Experiment # 1: Factors Affecting Reaction Rates BIOLENA, Francheska O. and Endaya, Grant Kimmuel R. Group 1, Chemistry 18.1, CD1, Ms.

Arlou Kristina J. Angeles April 25, 2012 I. Abstract In this experiment, chemical kinetics was tackled by observing, determining, and analyzing the effect of certain factors on reaction rates. Basically, the five factors tested revolved around two things: manipulation of the frequency of collisions and the ease of overcoming the energy of activation or activation energy, Ea. The five factors which affected the reaction rates, and were consequently analyzed, were the nature of the reactants, concentration of the reactants, temperature, surface area of the reactants, and the presence of a catalyst. Generally, there are combinations of reactants which are highly reactive based on the activation energy characteristic of that reaction. Those that are highly reactive have low activation energies, and vice-versa. Furthermore, by increasing the concentration of the reactants, the frequency of collision also increases, thereby increasing the rate of the reaction depending on their order, except for those who have zero order where any change in the concentration of the reactants does not affect the reaction rate in any way. Delving deeper, the expression which relates the concentration of the reactants and the reaction rate, and where the rate constant and rate order can be obtained, is called the Rate Law (r=k[A]x[B]y). The Arrhenius equation (k=Ae-Ea/RT), on the other hand, relates the temperature with the rate constant and activation energy, and supports the fact that as the temperature at which the reaction is carried out is increased, the amount of molecules with enough energy to overcome the activation energy is also increased, along with the frequency of collision. Moreover, by increasing the surface area of the reactants, the exposed area for collision also increases, thus increasing the frequency of collision and the rate of reaction. Lastly, by the presence of a catalyst, the reaction proceeds into an alternative, multistep pathway with lowered activation energies, hence speeding up the reaction, and increasing the reaction rate. This process is more specifically known as catalysis. Moving forward, the technique of linear regression, and the usage of various chemical kinetics equations was utilized in this experiment due to the large amount of data obtained. These were used for further analysis and understanding. II. Keywords: Chemical Kinetics, Energy of Activation, Collision, Rate Law, Arrhenius Equation, Catalysis III. Introduction Concerned with substances and the various changes that they can undergo, as expressed in numerous chemical equations, Chemistry has always dealt with transformation. Chemistry has always been around us; millions, and even billions, of reactions occur on a day-to-day basis. These reactions have been observed and studied for years by people, especially by scientists, engineers and other professionals, for the sake of generating useful, scientific knowledge. By understanding the rates at which these chemical reactions occur, they have generated various applications in the fields of environment, health, industry, and many more. The specific area of chemistry which is concerned with the study and discussion of chemical reactions with respect to reaction rates, effect of various variables, re-arrangement of atoms, formation of intermediates etc. is called Chemical Kinetics. Moreover, the rate of a chemical reaction is a measure of the amount of products formed per unit of time, or the quantity of reactants consumed per unit of time. Also, it is defined as the change in the concentration of reactants or products per unit of time. Hence, the units for reaction rate are usually molarity per second (M/s) – meaning, the change in concentration (which is measured in molarity) divided by an interval of time (measured in seconds). Chemistry 18.1, Factors Affecting Reaction Rates Up to now, the most specific and intricate details as to how reactions basically occur cannot still be known completely. Because of this, scientists refer to two reaction rate theories to explain how it happens: the collision theory, and the transition state theory. In the collision theory, we go into the molecular level, and state that the rate of a chemical reaction is directly proportional to the number of collisions happening per unit time (frequency of collision). Furthermore, collisions between reacting molecules shall only be productive if the colliding molecules possess the minimum energy required (activation energy, Ea or the energy barrier) to initiate a chemical reaction. It must also be noted that the reactant molecules must be properly oriented with respect to each other (proper orbital overlap) for the collision to be effective. Moving on, the other reaction rate theory, the transition state theory, states that an intermediate or activated complex is formed before finally forming the desired product. Such transition state complex had never been isolated since it is short-lived. Its rate of formation is equal to its rate of decomposition, and the rate of a reaction is dependent on the energy requirement (Ea) for the said complex to form. The higher the energy requirement for the formation of the complex, the more difficult it is to carry out such reaction, and consequently, the resulting reaction is slower. Page1 of 8

