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Scope of human development

Human development is a development model that is about much more than the rise or fall of national incomes. It is about creating an environment in which people can develop their full potential and lead productive, creative lives in accordance with their needs and interests, thus bringing the focus back onto people. People are the real wealth of nations. Development is thus about expanding the choices people have, to lead lives that they value and improving the human condition so that people will get the chance to lead full lives.[1] And it is thus about much more than economic growth, which is only a means —if a very important one —of enlarging people’s choices.[2]

Fundamental to enlarging these choices is building human capabilities —the range of things that people can do or be in life. Human development disperses the concentration of the distribution of goods and services that underprivileged people need and center its ideas on human decisions.[3]By investing in people, we enable growth and empower people thus developing human capabilities.[4] The most basic capabilities for human development are to lead long and healthy lives, to be knowledgeable, to have access to the resources and social services, needed for a decent standard of living and to be able to participate in the life of the community. Without these, many choices are simply not available, and many opportunities in life remain inaccessible.[5] There are four basic pillars of human development: equity, sustainability, production and empowerment. Equity is the idea of fairness for every person; we each have the right to an education and health care. Secondly, sustainability is the view that we all have the right to earn a living that can sustain us and have access to a more even distribution of goods amongst populations. In addition, production is used to show how the government needs more efficient social programs for its people. Lastly, empowerment is providing people who are powerless to be given power such as women.[6] This way of looking at development, often forgotten in the immediate concern with accumulating commodities and financial wealth, is not new. Philosophers, economists and political leaders have long emphasized human well-being as the purpose, the end, of development. As Aristotle said in ancient Greece, “Wealth is evidently not the good we are seeking, for it is merely useful for the sake of something else.”[7] Developed countries are seen as those who have a continuous progress in the indexes of life. The countries that have seemed to excel are viewed as having better policies than those who have remained stagnant.[8]

[edit]Human rights and human development

In seeking that something else, human development shares a common vision with human rights. The goal is human freedom. Therefore, human development is interconnected with human rights and human freedom because in well-managed prisons life expectancy and literacy as measured by the Human Development Index could be quite high.[9] And in pursuing capabilities and realizing rights, this freedom is vital. People must be free to exercise their choices and to participate in decision-making that affects their lives. Human development and human rights are mutually reinforcing, helping to secure the well-being and dignity of all people, building self-respect and the respect of others. [10]

[edit]Health and human development

This marked improvement at the bottom was offset with a decrease in HDI of high income countries. The HPI measures the deficiencies in the three indexes of the human development index: long and healthy life.achieve universal primary education . It is an improved standard means of measuring well-being. The eight millennium development goals are: eradicate extreme poverty and hunger . standard of living. This rise was fueled by a general improvement in the developing world.literacy.[12] The Human Development Index is a way for people and nations to see the policy flaws of regions and countries.Development is undermined by health concerns as it both directly and indirectly influences growth to be lower. [16] [edit]United Nations Millennium Development Goals In September 2000. there is no evidence demonstrating changes nor is there any motivation for countries to do so. Achieving adequate health standards is important for the success of development and the abolition of poverty.improve maternal health .[11] [edit]Human Development Report The Human Development Report (HDR) is released by the United Nations and contains the Human Development Index. There is not only a global Human Development Report but there are regional and national reports as well that specifically show certain areas.combat HIV/AIDS and other diseases .reduce child mortality .[15] The 2007 report showed a small increase in world HDI in comparison with last year's report. especially child welfare and thus human development.develop a global partnership .[13] Human Development Index Main article: Human Development Index The Human Development Index (HDI) is the normalized measure of life expectancy. knowledge and a decent standard of living. The HPI is meant to provide a broader view of human development and is adapted to developed countries to reveal social exclusion. Although the releasing of this information is believed to encourage countries to alter their policies. Gender-related Development Index. it is much more complex than any index or set of indicators. education.promote gender equality and empower women . and GDP per capita for countries worldwide.ensure environmental sustainability . HIV/AIDS in addition to malaria has negatively influenced development and increased poverty in places such as Africa. Gender Empowerment Measure and the Human Poverty Index. the United Nations came out with the Human Poverty Index (HPI) in 1997. Within the report there are four main indexes: Human Development Index. [edit]Human Poverty Index In order to reflect the gaps in the Human Development Index.[14] Although this index makes an effort to simplify human development. the United Nations came up with the eight millennium development goals. especially of the least developed countries group.

