6 views

Uploaded by Ellen Hostetler

save

- lec7
- Lesson 5
- calloway schreier planningdocument
- RVHS JC 2 H2 Maths 2011 Mid Year Exam Solutions
- Biz - Quatitative.Managment.Method Chapter.01
- performancetask 1
- Introductory Calculus
- math project edited 4 weebly
- Assignment 2
- Laporan Matrix
- 2012-2013 Middle School Course Offerings
- Basic Maths 1
- Properties of Real Numbers
- Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic Theory and Applications - George j. Klir , Bo Yuan
- correction-standards for midterm 16-17
- moyer math - algebra i - gp 03-31-14
- ejercicios
- L24
- d 352023027
- 20121011 Quiz 4b Solutions
- Final Question Paper of Theory (12ME) Regular (1)
- MSO202Lect13
- Quadratic Equations
- Mopso Guide
- Golden Ratio
- Rational Nos
- L23
- Feedback on CMAT Feb 2014 - First Day First Slot Analysis
- LinearAlgebra1_FinalExamSample.pdf
- Glivenko Cantelli Topics
- september 13 2018
- 2469.pdf
- George Formean Grill Times.pdf
- PKW Band 2 PDF Fuer Internet 2016 72dpi
- Santa Cruz
- Historia Social Del Antiguo Israel
- Daftar Isi SOP
- Uji Aktivitas Mikroba Fix
- Sec
- SumRV
- ethan erhart mapping my future worksheet
- sdfvesrvwsefv
- teoria costo de transacción.pdf
- radio-c03.docx
- Tnpsc Current Affairs 2018 January Month Model Test
- ML_Escrevendo_Contos.pdf
- ESPECIFICACIONES-TECNICAS-PARA-POSICIONAMIENTO.pdf
- cmas131af.pdf
- NRB BAFIA
- Kebijakan Laundry
- surface-tension-theory1.pdf
- Probaoral_Celga4_2014
- est 301 n3
- Examination Questions and Answers in Basic Anatomy and Physiology. 2000 Multiple Choice Questions - Martin Caon
- Derecho_de_Propiedad_informal.pdf
- Makala h 11111
- P6 Science SA2 2017 Pei Chun Exam Papers
- Soal Mid Ddp Kelas XI Smk Ak
- 2018 Tarjeta Invitación
- SOP Pengelolaan Bahan Berbahaya & Beracun

You are on page 1of 5

Lecture Note Set # 1 Defn. From the introductory lectures, an ordered set is a set S with a relation ‘<’ which satisﬁes two properties: 1. (Trichotomy property) for any two elements a, b ∈ S, exactly one of the following hold a < b, a = b, or b < a. 2. (Transitive property) for any three elements a, b, c ∈ S, if a < b and b < c, then a < c. In this case the relation ‘<’ is called an order. Defn. Suppose that S is an ordered set and A ⊆ S. An element β ∈ S is said to be an upper bound for A if a ≤ β, ∀a ∈ A. An element α is said to be a least upper bound for A if 1. α is an upper bound for A 2. if β is any upper bound for A, then α ≤ β. In this case, the supremum of A (=: sup A) is deﬁned as α. The deﬁnitions are similar for lower bound, greatest lower bound and inf A, respectively. Note that we have already shown that the least upper bound (for a nonempty set bounded from above) is unique. Defn. A set S is said to have the least upper bound property if each nonempty subset of S which is bounded from above, has a least upper bound. Theorem. Suppose the ordered set S has the least upper bound property, then it has the greatest lower bound property (i.e. each nonempty subset of S which is bounded from below has a greatest lower bound). Proof. Suppose that a nonempty set A has a lower bound, call it ℓ. Deﬁne L as the set of all lower bounds of A, then L is nonempty (ℓ ∈ L). Observe that each member of the nonempty set A is an upper bound of L so by the least upper bound property, L has a least upper bound. Call this element α. First observe that α is a lower bound for A. Otherwise, there exists an element b ∈ A with b < α, but each element of A is an upper bound for L, so this element b is an upper bound of L which is smaller than α, the least upper bound of L. This would be a contradiction. Therefore, α ∈ L. Also, if ℓ is any lower bound of A, then ℓ ≤ α since α = sup L. Hence α is the greatest lower bound of A. 2 Defn. The real numbers are deﬁned to be a set I with two binary operations (+, ·) which satisfy R the following properties: Given any a, b, c in I R 1. 2. 3. 4. a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c. a + b = b + a. ∃0 ∈ I ∋ a + 0 = a, ∀a ∈ I R R. for each a ∈ I ∃(−a) ∈ I so that a + (−a) = 0. R, R,