1: Reactions with constant HCl concentration showing their time and rate of reaction [Na2S2O3] [HCl] ln[Na2S2 Time Rate lnRate H20 (mL) 3 M HCl (mL) Chemistry 18.15 M Na2S203 (mL) 5 4 3 2 1 0. the resulting reaction rate is faster.) constant Na2S2O3 concentration. Check if the “X” mark is clearly seen through the solution. 2) Concentration of the reactant. Table 1. two identical strips of Mg ribbon were prepared.5 2 2. V. Time the reaction from the moment the mark is no longer visible.2: Schedule for constant Na2S2O3 concentration.However.1 and 3. For the second part. The procedure was then repeated in two other temperatures with one approximately 10°C lower than room temperature and one 10°C higher In the fourth part. 3) Temperature. fizzing sound 0.5 In the third part.5 2 1. gentle bubbling Evolution of gas present. lower Ea=faster reaction rate). it is dependent on the kind (nature) of reacting substances involved in a given reaction. five factors allow us to change the rates at which a particular reaction occurs: (1) nature of the reactants. Immediately add 3 M HCl indicated.2 of Part B. (2) concentration of the reactants. 5 5 5 5 5 0 0. were prepared with 3 ml of water each.5 1 0. can be seen. These factors manipulate the frequency of collision and/or the ease of overcoming the energy of activation. which varied the type of the reactants used in order to see its effect on rate.5 mL of H20 and 2 ml of 3 M HCl. Table 2.15 M Na2S203 (mL) H20 (mL) 0 1 2 3 4 3 M HCl (mL) 1 1 1 1 1 Table 1.0: Observations for Nature of Reactants Reactants 3 mL H2O + Mg 3 mL H2O + Na Observation Almost no evolution of gas present.0 shows the observations that were seen on Part A. Room temperature was recorded.5 1 1.1. if the energy requirement is lower.) constant HCl concentration and (II. the Rate Law is an equation that shows us how the rate depends on the concentration of the reactants. As demonstrated by this experiment. Do the procedure in the following format: (I.1 and 1. Tables 3. Then. Also. Then. Also shown is the ln [Na2S2O3] and the ln Rate to be used later in finding the order of the reaction with respect to the reactant. two test tubes were prepared. Mg ribbon was added to the first while a small piece of Na was added to the second and the results were observed. Table 3.1 and 1. and 5) Addition of a Catalyst. fast bubbling with exploding action with a loud. (3) surface area exposed. One of the strips was cut into very small pieces. add indicated amount of 0. Both test tubes were immersed in a water bath containing tap water for about five minutes.15 M Na2S2O3 (see table 1. (4) temperature at which the reaction occurs and (5) the presence of a catalyst. The first test tube contained 5 mL of 0. relates the temperature with the rate constant and activation energy. while the Arrhenius equation. 4) Surface area.2 show the results following the reaction schedule from Table 1.2) and H2O. namely 1) Nature of the reactant. The test tubes were then heated and were observed for any difference. The uncut Mg ribbon and the shredded Mg ribbon were placed in to two separate test tubes with 5 ml of 3 M HCl solution each and were observed for difference. Results Table 2. Speaking of the activation energy. each with 5 mL of 3% of H 2O 2 and about one gram of Rochelle salt (sodium potassium tartrate). One of the two test tubes was added with a pinch of CoCl 2. it must be known that the difference in activation energies results in different reaction rates (high Ea=slower reaction rate. two test tubes were prepared. which is computed by getting the reciprocal of the time of reaction. Finally. (k=AeEa/RT ). The time of reaction is also shown here and the rate of reaction. Factors Affecting Reaction Rates Page2 of 8 . IV. labeled A & B. On another topic.15 M Na2S203 while the other had 7. In the fifth and last part. it should also be noted that catalysts are what we call substances which increase the rate of a chemical reaction by providing an alternative reaction pathway with much lower Ea’s without itself being consumed in the process. This table shows the concentrations of the reactants computed using the equation M1V1 = M2V2 where M and V are the molarity and volume of the reactants in their initial and final states. a 10-mL beaker was placed right above a piece of white paper with an “X” mark. In the first part. Experimental The experiment was divided into five parts.1: Schedule for constant HCl concentration. the reagents were immediately mixed in a 50-ml beaker and were timed when will the “X” to disappear. two test tubes.

