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ANNA UNIVERSITY TWO MARKS QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS.

UNIT-I BELT DRIVES, FLAT BELTS~ V- BELTS, CHAINDRIVES, WIRE ROPES

1. What are the materials

commonly

used for Belts? (ANNA UNIV 2009)

Leather, Natural or synthetic rubber, cotton, canvas, Nylon steel, etc 2. What are tbe advantages • • • • of flat belts? (ANNA UNIV 2008)

They are more flexible and absorb shock loads and vibration They are relatively cheap and easy to maintain Design of flat is easy and inexpensive Used for long distances up to 15m It can be used in dusty and abrasive operations of Chain Belts?

J. What are the advantages

• No slip between chain and sprocket • Reduced load on the shafts than in belts • Higher efficiency • - Compact for high speed ratio (8 to 10) 4. How are wire ropes designated? (ANNA UNIV 2007)

The wire ropes are designated by a number specifying the number of strands and number of wires in each strand. Like 6*7,6* 19, 6*37. S. What are tbe differellt types of V belts? V belts are classified into various grades based on their power transmitting capacity as ABC D and E. The cross sectional area is increasing order from A to E. 6. Wlaat is the main classification Powertransmitling 7. Gwetwo of chains?

chains. Handling chains, Load or Lifting Chains of chains? bicycles, wood

applications

Used i.l machine tools, material handling cquipment. automobiles. working machinery. construction machinery, agricultural machinery 8. Write any four appUcations for ropes?

'.

What is a Ply in a Belt? (ANNA UNIV ZOO7) Flat belts are made of thin strips and laminated one over the other in order to get thick belt. These thick strips or sheets are called plies of belts. when the frictional grip between the pulley and the belt is insufficient. • 16. What is the difference between Belts slip and belt creep? (ANNA UNIV 20(9) • When the frictional grip between the pulley and' the belt is insufficient. less slip. and Turning Belt drive 11. Round Belt... complicated design. suspension bridge. What is the classification of Double Ray ropes? (ANNA UNIV 2008) Right hand Ray (Strand bend round to right side) Left hand Ray (Strand bend round to left side) 12. This slow movement of the belt is called creep of the belt and is generally neglected. handling devices 9. What do you IuIUW uf t"~ slip uf . 4ply . mine hoist. the driver wi II have some forward motion WIthout the belt called the slip. cranes.. Usually flat belts are made of 3ply. High velocity ratio. This is called slip 15. conveyors. the driver will have some forward motion without belt. Since the tension produced by the belt on the two sides of the pulley are not equal the belt moves with a very negligible velocity due to difference of the two tensions. Name the four types of belts used in power transmission? Flat belts. No need for idlers. 14. requires proper lubrication and maintenance .. more power transmission capacity. noiseless operation at high speed. How will you determine the number of belts required in the design of V belts? (ANNA UNIV 2009) Number of belts required = (P * Fn) I (KW * Fe * Fd) 10. e b~lt? (ANNA UNIV 2008) In a flat belt drive. What are the advantages of using V belts? Compact design. What are the disadvaDtagesofChain drives? (ANNA VNIV 2(08) Noisy operation. 13.Used in elevators. requires more precision alignment. Ribbed Belt. V belts.

.J_times the centrifugal tension. Creep in the belt is due to Varyina tension in the Belt e. Wlaat are the advantages of chain drives over belt drives? (ANNA UNIV 10(9) • • • • No slip between chain and sprocket Higher efficiency Compact even for higher speed ratio Operation at any temp condition 24. 19. The veloeity of the belt for maximum transmission power transmitted condition is • 22. 21. Power transmission by a belt drive without considering the initial tension is maximum when tight side tension is equal to. 20. Centrifugal tension in a belt drive increase the belt tension without increasing the power transmitted. 18. Grooving is done on the pulley to Reduce the tendency of the belt to slip..17. The chain drive is an example for a POSITIVE drive. 23. TIae co effICient of friction between the belt and the pulley depends up on the material ofthe belt and pulley and speed of the belt.

