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The purpose of a style guide is to provide professional consistency and aesthetic appeal. To verify that this is the latest version, please contact News & Publications at 723.3157 or look online at www.gsb.stanford.edu/styleguide. This copy was last changed on March 1, 2010.
This style guide is produced by the GSB News and Publications Office. If you find errors or have suggestions, contact firstname.lastname@example.org or call Kathy O’Toole at 725–1939.
Introduction Abbreviations and Acronyms
Punctuation in Abbreviations Capitalization in Abbreviation and Acronyms
Alphabetization (also see Lists) Bias-Free Language
Overview Gender Race, Ethnicity, and Nationality: General Rules Race, Ethnicity, and Nationality: Commonly Used Terms
Bibliographic Citations (print and web styles) Capitalization
Capitalize Do Not Capitalize
Grammar—Frequently Raised Questions
Singular vs. Collective Nouns Fewer vs. Less Splitting Infinitives and Verb Phrases That vs. Which “Try” and vs. “Try to”
Names and Titles
Company Names Geographical Names GSB Names (see GSB Dictionary in “Words, Words, Words” section) Personal Names and Titles Trademarks
Apostrophe Colon Comma Dash (en– and em— dash) Diagonal (slant, virgule) Ellipsis Points Exclamation Point Hyphen Parentheses and Brackets Punctuation with Quotation Marks Quotation Marks or Italics for Emphasis Quotation Marks or Italics Semicolon
Tech Talk Words, Words, Words
GSB Dictionary Troublesome Words
Avoid excessive use of word combinations using the diagonal “/”—as in “either/or. style. 1998 edition Eats. Your message just got lost. this guide is based on: • The Associated Press Stylebook.” “alumni/ae. 11th edition Chicago Manual of Style. it’s unreadable. The aesthetic effect of a style is harder to explain but easy to illustrate. For the names of businesses.stanford. and Executives. 4th edition. Consider the three admonitions below: • • • Try not to start a sentence with a number. they have allowed this guide to evolve with the language it describes. 4th edition Association of American University Presses’ Guidelines for Bias-Free Writing. Consistency needs little explanation. Shoots & Leaves: The Zero Tolerance Approach to Punctuation. Second reference for spelling. although the quickest authoritative reference to tap may be the company profile accessible through Jackson Library’s abi/inform Global database. Words that are overused lose their meaning. 2005 edition Woe Is I. A publication that is consistent in its usage looks planned and professional. 1995 edition Copy Editor’s Handbook: A Guide for Book Publishing and Corporate Communications. This guide notes where we take exception to the most recent edition of that guide. Rules of grammar are overruled by extensive usage. ignore all three of them in a single sentence: 14 gsb gmp/pmp alumni/ae talked about their careers at nasdaq during an mtc sponsored by the cmc. 2003 edition American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Business terms that sound smart today are tomorrow’s clichés. 15th edition Wall Street Journal Essential Guide to Business Style and Usage. and foreign geographic names for the Associated Press Stylebook—and therefore for this guide—is Webster’s New World College Dictionary. 2009 edition. Is this style guide the last word? The English language evolves at high speed. Not only does it look awful. The second reference for foreign geographic names is the National Geographic Atlas of the World. 2003 edition • • Other useful references include: • • • • • For sensible guides to current usage try: • • • The gsb’s Information Technology department also has a web publishing style guide that deals with more technical aspects of publishing materials on the School’s website.Introduction Why does the Stanford Graduate School of Business need a style? Organizations adopt a publication style for two primary reasons—professional consistency and aesthetic appeal.edu/styleguide/ Page 4 . style. Whatever else computers have done to the language. Avoid excessive acronyms and abbreviations on a page. and usage is Webster’s Third New International Dictionary.” “and/or. And a publication that looks professional reflects the professional care of the organization that produced it. If you need more detail. If you must. It is at https://wesley. spell it out. Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary.” Now. Directors. usage. the reference is Standard & Poor’s Register of Corporations. The first reference for spelling.
) Some organizations have decided to change their legal names to their initials. even on first mention in the document.” (For more on the capitalization of gsb names.. especially when dealing with long scientific terms. In later references to these organizations..edu/styleguide. ibm. avoid using abbreviations and acronyms that your readers would not quickly recognize.. they sometimes aid readers’ comprehension. some of whom might have never heard of any gsb.g. such as dna. In some cases. avoid alphabet soup. Some others are acceptable depending on the context. Also be aware that inconsistent treatment of like people or entities can be jarring to readers and makes your organization look sloppy—naacp vs. dna. irs. and uninviting. consider writing “the school” or “the center.” • But in general. vcr—need not be introduced or spelled out. and even the people down the hall may not recognize many of the acronyms and professional terms you use daily.” • The watchword is “When in doubt. aarp. Examples include Ms. in many more cases. a document peppered with gsbs and cmcs looks messy. a. Recognize that alumni/ae. The Copy Editor’s Handbook suggests a guideline for deciding which shortcuts are familiar enough to use with a general audience.) If you are dealing with lists or unusual typographic situations. for example. This principle also applies to acronyms of extremely well-known organizations—e. Words. it is preferable to spell out acronyms on first use. Abbreviations and acronyms are shortcuts that help authors save space. see the “Words. • As a general guideline. fbi. applicants. “Acronyms that appear in the alphabetical section of a standard dictionary—e. cmc may be understood by all current Even when the acronym is appropriate.. We now have aaa.stanford. but many alumni/ae knew the job search and placement office by a different name. For the purposes of this style guide.” Because most of our school’s publications are distributed globally. keep in mind your readers’ comfort at least as much as the author’s preferences. our default mode should be to spell out on first reference and avoid repeated use of acronyms on later references.g. and bp.Abbreviations and Acronyms Dictionaries disagree on the definition of acronym. …” (This is not unlike offering a brief description of a new company’s business because many readers will not know the company. we include initializations that are not pronounced as a word.c. you may wish to help your readers along by writing “bp. if the intended audience includes readers in other countries. spell it out. However.m. b. Daughters of the American Revolution. abbreviations or acronyms may be more appropriate. 3m.gsb. • gsb may be an appropriate acronym in a letter to alumni/ae of this school but not in one to corporate recruiters. shortcuts impede comprehension. bureaucratic. formerly known as British Petroleum. This means shunning the alphabet soup of your normal office conversation unless you are writing a memo to your officemates. However. Nonetheless. • • Page 5 . The Associated Press Stylebook notes that “a few universally recognized abbreviations are required in some circumstances. nato. here are examples to illustrate the importance of considering context: • • students. By uncluttering space. dna. However. Still others have forgotten most of the acronyms that were routinely used in their student days. Words” section of this document or go to www.
