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**A simulation model for AGC studies of hydro–hydro systems
**

K.C. Divya, P.S. Nagendra Rao*

Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India Received 19 March 2003; revised 25 November 2004; accepted 29 December 2004

Abstract AGC studies pertaining to hydro–hydro systems have received little attention. In this paper a simulation model for AGC studies of such systems has been proposed. The difﬁculty in extending the traditional approach [Elgerd OI. Electric energy systems theory. New York: McGraw Hill; 1983.] for such systems is overcome by assuming that all areas in a system operate at the same frequency. The proposed simulation model is obtained by ignoring the difference in frequency between control areas, unlike the traditional approach, where in each area is assumed to operate at a different frequency. The features of the proposed model have been demonstrated through simulation studies. q 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Automatic generation control; Simulation models; Hydro systems

1. Introduction The normal operation of an interconnected multi-area power system requires that each area maintain the load and generation balance. This is normally achieved by means of an automatic generation controller (AGC). AGC tries to achieve this balance by maintaining the system frequency and the tie line ﬂows at their scheduled values. The AGC action is guided by the area control error (ACE), which is a function of system frequency and tie line ﬂows. The ACE represents a mismatch between area load and generation taking into account any interchange agreement with the neighboring areas. The ACE for the ith area is deﬁned as ACE Z DPtie C Bi Df (1)

where DPtie Z Ptie actual K Ptie scheduled and Ptie is the net tie line ﬂow; DfZfactualKfscheduled and f is the system frequency; Bi is referred to as the frequency bias factor This control philosophy is widely used and is generally refered to as the tie line bias control. AGC studies are generally carried out using simulation models. The origin of the simulation model that has been

* Corresponding author. Tel.: C91 80 22932365; fax: C91 80 2360444. E-mail addresses: divya@ee.iisc.ernet.in (K.C. Divya), nagendra@ee.iisc.ernet.in (P.S. Nagendra Rao).

widely used [1] for AGC studies can be traced to [2]. Subsequently, the state space and discrete versions of this model have also been used [3,5]. In [1,3] this model has been used for AGC studies of a two-area non-reheat thermal system. Later, this model has been used to study the AGC for two area reheat thermal system [4–6] and hydro thermal system [7]. Further, it has been extended for multi-area systems, which comprises of three [8] as well as four area systems [9,10]. It appears that the studies carried out so far are limited to only thermal or hydrothermal systems. Even though the interconnected hydro systems are quite common, AGC of such systems does not seem to have been studied so far. This paper presents a study of the AGC for a two area hydro system. As an attempt to extend the conventional model [1] turned out to be unsuccessful, an alternate simulation model for AGC studies of such a system has been proposed here. The AGC performance of a two area test system has been studied using the proposed model with an integral controller.

2. The proposed model The primary requirement of the power system model in the context of AGC studies is that it should enable the computation of deviations in frequency and area tie line ﬂows. In the traditional models, each area with in a system is assumed to be operating at a different frequency. The frequency deviation in each area is obtained by

0142-0615/$ - see front matter q 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.ijepes.2004.12.004

