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1 Question-1 Information Technology is the technology that uses computing with high speed communication links to spread information

from one place to another. The modern scenario of information technology has broadened the base of computing. Satellite, fiber optics, mobile phone, fax and ecommerce etcetera are used to exchange information. These technologies provide a modern scenario of computer utilization. Evolution of Information Technology The birth of computers and information technology goes back many centuries. The development of mathematics led to the development of tools to help in computation. Blaise Pascal, in 17th century France, was credited with building the first calculating machine. In the 19th century, the Englishman Charles Babbage, generally considered the father of computing, designed the first "analytical engine." The first electronic digital computer, ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer), was developed for the U.S. Army and completed in 1946. Von Neumann, a Princeton mathematics professor, developed the idea further. He added the idea of a stored computer program. This was a set of instructions stored in the memory of the computer, which the computer obeyed to complete the programmed task. From this stage, computers and computer programming evolved rapidly. The move from vacuum tubes to transistors significantly reduced the size and cost of the machines, and increased their reliability. Then came integrated circuit technology, which has reduced the size (and cost) of computers. In the 1960s, the typical computer was a transistor-based

2 machine that cost half a million dollars, and needed a large, air-conditioned room and an on-site engineer. As computers became smaller and cheaper, they also became faster–made possible by a single integrated circuit called a chip. Modern electronics is based upon the microprocessor, one form of microchip; which consists of miniature logic circuits etched upto the surface of a silicon chip. These tiny circuits replace the enormous banks of glass valves used in the earliest computers of the 1940s and 1950s. The computer uses a microprocessor as it Central Processing Unit (CPU) is known as micro computer or Personal computer. A microprocessor controls the entire operation of a microcomputer so it called Brain of the Microcomputer. The main difference between the computer of 30 years ago and the microchips of today lies in the fact that the latter are very small, very cheap, very reliable and very power. IN fact, ever since the first chips were made in the early 1960s, their power has increased every year while their cost has decreased. It is this fact, continued over a quarter of a century that has caused the information technology Revolution. The Role of Information Technology in Education The Role of Information Technology in Education is exploring the potential for technology to redefine the terms of teaching and learning. As modern devices like tablet computers, laptops and PDAs develop more of a presence in our school system, it becomes more important for educators, students and parents to understand the role of information

3 technology in education today. New technology is not only a subject in and of itself, but can be applied to any subject, enhancing the learning experience and equipping students to join an increasingly global workforce. • Variety of Learning Resources. In the era of technology, Information Technology aids plenty of resources to enhance the teaching skills and learning ability. With the help of IT now it is easy to provide audio visual education. The learning resources are being widens and widen. • Immediacy to Information. IT has provided immediacy to education. Now in the era of computers and web networks the pace of imparting knowledge is very fast. • Any Time Learning. With the help of Internet and computer anyone can be education anywhere at anytime. One can study whenever he wills irrespective of whether it is day or night. • Better Facilities to Disable Children. IT has brought drastic changes in the life of disable children. IT provides various softwares and techniques to educate the disable children and adults and make them active member of the society. • Online Education. Online education system is expanding in the Asia after successful execution and application in European countries. It is easy to learning and most of examinations are being taken through online system in EU. Presently in our country, Virtual University is main example of online education system.

4 Question-2 CPU is brain of Computer System The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the "brain" of the computer--it is the 'compute' in computer. The ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit) and CU (Control Unit) of a computer are combined into a single unit called Central Processing Unit (CPU). The CPU is truly the brain of the computer because it combines the circuitry that generates all the control signals needed to execute an instruction with the circuitry that actually performs the operations called by the instructions. Functionalities of ALU and CU ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit) ALU is the part of CPU, where the actual processing takes place. ALU is capable of performing arithmetic, logical and data manipulation operations on binary numbers. The circuitry that performs these operations consists of logic circuits such as adders, substrates, comparators etc. The ALU consists of logic circuitry that will perform operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, square roots, exponentials data manipulations, comparison and logical operations such as AND, OR etc. ON the two binary numbers contained in the two inputs registers. Some or all of these operations are available in any computer depending on its sophistication and complexity. ALU performs the following functions in CPU:• • The arithmetic logic unit executes arithmetic and logical operations. Arithmetic operations include addition (+), subtraction (-), multiplication (*) and division (/).