5 years while current male life expectancy at birth rose by 2. After documenting what is called an alarming decline in the quality of Philippine education it outlined a general framework for dealing with the problem. The latest issue. and recommended ways and means of generating employment opportunities’ to enable people to live in prosperity and dignity. the profile of the unemployed and quality of employment. The PHDR is today a highly respected publication not just in the Philippines but also in the community of nations. and 209 deaths from the National Demographic Survey (NDS) conducted in 1993. Brazil.000 live births in the Philippines. and participation in elections as voters and candidates. .64 years compared to men at 66. and Excellence in Participation and Policy Impact. at the conclusion of the Second General Forum on Human Development in Rio de Janeiro. This report noted the significant gains attained by the Philippines in increasing women’s access to education and jobs in certain sectors. The current projected female life expectancy remains higher at 71. • Life expectancy is one of the indicators of human development. These reports have acquired a reputation for factually based. 162 women die during pregnancy and childbirth or shortly after childbirth. The issue of the Philippine Human Development Report in 1994 introduced to Philippine readers the concept of Human Development. more specifically on the nature of unemployment in the Philippines. The Philippines has published five national human development reports since 1994. The 1997 issue highlighted the theme of Gender focusing on the enhancement of women’s capabilities and opportunities to make choices. Each of these issues also came up with the latest computations of provincial HDI’s. The ratio of maternal deaths to live births slightly declined from an estimate of 172 deaths from the National Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) in 1998. the PHDR 2000 was among the awardees. Current female life expectancy at birth rose by 1.11 years (2005-2010 projection. PHDR 2002. Succeeding issues dwelt on specific themes. In October 2000.for development The United Nations made a commitment to accomplish these goals by 2015 and thus make an attempt to promote human development. defining and analyzing these and deriving policy suggestions from them. The report of 2000 focused on Education. NSO). Excellence in Presentation and Design. explaining its difference from the more traditional measure of development like per capita income and the significance of measures of life expectation and literacy and education in the promotion of human development. insightful and well written analyses of human development issues in the Philippines. it computed the Human Development Index (HDI) for each of the country’s regions and drew out policy implications of the index for action of national and regional authorities. PHDR 2000 won awards in three categories: Excellence in the Innovative Use of Human Development Measurement Tools. focused on the Employment.0 years from the 2000-2005 projections. when the first annual National Human Development Report Awards Programme was launched. • The Family Planning Survey (FPS) conducted by NSO in 2006 revealed that for every 100. For the first time.