generators and loads present in the area). The tie line ﬂow deviations between the areas is computed as the product of the tie line constant and the angular difference between the two areas. This calculation is not straight forward for systems wherein two areas are connected by more than one tie line. The ﬁrst test system (Test system-1) corresponds to a two area hydro–hydro system with each area being represented by a composite model. Simulation results Results of simulation studies of two systems are presented here in order to illustrate the performance of the proposed model. Pli(f) is the total area load. P. The other advantage is that this model does not require the use of a composite prime mover model representing the entire area. the traditional approach cannot be used to compute the tie line ﬂow deviations. Pgi is the actual total area generation. (iii) The parameters for the composite hydro unit model of an area are readily available from earlier work [7]. In order to obtain the tie line ﬂows the area power balance equations has been used. difference of total system generation and load). In the proposed model. It can be seen that the proposed model has two distinct advantages as compared with the traditional approach. 1.1. Nagendra Rao / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 27 (2005) 335–342 considering the area dynamics (aggregate dynamics of the governors. Since the difference between the area frequencies is neglected. For all AGC purposes the frequency used for one area to compute ACE should be the same as used in the other areas so long as they remain interconnected’. is not unjustiﬁed. . (ii) This choice facilitates the comparison of the primary response obtained using the proposed model with that obtained using the conventional model. Hi is the total generator inertia of the area and fsys is the system frequency. the momentary difference between the frequency of different areas can be ignored.C. this approach does not seem to have been adopted by others for AGC studies subsequently. 3.e. In [11] it has been stated that ‘in AGC studies. the IEEE task force on AGC [11] explicitly recommends this approach. this model can preserve the identity of each unit and non-linearities like dead band and generation rate constraint (GRC) of different units can be separately incorporated.336 K. The power balance equation for the ith area is written as Ptie C Pgi K Pli ðf Þ Z Hi dfsys dt (2) ﬁne tuning of the prime mover parameters (based on system measurements) the simulator response matched closely with the measured responses. A conceptual frame work of such a simulation model (common system frequency approach) had also been outlined earlier by Athay [12] in his comprehensive review of AGC. this model does not require the computation of the tie line constant. Conventional model—block diagram. turbines. The proposed model adopts a different approach. the frequency (system frequency common to all areas) is determined by integrating the net system accelerating/decelerating power (i. Pa 1 where Ptie is the tie line power ﬂow. The ﬁrst is that. having six hydro units.S. the entire system is considered to be operating at a single frequency (all area frequencies are equal). Hi ðdfsys =dtÞ is accelerating or decelerating power of each area. is derived from the IEEE 30 bus test system. It is claimed in [13] that with some 1 R Pc1 1 + s t2 1 + s tR 1 1 + s t1 Pgv1 1 – s tw/2 1 + s tw Pm1 Pl 1 Kp 1 + s Tp f1 Tie line flow computation block 1 2π T12 s Pc2 1 + s t2 1 + s tR 1 1 + s t1 Pgv2 1 – s tw/2 1 + s tw Pm 2 Kp 1 + s Tp f2 1 R Pl 2 Pa 2 Fig. Test system-1 The choice of this test system (with composite hydro unit model) is prompted by the following considerations: (i) Representing area dynamics through a composite turbine model is an extensively used practice in AGC literature [2–7] over the last 50 years. It may be noted that the concept of common system frequency and power balance equation based tie line ﬂow computation have been incorporated in a power system simulator developed to verify the long term dynamic behaviour as well as AGC performance of the Paciﬁc Northwest system [13]. 3. This approach though uncommon. Thus. Here. The other test system (Test system-2). However. In fact. which is a function of frequency. Divya.

. the responses of both the models (conventional and proposed) have been obtained and compared in the absence of AGC (primary response). two different area frequency deviations (Df1. even when there is no AGC. 3. in the conventional model shown in Fig. Further. it is well known that a number of hydro units can operate in parallel in a very stable manner.S. This inference is further reinforced by the location of the poles of the conventional model given in Table 2. The variation in frequency and tie line power ﬂow deviations obtained using the conventional and the proposed model (with out the controller) for a 0.425 337 First. Comparing Fig. However. The parameters of each of the areas are identical and are given in Table 1. AGC models for test system-1 Fig.425 0. 3 and 4.1. 3 and 4 also shows that the response obtained from the proposed model appears to retain only the slow varying components. it is evident that the response obtained with the proposed model is stable and does not contain any high frequency oscillations and that obtained with the conventional model contains high frequency oscillations whose magnitude increases with time. 2. Later. Proposed model—block diagram. a single system frequency is obtained by integrating the net system accelerating power (DPasys). Nagendra Rao / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 27 (2005) 335–342 Table 1 Parameter values: two area hydro system Parameters Kp Tp t1 t2 tR tw R (Hz/puMW) T12 Kpsys Tpsys B1 (puMW/Hz) B2 (puMW/Hz) Elgerd’s model 120 20 48. From Table 2 it is seen that a pair of complex poles are situated in the right half of the s-plane. Therefore.K. 1 it can be seen that the tie line ﬂow computation block is absent in the proposed model.3.01 pu step load increase in area-2 have been shown in Figs. which states that ‘As a central control process AGC is neither able nor can be expected to play any role in damping electromechanical transients including inter-machine oscillations. Response with controller The AGC response of this system is studied using the proposed model with a simple integral controller. system models developed for AGC studies need not represent phenomena having time constants shorter than a few seconds’. the response of the proposed model has been studied with an integral controller. respectively. This implies that the traditional model is incapable of capturing the right dynamics of a hydro–hydro system for AGC studies. The block diagram representation of the proposed model for this system is shown in Fig. Df2) are obtained by integrating the individual area accelerating powers (DPa1.513 5 1 2.7 0. Divya. 1 shows the block diagram representation of the conventional model for the two area hydro system considered here.0867 – – – – Proposed model – – 48. 2. 2 with Fig. A perusal of Figs. Primary response The responses of the proposed and conventional models. DPa2).7 0. 1. 3. which is the same as that used for two area non-reheat thermal system in [3] and the two area reheat thermal system in [4–6]. ﬁltering out some of the high frequency components seen in the response of the conventional model.4 – 60 20 0. have been studied for a step load disturbance in one of the area. 3.1. 1 R Pc1 1 + s t2 1 + s tR 1 1 + s t1 Pgv1 1– s tw/2 1 + s tw Pm1 Pasys Pl Kpsys 1 + s Tpsys fsys Pc2 1 + s t2 1 + s tR 1 R 1 1 + s t1 Pgv2 1– s tw/2 1 + s tw Pm2 Pl2 Fig. This feature of the proposed model conforms to the views of the IEEE task force [11]. It is obvious that the conventional model response is unstable. in the absence of AGC. They correspond to the hydro area model used in [7]. P.1. From these plots. The value of the tie line constant is also identical to that used in [7].C.2.513 5 1 2. However.4 0. This response essentially shows how a new load is shared by the two interconnected areas in the absence of AGC.1.

