24.8470 17.0293 25.0213 25.5180 25.3347 25.2178 25.0129 18.1602 25.3637 36 13 57 20 42 56 17 19 11 10 16 21 23 55 0 18 53 22 50 41 39 4 5 27 43 49 38 51 37 7 44 54 24 28 52 29 45 48 47 46 24.2574 25.9145 18.9948 25.8626 17.1433 25.8620 17.1635 25.0621 18.0142 25.8765 17.9624 24.0401 25.1361 25.9593 24.1969 25.

it may be possible that losses would be further reduced. The quantity of reactive power injected at the converted buses is obtained during the simulation. The simulations run using IEEE test networks are successful. PQ buses are iteratively converted to PV buses.1. The proposed algorithm is implemented in MATLAB. Conclusion In the method proposed. In this way. In order to have further power loss reduction. In all three test networks.5. If more then one bus is converted to PV. the method used was to determine the optimal location of one bus that could be converted to a PV bus. It is tested on standard IEEE 14-bus. 29 . This is done to establish the optimal location for reactive power support in the network. Also. as detailed in section 5.Future Work These simulation results are promising. The proposed method can be scaled up and implemented on the Kenyan national power transmission network. 30-bus and 57bus test networks. transmission losses are reduced by using the proposed method. In addition to this.1 below. It must however that the loss reductions may not be significant in a practical implementation. This can be done without alterations to the algorithm. 5. total reactive power injected into the system is also reduced. as shown in the results above. the size of reactive support added at the converted buses is significant to a power utility company. further constraints could be added to the optimisation process. more work needs to be carried out. In particular. Transmission losses can be reduced by applying reactive power support to the converted buses in the optimal solution. In this report. it is possible to find an optimal network configuration that minimises losses.

the more expensive its installation may be. 30 .The larger the reactive support. The algorithm could be modified to include this constraint.

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