3 percent (2 out of 10) in private health facilities. and 9 out of 10 women had their injectables also from public facilities. • • In 2006. the 2006 estimate was 35. • The 2006 FPS also revealed that 6 out of 10 birth deliveries or 56. For women who are using modern methods. The estimate was higher than the 2005 estimate of 50.5 percent occurred at home.6 percent with a slight decrease from 17. 5.6 percent received care from midwives. the decrease of the current maternal mortality ratio is still far from the 53 deaths MDG target for 2015.• The ratio of maternal deaths to live births slightly declined in 2006 from an estimate of 172 deaths from the National Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) in 1998. Most birth deliveries occurring at home were attended by Hilots (traditional midwives) at 50.9 percent (around 36 for every 100 women) from the previous 36.6 percent (around 5 out of 10 women). medical doctors were the leading birth attendants in cities and other urban areas at 50. Calendar/Rhythm/Periodic Abstinence. were at risk of conceiving a child with an elevated risk of mortality.4 percent from nurses. etc. and 15. • The most preferred contraceptive method used by women in 2006 is pills at 16.1 percent (3 out of 10) in public health facilities. 1. 15 to 49 years old. 51 in every 100 women or 50. . Likewise.1 percent in 2005.4 percent.6 percent of child-bearing age were using a family planning method.4 percent in 2005. 6 out of 10 married women.0 percent from hilots. Pills (7 out of 10 users) and condoms (8 out of 10 users) were purchased/acquired in the private sector.1%) received antenatal care from skilled providers like doctors. which slightly increased from 9. 8 out of 10 women had their IUD in public facilities. • The 2008 NDHS revealed that most pregnant women (91. 50.9 percent (5 out of 10 birth deliveries). were still used by women with 14. These women were considered at risk either because they were impregnated at an early age (less than 18 years) or too old (age 35 or older) or have more than 3 previous births at an unacceptably short birth interval (under 24 months).8 percent of pregnant women received no antenatal care at all. 27. 7 out of 10 women had their operations in government hospitals.0 percent in 2005.1 percent of them received care from medical doctors. For female ligation. Female sterilization came next at 10. and 209 deaths from the National Demographic Survey (NDS) conducted in 1993.4 percent (5 out of 10 birth deliveries). • • In 2006. • At 22 percent decrease rate from the 1990 baseline. nurses and midwives.8 percent (around 15 for every 100 women) in 2006 and 13. while 3. • The public sector continues to be the main provider of modern family planning methods in 2006. About 39. • Traditional methods such as Withdrawal.2 percent in 2005.

also called Holy Communion. women with HIV/AIDS were recorded at 1. "This is my body".[1][2] . and bisexual intercourse. • Of the total reported cases. • As of December 2009. the Sacrament of the Altar.424 HIV Seropositive cases. 26. The DOH’s HIV/AIDS Registry documented a total of 4. 806 of which are asymptomatic and 29 are full-blown AIDS. and 832 (2 out of 10) were full-blown AIDS resulting to 318 documented deaths. the Department of Health recorded 835 HIV Ab Seropositive cases. homosexual intercourse. • • Of the total 4.3 percent.9 percent and 42.37 percent belonging to 25-39 age group and another 21. is a sacrament or ordinance that Christians celebrate in accordance with the instruction that. 2) diabetes 3) hypertension 4) smoking and 5) obesity. according to the New Testament. saying.1 percent compared to that of men at 56. "This is my blood". namely 1) dyslipidemia. of which 3 out of 10 were women.6 percent of pregnant women and 11.592 (8 out of 10) were asymptomatic or in a stage of chronic infection during which there are no symptoms of HIV infection. and other names.92 percent aged 25-39 years and 14. • From January to December 2009. and wine. • On the same note. HIV/AIDS cases for men were higher at 3. Sexual intercourse was still the leading mode of transmission accounting for 99 percent of the total cases and nearly 100 percent of the OFW cases. hypertension remained relatively high. Jesus gave at his Last Supperto do in his memory what he did when he gave his disciples bread.76%) with 58. the Blessed Sacrament. Smoking is the most common lifestyle risk factor.181 cases (26. 1. 1 of which already died.232 cases (73. 29 percent.24%) with 58. Heterosexual intercourse accounted for 55 percent.7 percent lactating women are underweight. There were 11 cases with no reported age and gender. saying. the Lord's Supper. The Eucharist.2 percent respectively. Anemia remains a health problem among pregnant and lactating women at 43. Based on the results.348 were OFWs.424 reported cases of HIV Ab Seropositive from January 1984 to December 2009. The prevalence of smoking in women is relatively low at 12.87 percent aged 15-24 years.60 percent in the 15-24 age group. 3.• The 2003 National Nutrition Survey revealed the prevalence of 5 nutrition-related and lifestyle risk factors. 15 percent.