For each a. For the real numbers.e. The fraction ‘ a ’ means a · b−1 . I must satisfy the least upper bound property.) if 0 < a. deﬁne a < b as b − a ∈ I . that is. P ii) −a ∈ I . Finally.e. then (−a) < 0. These terms are deﬁned shortly. Assigned homework Problem 2. P a. i. a · (b · c) = (a · b) · c. I equipped with the P R relation ‘<’. P iii) a = 0. b in I . (v. 7. (iv.) R Moreover. (3) If a ∈ I then a · 0 = 0. P c. then a · c < b · c. each nonempty subset of I R R which has an upper bound has a least upper bound. Proof. P b. a · b = b · a. 2 Notation: ‘b − a’ is deﬁned as b + (−a). then a + c < b + c.5. . a · (b + c) = (a · b) + (a · c). The positive cone I induces an order on the real numbers. Using the ﬁeld properties of I the following properties hold and are all assigned homeR. 9. (2) The additive and multiplicative inverses are unique. ∀a ∈ I R R.) if 0 < a. b Lemma. (vii. i. for each a ∈ I with a = 0. a + b ∈ I . then the multiplicative inverse of a is positive. (Note: These properties just say that I is a nontrivial ﬁeld. work problems (see p.) if a < b.) (−a) = (−1) · a.) 0 < 1. Theorem. (i. 6. i) a ∈ I . Defn. −1 8. there is a distinguished subset I (the positive cone) of I with the following properP R ties: Given any a. ∃a ∈ I so that a · a−1 = 1. ‘a ≤ b’ means either a < b or a = b. P Lemma. R R. 3 of this lecture set): (1) The additive and multiplicative identities are unique. a · b ∈ I . For each a in I exactly one of the following properties holds: R. is an ordered set.5. (iii. ∃1 ∈ I ∋ 1 = 0 and a · 1 = a. while the product of a negative real number and a positive real number is negative. R. (vi.) the product of two negative real numbers is positive. 0 < a−1 .) if a < b and 0 < c. c ∈ I R. (ii. b.