4138 M Temp 1/T Time Rate (°C) (K-1 x 103) (s) (s-1) e t a R n l -2.5 3. in the reactivity series of Page3 of 8 Chemistry 18.2. the Na reaction was faster than that of the one with Mg because the activation k ln k energy of that reaction is lower than the one where -1 -1 (M s ) 0.1 0.6 -3.9 42.1 0.066 -2.6 39.5 0.7 x 10 -2 VI. Table 4.563 0. ln [HCl] -2 -1. given the concentration and rate. Table 5. hydrogen gas evolved from both reactions was their time and rate of observed.16 x 10 -3 38.99573 -3. 1/T Using the ln [Na2S2O3] and the ln Rate from Table 3.5 0.3 -4 -3 -2 -1 -3.0517 M [HCl] = 0.01 0.07944 -2. Figure 2. Table 4.5 -3.5 O3] -2.94 x 10 -2 2.0 shows the rates of reactions under different temperatures obtained from the reciprocal of the time of reaction.00335.2: Plot of ln Rate vs.0032 0 0.8 ln[Na 2O 2S 3] -3.9 Reactants HCl + Rochelle Salt HCl + Rochelle Salt + CoCl2 Observation Light evolution of gas.1 0.0: Observations for reactions with a catalyst absent and present 15.35 x 10 -2 -2 -3. However. Table 6.1 and 1.05 0.3288 -1.59027 -2. from violet to green then back to violet again 22 3. the surface area is specified in the left column and its corresponding observation is shown opposite it. Also.125 0.025 (M) 0.0 shows the observations that were obtained from the catalyzed and uncatalyzed reactions. Discussion The two reactions are the following that was observed during the first part of the experiment: Mg(s) + H2O(l) ⇒ MgO(aq) + H2(g) 2Na(s) + 2H2O(l) ⇒ 2NaOH(aq) + H2(g) From these equations and observations.4 -0.6 -0.5 lnK(1/T ) e t a R n l -3.8 0 -2.67 -3.8 -0.0 shows the observations that were seen in Part D. the plot of ln Rate vs ln [Na2S2O3] was produced as shown in Figure 1.01 0.94 0.2 2.5 0.6094 Observation Slower evolution of gas Faster evolution of gas For the last part.077 -2.5 From Part C.6 -3.1 1 0 12.657 -0.0: Observations for reactions with different surface area of reactants Reactants HCl + Mg strip HCl + Mg pieces Table 3.1: Plot of ln Rate vs.639 0.93 0. The table shows the reactants in each reaction and the observation that was seen opposite them.43 x 10 2.5 0.1 0.78 Figure 1. Also shown here is k.075 0.5 x 10 -2 3.0033 0 0. Figure 1.1 and 3. As seen in the table.(M) 0.99 0.5108 13.1 0.3 1. from colorless solution to light green Faster and more violent evolution of gas.726 -0.37 -3.2231 13.00315.062 -2.6 29.7 -3.112Mg is the reactant.9163 15.00325.4 -3.0034 0 -0.9 36. Table 6.3 x 10 -3 3.73 x 10 -2 2.1 33.5 -1 ln[H Cl] -0.4 x 10 -3 0.2 -1.0714 -2.68888 (s) (s-1) 29.0: Reactions with varying temperatures and reaction [Na2S2O3] = 0.5 0 k n l -1 -1.30259 -2.566 0.4835 0.7 -2.0: Plot of ln k vs.2: Reactions with constant Na2S2O3 concentration showing their time and rate of reaction [Na2S2O3] [HCl] Time Rate ln[Na2S2O3] lnRate (M) (M) (s) (s-1) 0. ln [Na2S2O3] 0 0. Factors Affecting Reaction Rates . the plot of lnk versus 1/T can be made as seen from Figure 2.2.38 x 10 -3 58.718 0.54 x 10 -2 2. which is solved from isolating it from the Rate Law.9 Table 5.0031 0.42 From the 1/T and lnk values.0.75 30 43 3.1.52 -3.0768 -2.