who generally avoid using the term "Communion". . or "the Breaking of Bread"."[1] The phrase "the Eucharist" may refer not only to the rite but also to the consecrated bread (leavened or unleavened) and wine or. Names and their origin Eucharist. The King James Version has The cup of blessing which we bless. United Methodists. "fellowship"[4] of the Greek κοινωνία (koinōnía) in 1 Corinthians 10:16. is it not thecommunion of the body of Christ?[5] [edit]Terminology for the Eucharist  "Eucharist" (noun). Roman Catholics. the Septuagintand the New Testament. and when he had given thanks. for as you eat. The word is derived from Greek "εὐχαριστία" (transliterated as "eucharistia"). each of you goes ahead without waiting for anybody else. is found in the major texts concerning the Lord's Supper." (1 Corinthians 11:23-24) The Lord's Supper (Κυριακὐ δεὐ ν πνον) derives from 1 Corinthians 11:20-21. giving of thanks. according to some. the Oriental Orthodox. Today. it may refer to celebration of the Eucharist: Luke 24:35. Most denominations use the term. another gets drunk. routine term. Most Protestant traditions rarely use this term. The use is predominant among Baptist groups. and said. gratitude. Many evangelical Anglicans will often use this term rather than "Eucharist". unfermented grape juice (in some Protestant denominations) or water (inMormonism). Do this in remembrance of me. Reformed/Presbyterian.Anglicans. When you come together. which means thankfulness.  "The Breaking of Bread". "sharing". Communion is a translation. One remains hungry. the effects of the Eucharist. 20:7. as well as "celebrating the Eucharist". it is not the Lord's Supper you eat. "the Eucharist" is the name still used by the Eastern Orthodox. the term used in 1 Corinthians 11:20. 2:46.[3] and. and the proper auspices under which it may be celebrated. 1 Corinthians 10:16. including the earliest: For I received from the Lord what I also delivered to you. from Greek εὐ χαριστία (eucharistia). he broke it. but "there is more of a consensus among Christians about the meaning of the Eucharist than would appear from the confessional debates over the sacramental presence. other translations are "participation". The verb εὐχαριστὐthe usual word for "to thank" in .There are different interpretations of the significance of the Eucharist. and Lutherans. communicants may speak of "receiving the Eucharist". used in the rite. is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? The bread which we break. "the Lord's Supper". preferring either "Communion". means "thanksgiving". due to its use (though in a more limited sense) by the Roman Catholic Church. but generally not as their basic. a phrase that appears in the New Testament in contexts in which.Acts 2:42. in this sense. "This is my body which is for you.  "The Lord's Supper". that the Lord Jesus on the night when he was betrayed took bread.

with God and with other Christians (see Communion (Christian)). the "Holy Sacrifice of the Mass". Among the many other terms used in the Roman Catholic Church are "Holy Mass". 1 Corinthians 11:29). and Lutherans for the consecrated elements. as individuals or as Church. by Roman Catholics.  In Oriental Orthodoxy the terms "Oblation" (Syriac. Likewise. Anglicans. Coptic and Armenian Churches) and "Consecration" (Ethiopian Church) are used. The meaning of the term "Communion" here is multivocal in that it also refers to the relationship of the participating Christians. meaning "oblation".  The many other expressions used include "Table of the Lord" (cf.  "Mass". Orthodox. used in the Latin Rite Roman Catholic Church. "the Memorial of the Passion.[7]  The "Blessed Sacrament" and the "Blessed Sacrament of the Altar" are common terms used by Roman Catholics. Anglo-Catholicism. "offering". Anglicans. in the Gaelic language of Ireland and Scotland the word "Aifreann". "sharing in common") or "Holy Communion". usually translated into English as "Mass". and many Protestants. it is possible to participate in the celebration of the Eucharistic rite without necessarily "receiving Holy Communion" (partaking of the consecrated elements. "Holy of Holies". In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints the term "The Sacrament" is used of the rite. and the "Holy Mysteries". including Lutherans. whether in the Eastern Orthodox Church or among the Eastern Catholic Churches. Anglicans. "Sacrament of the Altar" is in common use also among Lutherans. with different meanings.  The "Divine Service" is the title for the liturgy used in Lutheran churches and is used by most conservative Lutheran churches to refer to the Eucharist. Death and Resurrection of the Lord". is derived fromLate Latin "Offerendum".  "The Divine Liturgy" is used in Byzantine Rite traditions.Vicente Juan Masip. Catholics. and to these consecrated elements themselves. . Orthodox. especially when reserved in the Church tabernacle. the Church of Sweden. History Further information: Origin of the Eucharist Christ with the Eucharist.[6] used. In their understanding. the Church of Norway and some other forms of Western Christianity. the "Lord's Body" (cf. 1 Corinthians 10:16). but only to the partaking of the consecrated bread and wine. 16th century. which they also call "the Holy Gifts". "Communion" (from Latin communio. These also speak of "the Divine Mysteries". and Lutherans apply this term not to the Eucharistic rite as a whole. especially in reference to the consecrated elements. Most groups that originated in the Protestant Reformation usually apply this term instead to the whole rite.