• Common Latin phrases—e. vp.s. Jr.. aarp. Corp. The rule in that case would produce BMW. Inc. Remember that your audience usually is international. or 2) use the same font for all of your text but type the word in uppercase letters and downsize them 2 points from the rest of the type—VERITAS. The abbreviations u. California. A few big cities in the world do not need the state or country name attached. • • If you are writing a full street address. and many acronyms (not even the irs!) are understood outside the United States.k. see “datelines” in the Associated Press Stylebook for an explanation of when to use the state or country after a place name. ms. Write: the u. Also. and smaller cities that are “local” to your readership do not need the added identification. because it is part of the abbreviation for the word philosophy. rather than lowercase or standard uppercase because the acronyms will look less jarring on the page—bmw. The state abbreviation list is under “state names” in the Associated Press Stylebook. Page 6 . This is different from some journalistic style guides that advise to initial-cap acronyms that are pronounced as a word and capitalize all letters of those that aren’t. the h should be set as a smaller cap.g. Sabon SC.g. phd. use standard abbreviations with an ending period. two points smaller than the p and d. however. In running text. In other words. not ca. states used in conjunction with the name of a city. take periods—no periods in the three-letter usa. and u.. etc. and type the word in lowercase and 2 points larger than the rest of your text—veritas.—but initializations do not—ceo.s.punctuation in abbreviations In general in American English: • Abbreviations for a word have a period at the end—Dr. Because speakers so frequently use the abbreviation as a noun.n.. use the postal code for the state.. population but the population of the United States. you may want to treat all localities the same to avoid the appearance of bias.. are well understood and used frequently in university writing.—take periods. • capitalization in abbreviations and acronyms In general: • Use small caps for acronyms.. do not abbreviate. In phd. nafta. these initializations should be used only as adjectives unless they are part of a direct quotation. ipo. not postal-code abbreviations—Calif. A small cap can be created in one of two ways: 1) use a small cap font. In a listing where inconsistencies are more obvious. • • We choose to go without periods for academic degrees (overrules Associated Press Stylebook) primarily because mba. Examples are laser and radar. u. and TIAA-Cref...s. For u. If you are referring just to the state. we believe the full name sounds too formal in direct quotations. Nafta. e. we treat them the same as we treat ceo. Note that some pronounceable acronyms eventually become words with no capital letters. tiaa-cref.
. – Company names should be alphabetized by the first initial. – In dealing with persons from many countries. however. People write dates a great many ways. but be sure to be consistent within the document. 11. not am. or Year Two Thousand—use sparingly. or am in running text. be sure you understand which name for each individual is to be used to alphabetize. and therefore. Use a. A workable rule is to use the full date in contexts where it makes sense as a date.m. E. Page 7 . not invert using last name—E. In cases where a numeral is part of an abbreviation—such as y2k. Ms. If the numeral is not accurate when spelled out—c4c. w2w.. 2001. a. McMahan.F. Dr. David and Lucile Packard Foundation (not The David and Lucile Packard Foundation). In other contexts. and p. it is easier to obtain consistency in your documents with this rule—January 1972 was a cold month but Jan. – Names with apostrophe like O’Toole: Ignore apostrophe. It probably works better in a direct quotation or on a second reference than on a first reference. should be alphabetized according to the word as spoken—Saint. 8 was the coldest day of the month. – exception • Abbreviations such as St.• Use standard upper and lowercase for abbreviations—Inc. or Challenge Four Charity. most printed style guides advise against using 9/11 as a shortcut for the terrorist events of Sept. In general. Alphabetization • Alphabetize letter-by-letter: – Mc or Mac follows normal letter order—Macintosh. This is the trend in American printed media. so you need to check each proof of your document for consistency. As of this writing. – Company names that start with numbers should be alphabetized according to the number as spoken— 3com would be placed as if it were Threecom.. The designation is widely used. Madsen.m.F. Small caps without periods may be appropriate in a list such as a conference schedule or invitation. Hutton. in headlines and text and frequently in articles that also use the more formal date as well.. do not Hutton. • Drop the word “The” from all alpha listings for company names—Wall Street Journal (not The Wall Street Journal). we recommend that months be abbreviated when used with a specific date and spelled out when not. • • • • See the Associated Press Stylebook for more guidance if needed. consider whether 9/11 is an adequate term for what is being communicated. or Welfare Two Work—do not use.m. – exceptions: • Initializations that spell a common word should be treated as a word—Sun Microsystems (tradition tells us sun stood for Stanford University Network).
nattily dressed) may unintentionally suggest that such descriptions are out of the ordinary. dialect. these people would wisely avoid speaking of “foreign” students or in the alphabet soup of csi. might be expected to use u. Certain identifications may be common and acceptable among some cultures. At issue are both the perceptions of the readers and the preferences of the person who is written about.-centric language in conversation. No longer can we assume the audience for publications is primarily American. Such family relationships should not be specified except when germane to your subject or specified by the persons involved. natural athlete.” You needn’t make up “-person” words—like mailperson or waitperson—or “-impaired” words—like height-impaired or calorie-impaired—in order to show respect for your readers. In cases where both genders are meant. A person living in Palo Alto. but a group of ceos is not necessarily all male. Try to recast sentences to avoid excessive gender-sensitive language. half-sister. In writing for readers who are not their neighbors and colleagues.. (In this case a more precise word such as exuberant might better describe an elderly person who is more energetic than most. hard-working. The careful editor should be similarly sensitive.) Using common descriptive words or phrases for a particular racial or ethnic group (well-organized. alum. and precision—rather than to prescribe words that work well in all circumstances.s. etc. If truly extraordinary conditions exist. Calif. Referring to someone as an energetic 70-year-old may wrongly suggest that elderly people normally are lethargic. alumnae. Stereotypic characterizations are poor substitutes for more precision in writing. or stepmother. race. At the same time. intelligent. • Keep it simple. use the shortened form—alums. Good taste and sensitivity often are violated when unwarranted. Careful writers should choose words for their accuracy and their likely impact. This guide gives some specific guidance on how to avoid biased language. think about what effect gender-aware language will have on the reader. etc.Bias-Free Language overview Writing for multiple readers in today’s world requires shunning descriptive identifications that may be considered offensive or that perpetuate prejudices and stereotypes. or imprecise references are made to characteristics such as age. which also will make the writing more interesting to read. and sexual preferences. • Page 8 . For aesthetic reasons. disabilities. political beliefs. alumna. pmp. but considered offensive and unwarranted among others. Alumni. you sound a little intelligence-impaired when you do. do not use alumni/ae excessively. alumnus. you can use both words—alumni and alumnae—or alumni/ae or. Speakers at a women’s conference are likely to be female. nationality. It is possible to use bias-free language without being overbearingly “politically correct. (In fact. festive. It is ultimately the responsibility of writers and their editors to make sound language judgments based on their common sense but also on their willingness to ask people how they wish to be identified and to think about communication from the perspectives of multiple readers from differing backgrounds. but the purpose is to encourage thought. more precise descriptions may be in order. if informality is appropriate to your publication. gender. religious affiliation. cmc. For example. and alumnae in the Women in Management group. and alumni/ae: Do not use “alumni” or “alumnae” to include both male and female graduates except in proper names such as the Stanford Business School Alumni Association or where it is obvious from the context that the group is predominantly of one gender—alumni in the business school class of 1953. awareness. unfair. and a person working at the Stanford Graduate School of Business is likely to use current gsb-centric language in hallway conversations. people in some cultures consider it insensitive to identify family members as half-brother.) gender The goal is to use language to acknowledge that most groups include both males and females.