from the plot of lnk and 1/T. This equation k = Ae-(Ea/RT) can be converted into the form ln k = -(Ea/R)(1/T) + ln A where you can find the activation energy and the pre-exponential factor. if the activation energy of the reactants is lower. If there is a larger space for collision. Table 3. then it is easier to create an effective collision and form the transition state. which we can measure the rate of reaction by the sudden change in the appearance of the mixture. the rate also decreases. As the table shows. In the second part. From the two y-intercepts. meaning that it has a slope and order of zero with respect to HCl. the line of the graph is horizontal. which relates the temperature with the rate constant is used. and knowing the constant concentrations in each of the schedules. In this reaction. ln A. the reaction is second order with respect to Na2S2O3.1 as basis. Therefore. has a specific value for a given temperature. . The first schedule is composed of reactions with constant HCl concentration and the second has constant Na2S2O3 concentration. This is because at higher temperatures. the reaction Mg(s) + HCl(aq) ⇒ MgCl2(aq) + H2(g) was observed using a Mg strip and pieces of Mg. which heightens the frequency of collision. both with the same volume but different surface area.2. In part C. As seen from Figure 1.417 Joules by isolating Ea and ln A in the equation. knowing the orders based from the reactants we can form the rate law equation which is Rate = k[Na2S2O3]2. Using Table 3..5702 M-1s-1. By isolating it from ln k[Na2S2O3]2 and ln k[HCl]0. which has a negative slope as seen on Figure 2. we can determine the order of reaction with respect to Na2S2O3 by plotting ln Rate versus ln [Na2S2O3]. and it is accurate with our experiment. The second schedule shows the effect of varying concentrations of HCl on the reaction rate. The reaction profile of both reactions can be seen below (superimposed): Figure 3. increasing the frequency of effective collisions and the rate of formation of the transition state. Also. The first schedule finds out the effect of varying concentrations of Na2S2O3 on the reaction rate. k. the reaction Na2S2O3(aq) + 2HCl(aq) ⇒ SO2(aq) + S(s) + H2O(l) + 2NaCl(aq) results to a white colloidal sulfur precipitate. From the table. we can now solve for the rate constant. which according to the Collision Theory increases the rate of reaction.2 shows the set of concentrations and their corresponding reaction rates.1 shows the set of varying concentrations and their corresponding reaction rates. It was observed that the higher the temperature. As the results would show.0: Superimposed Reaction profiles of the reactions of Na and Mg metals with water According to the Collision and Transition State Theories.metals. the same procedure in part B was done only in three different temperatures. Using linear regression. Table 3. making Sodium more reactive to Magnesium. an equation called the Arrhenius Equation.1. In the last part. we can Chemistry 18. the following equations were observed: Page4 of 8 . a faster evolution of hydrogen gas in the reaction was seen using pieces of Mg. we can find the order of reaction by getting the slope and the value of ln k[HCl]n with n. In the fourth part of the experiment. Through the data in Table 4. The reaction was done in two sets. we can notice that Sodium is in the higher position compared to Magnesium. Plotting the points. Ea. you can use linear regression to find the slope –(Ea/R) or the yintercept. of the reaction. we can see the exponential relationship of the two values. A. being the order with respect to HCl. by getting the y-intercept of the line. The rate constant of a certain reaction.0. we can find the value of k which is 0. causing a larger fraction of molecules to have sufficient or more than sufficient energy to overcome the activation energy. then there will be a greater chance that an effective collision will occur. Factors Affecting Reaction Rates see that the concentration of HCl has almost no effect on the rate. The reactant that has a larger surface area occurred faster because of the larger space available for collision to occur. The overall reaction is a second-order reaction overall based from the sum of both orders of reaction based from the reactants. as the concentration of Na2S2O3 decreases. To find the activation energy. there is a faster rate of reaction as the Ea is lower. an increase the initial energy of the molecules is observed due to higher kinetic energy of the molecules. the faster the reaction rate. Given a set of 1/T and their corresponding ln k. the activation energy was found to be 26. Itsdependence on temperature can be expressed by the Arrheniusequation.

