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Post Fire Assessment Model for Reinforced Concrete Structures

Post Fire Assessment Model
Presented by Usman Choudhry Wasif Amjad Omer Abid Adnan Rais Ahmed Adil Javed CE-85 CECE-99 CECE-96 CECE-135 CECE-89 CEProject supervisor Prof. Dr. S.F.A. Rafeeqi Co-Supervisor CoMs. Tehmina Ayub

Presentation Outline
Title of the project. The objectives of the project. The scope of the project. Acquired knowledge base. The development of strategic model. Operation of software. Case scenario.

OBJECTIVES
Proposing a model for the assessment of buildings affected by fire. Providing a platform for further study & research for assessment and evaluation of buildings affected by fire.

To identify extent of damage to structural elements based on temperature estimates.SCOPE Forensic study of Reinforced Concrete Buildings (commercial & residential) subjected to fire. . To prescribe rating to individual structural elements.

STRATEGY USED FOR DEVELOPMENT OF MODEL Develop a knowledge base through detailed study. . Defining scope and objective. Identification of relevant parameters to be incorporated in generic model of assessment.

Post Fire Assessment Model Acquired Knowledge Base .

Porosity. Melting .Temperature Effects on Physical & Chemical Structure of Concrete Loss of evaporable water. Dehydration and conversion.

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Age of specimens. Cooling of specimens Effect of cement blend Moisture content . Loading. Rate of heating & cooling.Factors Affecting Compressive Strength of Concrete at High Temperatures WaterWater-cement ratio. Type of aggregate.

External cracking.DAMAGING EFFECTS OF FIRE ON CONCRETE Minor cosmetic blemishes. Strength reduction. Delamination and spalling. Internal micro cracking. Chemical changes within concrete. .

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Steel bars need to be protected from exposures to temperature in excess of 250-300c.PERFORMANCE OF REINFORCEMENT IN FIRE Strength of steel at a given temperature can be predicted with reasonable confidence. . Creating impermeable regions where moisture may be trapped. High thermal conductivity resulting in considerable expansion crippling the structural system. 250Concrete and steel exhibit similar thermal expansions up to a temperature of 400c. Alters the heat flow near the reinforcement tending to reduce the temperature.

Post Fire Assessment Model Development Of Model .

Development of model through software techniques on the basis of information collected through the survey performa.Methodology For Project & Development Of Model Development of Performa on the basis of thorough literature review from scientific journals. books and research papers. .

INPUT INFORMATION CAUSES PRODUCT MODEL PHYSICAL APPEARANCE HISTORY OF BUILDING BEFORE FIRE STUDY OF AFFECTED BUILDING AFTER FIRE OTHER PARAMETERS .

590c to 950°C Whitish grey 950°C and above Buff Weak and friable. . Powdered . Deep cracking at 550°C.Temperature Color change Changes in physical appearances Unaffected Concrete condition Unaffected O to 290°C none 290 to 590°C Pink to red Surface cracking at 300°C. Spalling and exposing reinforcement at 800°C. Weak and friable. light colored dehydrated paste at 900°C Extensive spalling Sound but strength significantly reduced.

.Temperature and deflection curves for reinforced concrete beams.

Strength reduction factor for concrete and steel °C .

BS time-temperature curve time- .

jars & bottles. galvanized surfaces with drops formed Small machine parts. solid ornaments thoroughly flowed Temperature 121 °C 300 to 350 °C Zinc 400 °C Aluminum 650 °C Molded glass 700 to 750 °C 800 °C . solid ornaments softened or rounded Glass blocks. brackets. jars & bottles. storage batteries with edges rounded or drops formed Plumbing fixtures. cooking utensils with drops formed Glass blocks. toilet fixtures. radio cases melts or flows Plumbing lead.Material Polystyrene Lead Examples & condition Curtain hooks.

reinforced glass Temperature 700 to 800 850 °C Silver Rounded edges or drop formed on Jewelry. reinforced glass Thoroughly flowed Window glass. machine pedestals and housings 950 °C Brass 900 to 1000 °C Bronze Copper Cast iron 1000 °C 1100 °C 1100 to 1200 °C . radiators.Material Sheet glass Examples & condition Softened or rounded Window glass. tableware Knobs. coins. plate glass. lamp fixtures with rounded edges or drops formed Rounded edges or drops formed on art objects Rounded edges or drops formed on electrical wiring Drops formed on pipes. locks. plate glass.

Post Fire Assessment Model st 1 Tier Survey Performa .

and the position of the building.The st 1 Tier Survey Performa The aim is to achieve an approximate temperature range achieved during the fire to assess the severity of the damages in the structure Based on the physical aspects of deterioration of architectural and structural elements Collect information related to the location. which might be of importance in evaluating the severity of the subject . zoning.

. to mark the effected structural members in the fire affected area.The first page is provided for the surveyor to sketch a plan.

.The first two pages and initial part of third page. of the 1st Tier Survey Performa. allows the surveyor to collect the general information of the building. which may come in handy for investigative purposes.

.The later part of the 3rd page collects information about the major damage to the equipment present in the building and estimated area of damage in the compartment.

The 4th page of the Performa outlines the observations in the fire compartment. specifying the fire origin. . use of compartment and the ventilation parameters.

The initial part of the 5th page describes the physical condition of the compartment after the fire. referring the damages to the structure. .

The later part of the 5th page and the 6th page collects information of the affected minor items in the room (if present). which would be beneficial in estimating the temperature in the compartment. .

to obtain a decision of the level of repairs required for the members. 8th and 9th page contains data for the structural members present. to assess the severity of the damage in these members. .The 7th.

Post Fire Assessment Model nd 2 Tier Survey Performa .

when compared to the initial conditions. .The 2nd Tier survey performa is based on interviewing the witnesses and referring the specifications. These may provide approximate evaluation of the damage after the fire.

Post Fire Assessment Model Assessment Software .

The Assessment Model The purpose of the model would be to estimate an approx temperature range in the compartment. using the temperature range. so that the approximate residual capacity could be assessed And then use the above information in accordance with the observed severity of the structure to suggest the rating of repairs for the structural component . from the standard fire testing curves. Obtain reduction factors.

The Assessment Model The model has been designed using Microsoft Visual Basic 6. as the front end.0. which saves all the entries made. . There is space provided to hook up further enchancements. and Microsoft Access as the backend The software provides a database. to maintain a record. that would further refine the software.

providing a link to input the data obtained from the survey performas. On starting a new assessment project. a dialog box appears. .The menu is the first startup form that appears after the validation of the password It provides an enhancement to access previously assessed records.

so that it would be easy to access it on requirement. The information from the form is categorized here.The 1st tier survey requires the number of structural members. After this the 1st tier survey form appears. . so that data from the Performa could be fed. affected by the fire.

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to further refine the assessment. The 2nd tier survey form is an optional form. the 1st tier option is disabled and the analysis can be performed.Once the 1st tier survey form is filled out. .

along with the rating of repairs. showing the mean temperature assessment of the compartment and the structural components.The analysis is presented in a form. .

Post Fire Assessment Model Application of the Software through an Assumed Scenario .

located in the new academic block The fire initiated on 11th Sept 2008 at 9 am. On interviewing the witnesses. it was found that the fire had lasted for about 75 mins.The Assumed Scenario The scenario proposes a fire in an office compartment. fire was extinguished by water. Due to unavailability of fire fighting equipment. . due to a short circuit.