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Math 554 - Fall 08

Lecture Note Set # 1 Defn. From the introductory lectures, an ordered set is a set S with a relation ‘<’ which satisfies two properties: 1. (Trichotomy property) for any two elements a, b ∈ S, exactly one of the following hold a < b, a = b, or b < a. 2. (Transitive property) for any three elements a, b, c ∈ S, if a < b and b < c, then a < c. In this case the relation ‘<’ is called an order. Defn. Suppose that S is an ordered set and A ⊆ S. An element β ∈ S is said to be an upper bound for A if a ≤ β, ∀a ∈ A. An element α is said to be a least upper bound for A if 1. α is an upper bound for A 2. if β is any upper bound for A, then α ≤ β. In this case, the supremum of A (=: sup A) is defined as α. The definitions are similar for lower bound, greatest lower bound and inf A, respectively. Note that we have already shown that the least upper bound (for a nonempty set bounded from above) is unique. Defn. A set S is said to have the least upper bound property if each nonempty subset of S which is bounded from above, has a least upper bound. Theorem. Suppose the ordered set S has the least upper bound property, then it has the greatest lower bound property (i.e. each nonempty subset of S which is bounded from below has a greatest lower bound). Proof. Suppose that a nonempty set A has a lower bound, call it ℓ. Define L as the set of all lower bounds of A, then L is nonempty (ℓ ∈ L). Observe that each member of the nonempty set A is an upper bound of L so by the least upper bound property, L has a least upper bound. Call this element α. First observe that α is a lower bound for A. Otherwise, there exists an element b ∈ A with b < α, but each element of A is an upper bound for L, so this element b is an upper bound of L which is smaller than α, the least upper bound of L. This would be a contradiction. Therefore, α ∈ L. Also, if ℓ is any lower bound of A, then ℓ ≤ α since α = sup L. Hence α is the greatest lower bound of A. 2 Defn. The real numbers are defined to be a set I with two binary operations (+, ·) which satisfy R the following properties: Given any a, b, c in I R 1. 2. 3. 4. a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c. a + b = b + a. ∃0 ∈ I ∋ a + 0 = a, ∀a ∈ I R R. for each a ∈ I ∃(−a) ∈ I so that a + (−a) = 0. R, R,

For each a. For the real numbers.e. The fraction ‘ a ’ means a · b−1 . I must satisfy the least upper bound property.) if 0 < a. define a < b as b − a ∈ I . that is. P ii) −a ∈ I . Finally.e. then (−a) < 0. These terms are defined shortly. Assigned homework Problem 2. P a. i. a · (b · c) = (a · b) · c. I equipped with the P R relation ‘<’. P iii) a = 0. b in I . (v. 7. (iv.) R Moreover. (3) If a ∈ I then a · 0 = 0. P c. then a · c < b · c. each nonempty subset of I R R which has an upper bound has a least upper bound. Proof. P b. a · b = b · a. 2 Notation: ‘b − a’ is defined as b + (−a). then a + c < b + c.5. . a · (b + c) = (a · b) + (a · c). The positive cone I induces an order on the real numbers. Using the field properties of I the following properties hold and are all assigned homeR. 9. (2) The additive and multiplicative inverses are unique. ∀a ∈ I R R.) if 0 < a. b Lemma. (vii. i. for each a ∈ I with a = 0. a + b ∈ I . then the multiplicative inverse of a is positive. (Note: These properties just say that I is a nontrivial field. work problems (see p.) if a < b.) (−a) = (−1) · a.) 0 < 1. Theorem. (i. 6. i) a ∈ I . Defn. −1 8. there is a distinguished subset I (the positive cone) of I with the following properP R ties: Given any a. ∃a ∈ I so that a · a−1 = 1. ‘a ≤ b’ means either a < b or a = b. P Lemma. R R. 3 of this lecture set): (1) The additive and multiplicative identities are unique. a · b ∈ I . For each a in I exactly one of the following properties holds: R. is an ordered set.5. (iii. ∃1 ∈ I ∋ 1 = 0 and a · 1 = a. while the product of a negative real number and a positive real number is negative. R. (vi.) the product of two negative real numbers is positive. 0 < a−1 .) if a < b and 0 < c. c ∈ I R. (ii. b.

Indeed. observe that 0 < a means a ∈ I . Corollary. 2 Lemma. a + ((−1) · a) = (1 · a) + ((−1) · a) = a · (1 + (−1)) = 0 · a. by the trichotomy property (c). This shows that M − ǫ cannot be an upper bound for A. The positive cone is P closed under multiplication. N N 1. Proof. then there exists n ∈ I such that b < n · a. P For part (iii). Let M be the least upper bound. there exists n ∈ I such that 0 < 1/n < ǫ. Prove that −(a + c) = (−a) + (−c). This is equivalent to the statement (−a) < 0. 1 + 1 + 1. 1 = 0. Show that the additive (or multiplicative) identity is unique.e. suppose that b := a−1 < 0. Prove that a < b and c < 0 implies that b · c < a · c. By the definition. Suppose to the contrary that na < b for all n ∈ I then it follows that α := b/a is an upper N. But then. ǫ > 0. i. By the lemma. M < N + 1/2 < N + 1. The proof of property (vi) is left for additional practice. then for every R. so (b−a)c ∈ I . 1 and all its successors. This shows that 1 ∈ I by property (b) of the positive cone and P the assumption that (−1) ∈ I . that 1 ∈ I . use the definition of < to show both b − a and c are in I . bound for the natural numbers. Since it follows from the fact that a · 0 = 0 (Homework Problem 2. But additive inverses are unique (from your Homework Problem 2. The natural numbers I are not bounded. so the conclusion of part (i) follows. Hence there is a member of A. there exists a ∈ A such that M − ǫ < a ≤ M.4) that α := (−1) · a is an additive inverse for a.) 1. Using the property (i) shows then that (bc) −(ac) ∈ I P P and so ac < bc. Contradiction. Since additive inverses are unique.e. 5. so there exists a natural number N so that M − 1/2 < N. P To prove (iv). N Homework #2 (Due Tuesday Sept 9. then −b is positive and so −1 = (−b) · a is positive. Show that additive (or multiplicative) inverses are unique. b are positive real numbers. then P −(−a) = a. But (−1) · (−1) = −(−1) = 1 by part (i) and the HW Problem P that additive inverses are unique. 1 + 1. call it a. 3. since −1 is negative.). is proved similar to showing that 0 < 1. . Property (v). Since 0 < ǫ. To prove part (ii). 2 N. N Corollary. and so (0 − (−a)) = −(−a) = a ∈ I . Given any ǫ > 0. 6. 1/2 > 0. Proof. . then M − ǫ < M. 4. 2. we assume to the contrary. so that M − ǫ < a. Prove that a · 0 = 0 for each a in I R. Contradiction. i. . so P (−1) ∈ I and therefore 0 < −1. (Archimedean Property) Suppose a. Prove that ‘<’ is an order for I R.Proof. 2 Theorem. (Here I is the set of natural numbers. . which shows that M is not an upper bound for I Contradiction.2). Suppose that A is a nonempty subset of I with least upper bound M.