the controller gain of 0. Tie line flow deviation(pu) 0.04. were obtained.04 will result in a value of J which is close to the minimum.6 in [3]) and hydrothermal (0.1008C2. Considering the proposed model.1008K2. In [11] it has been stated that ‘the strategy which accumulates lower cost associated with the wear and tear of regulation for all units combined is preferred. Hence.02) is obtained for a step load disturbance of 0. Fig. from 0. Here.01 pu step load disturbance in area-2. ðN J Z ACE2 dt (3) 0 The variation of J with Ki. From this it can be seen that KiZ0. 6 shows the variation in the set point for two extreme values of gain.01 pu step load change. any value of gain between 0. Divya. from 0.04 to 0. the qualitative guidelines suggested in [11.02 such overshoots in the controller settings are not seen.04 and 0.8128 K1. Hence. This slow response can be attributed to the low values of the controller gain chosen as well as to the inherently slow response of the hydro system.02. KiZ0.2932i K0. Table 2 Poles of the conventional model of two area hydro system 0.02 was chosen as it can not only reduce the integral square error but also reduce futile and counter productive control actions. Further. the controller output (governor set point variation) for various values of gain.e. A signiﬁcant increase in the controller gain is seen to affect the stability of the system and it becomes unstable for a gain value of 0. causes overshoots in the control actions.2932i K0.5622i* K3. 3.01 pu step load change.02 to 0. being only a supplementary control.02) turns out to be quite small as compared to the optimal gain values reported for two area thermal (0. is expected to avoid unnecessary rapid maneuvering of unit generation’.04 –0. Tie line power ﬂow deviation for a 0. Fig. in this range.04 the value of J remains substantially constant (J changes only by about 4%).6. an integral controller can be designed by considering a suitable performance index. 7 shows the variation in ACE for a 0. it can also be seen that for gain values between 0.5622i* 0. 4.02.06 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 time(sec) Fig.1899C0. the performance index J is chosen so as to minimize the excursions in the ACE signal and J is deﬁned as.3882 K0.04 corresponding to minimum J. Nagendra Rao / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 27 (2005) 335–342 frequency deviation (Hz) 0. It is to be noted that this gain value (KiZ0. It was observed that as the value of gain reduces.0204 .02 to 0.S.02 –0. Consequently.2 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 time(sec) Fig. i.01 pu in area-2. P. However. From the plot and the table it can be seen that the integral square error is minimum for a controller gain of about 0.04. A comparison with the conventional model is not made as this model is unstable and AGC.C.02 0 Proposed model Conventional model –0.5396 K0.2 in [7]) systems.1 –0. considering a 0.02 to 0. 5. the overshoots seen in the control action also reduce. is not expected to stabilize an unstable system.01 pu step load disturbance in area-2. From this it can be seen that the ACE remains with in a band around zero (5% of the disturbance) after about 100 s.2 0.1 0 Conventional model area2 Conventional model area1 Proposed model –0. the controller gain is tabulated in Table 3 and is also plotted in Fig. This strategy. The response of the system with the integral controller (KiZ0.04 0. In order to choose a particular gain value. Frequency deviation for a 0.338 K.1004 K2.14] have been used.1899K0. with a gain of 0. therefore.