5 • •

ALU performs logical operations in which it compares two numbers, letters and special characters. ALU compares the following conditions:
Equal to (=) condition in which two values are the same and (≠) in which two values are not same. Less than (<) in which one value is less than the other and (>) in which one value is greater than the other.

• Logical comparison also allow to choose whether the given the given condition is true or false. CU (Control Unit) CU directs and coordinates the operation of all the other parts of the computer by providing timing and control system signals. The CU contains logic and timing circuits that generate the signals needed to execute each instruction of a program one by one. Control Unit as it name suggests controls and coordinates among the other components of a CPU. It performs the following functions: • Send data and instructions received from input devices to the memory. • Sends the data and information from memory to the ALU. • Sends the processed data or information from ALU, back to the memory. • Transfer the processed data or information from memory to the output unit.

6 Diagram of CPU containing ALU and CU

7 Question-3 Computer Storage Computer Storage often called storage or memory refers to computer components and recording media that retain digital data. Data storage is a core function and fundamental component of computers. Different types of devices are used to store data. The data stored is stores in digital forms. Mainly there are two types of data storage, namely permanent and temporary data storage Permanent storage in a computer can take one of two forms, internal or removable. The hard drive is considered internal storage. Removable storage includes things like floppy disks, backup tapes, USB drives, and CDs. Using the recording protection tabs can protect media (disks) from being deleted or written on accidentally, just the same as on VHS and cassette tapes. Unlike RAM, which stores data using electricity, permanent storage devices and media store data electromagnetically, so the data remains when the power goes off. ROM is another type of permanent storage. It stands for Read Only Memory and can never be rewritten. All modern computers include ROM that contains start-up information and other critical information. The only way to change ROM is to replace the ROM chip. Most users never have to do something like this. CDs are sometimes referred to as a CD-ROMs, because you can only read it, not write to it. There are and have been many different types of disks for many different uses. The first disks that were used were 8" floppy disks, which soon shrunk to the more commonly known 5¼" floppy disks. Later, the 3½" disk

8 was invented. This disk is stored in a hard, plastic case. Many novice students called it a hard disk because it was enclosed in a hard case; however, the disk inside is still a floppy disk. Improper handling can damage floppy disks. Never bend them, expose them to heat or cold, touch the read/write slot, place heavy objects on them, or remove them from the drive while the drive is reading them. Floppies are very prone to failure because they are not made of high quality material. Most errors come from being ejected while the drive is still writing to the disk, but they often have physical failures as well. Backup tapes can often hold large quantities of data, but require special hardware that is not installed on most computers. Although they can hold large amounts of data, accessing that data can be very slow, since the drive has to fast forward through the tape to find the data it needs. They are normally used for backing up servers with large amounts of data, not personal PCs. Hard disks are similar to floppy disks, but are made out of metal and usually are rarely removed by the user. Most of the time hard disks are actually several disks stacked on top of each other contained in a case. This case is called a hard drive and is installed inside the computer. Information can be saved to and retrieved from a hard disk much faster than on a floppy disk so they are used to store large files and programs. The main hard drive on most computers is usually referenced as the C: drive. It is not entirely uncommon to find personal computers with multiple hard drives. Servers almost always have multiple hard drives. Data can often be recovered off a hard drive if it is deleted or if the hardware is damaged because of the way the data is stored, but you'll probably need to