Indeed. observe that 0 < a means a ∈ I . Corollary. 2 Lemma. a + ((−1) · a) = (1 · a) + ((−1) · a) = a · (1 + (−1)) = 0 · a. by the trichotomy property (c). This shows that M − ǫ cannot be an upper bound for A. The positive cone is P closed under multiplication. N N 1. Proof. then there exists n ∈ I such that b < n · a. P For part (iii). Let M be the least upper bound. there exists n ∈ I such that 0 < 1/n < ǫ. Prove that −(a + c) = (−a) + (−c). This is equivalent to the statement (−a) < 0. 1 + 1 + 1. 1 = 0. Show that the additive (or multiplicative) identity is unique.e. suppose that b := a−1 < 0. Prove that a < b and c < 0 implies that b · c < a · c. By the deﬁnition. Suppose to the contrary that na < b for all n ∈ I then it follows that α := b/a is an upper N. But then. ǫ > 0. i. By the lemma. M < N + 1/2 < N + 1. The proof of property (vi) is left for additional practice. then for every R. so (b−a)c ∈ I . 1 and all its successors. This shows that 1 ∈ I by property (b) of the positive cone and P the assumption that (−1) ∈ I . that 1 ∈ I . use the deﬁnition of < to show both b − a and c are in I . bound for the natural numbers. Since it follows from the fact that a · 0 = 0 (Homework Problem 2. But additive inverses are unique (from your Homework Problem 2. The natural numbers I are not bounded. so the conclusion of part (i) follows. Hence there is a member of A. there exists a ∈ A such that M − ǫ < a ≤ M.4) that α := (−1) · a is an additive inverse for a.) 1. Using the property (i) shows then that (bc) −(ac) ∈ I P P and so ac < bc. Contradiction. Since additive inverses are unique.e. 5. so there exists a natural number N so that M − 1/2 < N. P To prove (iv). N Homework #2 (Due Tuesday Sept 9. then −b is positive and so −1 = (−b) · a is positive. Show that additive (or multiplicative) inverses are unique. b are positive real numbers. then P −(−a) = a. But (−1) · (−1) = −(−1) = 1 by part (i) and the HW Problem P that additive inverses are unique. 1 + 1. call it a. 3. since −1 is negative.). is proved similar to showing that 0 < 1. . Property (v). Since 0 < ǫ. To prove part (ii). 2 N. N Corollary. and so (0 − (−a)) = −(−a) = a ∈ I . Given any ǫ > 0. 6. 1/2 > 0. Proof. . then M − ǫ < M. 4. 2. we assume to the contrary. so that M − ǫ < a. Prove that a · 0 = 0 for each a in I R. Contradiction. i. . so P (−1) ∈ I and therefore 0 < −1. (Archimedean Property) Suppose a. Prove that ‘<’ is an order for I R.Proof. 2 Theorem. (Here I is the set of natural numbers. . which shows that M is not an upper bound for I Contradiction.2). Suppose that A is a nonempty subset of I with least upper bound M.

where q1 . This shows that m2 is even. Suppose that 2 = m/n where m. since the negative integers are not bounded from below. b] := {x ∈ I R|a ≤ x ≤ b} is called the closed interval with endpoints a. A is bounded from above by a · no . Contradiction. Suppose that q1 · α = q2 . no no 2 which shows that the rational r ∈ (a. By the lemma m must be even and equivalently that it contains 2 as a factor. 2 √ Lemma. If m is odd. Let ko belong to A. This shows 4k 2 = 2n2 for some integer k. b) ⊆ I. Deﬁne the length of I by ℓ := b − a. . Let r := (K + 1)/no . (a. 2 Lemma. then 0 < 1 1 < . then a< K +1 K < + ℓ ≤ a + (b − a) = b. b] := {x ∈ I R|a < x ≤ b} and [a. there exists no ∈ I such that N 0 < 1/no < ℓ. In this case m2 = 2(2k 2 + 2k) + 1. The product of a nonzero rational with an irrational is irrational. Theorem. Corollary. Let K be the largest member of B and therefore of A. then there exists an integer k such that m = 2k + 1. b. Also. or measure. 2 is irrational. By the previous corollary. Defn. then K + 1 ∈ A. then m2 is odd. (Proved later. b. We may assume that the rational is in lowest terms (i. m and n have no common factors). Each interval with nonzero length contains an inﬁnite number of rationals. A real number is said to be irrational if it is not rational. b a Notation: Next we deﬁne intervals of real numbers. b) := {x ∈ I R|a ≤ x < b} are called the half open intervals with endpoints a. Remark: Each interval with nonzero length contains an uncountably inﬁnite number of irrationals. Let A := {k| k an integer and k/no < a}.) We establish a few other facts about irrational numbers and also prove directly that each interval of positive length contains an inﬁnite number of irrationals. which shows that B is in fact a ﬁnite set of integers. b) := {x ∈ I R|a < x < b} is called the open interval with endpoints a. The common length. q2 are rational and α is irrational. √ Proof. Proof.e. Proof. b. b and a < b. of these intervals is deﬁned to be b − a. n are integers with n > 0. Prove that if 0 < a < b. then I contains a rational number. Lemma. we obtain that m2 = 2n2 . A is nonempty. [a. Suppose that I is an interval with endpoints a. then α = q2 /q1 and it follows that α is rational. Proof. Squaring the equation and multiplying by n2 . Set B := {k| k an integer and k ≥ ko } ∩ A. (a. If m is an odd integer. Since q1 = 0.7.