S. 3. bronze. If we assume the tooth thickness as t. measured along the pitch circle. DiKuss the application of the following types of 2ears.ANNA UNIVERSITY TWO MARKS QUESTIONS UNIT-II WITH ANSWERS. 4. Worm and worm wheel. Non-metals like phenolic resins. nylon. Helical.Spur. Used for high speed and high velocity ratio processes.Spur. And Matcrial Han. Machine Tools. = zlcos3 P p = helix angle.Spiral Gears Based on engagement: External Gear. alloy steels of nickel. Inclined TeethBevel Gears. Internal Gear. Non-ferrous metals such as brass. an equivalent spur gear is formed whose teeth will produce same. Curved teeth . Automobiles. State some materials used for gear materials? (ANNA UNIV 2(09) • • • • 2. • Spur Gears: Sliding Gear Box. ANNA UNIV Where Z = number ofteeth of helical gear. chromium and vanadium. I. b) Helical Gears. bakelite etc. 6. Those teeth of equivalent spur gear are called as virtual teeth and it is calculated as' Virtual number of teeth. of tee"? (ANNA UNIV 2(09) In order to simplify the design of helical gear. Helical. Z. A) Spur gears. Cast iron of different grades. Wllat are the advantages 2009) of the helical gear over spur gear? (ARREAR Transmit more power. effect as that produced by the helical gear. and space width as t2 the backlash = t2-t. bevel. Provide smooth and soundless operation. Wllat is virtual number • Ferrous metals such as carbon steels.tling Equipments. Rack and Pinion Common type . How tile llears are classified? (ANNA UNIV 2009) • • Based on teeth: Straight teeth. Denne the term back lash. (ANNA UNIV 1009) Backlash is the difference between tooth thickness and the space into which it meshes. etc. HELICAL & HERRINGBONE GEAR DRNE.Helical and Herring Bone. . SPUR GEAR.

ofcilCle is most important parameter for gear design.CGft8ider gear tooth as cantilever beam then the induces bending stress is given as Gt.} is purely geometric property of size of the tooth and may be written as function ofc:iraIW pilch. NaiHuy two a..Fonn . Define angle of obliquity Angle between the common normal of two gear teeth profile at the point of contact and the common tangent at the pitch point. 8.... 13. (ARREAR ANNA UNIY 2(09) cilCle of gears that rolls without slipping over the pitch circle of mating gear.. Module.. {t 16h. It is an~ Thed __ Circle with reference to Spur Gear. no variation in velocity ratio Suitable for short distances High power transmission Change of speed is easy .. .Wllllltisform .. r 12. Radial distances between tip circle to pitch circle.. fador? (ANNA UNIV 2(09) 1l.No slip. PCD for a spur lear tooth? to.• Helical Gears: High power transmission engine or Pressure angle (ARREAR ANNA UNIY 2007) 7. 'WIIataft ad¥auatage5 of toothed gears over other type of transmission system? • • • • Positive drives .V6a&aCllll'Rded Gear? (ARREARANNA UNIV 2009) In marty cases it is advantages to correct the gear by shifting the profile of the cutter by a small amount..ertaat requirelMDlI Ple_e angle.axial pitch 2 The . /b)l (t2/6h) py = 16h Form factor= y = t2 16hp p . is constant employed in design of gears which depends the shape and number of WheRwe . These gears are called corrected gears. = (F. teeth..... The gear tooth profile remains as a part of involute curve as in the case of standard in corrected gearing... Cycloidal involute 20 fUll depth involute. but a different portion of involute gear of the same base circle is used as active profile... Wltat is the commonly • • used Gear Profile? 14 ~ involute profile.