we can find the activation energy of the reaction using the Arrhenius Equation. Chang.L. A positive catalyst increases the rate of the reaction by cutting the reaction into steps with lower activation energy. Manila: Department of Physical Sciences and Mathematics. A method of finding the order is through finding the slope of the plot of natural logarithms of k and the natural logarithms of the concentration of the reactant varied. Grant Kimmuel R. you can find the rate constant. (n. 11th ed. each lower than the Ea of the uncatalyzed reaction. and the ease of forming the transition state. the rate also increases. H.E.L. Le May. Page5 of 8 . As the frequency of effective collisions increases. It hastened the reaction between H2O2 and Rochelle salt by lowering the activation energy and taking the initial one-step reaction into a reaction with two steps. (2007) General Chemistry 2. VIII. The magnitude of how the concentration can affect rate is based on the order of its reaction. References Brown. reverting it to the initial Co2+ catalyst. It is also important to have a keen eye on the time appearance of the cloudy sol in part B since there will be some discrepancies on the results. An increase in surface area increases reaction rate since there will be more reactant particles available for collision. change the rate of reaction. the green color changed back to pink. From which you can find the rate law. being the catalyst. R. B. It is recommended to use a pipette to accurately measure the volume of reactants. There was also a color change in the reaction.V. Upper Saddle River. CoCl2. Different kinds of reactants have different activation energies.1. T. except for zeroorder reactions which do not affect the rate. From this intermediate.E. which determine the rate of reaction. Increase in temperature of the reactants increases the rate of the reaction since it increases Chemistry 18. _________________________________________ Endaya.For the uncatalyzed reaction: 5H2O2(aq) + C4H4O62-(aq) ⇒ 4CO2(g) + 2OH-(aq) + 6H2O(l) For the catalyzed reaction: 5H2O2(aq) + C4H4O62-(aq) + Co2+(aq) ⇒ 4CO2(g) + 2OH-(aq) + 6H2O(l) + Co2+(aq) The uncatalyzed reaction was observed to have a light evolution of CO2 gas while the catalyzed reaction was observed to have a more violent evolution of CO2. 3rd ed. At the end of the reaction. (2003). An increase in concentration of reactants affects reaction rate since it increases the frequency of collisions between molecules. In this part. especially in part B. University of the Philippines Manila. according to the Collision and Transition State theories. Catalysts effectively lower the activation energies of processes and as said earlier. & Burtsten. Classic Chemistry Demonstrations.. Chemistry: The Central Science. Factors Affecting Reaction Rates the frequency of collision between reactants due to higher kinetic energy of the molecules. (2009). and therefore the Co 2+ ions were not consumed.). NJ: Pearson Education Inc. was not consumed. From the rate law. The Royal Society of Chemistry. I hereby certify that I have given substantial contribution to this report. the Co2+ cation from CoCl2 serves as a homogenous catalyst in this experiment. A visible activated complex. _________________________________________ Biolena. the reaction rate increases and as the activation energy decreases or the ease of formation of the transition state increases. reactions with lower activation energies are faster. Reactants that are by nature reactive make the rate of reaction faster... From the pink Co2+ catalyst. where it is important to have an accurate measure of the amount of reactant in order to have accurate results. L. Francheska O. caused by the formation of a cobalt(III)tartrate complex. From the relationship between the temperature and the rate constant. H. VII. Boston: McGraw-Hill Engle. General Chemistry: The Essential Concepts. which according to both the Collision and Transition State theories. Ilao. there was a color change from pink to green. Conclusion and Recommendation The five factors involving reaction rates affect rate by changing the frequency of effective collisions.d. The increase in temperature increases the rate constant.

