Socio Cognitive aspect in Learning

Prepared by Goh Chee Horng

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Cognitive Behavior Modification 9 9 10 2 .2.1. A Self Regulation Model 4. Modeling : A Social Learning Tool 3. Founder – Albert Bandura 3 2.1.Outline 1. Self Regulation 4.1.3. The Reciprocal Causation Model 2. A Closer Look At Personal Component In Reciprocal Causation Model 4 4 5 6 3.2. Socio Cognitive View of Learning 2.2. The Bobo Doll Experiment 2. Modeling Effect 3. Factor Affecting the Success of Modeling 7 7 7 4.

By the mid-1980s.Albert Bandura (04/12/1925 ~ ) Figure 1 : Professor Bandura at Stanford University Sept 2008   Known as the originator of social learning theory and the theory of self-efficacy. and is also responsible for the influential 1961 Bobo Doll experiment. 3 .1. and his analyses tended towards giving a more comprehensive overview of human cognition in the context of social learning. Founder . The theory he expanded from social learning theory soon became known as SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY. Bandura's research had taken a more holistic bent.

1963) Figure 2 : Bobo Doll Experiment 4 . Social learning occurs when people learn from observing the behavior of others.2.1 The Bobo Doll Experiment (1961. 2. Interaction with environment (direct and indirect). Best described by The Bobo Doll Experiment.     Socio Cognitive View of Learning Focuses on learning that is the result of observing others or observing the consequences of the behavior of others. observing the environment outcomes of the behavior of others. or.

    Children are shown a film where an adult is attacking a Bobo doll. The Reciprocal Causation Model proposes that there is interplay between personal. pride. Children in group A and C showed same level of aggressive behaviour. Children in group C are just shown the film where the adult is attacking the doll. The behaviorist model downplays personal factors. Environmental Component o Social stimuli from others such as parents. Children in group A are shown the adult being praised with sweets and lemonade after beating up the doll.2     The Reciprocal Causation Model The psycho-analytic model downplays environmental factors. including belief about oneself Behavioral Component o Response made in any given situation o Emotional : anger.The Bobo doll experiment was the name of two experiments conducted by Albert Bandura in 1961 and 1963 studying patterns of behavior associated with aggression. behavioral and environmental factors. punching and hitting the Bobo doll with a mallet. After the film each child spent 10 minutes in a playroom with a Bobo doll. teachers and peers. Children in B showed less aggression as they extract the cognition that aggressive behaviour would be punished. introduce by Bandura. o Physical : increasing study time. skipping class. throwing. There are three main components in Reciprocal Causation Model :  Personal Component o Beliefs and attitudes that can potentially affact learning...   5 . The second tenet of socio cognitive theory. The adult is shown kicking. 2. Children in group B are shown the adult being told off after beating up the doll.

People achieve goals. People see others like themselves being successful.3 A Closer Look At Personal Component In Reciprocal Causation Model  Self efficacy o Focus on how capable or prepared we believe we are for handling particular kinds of tasks o Self efficacy high. Overcoming or managing failures is an important part of this. 6  . self efficacy increase o Factors that may affect efficacy  Performance accomplishments. People are persuaded by others that they can succeed. enhance the ―will power‖ o Success in difficult task.  Verbal persuasion.Figure 3 : The Reciprocal Causation Model 2. and have experiences that build their abilities and confidence. Outcome Expectancy o An individual’s belief in positif relationship between performance (effort) and the outcome.  Emotional arousal  Vicarious experience.

Someone who can model success in addition to the behavior to-belearned. mental images. and selfobservation of reproduction. perceptual set. o Motivation — having a good reason to imitate.3   Modeling : A Social Learning Tool The cognitive.1    Modeling Effect Inhibitory Effects o Observation strengthens the inhibitions for the same behavior in the observers Disinhibitory Effects o Observation weakens the inhibitions for the same behavior in the observers Response Facilitation Effects o Model’s behavior serves as a social cue or reminder to engage in the behavior. Including physical capabilities. 7 . symbolic rehearsal. 3. and behavioral changes result from observing others’ behaviors and explanations. effective. motor rehearsal o Production — reproducing the image.g. cognitive organization. 3.2  Factor Affecting the Success of Modeling Learner Processing o Attention — various factors increase or decrease the amount of attention paid. o Retention — remembering what you paid attention to. Includes symbolic coding. Includes motives such promised (imagined incentives) and vicarious (seeing and recalling the reinforced model)  Modeling Characteristics o Power and Prestige. past reinforcement) affect attention.real people that we observe directly o Symbolic model : real and fictional characters that we observe indirectly through the media. arousal level. Model’s characteristics (e. Type of model : o Live model. sensory capacities.

g.age. Coping Experience. o 6 steps:  Explaining why the to-be-learned skill is important.ethicity) Competance.  Task Difficulty o For highly complex procedure teaching.gender.  Modeling the procedure in its entirety.o o o Similiarity. Someone who can demonstrate behaviors confidently and flawlessly. Someone who can model persistence when confront with a challenge in addition to the behavior to-be-learned..  Having students practice the procedure steps with guidance. Someone who shares salient characteristics with the learner (e.  Modeling each one of the procedure steps separately using different contexts. 8 . consider using cognitive modeling.  Having students practice the entire procedure without guidance.  Having students practice the entire procedure with guidance.

and more systematically evaluate their progress toward learning goals. better monitoring.g wealth.  Devising a stradegic plan to accomplish such goals. High achieving students able to set more specific goals. 2000. 4. o Task Analysis.  Positive outcome expectation. 9 . use more stradegies.4    Self Regulation The ability to control all aspects of one’s learning.1 A Self-Regulation Model (Zimmerman. prestige. from advance planning to evaluating performance afterward. knowledge. High achieving students are more likely to be self-regulated.  Setting goals (long-term and short-term). 2002)  Forethought Phase.  Intrinsic interest in task. e.  Self efficacy. believe in own self capability. o Self-beliefs.  Personal component.

2    Cognitive Behavior Modification A well-known method to teach self-regulation Combines principles of behaviorism and cognitive theories to help students control their learning through self-instruction. o Performance with adult overt guidance – teacher repeat the instructions aloud while the student is engaged in the task. 10 . o Self-Imposed Contingency Stage  self—reinforcement  Adjustments on the original strategic plan  4.  Example: writing a journal. o Performance with faded self-guidance – student whispers the instruction while engaged in the task o Performance with covert self-guidance – student silently repeats the instructions in his/her mind while engaged in the task. Steps: o Demonstration – use cognitive modeling to demonstrate how to use instruction while engaged in the task. keeping logbook. o Performance with overt self-guidance – student repeats the instruction aloud while engaged in the task. o Self-control  Self-instruction  A method aimed at reminding one’s self about appropiate actions of strategies.  Methods:  Mastering criterion – compare performance with respect to an absolute standard of performance. Performance Phase o Self-Monitoring  Self-Recording  Monitoring a process of learning by recording incremental accomplishments.  Comparing current performance level to performance level at the beginning of a cycle. Self-Reflection Phase o Self-Evaluation  Judging if the outcome of one’s actions or strategies is acceptable or unacceptable.