(President Woodrow Wilson once labeled the hyphen as “the most un-American thing in the world” because of its use with American. and nationality: general rules • Do not identify the nationality or race of individuals unless those identifications are necessary to the context. The gsb Case Writing Style Guidelines say. When distinctions are important. Recurring university publications may adopt more detailed style rules based on their needs or audience sensitivities. spelled as two words. Avoid using the generic he. Mexican American and Peruvian American are preferable to Chicano or Hispanic American. one alumna or two alumnae (female).) • • American citizens. and consider if the terms are appropriate to your purpose.” • • race. “If unavoidable. use s/he (rather than he/she). Do not capitalize black or white when referring to racial origin. be specific: one alumnus or two alumni (male). not a select few. Although it is increasingly used in conversation. all persons. rather: Individuals presented their cases to an audience of other alumni/ae. Page 9 .not: Each alumnus/a presented his or her case to an audience of other alumni/ae. Some style guides recommend hyphenation but it has been a politically sensitive issue in the United States and perhaps in other countries composed of multiple ethnic or religious groups. For example. should be identified. and race is not a scientific category. ethnicity. Do not hyphenate American when referring to a person—Japanese American. not: Every student should hand in his homework. • When referring to a graduate or group of graduates of a single gender. • • • Be as specific as possible. Americans of Portuguese ancestry should be called Portuguese Americans. do not mix singular and plural in writing—Every student should hand in their homework. When such an identification is included. whatever their ethnic background. The easiest way to avoid this is to make both plural—All students should hand in their homework. rather: Every student should hand in the homework. are simply Americans when ancestry is not pertinent. American racial definitions are not the same as elsewhere in the world.
Page 10 . not a black. such as “the blacks” or “the Jews.. whichever is more appropriate to the context. adj. – Asian (adj. When distinctions are necessary and you are dealing with individuals. – Asian American (n.): refers to any nationality. adj. Best reserved for cases of self-identification.): an American of Mexican ancestry. but remember that not all people referred to as black are African Americans. adj. The point is to recognize that no one term is clearly correct or incorrect.): a citizen or legal resident of an African nation. – Oriental (n. acceptable or unacceptable. – International students: Be aware that this term.. Not all Africans are black. (In many contexts. a (lowercase) native American is a person of any color or racial background who was born in the United States. The assumption by some writers and editors that only people of color need to be identified by their so-called race is offensive to those who are sensitized to the unconscious racism involved. Be sure to identify people as white in a story where some of the people are identified as people of color.. Precision is preferred. It is now possible for u. adj.. Sometimes offenses occur at very subtle levels.): American of Spanish or Latin American descent.): Use interchangeably when referring to black Americans.. Simply using “the” before a word may carry a derogatory connotation of separatism. the terms used should be the most acceptable and least offensive given the conditions and context.) – Indian American (n. adj.): people of Asian ancestry. Subjects should be asked if they prefer to use the name of their tribe and how they spell it. as it is used by people in universities. adj. for an entire group of people.): Either is acceptable. adj. ask them how to describe their nationality or residency. citizens to carry dual citizenship. Latino (n. or a female of Latin American birth or ancestry. you may need to rewrite your sentence to make sure your readers know you do not mean American Indian. – Indian (n. However.): a person from a Latin American country.. generally avoid use as a noun. First and foremost. adj. – White (adj.. adj. and politics. Japanese American and Chinese American are preferred terms. Precision is preferred when possible—Chinese American. adj. – Black (n. writers should be cognizant of the terms used by their subject(s). – Hispanic (n.): person from India. The disparity of consensus is compounded by gaps of generation. – Chicano..race. geography.): a woman or girl from a Latin American country.): Spanish-speaking or descended from Spanish-speaking people.): American of (Asian) Indian descent. etc. Caribbean.. Chicana (n. adj. For instance.s. – Hispanic American (n.. Latina (n. Filipino American. or Central American heritage (sometimes excludes Mexican Americans). American of Mexican. at best. When dealing with statistical groups. is both imprecise and u. – Person or people of color: preferable to nonwhite.-centric.s. South. both are capitalized. Mexican American is preferable.): not generally preferred. – Latin American..” – African (n. which adds to the confusion.): Do not capitalize black or white.. But if an individual or group insists on using the term Oriental—unacceptable to most but preferred by some—that term might be appropriate in a direct reference to the individual or group. – Native American. A black American. Users may be referring to both first-generation American immigrants and people who are “nationals” of other countries.): American of Asian descent. and nationality: commonly used terms No clear lines can be drawn between which terms are acceptable and which are considered derogatory. try for the maximum precision possible. ethnicity. – African American or black (n. American Indian (n. social stature. adj.
