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CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND EQUATIONS

INTRODUCTION How can we tell when a chemical reaction has taken place? Often there will be heat or light produced. There will always be at least one new substance formed, with different properties from those of the starting material. Any of the following would be evidence of a chemical reaction: bubbles of gas the solution turns cloudy and a precipitate forms the solution changes color the material bursts into flame the mixture becomes hot or cold tests on the material no longer give the same results. SAFETY NOTES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Wear aprons and goggles. Protective gloves are also available. Carefully read the labels of all chemicals before use. Abide by specific warnings and directions. Collect all materials needed for a procedure before proceeding. Perform reactions under the hood when directed. Chemicals may be weighed and prepared at balance or lab tables, but tests should be carried out under the hood. Acids and caustic chemicals are stored in the hood. Please do not take these chemicals from the hood.

PART I - METATHETICAL REACTIONS Metathetical reactions are sometimes called double-replacement reactions. In these reactions two compounds exchange ions with each other. Metathetical reactions are usually carried out in aqueous solution. The general formula for this type of reaction is

AC + BD → AD + BC
A. PRECIPITATION REACTIONS

In this type of metathetical reaction, a precipitate is formed. The precipitate is indicated by a arrow pointing down or the physical state indicator (s). The formation of a precipitate may be predicted by using solubility rules or a solubility chart. Examples:
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1 M potassium chloride. we use an indicator like phenolphthalein to indicate that a reaction has occurred. ACID-BASE REACTIONS In this type of metathetical reaction. Complete: HNO 3 (aq)+ KOH(aq)→ KNO 3 (aq)+ H 2 O(l) net-ionic + H (aq)+ OH (aq) → H 2 O(l) 2 . To a dropperful of 0. The ions which are not involved in the precipitate are considered "spectator ions" and may be eliminated to form the net-ionic equation. all of the soluble compounds are considered dissociated into their ions. heat is given off and a molecular species such as water is formed. 2. Write your observations in your notebook and write the complete.1 M sodium carbonate. B. If the solutions are dilute. the heat effect may not be noticeable and no visible change occurs. add a dropperful of 0.(aq) → AgCl(s) + PROCEDURES: Perform each of the following reactions. Strong acids and strong bases are completely ionized in solution. full-ionic equation Ag (aq) + NO -3 (aq) + Na + (aq) + Cl .1 M magnesium sulfate in a test tube. add a dropperful of 0.Cd( NO 3 ) 2 (aq)+ ( NH 4 ) 2 S(aq)→ 2 NH 4 NO 3 (aq)+ CdS(s)↓ In these reactions.1 M calcium nitrate in a test tube. 1. Indicate the precipitate. To a dropperful of 0. 3. To a dropperful of 0. Phenolphthalein is pink in basic solution and clear in acid solution.(aq) → AgCl(s) + Na + (aq) + NO -3 (aq) net-ionic equation + Ag (aq) + Cl .1 M sodium hydroxide. Thus. ionic. add a dropperful of 0.1 M sodium nitrate in a test tube. and net-ionic equation for each reaction.

The general formula for a combination reaction is A + B →C Many combination reactions involve the reaction of two elements to form a compound and these are all redox reactions.combination reactions. Add a dropperful of 1. Many elements react with oxygen to form oxides. Can you detect the evolution of heat? Place a spatulaful of sodium carbonate in a test tube. COMBINATION REACTIONS Combination reactions are those in which two or more substances combine to form a more complex substance.1 M NaOH and one drop of phenolphthalein to a test tube.1 M HCl drop by drop until the color changes. Feel the test tube. decomposition. Note the color. A. PART II . i. Add 0.e. There are many types of redox reactions . In this experiment. Add a dropperful of 0.Carbonates are basic and the addition of an acid will result in the formation of bubbles of carbon dioxide gas: complete 2HCl(aq)+ CaCO 3 → CaCl 2 (aq) + H 2 O(l) + CO 2 (g) ↑ net-ionic 2 H + (aq) + CaCO 3 (s) → Ca 2+ + H 2 O(l) + CO 2 (g) PROCEDURES: Perform each of the following reactions. 3 . replacement reactions and combustion reactions. some of the elements involved undergo a change in oxidation number. you will perform some combination. 1. and replacement reactions. Write your observations in your notebook and write the complete. Not all combination and decomposition reactions are redox reactions. and net-ionic equation for each reaction.0 M hydrochloric acid.REDOX REACTIONS Redox reactions are reactions in which elements are oxidized and reduced. 2. decomposition reactions. ionic.

Write your observations in your notebook and write the equation for each reaction. Identify each reaction as redox or non-redox. 1. This is a redox reaction. Do not look directly at the flame. The general equation for a decomposition reaction is C →A+ B 2. Identify each reaction as redox or non-redox.4Na + O 2 → 2 Na 2 O Some combination reactions involve the reaction of two compounds to form another compound. Na 2 O + H 2 O → 2NaOH PROCEDURES: Perform each of the following reactions. Clamp and warm gently with a Bunsen burner. Clamp the tube and heat in a horizontal position. Two of the products of this reaction are chromium(III)oxide and nitrogen gas. Work under the hood! Weigh out exactly 0. Metal oxides react with water to form metal hydroxides. One of the products is copper(II)sulfate. Write your observations in your notebook and write the equation for each reaction. what is "B"? Add a dropperful of distilled water and a drop of phenolphthalein. It is often necessary to heat the substance being decomposed. Add a dropperful 4 2. If magnesium is substance "A" in the general equation. Watch for evidence of the decomposition products. These are often not redox reactions. It involves the breakdown of a complex substance into simpler substances. 1. The presence of the hydroxide ion is detected with phenolphthalein. Metal oxides decompose to the metal and oxygen gas. The phenolphthalein is only an indicator for the presence of hydroxide ion and does not enter into the equation. hold a strip of magnesium in a bunsen burner flame. 2HgO → 2Hg + O 2 Metal hydroxides decompose to the metal oxide and water. Work under the hood! With a pair of tongs. Mg(OH ) 2 → MgO + H 2 O PROCEDURES: Perform each of the following reactions. Place a few crystals of copper(II)sulfate pentahydrate in a test tube. B. DECOMPOSITION REACTIONS A decomposition reaction is the reverse of a combination reaction. This is not a redox reaction. .1 g of ammonium dichromate and add to a test tube. What is the other one? This decomposition reaction is easily reversible. Watch for evidence of the third product. Save the ash in a small beaker for the next procedure.