notice that |a| ≤ α is equivalent to the statement ±a ≤ α. then |a| ≤ α if and only if −α ≤ a ≤ α. To prove property 5. √ 2). 2 Theorem. |a| ≥ 0 for all a ∈ I R. use the fact that |b| = |(b − a) + a| ≤ |b − a| + |a| and subtract |a| from each side. since a < 0. Each interval with nonzero length contains an inﬁnite number of irrationals. and so contains a nonzero rational number q. ||b| − |a|| ≤ |b − a| Proof. 2 . It has length b/ √ (b − a)/ 2 > 0. The absolute value of a real number a is deﬁned by |a| := a. To prove property 1. √ √ Proof. To prove property 7. To prove property 6.’ Either a ≥ 0 or a < 0. |a · b| = |a| · |b| 5. ‘case it out. 2 Defn. |a + b| ≤ |a| + |b| 7. set α = |a| + |b| and apply property 5 after verifying that ±(a + b) ≤ α. |a| = −a > 0. This is equivalent to the statement on the right hand side of property 5. It follows that q 2 is between a and b and hence belongs to I. n is even and 2 appears as one of its factors. since m/n was supposed to be in lowest terms. In the second case. one proves that |a| − |b| ≤ |a − b| = |b − a|. ±a ≤ |a| 3. it is easy to see that this last statement is equivalent to both inequalities: a ≤ α and −α ≤ a. By symmetry in a and b. Property 2 follows similarly.Consequently. b be the endpoints of the interval I. Suppose α ≥ 0. Let a. 2. Lemma. The absolute value function has the following properties: 1. Using the elementary order properties. Properties 3 and 4 are left for the student. if a < 0. | − a| = |a| 4. Consider the interval (a/ 2. In the ﬁrst case |a| = a ≥ 0. This shows that |b| − |a| ≤ |b − a|. 6. if a ≥ 0 −a. Contradiction.

- lec7Uploaded byWin Alfalah Nasution
- Lesson 5Uploaded byJodie McComiskey
- calloway schreier planningdocumentUploaded byapi-412473817
- RVHS JC 2 H2 Maths 2011 Mid Year Exam SolutionsUploaded byjimmytanlimlong
- Biz - Quatitative.Managment.Method Chapter.01Uploaded byphannarith
- performancetask 1Uploaded byapi-341209699
- Introductory CalculusUploaded byMichael Maddox
- math project edited 4 weeblyUploaded byapi-259614222
- Assignment 2Uploaded byBen Reich
- Laporan MatrixUploaded byKesi Chandra
- 2012-2013 Middle School Course OfferingsUploaded byBenLippenSchool
- Basic Maths 1Uploaded byDan Iulian
- Properties of Real NumbersUploaded byRodrigo
- Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic Theory and Applications - George j. Klir , Bo YuanUploaded byvasanthdvd
- correction-standards for midterm 16-17Uploaded byapi-253679034
- moyer math - algebra i - gp 03-31-14Uploaded byapi-247664996
- ejerciciosUploaded byBryan Steve Pichucho
- L24Uploaded bysourcery22
- d 352023027Uploaded byInternational Journal of computational Engineering research (IJCER)
- 20121011 Quiz 4b SolutionsUploaded byPaul Jones
- Final Question Paper of Theory (12ME) Regular (1)Uploaded byTalal Ashraf
- MSO202Lect13Uploaded byyashbanw
- Quadratic EquationsUploaded byDoreen Ting
- Mopso GuideUploaded byHarshyt GOel
- Golden RatioUploaded byJamie Lannister
- Rational NosUploaded byAaron Wallace
- L23Uploaded bysourcery22
- Feedback on CMAT Feb 2014 - First Day First Slot AnalysisUploaded bySaif Ahmed Lari
- LinearAlgebra1_FinalExamSample.pdfUploaded byLivardy Wufianto
- Glivenko Cantelli TopicsUploaded byVahtarka