Define the foHowiag terms a) Module b) pressure angle Module: Ratio of PCD to No. into the bottom flank of mating gears.14. printers.~.. It states "The common normal to the tooth profile at the point of contact should always pass through a fixed point called the pitch point in order to obtain a constant velocity ratio. What is meant by interference of Gears!' (ANNA UNIV 2008) Gear profite usually starts from base circle and ends with tip circle gear teeth and made in such a way that their contactis along the profile. Cycloid 20.. of teeth Pressure angle is angle made by the line of action with common tangent to pitch circle of mating gears. Write tbe equation for beam streaglb for helical & herring bone gears. Since the top surface of teeth is made flat the lip of'the teeth of one gear tends to dig. Wbea do you use non metallic gears? Used in toys. State the Fundameatal Law of Geariag aad which profiles of gears satisfy this law. Back lash for spur gear depeads oa whicb two factors? Error in tooth thickness and tooth space and tooth profile 16. Involute profile...'--- . tape recorders.. (ANNA UNIV 2(09) . Wllat are tbe advantages of Helical Gears? • • • • High peripheral speed Low noise High power transmission More smooth engagement 17.- . 15. This action is called - . 12. 8rieOy explaia tbe coastruction of be6calgears Circular Pitch: Distance between corresponding successive teeth measured along the plane perpendicular to axis of gears Normal Pitch: Distance between two successive teeth measured along the plane perpendicular to the teeth .. _. Wllat lIe1ixangle is used for a doable bellcal Gear? 2S to 40 18. instruments. etc.-------. (ANNA UNIV 1(09) REFER 8. watches.13 in Data Book 21. 19.

.Bath gears should have same Module In orwkrDtimpHtYthe design of helical gear an equivalent spur gear is formed whose teeth will procIuce __ effect as that produced by helical gears called as virtual teeth....... lew noise operation teueh...interference.... • Smooth Engagement • To avoid interference •. Pitting of Tooth Surface.al par are inclined to axis of gear.point wheras spur gears are in line contact.. 7:'1. 25."..... __ *... Seizing of teeth..e.. Mat are tbe advantages of heHeal gears over Spur Gears? • Noise less operation • High power transmission • Fully engaged • High speed operation uWIIat are tile two inaportaat failure modes i.. tages of non-metaUic gears? Noise less operation Corrosion free Less weight No lubrication required ... Achamage: Interference Problem is reduced tllan spur gear? (ANNA VNIV 20(8) 11. • • • • dIe .... ....( . Gears. be utisfled in order tllat a pair of gear may have a constant velnia.... It can be overcomed by undercutting the tooth of gears i. During meshing the helical gears are made to tcJMa>.....t . ·wtIIIt ••• Si ... stroager is TheIlCdh«belY.. the thickness of tooth at top surface and its root is more compared to full systeIn..... ... to remove some of the material in the root of the gear teeth. (ANNA UNIV 2008) Tooth BNakage. Wtlllue tile CC*litiou required for iater changeability in toothed gears? • • 1.:.• ........... IIIIia? law of Gearing '... . Abrasive Wear.. shlb tootll? What are its advantages? (ANNA UNIV 2008) In·iIweW&e stub teeth. 2'9.. 31.....Both Gears should have same tooth systems and Standard gears 2. Therefore helical gear tooth are stronger 1Mn . 23. reasoas (or adapting iDvolute curve for a gear tooth profile...

(ANNA UNIV • • • Angle between axial line and tine of tooth. 37. Root circle or addendum circle is which coincides with roots or bottom of all teeth Wbat are tbe standard 14 Yz. 35. Wby addendum value more than addendum? To avoid interference and undercutting. Using Herring Bone Gears can eliminate axial thrust. A gear is fabricated such a way of its width is cut with helix in one direction and other half of the teeth are cut in opposite direction is called HerringBone Gear. 34.32. Define root circle of spur Gear. . The helical gear will produce axial thrust. Explain tbe terms used in helical gean 2008) I) Helieal Angle 2) axial Pitch. 2Axial pitch distance between two successive teeth measured along the plane parallel to the axis of the gears. Wbat are Herring bone gean? Explain. 20 pressure angle for spur gear drive 33. What is belix angle of berringbone 25 to 45. gear? 36. What are the disadvantages of helical gean? (ANNA UNIV 2(09) • • • It produces axial thrusts Complicated design Transmission is less compared to spur gear.

