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CHAPTER VI HYDROSTATIC TRANSMISSION Introduction: Hydrostatic drives convert engine power first to fluid power and then to mechanical

power which drives the wheels or the tracks of a tractor or rotates the superstructure, etc. They only transmit engine torque and do not multiply it, as in the case of hydrodynamic units. Almost all the hydrostatic drives have infinite speed ranges in both the directions. The principle which applies to mechanical transmissions also applies to hydrostatic drives; that is, torque is reduced as motor speed increases. Maximum engine torque is transmitted and is present at the motor output shaft when maximum pressure is applied to the hydraulic system, which is usually when the output shaft of the hydraulic motor is standing still. Advantages: 1) They can be installed in almost anywhere and in any position. 2) They are smaller in size and weigh less than other mechanical drives. 3) They have infinite speed ranges. 4) They transfer engine torque and speed smoothly without hesitation. 5) They do not require clutch as the system itself is a clutch. 6) They can change the direction more quickly and smoothly, than other mechanical drives and can use this feature as a dynamic brake. Types of hydrostatic drives: All hydrostatic drives are relatively the same in design. The power source i.e., engine or motor provides the rotation to the hydraulic pump. The hydraulic pump provides the flow rate, and the flow rate provides the motor speeds. The pressure of the oil transmits the power to the motor and the motor transforms the oil pressure into torque. Directional change of the oil flow provides directional change of the motor output shaft, and the valves provide control and safety for the system. Differences among the various systems occur in: 1) The type and size of the hydraulic pump and motor. 2) The flow rate. 3) The system’s operating pressure. 4) The type of system – closed hydraulic loop system and open system. 5) The type or number of speed ranges infinite speed and / or a two speed system. 6) Whether or not a mechanical transmission is additionally used. Open hydraulic system is used in excavator, whereas closed hydraulic system is used in case of hydrostatic transmission system. Principle of hydrostatic drive:

Changes of ratio are made without interruption of the drive by means of a simple control which can be arranged for automatic operation if desired. If the motor capacity is greater than that of the pump. takes up the drive without the need for a clutch. first from mechanical energy to fluid energy in the pump. To obtain reverse. pipelines and motors is simply an alternative to the usual drive shafts. and draw in oil from one part for delivery through another. if the range of ratios has to be large. the cam plate is tilted in the opposite direction to that used for forward drive to put the pump and motor out of phase so that the motor is forced round in the opposite direction. and the assembly of pump. The travel of the plungers and the capacity of the pump are varied by the angle at which the cam plate is tilted. the tilt of the cam plate is gradual1y increased so that the engine may continue to operate at its best possible speed as road speed increases. The range of ratios may be widened by varying the capacity of the motor as well as that of pump. The pump rotor curries a number of spring plungers spaced round the driving spindle and parallel to it. When a change of ratio has to be provided it must be possible to vary the capacity of the pump and perhaps of the motors too. Movement of cam from the neutral. the pump has to run faster than the motor and it may be possible to dispense with the reduction gear. The system has many attractions. and whilst the cam plate is only s1ightly titled many revolutions of the pump are needed for each revolution of the motor. or zero delivery position. giving the equivalent of low gear in a mechanical gearbox. and then from fluid energy to . but this increases the cost and adds to the complexity. The action of the pump and motor in a hydrostatic circuit depends on the pressure in the fluid and on its transfer between the units. As the shaft rotates the plungers are forced to oscillate in the rotor body by cam plate on which they bear. Reciprocating pumps and motors form the basis of hydrostatic transmissions used on road vehicles.2 Hydrostatic transmissions are those in which the engine is coupled to an oil pump which supplies energy to a motor or motors placed conveniently near to the road wheels. a final reduction gear must be provided. There are two energy changes involved in each transfer. which it may be advantageous to eliminate in special vehicles or to avoid intrusion into body space. and there are many applications outside the automobile field. The principle has been demonstrated successfully in vehicles ranging from scooters to heavy earth moving machinery. As the vehicle accelerates. When these units are identical in size both run at the same speed and same form. When the pimp capacity is equal to that of the motor there is the equivalent of direct drive. and to find out why it is not more widely applied some basic facts about efficiency must be considered. but because such motors are bulky it is often better to give up the simplicity of hydraulic transmission and use smaller motors in conjunction with reduction gear With the arrangement described the ratio of motor speed is constant. The pump output increases from zero when the cam plate is at right angle to the shaft to a maximum when the cam plate is tilted as far as it will go.

after which it gradually increases. The hydraulic motor is a fixed.3 mechanical energy in the motor. four-way. The overall efficiency is the product of the unit efficiencies. and the valve spool is forced downward.displacement swash plate piston motor. Four pump piston cylinders are charged. When the piston pump is driven. High main circuit pressure is not exerted against the shuttle valve. Oil from both housings is directed over the oil cooler to the reservoir. allowing the charging oil to flow to the charge pressure relief valve.( Note: At maximum pump speed and maximum swash plate angle. (The excess charging oil is directed from the charge pressure relief valve into both the pump housing and the motor housing. and the lines against excessive pressure. a separate charging system must be used. and oil cooler. the directional valve is forced into neutral through the force of its springs. and the hydraulic pump is a hydraulically controlled reversible variable-displacement swash plate pump. To control the tilt angle of the swash plate. so that if each of units is 80% efficient the overall efficiency is only 64%. Reverse operation: To change the rotation of the hydraulic motor from forward to reverse. maintaining the low charge pressure. The third charging circuit extends to and around the high-pressure relief valves and oil is directed through passages onto each end of the shuttle valve. and four pump pistons pump oil to four motor pistons. Oil is now pumped into the lower main circuit. one hydraulic pressure relief valve is placed in parallel to the motor supply lines. The angle to which the swash plate is forced depends upon the amount of oil that is directed into the servo control cylinder. the hydraulic pump. because the charging pressure is exerted onto the pump pistons. the flow rate decreases) . Since this is a closed system. Oil also flows to the directional valve. the pump supplies the maximum flow rate to the main circuit With reduced pump speed and\or reduced swash plate angle. the charge pressure relief valve is forced open and the charge pressure returns to normal. a closed center. whereupon four pistons discharge the oil into the charging system. the transmission of power is reduced to nil. Since the discharge pressure is relatively high. thereby centering it and blocking the oil flow to the charge pressure exceeds specification. During this time. Oil is then directed to the top servo cylinder. the charging valve. or are connected through hydraulic lines. the swash plate is forced to the neutral piston. Closed loop hydraulic system: It is referred as “closed loop” because the hydraulic pump and the hydraulic motor are directly connected. and opens the lower servo cylinder port to the oil sump. Neither change can be 100% efficient. When the directional valve is in neutral. the directional valve spool moves to the right and charge pressure is directed to the lower servo control cylinder. Neutral operation: When the control handle is released. three-position directional valve is used which may be actuated manually. To protect the hydraulic motor. and there it is blocked. the servo control cylinder ports are open to the sump. the charging pump is also driven and oil is forced over both charge check valves to the inlet ports of the piston pump. causing the swash plate to move through neutral and then to the left.) Forward operation: When the operator moves the control handle to the forward position. Oil pressure forces the piston to the left. the charging pump. by air. a charge pressure relief valve. pivoting the swash plate. or hydraulically. driving the output shaft in a counter clock-wise direction. The charging system consists of the reservoir. the operator moves the directional spool to the right. the charge pressure relief valve is forced open. forcing the output shaft to rotate in a clockwise direction.

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