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• • • • • • • Introduction DC Generator Types Voltage Regulation Losses Separately Excited Generator Self Excited Generators Maximum Efficiency Criterion

11-DC Generators Part 2 Text: 5.9 – 5.16
ECEGR 450 Electromechanical Energy Conversion

© H. Louie, 2008


DC Generator Types
• DC generators can be classified by excitation method
 Separate
• Excitation current supplied by external source

DC Generator Types
• Self-excited generators can also be classified based upon how the excitation winding is connected:
 Series  Shunt (parallel)  Compound (combination of series and shunt)

 Self
• Excitation current self supplied

• Permanent Magnet (PM) generators can be considered separately excited generators

Dr. Louie


Dr. Louie


Voltage Regulation
• In all dc generators, as current (load) increases, the terminal voltage drops
 Ohmic losses in the armature  Armature reaction

Voltage Regulation

• The voltage drop is desired to be minimal • Voltage Regulation is a metric for quantifying the voltage drop with respect to load

 VR: percent voltage regulation (%)  VnL: terminal voltage under no load (V)  VfL: terminal voltage under full load (V)

• Ideal voltage regulation is 0%

Dr. Louie


Dr. Louie



Louie 10 Copper Losses • Copper has a non-zero resistance. Louie 8 Magnetic Losses • Losses due to:  Hysteresis  Eddy-currents Rotational Losses • Mechanical and magnetic losses are often grouped together as “rotational losses” • Operating the machine in the linear region and at a low flux density (make the machine physically larger) decreases magnetic losses Dr. Louie 9 Dr. Louie 12 2 .2/25/2011 Losses • No machine is 100 efficient • General categories of losses:     Mechanical Magnetic Copper Stray Load Mechanical Losses • Losses due to:  Friction of bearings  Friction between brushes and commutator  Drag on the armature (caused by the air around it) • Losses tend to increase with rotational speed Dr. so power is dissipated when current flows through it • Power Loss is equal to i2R • Contributors to copper losses:      Armature-winding loss Shunt field-winding loss Series field-winding loss Interpole field-winding loss Compensating field-winding loss Stray Load Loss • Stray load loss: a “catch all” term for the losses that are unaccounted for in the previous categories  Commutation losses  Distorted flux due to armature reaction • Approximately equal to 1% in large (>100 horsepower) Dr. Louie 7 Dr. Louie 11 Dr.

and hence the flux if Rfx Nf + - RL Ea vt - field circuit Dr. Louie 18 3 . Louie generator circuit 17 Dr. Louie 13 Dr. Louie 16 Separately Excited Generator • Equivalent circuit shown       vt: generator terminal voltage (V) vf: applied field winding voltage (V) Rfw: field winding resistance (Ohm) Rfx: adjustable field winding resistance (Ohm) Ra: armature resistance (Ohm) iL Nf: field winding turns per pole Rfw + Ra vf + - Separately Excited Generator • Notes: we will assume that the generator is operating in steady state  mechanical energy does not change  Inductance acts as a short • Rfx is used to control the field current. Louie 14 Generator Types • • We next consider how the field windings are powered Three types considered:  Separately excited  Shunt  Series  Compound Separately Excited Generator N • DC generator in which a external dc source is used to generate the field current • External source can be  Battery  Another DC generator  Rectified AC S S N field windings cross section 15 Dr. Louie Dr.2/25/2011 Efficiency • Efficiency of a machine is the ratio of output power to input power • Output power Po Ts m Efficiency • Efficiency in percent is then: Po Pin 100 Po Ts m 100 Pr Pcu  Po: output power (W)  Pr: rotational losses (W)  Pcu: copper losses (W) Dr.

Louie generator circuit 19 Dr. Louie 24 4 . Louie 22 Shunt Generator • It is interesting to examine what happens to a shunt generator under no-load • Under no load ia = if • Rf is usually large since vt can be large  Large number of turns of small gauge Shunt Generator • However. generally there is residual magnetism in the stator and a small amount of voltage will be induced  This increases ia. Louie 21 Dr. which increase Ea and so on  The process does not continue for ever  Saturation of the stator limit the process • Ea will be 0 since there is no flux created by field winding (ia = 0) Dr. Louie 20 Shunt Generator • Instead of using an external dc circuit.2/25/2011 Separately Excited Generator • Defining equations are: vf if (R fw R fx ) if R f Separately Excited Generator • If if and m are constant. Louie 23 Dr. connect the terminals of the generator to the field winding • This is known as a “shunt generator” Shunt Generator • Equivalent circuit shown • Defining Equations: vt vt ia if (R fw R fx ) if R f Ea iaR a iL if if Nf Rfw Ra RL + - iL + vt - Ea Rfx Dr. then Ea is independent of the armature current • As load increases (iL increases). the terminal voltage drops due to Ra • Vtnl = Ea (no load terminal voltage = induced emf) Ea iL vt iaR a ia iL Rfw vf + - Ra Nf + - + vt RL Ea vt load vtnl including armature reaction if Rfx field circuit Dr.