where q1 . This shows that m2 is even. Suppose that 2 = m/n where m. since the negative integers are not bounded from below. b] := {x ∈ I R|a ≤ x ≤ b} is called the closed interval with endpoints a. A is bounded from above by a · no . Contradiction. Suppose that q1 · α = q2 . no no 2 which shows that the rational r ∈ (a. By the lemma m must be even and equivalently that it contains 2 as a factor. 2 √ Lemma. If m is odd. Let ko belong to A. This shows 4k 2 = 2n2 for some integer k. b) ⊆ I. Define the length of I by ℓ := b − a. . Let r := (K + 1)/no . (a. 2 Lemma. then 0 < 1 1 < . then a< K +1 K < + ℓ ≤ a + (b − a) = b. b] := {x ∈ I R|a < x ≤ b} and [a. there exists no ∈ I such that N 0 < 1/no < ℓ. In this case m2 = 2(2k 2 + 2k) + 1. The product of a nonzero rational with an irrational is irrational. Theorem. Corollary. Let K be the largest member of B and therefore of A. then there exists an integer k such that m = 2k + 1. b. Also. or measure. 2 is irrational. By the previous corollary. Defn. then K + 1 ∈ A. then m2 is odd. (Proved later. b. We may assume that the rational is in lowest terms (i. m and n have no common factors). Each interval with nonzero length contains an infinite number of rationals. A real number is said to be irrational if it is not rational. b a Notation: Next we define intervals of real numbers. b) := {x ∈ I R|a ≤ x < b} are called the half open intervals with endpoints a. Remark: Each interval with nonzero length contains an uncountably infinite number of irrationals. Let A := {k| k an integer and k/no < a}.) We establish a few other facts about irrational numbers and also prove directly that each interval of positive length contains an infinite number of irrationals. which shows that B is in fact a finite set of integers. b) := {x ∈ I R|a < x < b} is called the open interval with endpoints a. The common length. q2 are rational and α is irrational. √ Proof. Proof.e. Proof. b. b and a < b. of these intervals is defined to be b − a. n are integers with n > 0. Prove that if 0 < a < b. then I contains a rational number. Lemma. we obtain that m2 = 2n2 . A is nonempty. [a. Suppose that I is an interval with endpoints a. then α = q2 /q1 and it follows that α is rational. Proof. Squaring the equation and multiplying by n2 . Set B := {k| k an integer and k ≥ ko } ∩ A. (a. If m is an odd integer. Since q1 = 0.7.

notice that |a| ≤ α is equivalent to the statement ±a ≤ α. then |a| ≤ α if and only if −α ≤ a ≤ α. To prove property 5. √ 2). 2 Theorem. |a| ≥ 0 for all a ∈ I R. use the fact that |b| = |(b − a) + a| ≤ |b − a| + |a| and subtract |a| from each side. since a < 0. Each interval with nonzero length contains an infinite number of irrationals. and so contains a nonzero rational number q. ||b| − |a|| ≤ |b − a| Proof. 2 . It has length b/ √ (b − a)/ 2 > 0. The absolute value of a real number a is defined by |a| := a. To prove property 1. √ √ Proof. To prove property 7. To prove property 6.’ Either a ≥ 0 or a < 0. |a · b| = |a| · |b| 5. ‘case it out. 2 Defn. |a + b| ≤ |a| + |b| 7. set α = |a| + |b| and apply property 5 after verifying that ±(a + b) ≤ α. |a| = −a > 0. This is equivalent to the statement on the right hand side of property 5. It follows that q 2 is between a and b and hence belongs to I. n is even and 2 appears as one of its factors. since m/n was supposed to be in lowest terms. In the second case. one proves that |a| − |b| ≤ |a − b| = |b − a|. ±a ≤ |a| 3. it is easy to see that this last statement is equivalent to both inequalities: a ≤ α and −α ≤ a. By symmetry in a and b. Property 2 follows similarly.Consequently. b be the endpoints of the interval I. Suppose α ≥ 0. Let a. 2. Lemma. The absolute value function has the following properties: 1. Using the elementary order properties. Properties 3 and 4 are left for the student. if a < 0. | − a| = |a| 4. Consider the interval (a/ 2. In the first case |a| = a ≥ 0. This shows that |b| − |a| ≤ |b − a|. 6. if a ≥ 0 −a. Contradiction.