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form such as a monitor, printer, plotter and voice output device. • An output device is any piece of computer hardware equipment used to communicate the results of data processing carried out by an information processing system (such as a computer) to the outside world. • Any device that outputs information from a computer is called, an output device. Since most information from a computer is output in either a visual or auditory format, the most common output devices are the monitor and speakers. These two devices provide instant feedback to the user's input, such as displaying characters as they are typed or playing a song selected from a play-list. • While monitors and speakers are the most common output devices, there are many others. Some examples include headphones, printers, projectors, lighting control systems, audio recording devices, and robotic machines. A computer without an output device connected to it is pretty useless, since the output is what we interact with. INPUT DEVICES
Input device is any device that provides input to a computer. There are dozens of possible input devices, but the two most common ones are keyboard and mouse. Every key you press on the keyboard and every movement or click you make with the mouse sends a specific input signal to the computer. These commands allow you to open programs, type
2 messages, drag objects, and perform many other functions on your computer. • Since the job of a computer is primarily to process input, computers are pretty useless without input devices. Just imagine how much fun you would have using your computer without a keyboard or mouse. Not very much. Therefore, input devices are a vital part of every computer system. • While most computers come with a keyboard and mouse, other input devices may also be used to send information to the computer. Some examples include joysticks, scanners, web-camera and card readers. All these devices send information to the computer and therefore are categorized as input devices. EXAMPLES - OUTPUT DEVICES Monitor - A monitor is the screen on which words, numbers, and graphics can be seem. The monitor is the most common output device. Printer - A printer prints whatever is on the monitor onto paper. Printers can print words, numbers, or pictures. Speaker - A speaker gives you sound output from your computer. Some speakers are built into the computer and some are separate. Headphones - Headphones give sound output from the computer. They are similar to speakers, except they are worn on the ears so only one person can hear the output at a time.
3 EXAMPLES - INPUT DEVICES Scanner is a input device that allows a user to take an image or text and convert it into a digital file, allowing the computer to read or display the scanned object. A scanner is usually connected to a computer USB port. Keyboard - The keyboard is a way to input letters or numbers into different applications or programs. A keyboard also has special keys that help operate the computer. Joystick - A joystick is used to move the cursor from place to place, and to click on various items in programs. A joystick is used mostly for computer games. Microphone - A microphone is used to record sound. The sound is then saved as a sound file on the computer. Mouse - The mouse is used to open and close files, navigate web sites, and click on a lot of commands (to tell the computer what to do) when using different applications.
4 QUESTION - 2 OPERATING SYSTEM An operating system (sometimes abbreviated as "OS") is the program that, after being initially loaded into the computer by a boot program, manages all the other programs in a computer. The other programs are called applications or application programs. The application programs make use of the operating system by making requests for services through a defined application program interface (API). In addition, users can interact directly with the operating system through a user interface such as a command language or a graphical user interface (GUI). An operating system performs these services for applications:
In a multitasking operating system where multiple programs can be running at the same time, the operating system determines which applications should run in what order and how much time should be allowed for each application before giving another application a turn. It manages the sharing of internal memory among multiple applications. It handles input and output to and from attached hardware devices, such as hard disks, printers, and dial-up ports. It sends messages to each application or interactive user (or to a system operator) about the status of operation and any errors that may have occurred. It can offload the management of what are called batch jobs (for example, printing) so that the initiating application is freed from this work. On computers that can provide parallel processing, an operating system can manage how to divide the program so that it runs on more than one processor at a time.
5 All major computer platforms (hardware and software) require and sometimes include an operating system. Linux, Windows 2000, VMS, OS/400, AIX, and z/OS are all examples of operating systems. More Details Operating systems are the most important system software. Operating system is a set of programs that control and supervises the hardware of a computer and provides services to application software, programmers and users of computer. Without operating system a computer cannot do anything useful. A user cannot communicate directly with the computer hardware, so the operating system acts as an intermediary between user of a computer and the computer hardware. The primary goal of an operating system is to make the computer convenient to use. The secondary goal is to use the computer efficiently. Some important tasks of an operating system are managing the resources of the computer such as Central Processing Unit (CPU), memory, disk drives and printer and running user programs. Every type of computer has its own operating system. Operating system for mainframe and other large computers are very complex since they must keep track of several programs from several users all running in the same time frame. Following are some of the popular operating systems used in personal computers: DOS, Windows, Unix, Linux, Solaris, etc. A computer’s operating system is a set of programs that essentially tells the computer how to operate as a computer. It also acts as an interface between the computer and the user. It is the most important piece of software that a computer needs. Without an operating system, there is no
6 way for the computer’s user to communicate with the computer. Microsoft Windows is probably the most popular operating system used for personal computers today. Most operating systems have a large set of menus and icons for the user to choose what he or she wants the computer to do. The user may choose to use either a keyboard or a mouse to communicate with the operating system, which then communicates with the computer. The mouse is a “work-alike” device that moves the pointing arrow on the computer screen the way the mouse itself is moved; the keyboard can select different things by using the correct combination of keystrokes. For some operations it is also possible to enter a text command. The operating system communicates both with the different hardware components of the computer as well as additional software applications the user may add on to the computer. In some ways, the operating system is like a language translator; it “speaks” both human language and computer language, allowing the human user to do whatever it is he or she wants to do with the computer and all of its extra hardware and software. The operating system is also somewhat like an office coordinator; after the BIOS loads, the operating system is then in charge of making sure all of the different computer processes happen the way they need to for programs to load and music to play and documents to print. If you are opening a document file from the Internet, then Internet Explorer has to tell the operating system to open Microsoft Word so the document can open.