all that are part of a verb—Adding Up Our Losses. adjectives.” John Smith. No. You may follow the above form or use the following with shorter line lengths: Art of the Start: The Time-Tested. Page 11 .” Olivia A.). Jossey Bass. Cite the name of the host site if applicable: Iowa Electronic Markets. and Claire Wilson. or dash. Bigger-Than-Life Murals. – All elements of a hyphenated compound—Twentieth-Century Playwrights. William R. the unless they begin a subtitle preceded by a colon. adverbs. Economics for Beginners (2nd edition). June 23.81. – Prepositions containing five or more letters—Through. an. url links should appear in italics.Bibliographic Citations print and web styles A bibliography’s purpose is to clearly describe the source material so the reader can identify it. semicolon. “Managing Power. 1. Stanford Graduate School of Business Working Paper No. 1775.edu/iem/archive/historicaldata. and subordinating conjunctions (if.. 16. Battle-Hardened Guide for Anyone Starting Anything Guy Kawasaki Portfolio. Every effort should be made to reduce duplication and clutter. • Basic short form: “To Live and Die in la. – The “to” in infinitives. pronouns. that. 2005. Free Press. This style guide modifies recommendations of the Chicago Manual of Style in Sect.72. verbs. University of Iowa. For recommendations on alphabetizing citations. M. Modern Workforce. as. Advanced Financial Theory. 2005 (If this is linked to the article itself.html • For the web: A different style of citation seems to be easier to read online.) • Using url links in citations: In printed prose. Journal of Mortuary Science (Vol. 16. Addison-Wesley. 2004. 2005. New York Times.uiowa. www. it will follow the webpage style for color and font. all prepositions used as first or last words. Charles James Jr. Morrow. etc. Robert Jones. ed. • Do not capitalize in titles: – Articles—a. Allan Smith. January 13. 2004. (Do not italicize a working paper series because working papers are not published and can be changed. 2004 “Rewarding Hard Work” Anne A. because. “Women’s Careers: The Impact of Sex and Gender Identity on Career Attainment. Sect. O’Neill and Charles A. Watson. 2004 “The Dynamics of Pricing Tickets for Broadway Shows” Mary Smith. After. Small Journal of Economics.” Margaret S. see Chicago Manual of Style. O’Reilly III. 2004.) • Capitalize in titles: – First and last words and all nouns. 3).biz.
that. bachelor’s. – exceptions • Headlines and subheads in periodicals and other publications usually have a consistent style designed for the publication. as. pronouns. but not when they follow or are used alone: – President Smith but the president of the United States – Admissions Director John Doe but the director of admissions – Professor Jane Doe but Jane Doe. master’s • Committees only if proper names. professor of finance – • exceptions • Chaired professorships because they are proper nouns—Jane Doe. and subordinating conjunctions— if. but. adverbs. Chair names are very hard to understand when they are placed before the holder’s name in prose. Master of Science in Management – exception • Do not capitalize doctorate. far western. If you must use the full title. West Coast. put it after the name. • Titles and headings in publications: – First and last words and all nouns. an. young man—or the adjectives western. North Shore. the Bloomingdale Professor of Finance. Silicon Valley Titles when they precede names. Midwest. East Coast – • exception • Do not capitalize directions—go west. Articles—a. nor. such as the House Appropriations Committee but the school housing committee Proper nouns for specific regions such as the East. and prepositions—unless they fall within the capitalization rule above • – All elements of a hyphenated compound—Twentieth-Century Playwrights.Capitalization capitalize • Formal names of degrees such as Master of Business Administration. Some styles call for using sentence case or lower case in display type. Middle West. or. the. coordinating conjunctions—and. because. Bigger-Than-Life Murals Page 12 . middle western • Well-known areas—East Side. Don’t use “the” in lists or display type. West. adjectives. for. etc. verbs.
is going the same way though it’s not there yet. and other technically plural Latin and Greek words that have become thoroughly Anglicized as singular nouns taking singular verbs. There are no general rules in this area except to consult widely. insignia. the faculty is generally content although many faculty are holding out for higher pay. No plural form is necessary. “It’s time to admit that data has joined agenda. Listen to Patricia O’Connor (Woe Is I) on the subject of one particularly troublesome word that keeps popping up in academic writing. it seems. city. The seasons or academic quarters—winter. fall. the Economist. which can be either singular or plural. • Grammar frequently raised questions singular vs. “center. For example. erotica. Another troublesome noun is faculty. Ask me again in a few years. or part of the verb—Adding Up Our Losses – exception • The “to” in infinitives do not capitalize • • “university. depending on whether you are speaking of a single body of individuals or of the individuals who make it up. data is accumulating while media are proliferating. But: The center supports a calendar of similar kinds of events.– Prepositions containing five or more letters—Through. In the latter case. federal. summer. Page 13 . spring. university—except when referring to Stanford— or campus. But: The program admits students in three different rounds each year. • The MBA Program includes required international work experience. and the old singular form. opera. datum. or company names—the New York Times. collective nouns • Words that are plural sometimes become singular over time. try calling them faculty members. After. except as part of a title—The material belonged to the City of Palo Alto but The material belonged to the city. • The words state.)” In other words.” or “school” when used alone referring to Stanford University or the Stanford Graduate School of Business. magazine titles. can be left to the Romans. (Media. the Gap. government.” “program.” or other units of the school when used alone • The Center for Global Business and the Economy sponsored the event. The “the” in newspaper. prepositions used as first or last word of the title or heading—Stepping Out.
” The thought here is not of individual years but of a period of time. • • “try” and vs. yet it contains no fewer than 1. For instance. a second-year student. you cannot say “one fewer seats. which demands a great deal of time. [note: The sentence does not have a comma. less • Use “less” for quantity and “fewer” for number—The building has less floor space than the Empire State. It is fine for the adverb to break a multiple-word verb if the sentence reads better or if in a quote it sounds more like the spoken word—Roy had been properly warned about the permit. Page 14 . which • Use “that” in restrictive clauses (i. it should be “less than 30 years old. • that vs.200 offices. clauses that are necessary to the sentence for it to make sense)—The course that demands the least time is the one to take.fewer vs.. An oddity about “fewer”: Whereas it is fine to write..” The only escape hatch is “one seat fewer. “Not many of these buildings are fewer than 30 years old.” you run into idiom trouble if you reduce the number to one.e. This type of clause also is known as an apposition and should be considered by writers and editors when trying to find the most readable way to include a person’s lengthy professional title—John Smith. is one of the best courses in the School. is easier to read than Professor of Human Resources John Smith.” nor can you say “one fewer seat. clauses that can be taken out of the sentence and the sentence will still make sense)—Cost Accounting. “The Liberals won three fewer seats than in the previous election.” A problem with “fewer” is to distinguish whether it refers to a quantity or a number. “try to” • “Try and” in the place of the standard “try to” is generally acknowledged to be characteristic of spoken language—colloquial. is arriving tomorrow. [note: The clause is set off by commas. professor of human resources. The “try and” idiom is substandard and illogical.e. therefore.” • • splitting infinitives and verb phrases • Splitting an infinitive is acceptable if moving the modifier would make the sentence sound awkward or change its meaning—He seems to really want the puppy.] Use commas around nonrestrictive clauses without “which”—My fiancée.] Use “which” in nonrestrictive clauses (i. not He really seems to want the puppy.