9 contact a professional with special tools. They can be damaged by power surges, magnets, vibration, and heat. A standard 3.5-inch floppy disk can hold up to 1.44 MB of data, which really isn't very much. An average size hard drive can hold 40-140 GB. Some hard drives will hold several hundred GB. USB drives (thumb drives, memory sticks) can be attached to a key chain or clipped to a shirt pocket. The storage capacity on these disks varies. Popular sizes range from 512 MB to 2 GB, although they go higher than that. They are much more durable and easy to use than floppies, wich is why they have become so popular, but they are also prone to errors if you pull the drive out while the computer is writing to it. Another way of storing data is on a CD or DVD. A CD can hold 700 MB, and a DVD can hold 4.7 GB or more. A special drive is needed to read these discs and write to them. A drive that can write to a CD or DVD is often called a burner because the data is burned into the disc with a laser. A laser is also used to read the data on the disc. The following are various types of discs that can be used: CD-R. (CD recordable), disc can be recorded one time. CD-RW. (CD rewritable), disc can be written and over-written repeatedly. DVDs - There are also different formats of recordable DVD discs. DVD-R and DVD+R are the most common, but there are several other types. They can only be used in drives that support that format, but most new drives support both. Just make sure when you buy DVDs for your burner that they are compatible, especially if your DVD drive is more than a couple years old. A CD drive won't read a DVD, but DVD drives will read CDs.

10 Temporary Storage Stands for "Random Access Memory," and is pronounced like the male sheep. RAM is made up of small memory chips that form a memory module. These modules are installed in the RAM slots on the motherboard of your computer. Every time you open a program, it gets loaded from the hard drive into the RAM. This is because reading data from the RAM is much faster than reading data from the hard drive. Running programs from the RAM of the computer allows them to function without any lag time. The more RAM your computer has, the more data can be loaded from the hard drive into the RAM, which can effectively speed up your computer. In fact, adding RAM can be more beneficial to your computer's performance than upgrading the CPU. To check how much RAM a Windows computer has, open the "System" Control Panel. This can be done by right-clicking "My Computer" and selecting "Properties." To view how much RAM is installed in a Macintosh computer, select "About This Mac" from the Apple Menu. Temporary storage is most typically in the form of random access memory (RAM) on a computer, and is volatile and therefore deleted and erased every time you restart your computer. When you start your web browser, the computer pulls all the necessary data from your hard disk and moves it over to your RAM. While you are using the web browser, all the program files will be kept on RAM so that you can quickly access its functions without waiting on the hard drive.

11 When you exit the web browser, the data stored on RAM will be replaced by whatever other applications you are using. RAM is directly tied into the north bridge (faster connection to the processor) in most modern computers, and the newest type of RAM (DDR3) connects directly to the CPU, bypassing the north bridge connection. This allows a much faster access and utilization by the CPU. Since data is stored temporarily on RAM once it is loaded (hence the term, which means loading from HDD to RAM), there is no lag in waiting for the data to be brought in from the much slower HDD.

12 Question-4 Computer Software: Computer software or just software is a collection of computer programs and related data that provides the instructions for telling a computer what to do and how to do it. Software refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of the computer for some purposes. In other words, software is a set of programs, procedures, algorithms and its documentation concerned with the operation of a data processing system. Program software performs the function of the program it implements, either by directly providing instructions to the computer hardware or by serving as input to another piece of software. The term was coined to contrast to the old term hardware (meaning physical devices). In contrast to hardware, software "cannot be touched". Software is also sometimes used in a more narrow sense, meaning application software only. Sometimes the term includes data that has not traditionally been associated with computers, such as film, tapes, and records. Computer software is so called to distinguish it from computer hardware, which encompasses the physical interconnections and devices required to store and execute (or run) the software. At the lowest level, execunguage consists of groups of binary values signifying processor instructions that change the state of the computer from its preceding state. Programs are an ordered sequence of instructions for changing the state of the computer in a particular sequence. It is usually written in high-level programming languages that are easier and more efficient for humans to use (closer to natural language) than machine language. High-level languages are compiled or interpreted into machine language object code.