more torque transmitted on wheel during power transmission. a) Lead b) Normal pitch(ANNA (ANNA UNIV 2009) 4.. WIatt we the various forces acting on worm & worm wheel? (ANNA UNIV 2008) The feKe(.BEVEL GEAR... feUowiag terms used in worm gearing UNlVlI8I) a) leaid: Distance measured axially. b) N. J•... wIliclt gar drive. (b) Face Angle? (ANNA UNIV 2(09) 1.e. distance between the apex and the extreme point of tooth of bevel gear. Stale tile use of bevel gears. ..OR'lponents on a wonn are SImilar to those on power screw. self-locking is available? Self locking is available in wonngear drive. s. Fa:e angle: face angle is the angle subtended by the face of the teeth at the cone centre.. Delie the FoUowing Terms: (a) Cone Distance Cone distance: cone distance or pitch is the slant length of pitch cone. CROSS HELICAL & WORM GEAR DRIVE.ANNA UNIVERSITY TWO MARKS QUESTIONS UNIT-III wrrn ANSWERS. Based an no of start lead can be raised from pitch.c:JrIMt pilCh: Distance measured axially from a point on one tooth to the corresponding point on an adjacent tooth. w__ Due to high reduction ratio. i. In addition. the wonn drive is subjected to separating force that tends to force the worm andwonn whee. between the shafts whose axes intersecting at an angle. only the wheel is designed why? • • • • 7. It is also called as tip angle.. Based • IMwI gears are classified? (ANNA UNIV lOO7) inclined angle bet shat axes: External gear pressure angle < 90degree ii)kllemal gear pressure angle >90 degree lH'('rown gear pressure angle =90 degree tv} Miter gear pressure angle =90 degree gear drive. 2.. i.. out of mesh. I. It is equal to the pitch angle plus addendum angle. .. tangential foree.. (ANNA UNIV 2(09) To transmit power in an angular direction. 6. . axial force. i.e.e. bet corresponding points of adjacent teeth for the same helix. bevel gears are employed..

14. Define the term CODedistance. Buhers thread 4. gean are not ge.Shaping O1/c. Wbat is diff'ereneebetween aagular gear & miter gear? The bevel gear with shaft angle 90degree is miter gear and the bevel gear with any shaft angle is called as angular gears. Vertical spindle of drilling machine.erally preferred why? Because of the loss of power in transmission is high. List two main type of failure in worm gear drive? i) Seizure ii) Pitting iii) Surface wear 10. the Phenomenon is called irreversibility (ability to transmit motion in one directional only). Force angle: It is the angle subtended by the face of teeth at the cone centre. Ball round thread (Ball screw). the dynamic forces are not so severe as in the regular form of worm gearing. It can be achieved by having the friction angle ofwonn greater than lead angle.ASME thread 3.Rear axle drive of automobile. 11. distance between apex and extreme point of tooth of bevel gear. 2.Milling m/e. What is irreversibility in worm gear & how is it achieved? (ANNA UNIV 2007) The wonn drive is so designed that the gear can tum the worm although worm can tum the gear . Give the uses or bevel gears? (ANNA VNIV 2007) • J .If the wonn. So the dynamic loading is rarely considered in worm gear drives. heat generation is more. less efficiency and high cost the worm reduction gears are not generally preferred for transmitting large power. 13. Wbat are the various forces acting on bevel gears? i) Normal force ii)Axial force 16. Define the term normal lead as. For transmitting large power worm reductio. face angle in bevel gears? (ANNA UNIV 2008) Cone distance: It is slant length ofpiich cone. 3. 15.e. • • / . i. Name of types or threads used for power traasmissioD? (ANNA UNIV 2008) I.applicable for worm baving multiple start threads? The lead of worm is the distance ofa point on the pitch circle of the worm which will advance during one revolution of worm. 12. Wby is dynamic loading rarely considered in worm gear drive? (ANNA UNIV 2008) Because of sliding action between the worm and worm gear teeth. 9. It is equal to the sum of pitch angle & addendum angle.Square thread 2. 11. A double threaded worm has lead equal to twice the pitch.S.