Start each item with an uppercase letter. end each item with a period. If items are complete sentences. all should be noun forms. In lists of places. countries. keep the geographic units parallel—wrong: He went to Munich. – To complete the certificate. students must: • • • • • • Take the designated core courses. and Complete a practicum. continents. and Argentina. items carry no closing punctuation unless they consist of complete sentences. • When a list is introduced by a complete grammatical sentence. Russia. Russia. that is.Lists • In lists of names. All items in a list should be syntactically alike. If the list completes a sentence begun in an introductory element. followed by a colon. Pass an oral examination. use alphabetical order unless there is a reason to do otherwise. use appropriate end punctuation—separate items in the list by commas or semicolons. Page 15 . full sentences—whatever the context requires. that is. – Rooms include the following furnishings: • • • • • Desk Chair Extra-long twin bed Utility table Refrigerator Names and Titles company names We follow the guidelines in the Associated Press Stylebook on most matters of company identification. if the items are syntactically part of the sentence. as appropriate. and end with a period. right: He traveled to Germany. and South America. do not mix cities. phrases. • • bulleted lists • Introduce the list with a colon.
not postal-code abbreviations. but be aware of name changes that may have occurred recently in countries with changing politics.. Sabon SC. you may want to treat all localities the same to avoid the appearance of bias.netadvantage. In a listing where inconsistencies are more obvious. A small cap can be created in one of two ways: 1) use a small cap font. Do not use symbols such as exclamation points. plus signs. • Generally follow the spelling and capitalization preferred by the company—eBay—but capitalize the first letter if it begins a sentence. If you are referring just to the state. and make it 2 points larger than the rest of your text—veritas. • • • geographical names • Use the Geographical Names section of Webster’s New World College Dictionary. llc. If you are writing a full street address. For company designations in other countries. Omit Inc. A few big cities in the world do not need the state or country name attached. Also. Words. California. Page 16 . plc. or asterisks that form contrived spellings. It is available in the reference area of Jackson Library or online at www. use standard abbreviations with an ending period.standardandpoors. type the word in lowercase. use the “foreign company designations” section of the Wall Street Journal Essential Guide to Business Style and Usage.For correct spelling of company names in text use Standard & Poor’s Register of Corporations as the primary source. use the postal-code abbreviation for the state.com. In cases where s&p has no listing. not ca.m-w. see “datelines” in the Associated Press Stylebook for an explanation of when to use the state or country after a place name. • • gsb names See “Words. Use small caps instead of full-size capital letters in the names of companies or other organizations that use more than one capital letter per word. or Webster’s Third New International Dictionary for spelling. or Ltd. Words” section for guidance specific to this School. following the word Company or Corporation or its abbreviation. Use American spellings when more than one version is offered. Jackson Library also has company profiles available online through the abi/inform Global database. e. Do not use a comma before Inc. Check Merriam Webster’s Dictionary at www. Use Calif. For u.com. see the company’s annual report. or Ltd.. and smaller cities that are “local” to your readership do not need the added identification. Use an ampersand only if it is part of the company’s formal name. states used in conjunction with the name of a city.g. following the company name. The state abbreviation list is under “state names” in the Associated Press Stylebook. or 2) use the same font for all of your text but type the word in uppercase letters and downsize them 2 points from the rest of the type—VERITAS.s. do not abbreviate.. 4th edition.
unique titles: p. help your readers digest information by putting long titles behind the names of the people to whom they refer. The only exception is if you have two people with the same last name. not Mr. are not set off by a comma—Leland Stanford Jr. Capitalize brand names and other trademarked words or use a substitute. write: Margaret Neale. formal.. Bonds on subsequent mention. 5 (see exceptions in this guide for • • • • • mba.E. Bonds. etc. 158 – Religious titles: p. use quotation marks: Hayagreeva “Huggy” Rao. Professor Margaret Neale is easy to read.org). and John D. All names should be treated in comparable style to the way you would treat Bill Gates. Jr. 143 – Military titles: p. trademarks • • • Page 17 . Rockefeller Sr. Titles: Follow Associated Press Stylebook under these headings: – Courtesy. Henry. use first names for young adults and women.. such as photocopy for Xerox or adhesive bandage for Band-Aid. Joe Jones.personal names and titles • Do not use courtesy titles—Barry Bonds. Initials should not be separated by a space—G.H. phd. Jones on subsequent mention. consult the checklist at the website of the International Trademark Association (inta. Bach. but if you must use her formal title. For the correct spelling of individual trademarks. on second reference. A nickname should be used in place of a person’s given name only when it is the way the individual prefers to be known: Jimmy Carter. past and future. 214 – Academic titles: p. Also. royal.P. C. Sr.) • In general. not Professor Jones. be wary of writers who. etc. Do not use the symbols ™ or ®.. abbreviated. When a nickname is inserted into the identification of an individual. nobility. the John G. the ceo of Microsoft. professor of marketing. 248 – Doctor: page 76 – Legislative titles: p. McCoy–Banc One Corporation Professor of Organizations and Dispute Resolution.
95. Australian dollars. dollars. Mexican pesos] • • Most non-$ currencies are formatted similarly to U. it is best to rewrite the sentence.. • • • • • • • • Currency: • Generally. 4-unit course.50 [35. (This is an exception to the Associated Press Stylebook. Argentine. If it is necessary to mention the foreign currency. if you must.50 Swiss francs]. 75 golfers will par the hole). Mex$300 [respectively. the dollar sign is enough. Spell out decades—sixties—or use 1960s (no apostrophe).. currencies. £15 [15 pounds]. NZ$200. Separate letter abbreviations from the numeral.S. amounts of foreign money should be converted to U. Can$300. . Canadian. ¥800 [800 yen].300 square feet. A$29. Use figures for ages—9-year-old daughter.. where the context makes clear what currency is meant. use numerals for all (e. spell it out. except in tables or lists. 5 pounds.S. rather than using the abbreviation sq. 18 inches. Numbers used as units of measure are not spelled out—1. [note: do spell out the words square feet. The exception is use the symbol % for percent figures. 23-year-old son.. 1 week and every 10 years) unless one number starts the sentence. currency. spell out one and use digits for the other (four 3-cent pieces) unless they are separated by punctuation (out of 100. Ideally.20 [10 euro.) If two numbers occur next to each other. with a decimal point between the currency and subsidiary unit. anniversaries—25th reunion. See below for exceptions. 6 ounces. provide the dollar equivalent in parentheses. EUR 10..g. these currencies should be clearly identified. – exceptions (to the 7 points above): • When two or more numbers are near each other in the same sentence. In contexts where the symbol $ may refer to non-U.Numbers • Spell out one to nine in most cases.95. Page 18 . etc. 20 cent] or €40 [40 euro]. Use figures for reunions. ft.S. Arg$29. New Zealand.] Try not to begin a sentence with a figure. Use figures for 10 to . SwF 35.