the field current becomes zero. Louie 29 Dr. Louie 26 Shunt Generator • Under no load: ia = if  Vt is nearly equal to Ea since iaRa is small Shunt Generator • If the load resistance continues to decrease.2/25/2011 Shunt Generator • Voltage build-up process Shunt Generator • The no-load voltage depends upon the fieldcircuit resistance • Smaller resistances increase the rate of build-up • If the resistance is too large (greater than the “critical resistance”) then voltage build-up does not occur • See Figure 5. Louie 30 5 . and so on • Operation in the saturated region desensitizes the change in flux due to the change in field current vtnl vt with Ra drop rated load Load current iL Dr. which would have a large effect on Ea • This would further drop if. Louie Dr. Louie 27 Dr. an increase in load would decrease the field current. Louie 28 Shunt Generator Shunt Generators • Shunt generators must operate in the saturated region • Otherwise. the load current will also start to decrease  due to the decrease in terminal voltage • As il increases  iaRa increases  Armature reaction demagnetization effect increases • Hence. but current still flows due to the residual magnetism Er Dr.24 for an example magnetization curve vtnl field resistance line vt Er if 25 Dr. Ea decreases  This further lowers if and Ea • If the terminals are shorted.

Louie 31 Dr. the produced flux in the field is zero  Ea is equal to Er Series Generator • Note: il = ia • Terminal voltage increases with load current • As il increases. Louie 36 6 . Louie 35 Dr. flux increases  Ea increases vt Load current iL 33 • Terminal voltage drops due to series resistance and armature reaction • Ea and vt are functions of the load current Dr. Louie 34 Compound Generator • Terminal voltage:  Decreases with load in a shunt generator  Rises with load in a series generator is Compound Generator is Series winding Series winding • Combine them into a single generator • Known as a “Compound Generator” • Several types. it is possible to drive the terminal voltage to zero due to armature reaction Magnetization curve With armature and field winding drops and armature reaction • As load increases. Louie 32 Series Generator • When under no load. Louie Dr. depending on how they are wound if Shunt winding if Shunt winding S Cumulative (mmfs add) S Differential (mmfs subtract) Dr.2/25/2011 Series Generator • Assume now that the field winding is placed in series with armature and external circuit • Known as a “Series Generator” • A series field diverter resistance (Rd) is used to control the flux vt ia isR s Ea iaR a isR s iL is id idR d Series Generator • Equivalent circuit Rd id Ra + - Rs ia Ea is Ns iL + vt - Dr.

Louie 38 Compound Generator • A long-shunt differential generator Rd Rs Ra + - Compound Generator • In any configuration:  Shunt winding provides the majority of the flux  Series winding controls the total flux id Ns • Adjusting the current through the series winding allows for three different degrees of compounding Rfw if Nf ia + il vt - Ea if  Under-compound  Normal compound  Over-compound Rfx Dr.32) • Flat-compound generator  Full-load voltage is equal to the no-load voltage  Voltage regulation is better than in a shunt generator Dr. but still lower than no-load voltage  Voltage regulation is better than in a shunt generator Compound Generator • Over-compound generator  Full-load voltage is higher than no-load voltage  Useful when connected to a long transmission line (to compensate for the voltage drop)  Compound generators are usually over-compound  See text for more details and comparison of generator types (Figure 5. Louie 39 Dr. Louie 42 7 . Louie 37 Dr. Louie 41 Dr.2/25/2011 Compound Generator • Short-shunt compound:  series winding is in between the shunt and load Compound Generator • A long-shunt cumulative generator Rd Rs Ra + - • Long-shunt compound:  Shunt winding connected directly across the load id Ns ia Rfw if Nf + il vt - Ea if Rfx Dr. Louie 40 Compound Generator • Under-compound generator  Full-load voltage is slightly higher than in a shunt generator.

Louie 43 Dr. Louie 46 Reading Assignment • Text Chapter 6 Dr. Louie 44 Maximum Efficiency Maximum Efficiency • Short-shunt: 2 iLm (Ra Rs ) Pr i2 (Ra R f ) f Separately Excited: 2 iLm Ra Pr Pr Rs ) if2 Rf if2 (Ra Pr Rf ) • Long shunt: 2 iLm (R a R s ) Pr i2 (R a R f R s ) f Shunt: 2 iLm Ra Series 2 iLm (Ra Dr. Louie 45 Dr.2/25/2011 Maximum Efficiency • Generator efficiency varies with load • Operating at maximum efficiency is desirable Maximum Efficiency • iLm: load current under maximum efficiency 0 (v tiLm i2 R a Pr )2 Lm Pr Pr Ra Po Pin v tiL 2 v tiL iL R a Pr i2 R a Lm iLm v tiL 2 v tiL iL R a Pr Dr. Louie 47 8 .