Power is transmitted from worm towonn wheel.) 2S. worm is screw and worm wheel is gear..ln. It transmits power in one direction only.. the condition for self-locking is the friction angle must be greater thin leMl angle ofwcnn.. l1tis isWJCd as difterential in automobiles. the friction angle of surface must be greater than helix For wennand angle. ...... r? &: wlay it is used in automobiles? This is siRmar-to spiraJ bevel gears except that pinion gear axis is offset above or below the gear axis.~ wlty heat removal is an important design requirement? (ANNA lJN IV l8I'7) For hisbJledUt. reduction in velocity ratio required 2..Gear Hobbing mlc... as compared to bevel gears where the teeth are straight. great amount ofheat is generated in the surface of worm & worm wheel.• 4. CroWD gear? (ANNAUNIV 1087) A crown gear is type of bevel gear whose shaft angle is 90degree and the pitch angle of pinion is not equal to the pitch angle of gear. 19. Worm and worm wheel prefer the fellowinc circumstances.. Wltat are spiral bevel gean? The tooth of spiral bevel gears are curved. CORnedtwo shafts at right angles are known as ---- .. 11..- . ? MiR par is a type of bevel gear whose shaft angle is 90degree and the angle of pinion is equal to pitch angle of gear.."tion in velocity ratio. by seIf-IockiDg of a screw? (ANNA UNIV 1007) worm wheel.. ~... worm gears can be used . equirement in worm gear design.iI. ..To connect non~ perpendicular shaft. Wn.-. 13. ----_ .. _yw... so the heat removal is an important n. 11. l. •• i. Wilen! doyoa use worm gear? non intersecting shaft arid very high When We require to transmit power between paralleland velocity ratio. - ... The !!~ncf<jh:d heat has to be dissipated for proper functioning of gear drive. is JDitre .~ screw.. -.. ~""'lMweiparswlaent"ey ("'gean.Selflocking facility required 3... For power screw.. 16... • WW. 18. sIIert tHJfes on worm aDd worm wheel? In worm and worm gear..

Skew gear one type bevel gear.en the nUlBber of start of worm is increased in a worm gear drive. Zv = Z I cos l) l) = pitch angle. Z = Number of teeth. The number of teeth on equivalent spur gear called virtual numbetofteeth. 29.27. Why is the efficiency of worm gear drive comparatively low? In order to increase high speed reduction. 28. the efficiency of drive is automatically lowered. / . other paralBeten and action of the drive? (ANNA UNIV 2007) how it affect the Speed reduction = i = number ofteethl number of teeth decreases and speed reduction also decreases. start • If number of start increases number of 30. What is virtual number of teeth in bevel gear? (ANNA UNIV 2007) This means the shape of bevel gear teeth. when projected on the backcone is same as spur gear having radius equal to backcone distance. Where do we use skew ge~r? Skew gear used to transmitting power between non parallel and non intersecting shafts. Wb.

. n2. The ratio between the adjacent speeds in multi speed gearbox is called step ratio. is die . 7) Give twe applications of stepped pulley arrangement? (ANNA UNIV 2(09) Used in machine tools such as shaping machines. drilling machines.diameters..1) of drawina a speed diagram? (ANNA UNIV 2008) To show various spindle speeds in a gearbox. 4) State tile type of gear reducers in a gearbox? 8) Single reduction speed reducers b) Multi reduction speed reducers. qz... UNIT-IV GEAR BOX DESIGN . Stepped pulleys have steps of variouS.. n3 . 3) WIIa. 1) What are the various types oCpulleys commonly used for the transmission of power? (ANNA UNIV 20(8) a) Stepped pulley b) Stepped cone pulley 2) Define progressive ratio in a gearbox? Or Define Step Ratio? If n I.. To change the speed the belt is shifted from one step to another. 8) What tlte spacers are as applied to Gearboxes? (ANNA IINIV 2(08) . S) Write any four steps in design procedure for a gearbox design.MULTISPEED GEAR BOX.. (ANNA UNIV 1_) • • • • • Construct Kinematic arrangement and ray diagram Hnd number ofteeth on each wheel Design of shaft Selection of rolling contact or sliding bearing Design of casing with all details 6) WIIat flo YOll mean by a stepped pulley? Stepped changes are obtained by using stepped pulleys. hand power tool s.ANNA UNIVERSITY TWO MARKS QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS.. lathe.. nz constitute a geometric progression then nzln 1 = is caned Progression ratio.