Divya. AGC model for test system-2 The schematic representation of the proposed model for this test system is shown in Fig.S. Variation of J with Ki: test system-1. 5.06 1429 0. The parameter values as well as the participation factor (PF) for each of the units and the area in which they are located are given in Table 4.005 2094 0. 8.02 1394 0. In this operating condition of the system.005 0 Ki = 0.08 1580 0.1. respectively. Primary response The primary response of this test system has been obtained using the proposed model.04 –0. the participation factor of each unit is chosen here.09 1691 0. are shown in Fig. Test system-2 This test system has been derived from the IEEE 30 bus test system [15]. This is normally available as the units participating in AGC is decided apriori.02 J 0.01 ACE (pu) 0 –0.03 –0.03 3.2.2. Variation in ACE with integral controller (controller gainZ0.007 1852 0.02 0. The system base is 100 MVA and the tie line power ﬂow as well as the load disturbance are given in pu. 0. .03 1359 0. 10 it can be seen 0.01 –0. 0.0 3768 0.02 –0.2. All the generators are considered to be hydro units. while the frequency variations are given in Hz.12 Ki Fig.04 0 50 100 150 200 time (sec) Fig. From Fig.02 pu step load disturbance applied in area-1.94 and 67. area1 exports 9. The system is divided into two areas such that each area has 3 generating units. for a 0.015 1487 0. 9. change in set point (pu) 0. The variation in frequency and tie line ﬂows for this system.025 1377 0.015 0. Since each area consists of more than one unit.02 Ki = 0.05 0 50 100 150 200 250 time (sec) Fig. Each of the hydro unit indicated in Fig. 3. 6.K.1 0.02): test system-1.01 1647 0. 7. The IEEE 30 bus test system. The two areas are connected by 7 tie lines and buses 1–16 except bus# 10 belong to area-1 and buses 10 and 17–30 belong to area-2.01 0 0.10 1834 0. Response of the integral controller: test system-1. In the quiescent operating condition (prior to the load disturbance) the total generation of area-1 and area-2 are 123.065 MW of power to area-2.08 0. 10. P.7 MW.04 1357 339 3. consisting of 6 generating units is considered to represent a two area system.04 0.07 1494 0. This hydro model includes the dead band as well as GRC.2.01 0. Nagendra Rao / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 27 (2005) 335–342 Table 3 Variation of J with Ki: test system-1 Ki J!105 Ki J!105 0. 8 is represented by a detailed model as shown in Fig.C.05 1383 0.06 0.

4 tw 1. Hydro unit model.0 1.04 0. From this it can be seen that the governor set point increases almost monotonically and ﬁnally settles down at a value equal to the load disturbance in area-1. rises as the generators pick up the load and ﬁnally settles down at 59. bus no. Hence. 4. each unit is different and the corresponding dynamics of the two areas are different.01 has been chosen as the integral controller gain for this system. a value of KiZ0.0 5.2.20 0. while in test system-2.01 is seen to minimize J.04 0.5 4.85 5. Fig. The response of test system-2 with the integral controller (KiZ0. Table 4 Hydro generator unit data Gen.0 5. no futile control actions are seen. P. From this tR 5.02 0. 12 shows the variation in ACE for a 0. the tie line ﬂow deviation of area-1 is negative. from this plot.0 PF 1/4 1/3 5/12 1/6 1/3 1/2 . This is because the test system-1 both the areas are chosen to be identical.4 0.5 2.1 4. Schematic diagram of the proposed AGC model: test system-2.04 0.04 0. 1 1 1 2 2 2 tp 0.15 0. The design procedure followed here is identical to that used earlier for test system-1.0 4. However. Nagendra Rao / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 27 (2005) 335–342 Fig.0 1. Fig.0 5.340 K.02 pu step load disturbance in area-1.5 2.4 0.5 2.04 Ks 5.04 0.05 0.01 and then settle down at this value (in the absence of supplementary control).0 0.9 5. it can be seen that the tie line ﬂow deviations of the two areas oscillate around 0.24 0.5 5.0 4. from the tie line ﬂow variation obtained (using the proposed model) shown in Fig.5 2. The performance index J has been obtained for various values of gain and KiZ0.19 0.03 0. A B C D E F Gen. Further.C. 8.3.04 d 0. Response with controller The AGC response of test system-2 is obtained using the proposed model with an integral controller.9920 Hz.2 tG 0.9 H 2. 11. 9.4 0.0 5. for this value of gain is shown in Fig.S.4 0. As the load disturbance is in area-1.5 s 0. that the system frequency falls considerably immediately after the disturbance.04 0. 1 2 13 22 23 27 Area no.4 0.01) has been obtained.20 0. it is seen that the tie line ﬂow immediately settles down to its ﬁnal value without any oscillations.18 3.02 0. Divya.0 1. The response of the controller.1 1.