3152 (Use periods to separate numbers. it may be time to give everyone a cheat sheet of rules specific for your publication.cgi?WAISdocID=24546538577+4+0+0&WAISaction= retrieve • Use closed parentheses with figures—(1). however. Use less when describing an amount—less than 10 percent.3152 (Do not use parentheses. apostrophe • Do not use for making plurals of abbreviations without periods—1960s.723. Many editors say that when in doubt.) Page 19 . What follows are general guidelines for all gsb publications. • • • If you are looking for other guidance about numbers. Use 3. not three million dollars. that if everyone who is writing and reviewing your material has different doubts.000.gpo. try the “numerals” section of the Associated Press Stylebook.5 million.) Use a comma in 4-figure numbers—1.723. use less punctuation rather than more. not 3 1/2 • • • • million. Use $3 million.access. • Use 1 million. Keep in mind. Government Printing Office Style Manual: http://frwebgate1. Use fewer when describing a number—fewer than 60 students.S. but 999. phds. Punctuation general rule: We use punctuation to clarify. (This is a rule broken by many American writers and publications.) For web publishing: 650. Phone and fax numbers: 650-723-3152 or 650. to emphasize. including the New York Times. • For a list of currency abbreviations.000. If you see this happening repeatedly.gov/cgi-bin/waisgate. you will waste resources putting commas and hyphens in and taking them out. or to give the reader an opportunity to take a (mental) breath before proceeding. consult “foreign money” under “useful tables” in the U. mbas.
while.. garlic. After dependent adverbial clauses (clauses beginning with the coordinating conjunctions because.• Singular proper names or nouns ending in “s” use only an apostrophe—Achilles’ heel. pen. are.. England. Capitalize the first word after a colon only if it is a proper noun or the start of a complete sentence.. and texts—The recipe included the following ingredients: herbs. etc. until.) After specific dates and place names—It was in Portsmouth. Agnes’ son. when. rabbit. To set off titles or degrees—Marie Winters. sections 7. Add “’s” to singular. Use before long quotes and dialogue—She said: “I think manufacturing . A discussion of more complex rules on when to add “’s” can be found in the Chicago Manual of Style..” • • • • comma Use a comma: • In a series: a hat. James’s Place. consequently. and calculators. common nouns ending in “s”—grass’s color. a prominent surgeon … .” for example. (See more details on lists in the Lists section. however. and if)—When we arrived at the Business School. [note: We have opted for the simplest rule given in other style guides. that . nonetheless. After initial adverbs—thus.) Do not use immediately after the verb “to be” (is. Use before an explanation—They didn’t answer the door: They were out. but It was in England that … .17-7. after. tabulations. therefore. St. Tennessee Williams’ plays. since.] colon • Use before lists. so it depends on the position within the sentence. Ceres’ rites. Dean Joss. Descartes’ theories. Dickens’ novels. md.. am)—The main things to bring are books. and cloak (The comma before the “and” is an exception to the Associated Press Stylebook.23. – exception • A formal place name that uses “s.] • • • • Page 20 . before. [note: After adverbial clauses but not before them. papers..
and if. before. while.” • • Do not use a comma: • Before Co. If clauses are short and closely related—Charles played the guitar and Betty sang. so.” • • • • • • dash (en– and em—) Em dash (so called because it is about the width of the letter M): • Use an em (—) dash to substitute and give more emphasis than a comma. or. after. Before dependent adverbial clauses that begin with the coordinating conjunctions because. when.• Between coordinate adjectives if the word “and” logically could be read between them— The company is committed to hiring intelligent. aggressive people. each part must have a separate subject. Ltd.. Page 21 • • • .] With nonrestrictive clauses that begin with “which. before the conjunctions and. for. the em dash is located under: Insert → Symbol → Special Characters. With a restrictive clause that begins with “that. (not bored and office) To separate an adjective from the noun it modifies—It was an endangered white rhino. (intelligent and aggressive) In compound sentences. until. With single subject and complex verbs—He has earned a bachelor’s degree and a master’s degree and has published two books. but. In Microsoft Word. Corp. or are we only interested in preserving our own privileges? [note: To be a compound sentence. Inc. To separate an adjective from a word group—Edie eyed the group of bored office workers.. Use as an alternative to parentheses. since. Use sparingly for an uncluttered look. and yet—Are we really interested in preserving law and order.. nor.
It is not necessary to use ellipsis points at the beginning or end of a quoted phrase. When the grammatical sense calls for some other punctuation mark. “Ellipsis should generally be avoided when possible—and it usually is. add a space before and after an em dash to improve readability. though. If the words that precede an ellipsis constitute a grammatically complete sentence. (three dots) The punctuation guide in the Associated Press Stylebook says. the sequence is the same—Do we have any suspects? … I can’t comment. post–Civil War period.. En dash (so called because it is about the width of the letter N): • Use an en dash (–) in place of a hyphen (-) to indicate continuing or inclusive page numbers. pp. and references—1968–72. Note: if material will be used online. between 1968 and 1970 Use in place of a hyphen if one word in a compound adjective consists of two words or a hyphenated word—New York–London flight. • • • diagonal (slant. alumni/ae.. sentence. ellipsis points (…) • Treat an ellipsis as a word. Be consistent within your publication. Do not use in place of “from … to” or “between … and”—from 1968 to 1972. avoid excessive use of word combinations using the diagonal “/”as in either/or. Some art directors may disagree. May–June 1967.The Associated Press Stylebook says to put a space on either side of an em dash (page 330). Ellipsis points may be used at the end of a sentence to indicate an incomplete sentence— There is nothing there but . from May to June 1967. it is accordingly preceded and followed by a space. the en dash is located under: Insert → Symbol → Special Characters. virgule) • To reduce a cluttered look. times or dates. In Microsoft Word. Readers understand that the quotes are excerpts from longer material. or longer passage.” • • • • • Page 22 . place a period at the end of the last word before the ellipsis. that is. 38–45. and/or. …We are keeping an eye on things. then follow it with a space and an ellipsis—We haven’t found any evidence of theft.