keys and bearings are assembled in housing. 15) Distinguish between structural diagrams and ray diagrams? The structural diagram shows the general arrangement of the gear transmission but ray diagrams gives the gear arrangement for required output speed. 11) What are the main eompoaeats of a gearbox? (ANNA UNIV 2(08) Gearbox consists of Casing. _ 14) What are preferred numbers? (ANNA UNIV 2(08) The standard speeds are called preferred numbers. convenient and economical feasible speed changing because all the rpm values are obtained in a single transmission. shafts. levers. 10) a What does the ray diagram of a gearbox indicate? (ANNA UNIV 2008) Ray diagram is a graphical representation of speed ratio between adjacent shafts from input shaft to output shaft. high strength. The structural formula gives particular arrangement of gears to get the required output speed. levers. etc. A multi speed gearbox is a device employed for stepped regulation of the input speed and to give required output speeds. The numbers are obtained according to various progression ratios. j_ r . high wear resistance. 17) Wby are speeds in a machine tool gearbox in geometric series? (ANNA UNIV 2009) This gives easy. gears. It consists of gears shafts. 12) Wlaat are the possible arralllemeatsto The different structural formula achieve 12 speed gean? 2( 1)3(2)2(6) 3(1)2(3)2(6) are 2( 1)2(2)3(4) 13) What is a multi speed gearbox? Explain. easy to manufacture. noiseless operation. spacers. keys. bearings." The spacers are used to maintain distance between gears and the bearings 9) What are the structural diagrams ofthe gearbox? The structural diagram is graphical representation of structural formula. 16) What are tbe important properties required for gear materials? (ANNA UNIV 2007) Low cost.

then the increase in length produces bad. How does a HoistiDgclaaia differ (rom a Roller chain? Rotter chains are used in power transmission purpose such as motorcycle. the tooth flanks and eventually out of the mesh.Iargc. and machines Hoisting chains are employed for lifting weight used in cranes.. This condition is tmdesir.. Types: Shoe and c.HES & BRAKES ANSWERS. This is known as backsliding in chain drives. Therefore the semi cone angle in a cone clutch must be greater than 8. 4. t_ roller cbains designed to fail in tension and not by wear? If the roller chain is designed to fail in tension. bicycle. a. 6.tble for the proper functioning of the clutch. elevator . siiding which is accompanied by jerky motion and noise. Otherwise Destroy the clutch lining Cause the individual plate to be welded together Cause excessive wear in non metallic plates Produce surface cracks Reduces co efficient of friction 3.. The failure due to wear is not sudden. 1.. . f. "---'--------- --- ---------- ----- . is Backsliding in gean? (ARREAR ANNA UNIV 20(9) Wear itt chain joints leads to increase in pitch length of the link. then forces required to disengage the clutch may he .ANNA UNIVERSITY TWO MARKS QUESTIONS WIm UNIT-V CLUT(. So the roller chain are designed to rail by tension. This increases the chain length. s~ \\Ita. disc clutch and band clutch 2. What is a clutch? A clutch is a mechanical member used to connect a driving member with a driven member.COIIe dutch the semi cone angle must he greater than 8 why? If the semi cone angel is less than 8. Now the chain compensates for its chain length by moving up and outward on..pne clutch.. Wity is it necessary to dissipate the heat generation when clutch operates? (ARREAR ANNA UNIV 2009) • • • • • • It is necessary to dissipate the heat generated.