Response of the integral controller (controller gainZ0.005 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 time (sec) Fig.1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 341 ∆fsys (Hz) Tie line flow variation : Area-1 ∆ Ptie1 (pu) 0 –0.01 0.005 –0.01): test system-2. 0 ACE (pu) –0. unlike the conventional model. In this case also. 12. In this study. 4.02 –0. similar to test system-1. it can be seen that the magnitude of the ACE of area-1 (area in which load increases) reaches a value which is about four times the magnitude of load disturbance immediately after the load disturbance.015 0.S. Consequently. but also reduced the overshoot in ACE signal. provides a stable representation for an interconnected multi-area hydro system. P.025 0. It has been shown that this model. the integral control action has not only reduced the steady-state error to zero. 10.08 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 time (sec) Fig.015 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 time (sec) time (sec) Tie line flow variation : Area-2 ∆ Ptie2 (pu) 0.01 0.C. .005 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 time (sec) Fig. the ACE signal remains in a band around zero (5% of the disturbance magnitude) after about 100 s.01): test system-2.01 –0.06 –0.K.04 –0. The AGC response of two different test systems obtained using the proposed model have been studied.02 0. While this rise in ACE appears to be large. 11. An additional feature of this model is that it ﬁlters out the fast varying components—a desirable feature according to the IEEE task force on AGC [11].015 0. Variation in ACE with integral controller (controller gainZ0.05 –0. change in set point (pu) 0. Primary response: test system-2.16 pu. it is to be noted that in the absence of the supplementary control the overshoot seen in ACE signal is 0. Nagendra Rao / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 27 (2005) 335–342 0. Divya.04 0 –0. Conclusions In this paper a simulation model has been proposed for AGC studies of a hydro–hydro system.

4(2):730–8. [14] NERC. [10] Chang CS.edu an integral control strategy has been used and a suitable controller gain has been obtained.PAS95(1):375–84. IEEE Trans Power Syst 1989. A load frequency control algorithm based on generalized approach. Sample data automatic generation control of interconnected reheat thermal systems considering generation rate constraint. [12] Athay TM. [4] Tripathy SC. Vanslyck LS. 130(1):17–27. Nagendra Rao / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 27 (2005) 335–342 [7] Nanda J.cornell.7(3):1106–21. Nanda J. Satsangi PS.342 K. Oper Manual 1996. Area load frequency control using fuzzy gain scheduling of PI controllers.PAS-89(4):556–62.Dec. Electric energy systems theory. . Proc IEEE 1987. [8] Lim KY. P. Nanda J. Part I. IEE Proc—Part C 1982. Divya. Trans AIEE 1953. Electr Power Syst Res 1997. Fosha CE. IEE Proc—Part C 1996. [3] Elgerd OI.42: 145–52. Tie-line power frequency control of electrical power systems. Hope GS. Understanding automatic generation control. Wang Y.C. Kothari DP.129:10–16. Ewart DN. Cresap RL. [2] Concordia C. IEE Proc—Part D 1983. Policy 1—generation control and performance. [6] Kothari ML. Optimum megawatt-frequency control of multiarea electric energy system. References [1] Elgerd OI. Hope GS. IEEE Trans Power Syst 1976. [15] http://www. Fu W. Satsangi PS.S.562–72. Das D. IEEE Trans Power Syst 1988.:1–14. Generation scheduling and control. New York: Mc-Graw Hill. IEEE Trans Power Apparatus Syst 1970. [9] Malik OP. Discrete mode agc of a two area reheat thermal system with new area control error. Hoffmann AG. Kirchmayer LK. [13] Taylor CW.143: 377–86. PAS-100(4):2334–42. Robust decentralized load frequency control of multiarea power systems. Kothari ML. Real-time power system simulation for automatic generation control. Fink LH.pserc.75: 1592–606. IEEE Trans Power Syst 1992. Automatic generation control of interconnected hydro-thermal systems in continuous and discrete mode considering generation rate constraint. Malik OP. Kumar A. 1983. Optimization of load frequency control parameters for power systems with reheat steam turbines and governor dead band non-linearity.3: 375–82. IEEE Trans Power Apparatus Syst 1981. Zhou R. [5] Kothari ML. [11] Jaleeli N.

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