and stylistic sense. Given the lack of agreement or logic from outside experts. and co-star. this guide offers minimal general rules. Here are a few specific rules on hyphens: • Hyphenate almost all compounds that begin with these prefixes: all. break-in. When considering how to handle noun combinations or adjective–noun combinations.) Hyphenate when forming nouns. Hyphenate prefixes and suffixes. breakout. copy editors should think twice before overriding writers’ decisions.” Oxford University Press once noted. Page 23 . There may be other combinations used so often by your office that you need to set a hyphenation rule for consistency. adjectives. to avoid doubling vowels or tripling consonants— anti-inflation. reexamine. judgment. and coworker. cross-purpose. you will surely go mad. says the Copy Editor’s Handbook. co-curator. walk-up. cofounder. co-op. In the Words. breakup. closed up into one word. writers choose to hyphenate or not and. unless they are inconsistent within a written piece. (This rule from the Associated Press Stylebook “brings some sanity” to a situation that is “almost bizarre” in Merriam Webster’s Collegiate. “The hyphen is not a grammatical imperative. For example. walk-on. wide-ranging. wide— all-important.) – • • exception • Because they are so common. Within broad limits. pre-1914. co-conspirator. pre-entertainment. cooperation. ex-president. writers and editors are advised to base their decisions on their understanding of what they are trying to communicate and to whom. its use is optional—left to the writer’s taste. we suggest a few hyphenation rules for combinations of words that are used very frequently at the Business School. half. (With double consonants. such as coordination. Words. half-truth.exclamation point • Use only to indicate emotionally laden imperatives or surprise. but in general. walkout. and cross section. or verbs that indicate occupation or status— co-captain. bell-like. Do not overuse— Attention! Wow! hyphen The Associated Press Stylebook Guide to Punctuation says. coauthor. self. Merriam Webster’s Collegiate shows crossbones. or treated as two separate words. The result is both arbitrariness within a reference work and disagreement among them about whether two words should be linked by a hyphen. co-heir. ex. make exceptions for very common words. self-confident. Words section of this guide. we suggest closing up: codirector. “If you take the hyphen seriously.” Copy Editor’s Handbook and other authorities on punctuation note that today’s dictionaries try to stay up with fast-changing trends. • Hyphenate compounds when the second word begins with a capital or is a number— un-American.
• Hyphenate an adjective connected to a noun with “ed” at the end—full-bodied. “What is the question?” (Inside because the question mark applies to the quote. anti-isolationist. Set off editorial interpretations. exclamation points or question marks may go either before or after. un-ionized. Hyphenate homonyms to prevent misreading—re-cover. In general. • • • • punctuation with quotation marks • Inside or outside? In American usage. • Within quotations. (I heard that from Irene. collections. re-create.) – Gertrude Stein once asked. these two. do not use parentheses to set off a speaker’s parenthetical remarks. go outside the quotation. not to the entire sentence. unless they are part of the quoted statement. – Didn’t Shakespeare have Mark Anthony say.) Page 24 . Normally. Do not hyphenate adverbs ending in “ly” followed by an adjective—badly written essay.) Use a period after the closing parenthesis or bracket if the enclosure is not an independent sentence—The paper is due Tuesday (or so Irene told me). or clarifications with square brackets. not to praise him”? (Outside because the question mark applies to the whole sentence. rather set off with commas or dashes. as well as the dash and the semicolon. Use a period inside the closing parenthesis or bracket of an independent sentence—The paper is due Tuesday. infrastructure. this construction is hard to read and rewriting is a better alternative. Do not hyphenate most compounds formed with prefixes and suffixes unless they have double vowels or triple consonants—shell-like. • • • parentheses and brackets Parentheses are used to set off parenthetical expressions. Do not capitalize the first word of a sentence within parentheses if within another sentence—The paper (it’s to be about accounting standards) is due Tuesday. commas and periods always go inside quotation marks. precondition. “I have come to bury Caesar. nonessential.
Use italics for Americanisms—words and phrases that have become part of the English language as spoken in the United States but are not generally part of English—bling. When the writer simply intends to emphasize a commonly used word or phrase. Do not use italics or quotation marks for the names of software programs. Do not use italics if the web and email addresses are simple listings. italics is next-to-invisible when it is used for a single. When text prepared in Microsoft Word is copied directly into a webpage. quotation marks or italics • Use italics for book titles. conferences. quotation marks or italics for emphasis Writers can use either italics or quotation marks for emphasis. They are listed with a star in Webster’s New World Dictionary. Use quotation marks for songs. movies. episodes or programs in a radio or television series. Add to that the fact that it is often lost in copying documents to different formats and you see why writers have a tendency to prefer quotation marks. short word in body text in a printed publication or on the web. radio and television series. be aware that the smart quotes will show up as hollow boxes or other disruptive symbols in many web applications and must be replaced with standard quotes after the material is in HTML format. Consult a dictionary for guidance. newspaper titles. course titles. Quotation marks may be less technically correct for book publishing standards. This includes online newspapers and magazines like Slate and Hotwired. Treat them as brand names and capitalize—Microsoft Word—unless the brand itself uses lowercase. short stories.Note about smart quotes: Microsoft Word uses smart quotes “” differentiate between the opening and closing quote. and magazines. but they may actually work better in many situations. Work for consistency within a document. Do not use italics for an initial “The” when newspapers and periodicals are mentioned in text—She reads the New York Times every morning. essays. Use italics for foreign words that are not accepted American usage. • • • • • • Page 25 . plays. but fait accompli (Italics). In the case of articles where it is critical to indicate the source of terminology. debut (Roman). articles. However. italics is more appropriate. writers usually opt for quotation marks to send a signal to the reader about the source. Editors should respect these nuances of meaning. poems. Use italics for web and email addresses in prose.