If hydrogen is generated as one of the products. Ca(s) + FeCl 2 (aq) → CaCl 2 (aq) + Fe(s) Fe(s) + CaCl 2 (aq) → no reaction PROCEDURES: Perform each of the following reactions. Dispose of solids in the waste crock. the greater its tendency to ionize and displace metals lower in the series. b) In a second test tube. CLEAN-UP 1.of water to the tube when it cools. The general formula for this type of reaction is A + BC → AC + B Whether a single replacement reaction will occur may be predicted with the use of an activity series. All of these reactions are redox reactions. Note that the test for hydrogen is a combination reaction. Check balance and hood areas for chemicals. 1. but iron will not displace the calcium in a calcium salt. 2. 4. Wash all of your test tubes with a test-tube brush and soap. you will hear a "pop". The higher the metal is in the activity series. For example. Check to see that all chemicals are properly closed and returned to their proper tray. What happens? C. 3. What is the hydrogen combining with? a) Place a small piece of zinc in a test tube containing about 3 mL of copper(II) sulfate solution. calcium will ionize and displace iron form a solution which contains an iron salt. 5 . Solutions may be flushed down the hood sink with excess water. 2. Wash your hands. REPLACEMENT REACTIONS A single replacement reaction is one in which one element replaces another element in a compound. Ignite a wooden splint in a Bunsen burner flame and hold this flame to the mouth of the test tube. spatulas etc. Work under the hood! Place a piece of zinc in a test tube. rinse with distilled water and invert in a test tube rack to dry. 6. 5. place a small piece of copper in about 3 mL of zinc chloride solution. Write your observations in your notebook and write the equation for each reaction. Wash off your work areas. Note the original appearance of the metals and colors of solutions. Add about 5 mL of 6 M HCl and allow the zinc to effervesce. Put these test tubes aside for at least 5 minutes and then write down your observations.

6 . Salts containing nitrate ion (NO3-) are generally soluble. Rb+). Salts containing Group I elements are soluble (Li+. Most sulfate salts are soluble. and Hg2Cl2 are all insoluble. Arsenic. Hydroxide salts of Group I elements are soluble. Salts containing the ammonium ion (NH4+) are also soluble. Ag3PO4 11. CdS. 2. 8. Fluorides are frequently insoluble. PbSO4. 3. Cs+.Solubility rules 1. Chromates are frequently insoluble. Phosphates are frequently insoluble. Pb2+. and (Hg2)2+. Na+. AgNO3 and Ag(C2H3O2) are common soluble salts of silver. Thus. ZnS. Most silver salts are insoluble. FeS. and Ba) are insoluble. Sr. Examples: Ca3(PO4)2. and Ba) are slightly soluble. 4. 5. Thus. bismuth. BaCrO4 10. Ag2SO4 and SrSO4 . Some other insoluble carbonates include FeCO3 and PbCO3. Most sulfides of transition metals are highly insoluble. Carbonates are frequently insoluble. virtually anything else is insoluble. Al(OH)3. Ag2S are all insoluble. Hydroxide salts of Group II elements (Ca. 9. MgF2 PbF2. Salts containing Cl -. antimony. Examples: PbCrO4. Br -. Fe(OH)3. K+.are generally soluble. Co(OH)2 are not soluble. Important exceptions to this rule include BaSO4. and lead sulfides are also insoluble. Sr. 6. Exceptions to this rule are rare. I . Important exceptions to this rule are halide salts of Ag+. 7. Thus. Group II carbonates (Ca. PbBr2. Most hydroxide salts are only slightly soluble. AgCl. Examples: BaF2. Hydroxide salts of transition metals and Al3+ are insoluble.

Write formulas for the following compounds: calcium nitrate sodium carbonate calcium carbonate sodium nitrate magnesium sulfate sodium hydroxide magnesium hydroxide sodium sulfate sodium nitrate potassium chloride hydrochloric acid sodium chloride carbon dioxide magnesium oxide ammonium dichromate chromium(III)oxide copper(II)sulfate pentahydrate zinc chloride zinc sulfate 7 . Balance and classify each of the following reactions: HgO → Hg + O2 Na + H2O → NaOH + H2 H2 + N2 → NH3 Pb(NO3)2 + H2S → PbS + HNO3 2.Advance Study Assignment: 1.

Write observation and the complete equation for each reaction. the complete and net-ionic equation for each reaction. Write observation.Data and Calculations Name: PART I. Identify each 8 . A1: Observation: Complete: Net ionic: A2: Observation: Complete: Net ionic: A3: Observation: Complete: Net ionic: B1: Observation: Complete: Net ionic: B2: Observation: Complete: Net ionic: PART II.

reaction as redox or non-redox. A1: Observation: Complete: A2: Observation: Complete: B1: Observation: Complete: B2: Observation: Complete: C1: Observation: Complete: C2a: Observation: Complete: C2b: Observation: Complete: 9 .