in remembrance of me'. and Luke. is the flesh and blood of this Jesus who became flesh . saying. the word received from Christ. Most scholars date it to the early 2nd century. Paul the Apostle gives the earliest recorded description of Jesus' Last Supper: "The Lord Jesus on the night when he was betrayed took bread. Paul's usage in 1 Corinthians 11:17-34.[1][8][9] while the last-named of these also indicates something of how early Christians celebrated what Paul the Apostle called the Lord's Supper. first Mark. including. and his long discourse in response to some questions posed by his followers. the account of the Last Supper has no mention of Jesus taking bread and wine and speaking of them as his body and blood. the shared communal meal with which the Eucharist was originally associated. Do this in remembrance of me. 'This is my body which is for you. But The Lord's Supper is now commonly used in reference to a celebration involving no food other than the sacramental bread and wine. instructions for Baptism and the Eucharist. among other features.[17] and distinguish in it two separate Eucharistic traditions." [10] [edit]Gospels The synoptic gospels.[18][19] The Eucharist is mentioned again in chapter 14. References to Jesus' body and blood foreshadow his crucifixion.[16] The Agape feast is mentioned in Jude 12. 35 or 50-between 98 and 117). after supper. one of the Apostolic Fathers.. 'This cup is the new covenant in my blood.. Mark. the earlier tradition in chapter 10 and the later one preceding it in chapter 9. and the deacons carry some to those who are absent.[13] depict Jesus as presiding over the Last Supper. he broke it. and when he had given thanks. derived from St. which set in motion the events that would lead to the cross. in which he went on to speak of the importance of the unity of the disciples with him and each other. Do this. [edit]Paul the Apostle and the Lord's Supper In his First Epistle to the Corinthians (c 54-55).[20] Ignatius of Antioch (ca. instead it recounts his humble act of washing the disciples' feet.. may have originally referred to the Agape feast.[14] [15] [edit]Agape feast The expression The Lord's Supper. and he identifies them as a new covenant.[14] In the gospel of John.' In the same way also the cup. as often as you drink it.[edit]Biblical basis The Last Supper appears in all three Synoptic Gospels: Matthew. has been said . and said. and in the First Epistle to the Corinthians." Eucharistic theology . [edit]Early Christian sources The Didache (Greek: teaching) is an early Church order. the prophecy of the betrayal.[22] and Justin Martyr speaks of it as more than a meal: "the food over which the prayer of thanksgiving. As well as the Eucharistic dialogue in Johnchapter 6.[11] and then Matthew[12] and Luke.[21] mentions the Eucharist as "the flesh of our Saviour Jesus Christ"..