QUESTION - 3
7 COMPUTER NETWORK A Computer network is a collection of two or more computers, which are connected together to share information and resources like printer and hardware etc. In other words, a computer network is an interconnection between two or more computers so that they can communicate with each other. A network is made up of collection of computers and the connections between them that allows information exchange to take place. While most networks connect computers using some form of cable, the connection can also be wireless, or example radio waves. NETWORK TOPOLOGY The term topology refers to the way a network is laid out, either physically or logically. In simple terms, a topology can be considered as the network’s shape. It is geometrical representation of the relationship of all the links. BUS TOPOLOGY Bus topology uses a common bus or backbone (a single cable) to connect all devices with terminators at both ends. The backbone acts as a shared communication medium and each node (file server, workstations, and peripherals) is attached to it with an interface connector. Whenever a message is to be transmitted on the network, it is passed back and forth along the cable, past the stations (computers) and between the two terminators, from one end of the network to the other. As the message passes each station, the station checks the message’s destination address. If the address in the message matches the station’s address, the station receives the message. If the address does not match, the bus carries the message to the next station, and so on. Advantages
Connecting a computer or peripheral to a linear bus is easy. This topology requires least amount of cabling to connect the computers and, therefore, less expensive than other cabling arrangement.
Entire network shuts down if there is a failure in the backbone. Heavy traffic can slow down a bus because computers on such networks do not coordinate with each other to reserve time to transmit.
RING TOPOLOGY The ring topology, computers are placed on a circle of cable without any terminated ends since there are no unconnected ends. Every node has exactly two neighbors for communication purposes. All messages travel through a ring in the same direction (clockwise or counter-clockwise) until it reaches its destination. Each node in the ring incorporates a repeater. When a node receives a signal intended for another device, its repeater regenerates the bits and passes them along the wire. Advantages
Ring topology is easy to install and reconfigure. Every computer is given equal access to the ring. Hence, no single computer can monopolize the network.
Failure in any cable or node breaks the loop and can take down the entire network. Maximum ring length and number of nodes are limited.
STAR TOPOLOGY In star topology, devices are not directly linked with each other but they are connected via a centralized network component known as a hub or concentrator. The hum acts as a central controller and if a node wants to
9 send data to another node, it boosts up the message and sends the message to the intended node. Advantages
• • •
Star topology is easy to install and wire. The network is not disrupted even if a node fails or is removed from the network. Fault detection and removal of faulty parts is easier in star topology.
• • •
It requires a longer length of cable. If hub fails nodes attached to it are disabled. The cost of hub makes this topology expensive as compared to the bus and the ring.
10 QUESTION-4 (A) MS-Word Application Window Important components MS Word Application Windows are as under:Attribute Title Bar Description The title bar displays the name of the currently active word document. Like other WINDOWS applications, it can be used to alter the size and location of the word window. The words listed atop the application window, immediately underneath the Title bar. You can access all application commands from the Menu Bar.
The Menu Bar
Standard Toolbar The row of icons immediately underneath the Menu Bar, which provide quick access to commonly used function commands e.g. open, close, print, copy, cut, paste etc. Formatting Toolbar The second row of icons immediately underneath the Standard Toolbar, which provides quick access to commonly used formatting commands e.g. font size, font style etc, Ruler Bar Status Bar The Ruler Bar allows you to format the vertical alignment of text in a document. The Status Bar displays information about the currently active document. This includes the page number that you are working, the column and line number of the cursor position and so on. The Scroll Bar helps you scroll the content or body of document. You can do so by moving the elevator button along the scroll bar, or by click in on the buttons with the arrow marked on them to move up and down and left and right of a page. The Workspace is the area in the document window was
11 you enter/type the text of your document. Task Pane The area on the right-hand side of the screen that allows you to easily access various commands, such as opening a new or existing workbook.