13 Software may also be written in an assembly language, essentially, a mnemonic representation of a machine language using a natural language alphabet. Assembly language must be assembled into object code via an assembler. System software System software is computer software designed to operate the computer hardware and to provide a platform for running application software. System Software can be subdivided into three categories that is Operating System, Operating Environment and Utilities. Operating Systems A computer’s operating system enables it to carry out its disk filling and other operational tasks under four headings: • Disk Operations which are to do with storing programs and data on disk. • Network Operations which enable a number of micros to be linked to each other and to share facilities such as hard disks and printers. • Multi-tasking which enables the computer to handle several tasks at the same time such as running a spreadsheet, a word-processing and a database management program? • Multi-user operations which allow a number of people to use the computer and its software at the same time, by connecting it to other PCs or workstations.

14 Operating Environment Operating Environment is that environment in which users run programs. For example, Old text and command based DOS operating environment consists of all the DOS commands available to users and that is not user friendly. The Macintosh and Microsoft Windows environment, on the other hand, is a graphical user interface and user-friendly. These operating environments were introduced to make the interaction between people and computers more user-friendly. In this icons represent the functions and tasks of the system, even files and folders are also presented by icons. Mouse is used to move the cursor on the screen a button at the front of mouse is used for selecting or deselecting files or software options. This kind of user interface is called Graphics User Interface (GUI). The term WIMP meaning ‘Windows, Icon, Mouse, Pointer’ is also used. Operating environments are sometimes called control programs.

Utilities Utilities provide the facilities to carry out tasks which are beyond the capabilities of the operating system in a more efficient and easier way. It includes Windows Explorer and Programs that are run from Control Panel for setting the time and date, installing new hardware such as scanner, printer, modem, changing display setting, paintbrush etcetera.

15 Question-5 Hardware and Software Hardware All physical contents of computer are hardware. This form is given to all electrical and mechanical devices attached to the computer for the purpose of input, process, and storage and output operations. Primary Hardware: is the CPU and its other units i.e. circuits and IC's. Secondary Hardware: is the memory or storage area of computer. Hardware is the physical medium, for example: circuit boards, processors, keyboards.

Software Software is a collection of instructions that can be ‘run’ on a computer. These instructions tell the computer what to do. Software is not a physical thing (but it can of course be stored on a physical medium such as a CDROM), it is just a bunch of codes. An operating system such as Windows XP or Mac OS X, applications such as Microsoft Word, and the instructions that control a robot are all examples of software. Software is a general term used for computer Programs. A computer program is a planned, step by step set of instructions that directs the computer what to do and how to do. It turns the data into information - that makes a computer useful.

16 Usage of Five Common Hardware of Personal Computer Keyboard The keyboard is used for typing things into your computer such as letters, numbers etc. In computing, a keyboard is a typewriter-style keyboard, which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys, to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches. Monitor A computer monitor is an electronic device that shows pictures. A monitor is usually used to see programs on a computer. There are two types of Monitors (1) CRT. (2) LCD. CRT: Cathode Ray Tube: LCD: Liquid Crystal Display Printer A printer is a piece of hardware for a computer. It is a device that must be connected to a computer which allows a user to print items on paper, such as letters and pictures. It can also work with digital cameras to print directly without the use of a computer. A computer mouse is used to tell a computer what to do, including moving the cursor and choosing things on the screen. On most computers, the user can move the mouse to move the cursor in the same direction. If there is something on the screen that the user wants to choose, he can move the cursor over it and "click" the mouse button. The right mouse button is used to open menus that are different depending on where the cursor is. The other mouse buttons can do different things, depending on the software. It is one of the most important pieces of hardware as it allows a computer to communicate with other computers over a network. It serves as a networking medium and provides the computers with a MAC address system. A network card is also known as a network adapter, a LAN card and better known as a NIC.


Network Card