but for Catholics. from the . the communicant who receives either one receives Christ. Lutherans believe that the body and blood of Jesus are present "in.[24] Some Protestants prefer to call it an ordinance. recognize a special presence of Christ in this rite. Most Christians. The consecration of the bread (known as thehost) and wine represents the separation of Jesus' body from his blood at Calvary. when presenting the chalice. believing that the Eucharist is only a memorial of the death of Christ. following the teachings of John Calvin. who ever lives to make intercession for us". "Anamnesis or Memorial of Christ". Where one is. However. though they differ about exactly how. Some Christians reject the concept of the real presence. Luke 22:19-20) and Saint Paul's1 Corinthians 11:23-25 recount that in that context Jesus said of what to all appearances were bread and wine: "This is my body … this is my blood. since he has risen. with and under" the forms of bread and wine.Main article: Eucharistic theology Many Christian denominations classify the Eucharist as a sacrament. believe in a immaterial. The Baptism. spiritual (or "pneumatic") presence of Christ by the power of the Holy Spirit and received by faith. The Catholic Church sees as the main basis for this belief the words of Jesus himself at his Last Supper: the Synoptic Gospels (Matthew 26:26-28. Mark 14:22-24. "the sacrament of the unique sacrifice of Christ. each of which is accompanied by the other and by Christ's soul and divinity. where. the sacrament of his real presence". and "Meal of the Kingdom". they cease to be bread and wine." The Roman Catholic understanding of these words. the reality is. The empirical appearance and physical properties are not changed. [edit]Ritual and liturgy [edit]Catho Main article: Eucharist in the Catholic See also: Mass (liturgy) The Catholic Church teaches that when the bread and wine are consecrated in the Eucharist. even those who deny that there is any real change in the elements used. Eucharist and Ministry document of the World Council of Churches. "the sacrament of the body and blood of Christ. and become. "The blood of Christ". respectively. "Communion of the Faithful". Transubstantiation is the metaphysical explanation given by Roman Catholics as to how this transformation occurs. Therefore. and. Anglicans adhere to a range of views although the teaching on the matter in the Articles of Religion conforms with continental Reformed theology. the other must be. when administering the host. the body and blood of Christ. when. "Thanksgiving to the Father". "The body of Christ".[25] Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy teach that the consecrated elements truly become the body and blood of Jesus Christ. although the priest (or minister) says. describes it as "essentially the sacrament of the gift which God makes to us in Christ through the power of the Holy Spirit". the Church teaches that his body and blood can no longer be truly separated. and why Christ is present. a concept known as the sacramental union. The Reformed churches . attempting to present the common understanding of the Eucharist on the part of the generality of Christians. "Invocation of the Spirit". whole and entire. viewing it not as a specific channel of divine grace but as an expression of faith and of obedience to Christ.

that by the consecration of the bread and wine there takes place a change of the whole substance of the bread into the substance of the body of Christ our Lord and of the whole substance of the wine into the substance of his blood. in order to acknowledge respectfully the presence of Jesus in the Blessed Sacrament." [27][28] The Fourth Council of the Lateran in 1215 had spoken of "Jesus Christ. he reiterated that any theological explanation of the doctrine must hold to the twofold claim that.[26] In 1551 the Council of Trent definitively declared: "Because Christ our Redeemer said that it was truly his body that he was offering under the species of bread."[29] The attempt by some twentieth-century Catholic theologians to present the Eucharistic change as an alteration of significance (transignificationrather than transubstantiation) was rejected by Pope Paul VI in his 1965 encyclical letter Mysterium fidei In his 1968 Credo of the People of God. 1) Christ's body and blood are really present. The interpretation of Christ's words against this Old Testament background coheres with and supports belief in the Real Presence. it has always been the conviction of the Church of God. and the wine into the blood. and 2) bread and wine are really absent. a presence to which a red votive candle or sanctuary lamp kept burning close to such a tabernacle draws attention.Patristic authors onward. has emphasized their roots in the covenantal history of the Old Testament. and this presence and absence is real and not merely something in the mind of the believer. whose body and blood are truly contained in the sacrament of the altar under the forms of bread and wine. and this holy Council now declares again. the bread being changed (transsubstantiatis) by divine power into the body. . after the consecration. This change the holy Catholic Church has fittingly and properly called transubstantiation. On entering a church. Roman Catholics genuflect to the consecrated host in the tabernacle that holds the consecrated host.