12 QUESTION-4 (B) MS-Excel Application Window
The Microsoft Excel application window has many of the same attributes as other windows in the Microsoft Office Suite. The table below lists the new features and provides a brief description of each one.
Attribute Menu Bar
Description The words listed atop the application window, immediately underneath the Title bar. You can access all application commands from the Menu Bar.
The row of icons immediately underneath the Menu Bar, Standard Toolbar which provide quick access to commonly used function commands e.g. open, close, print, copy, cut, paste etc. Formatting Toolbar The second row of icons immediately underneath the Standard Toolbar, which provides quick access to commonly used formatting commands e.g. font size, font style etc,
Located immediately underneath the Formatting Toolbar, The Formula Bar it displays the constant value or formula used in an active cell. The Name Box Column Heading Row Heading The Sheet Tabs The box at the left end of the Formula Bar that identifies the selected cell, chart item or drawing object. The lettered gray area at the top of each column. The numbered gray area to the left of each row. The tabs near the bottom of the workbook window that displays the name of the various worksheets. The area on the right-hand side of the screen that allows you to easily access various commands, such as opening a new or existing workbook.
The Task Pane
14 QUESTION-5 (a) THE INTERNET The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite (e.g. TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries an extensive range of information resources and of services, the World such Wide as the interand linked hypertext documents Web (WWW)
the infrastructure to support email. The origins of the Internet reach back to research of the 1960s, commissioned by the United States government in collaboration with private commercial interests to build robust, fault-tolerant, and distributed computer networks. The funding of a new U.S. backbone by the National Science Foundation in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other commercial backbones, led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, and the merger of many networks. The commercialization of what was by the 1990s an international network resulted in its popularization and incorporation into virtually every aspect of modern human life. As of 2011, more than 2.2 billion people - nearly a third of Earth's population - use the services of the Internet. The Internet has no centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; each constituent network sets its own standards.
15 WEB PAGE A web page or webpage is a document or information resource that is suitable for the World Wide Web and can be accessed through a web browser and displayed on a monitor or mobile device. This information is usually in HTML or XHTML format, and may provide navigation to other web pages via hypertext links. Web pages frequently subsume other resources such as style sheets, scripts and images into their final presentation. Web pages may be retrieved from a local computer or from a remote web server. The web server may restrict access only to a private network, e.g. a corporate intranet, or it may publish pages on the World Wide Web. Web pages are requested and served from web servers using Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). Web pages may consist of files of static text and other content stored within the web server's file system (static web pages), or may be constructed by server-side software when they are requested (dynamic web pages). Client-side scripting can make web pages more responsive to user input once on the client browser.
(b) Email Email is electronic mail, which allows an internet user to send a message (email) to another internet use in any part of the world in a near real-timemanner. Real purpose of the email is sending messages, documents, files, pictures etc to your friends those also have their email address.
16 (c) Computer Virus Virus is a computer program that is designed by programmers to replicate itself by copying itself into the other programs stored in a computer. It may be benign or have a negative effect, such as causing a program to operate incorrectly or corrupting a computer's memory. A computer virus is an executable program. Depend on the nature of a virus, it may cause damage of your hard disk contents, and/or interfere normal operation of your computer. A virus can be introduced to a computer system along with any software program. For Internet users, this threat can come from downloading files, or referencing email attachments. Now a
days main source of virus infection is USB flash drives and likewise memory data system e.g. mobile memory cards etc.
There are many types of computer viruses: File virus Most viruses fall into this category. A virus attaches itself to a file, usually a program file. Boot sector These viruses infect floppy and hard drives. The virus virus program will load first, before the operating system. Macro Virus This is a new type of virus that uses an application's own macro programming feature to distribute themselves. Unlike other viruses, macro viruses do not infect programs; they infect documents. Virus Hoax Although there are thousands of viruses discovered each year, there are still some that only exist in the imaginations of the public and the press - known as virus hoaxes. These viruses’ hoaxes DO NOT EXIST, despite rumor of their creation and distribution.
17 Anti Virus Anti Virus is protective software designed to defend a computer against virus, Trojans, key-loggers, hijackers, dialers, and other code that vandalizes or steals computer data. A type of software that is designed to be used to detect and remove viruses from the computer is called Anti Virus. It contains information about different known viruses. Many antivirus programs are available in the market. But no single software can detect and remove all viruses. Many new viruses are invented and spread through internet continuously. Antivirus program are also upgraded continuously to detect these new viruses. Some important Antivirus programs are as following:• Norton Anti Virus. • Kaspersky Anti Virus. • McAfee Anti Virus. Better solution is that should purchase a registered antivirus program alongwith USB security. USB Security program will protect entrance of virus through USB port/flash drives.
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