Concentration of Reactants 2. Part B. making Sodium more reactive to Magnesium. rate increases exponentially the power of two. we can notice that Sodium is in the higher position compared to Magnesium. Nature of the Reactants 1. Which reaction has higher activation energy? Why? Test tube A (Mg ribbon + water) has higher activation energy compared to test tube B (Na + water) because the activation energy of Na is lower than the one where Mg is the reactant. The reaction is slow when the Ea is higher because it is harder to overcome.GUIDE QUESTIONS: Part A. Also. in the reactivity series of metals. How does change in concentration of Na2S2O3 affect the rate of the reaction? The rate of Na2S2O3 decreases as the concentration of Na2S2O3 decreases exponentially. Factors Affecting Reaction Rates Page6 of 8 . The activation energy is dependent on the nature of reacting substances. Chemistry 18. Its relationship is exponential: [Na2S2O3]2 ∝ rate.1. So. as the concentration of [Na2S2O3] increases.

The nature of reactants dictates the magnitude of reaction: lower Ea. Calculate the value of Ea (in Joule units) using Arrhenius equation. An increase in temperature also increases the reaction rate since molecules will have a higher kinetic energy as the temperature increases. What is the order of reaction with respect to Na2S2O3? Theoretically. An increase in the concentration of reactants also increases the reaction rate since according to the Collision theory. the faster the reaction rate because more reacting molecules will be available for collision or contact. What is the effect of the surface of reactant on reaction rate? The larger the surface area. the rate has only a very little proportional change in the rate of reaction.5702 M-1 s-1 Solve for k: Constant Na2S2O3 ln k[Na2S2O3]2 = y-intercept ln k[Na2S2O3]2 = -1.5616 k = 0. this will increase the probability of producing effective collisions. thereby increasing the frequency of collisions.113509 k = 0. faster reaction rate.3. Lastly. Surface Area 10. In other terms. How does change in concentration of HCl affect the rate of the reaction? As the concentration of HCl changes. higher Ea. Based on molecular collision theory. What is the role of CoCl2 in the reaction between Rochelle salt and H2O2? CoCl2 acted as a catalyst in this reaction. hence a greater probability for the reaction to occur. the more reactant molecules. What is the rate law expression of the reaction? Rate= k [Na2S2O3]2 [HCl]0 8. Catalyst 11. It speeds up the reaction by having steps (intermediate) with lower Ea without itself being consumed. 6. Factors Affecting Reaction Rates Page7 of 8 . Chemistry 18. more chances of collision will occur hence faster reaction rate.1. Part E. Briefly summarize the effects of the different factors affecting the reaction rates. The rate of reaction is independent with the concentration of the reactant HCl. slower reaction rate. Part D. Solve for k: Constant HCl ln k[HCl]0 = y-intercept ln k = -0.5702 M-1 s-1 Part C. What is the effect of temperature on the rate of a reaction? An increase in temperature of the reaction increases the rate of reaction for the average kinetic energy also increases. Temperature 8. 9. the order of reaction with respect to Na2S2O3 of reaction is second. 7. more of the reacting molecules will attain energies equal to or even higher than the required minimum energy barrier and can cross over the energy barrier. 5. 12. we can say that by increasing the temperature. hence more collision will occur. the presence of a catalyst speeds up the reaction by taking the whole Ea of the reaction and lowering it down into smaller steps with lower Ea without itself being consumed. We could assume that there is no change with the rate at all even if the concentration of HCl is increased or decreased. 4. An increase in the surface area also increases the reaction rate for more molecules are exposed for collision. What is the overall order of the reaction between Na2S2O3 and HCl? The overall order of the reaction is 2 (second order reaction). What is the order of reaction with respect to HCl? The order of reaction with respect to HCl is zero.