(American Heritage Dictionary. 1949) • Use italics for web and email addresses when used in prose both in print and on the web. Maine. especially in texts that are more technologically oriented.) (write as two words in verb form) – logoff (n. or it may be cached on your computer. The development of website as a single uncapitalized word mirrors the development of other technological expressions which have tended to evolve into unhyphenated forms as they become more familiar. In most cases you also can eliminate the “www” in web addresses. • Page 26 .semicolon • Use to break two sentences that are linked—He asked for it. online. p. Georgia. You can test the address by calling the page up yourself but be aware that our users may be accessing the site using browsers other than Internet Explorer and Netscape. Illinois. Thus email has been gaining ground over the forms E-mail and e-mail. and Savannah. Do not use “http://” in a web address unless it is unclear that it is a web address. Use in place of commas in complicated lists. Springfield. especially if items within the list contain commas—The company has offices in Portland.) (write as two words in verb form) – net (the net) – online – podcast – voicemail – web (the web) – weblog – webpage – website The transition from World Wide Web Site to Web site to website seems to have progressed as rapidly as the technology itself. and printout. he got it. • Tech Talk • Write as one word and lowercase (unless beginning a sentence): – blog – database – email – homepage – internet – intranet – login (n. Similarly. there has been an increasing preference for closed forms like homepage.) (write as two words in verb form) – logon (n.
than if they are asked to remember alphabet soup. not Stanford Business School. departments. on second reference. Acronyms frequently used in conversations at the school should never be used on first reference in school publications and should be used sparingly. It must be used on first reference in all documents. • Words. Use italics for online newspapers and magazines—Slate and SFGate. it is called the center or the program. Words. A list of the formal names of school units and some from the University is provided below. Preferred Subsequent references in same text the Alliance the Alumni Office.• Do not use italics or quotation marks for the names of software programs. Note that “school” and “business school” are lower case when used alone without the full name. but office alone should be lowercase (see usage note below)* the award the Advisory Council the Management Board the Trust the center the Global Center the center the center Dean’s Office (Dean is singular) the program First Reference Academic Administration Academic Operations Alliance for Innovative Manufacturing Alumni Consulting Team Alumni Relations Alumni Relations Lifelong Learning Arbuckle Award Behavioral Lab Business School Advisory Council Business School Management Board Business School Trust Center for Entrepreneurial Studies Center for Global Business and the Economy Center for Leadership Development and Research Center for Social Innovation Office of the Dean Development Office Executive Education Program Facilities Faculty Services and Operations Minimize Initials aim act ces cgbe cldr csi Page 27 . the school. Stanford GSB. and programs should be capitalized on first reference. • The formal names of centers. Treat them as brand names and capitalize—Microsoft Word. Subsequent references may use GSB. Publications also appear more accessible if capitalization is kept to a minimum. Be aware that not everyone in the non-GSB world recognizes what GSB stands for so use the abbreviation sparingly. or the business school. Readers find it easier to read about a center or program if. Words gsb dictionary (usage specific to the stanford graduate school of business) • Stanford Graduate School of Business (official name) Stanford Graduate School of Business is the official name.
which is different from the Stanford University Alumni Association. which serves as staff to the Stanford Business School Alumni Association. Littlefield building. Schwab Residential Center is the official name. – advisor (not adviser) (overrules AP) – biannual (twice a year) – biennial (every two years) – Carnegie Mellon (no hyphen) – coauthor Page 28 .Faculty Support Finance The Farm (when in reference to the Stanford campus) Financial Aid Global Management Program Global Supply Chain Management Forum Human Resources Information Technology Jackson Library Knight Management Center (not the Knight Campus) Management Communication Program mba Admissions mba Career Management Center mba Program Media Services News and Publications Partnership for Diversity fellowship program the program the forum gmp hr it the library the program the center the program kmc mcp cmc (The program gives Partnership for Diversity fellowships to Bonini Fellows) phd Program Process of Change Lab Public Management Program Schwab Residential Center Stanford Board of Trustees Stanford Business magazine Stanford Sloan Master’s Program Stanford Sloan Fellow Stanford Social Innovation Review Student Life Office the program the program (official name. Use the official name upon first mention in text and then use the Center. Knight building. troublesome words Disagreements with the Associated Press Stylebook are noted below as (overrules ap). • First reference to building names—GSB South building. **usage note: Never use the Schwab Center. see usage note below)** the Trustees the program ssir the office pmp *usage note: Lifelong Learning is a program of the Alumni Relations office.
Frank E.) – log off (v. fundraiser.) – homepage (overrules AP) – human resource (adj.– codirector – cofounder – coursework – coworker – database – decision making (n. fundraising – freelance – full time (adv. and adj.) – human resource management (no “s” at the end of resource except in two endowed chair titles: Jack Steele Parker Professor of Human Resources Management and Economics.) – logoff (n. and adv. ends in “s”) – in-house (adj.) – logon (n. Buck Professor of Human Resources Management and Organizational Behavior) – human resources (n. – as in “he works full time”) – full-time (adj.) – decision-making (adj. the net (overrules AP) – intranet (lowercase) – lifestyle – login (n. see usage note in American Heritage Dictionary) – different than (correct only when followed by a subject and verb. – as in “she is a full-time employee”) – full-timer – global (involving most of the world.) – log in (v.) – international (involving two or more nations.) – high-technology/high-tech (adj. – health care (n. EU on second reference – euro – farther (physical distance) – further (additional) – fundraise.) – log on (v. – internet..) – different from (usually correct.) Page 29 not synonym for international) not synonym for global) . see usage note in American Heritage Dictionary) – dot-com – e-commerce – email (overrules AP) – European Union.) – high technology/high tech (n.
Many readers will not know – nonprofit (no hyphen). – voicemail – World Wide Web (rarely used these days) – web (the web) – webpage – website – workforce – workplace Page 30 .) – United States (n. Some audiences may not be u.) – venture capital. what it means.) – problem solving (n. unless in a chart) – playoff (n.– mergers and acquisitions.) – resume (n. not as a synonym for “and”. try “as well as” or “in addition to”) (Stanford Business magazine disagrees because it uses “plus” as a signal on coverlines.) – start-up (adj. (adj. but for-profit when used as an adjective – online – percent (spell out. r&d (Use familiar with the shorthand.) – problem-solving (adj.) – startup (n. and adj..) vc (Use vc sparingly.) – r&d sparingly as first reference.) – trade off (v.) – plus (use only with numbers.s.) – toward (not towards) – trade-off (n.) – reengineering (overrules AP) – reentry (overrules AP) – research and development. no accents) – slowdown (n.) – net (the net) m&a (Use m&a sparingly as first reference.) – start up (v.
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