You are on page 1of 8

Arunachal Pradesh is a state of India.

Located in northeast India, Arunachal Pradesh borders the states of Assam and Nagaland to the south, and shares international borders with Bhutan in the west, Burma in the east and the People's Republic of China in the north.Arunachal Pradesh means "land of the dawn-lit mountains”. It is also known as "land of the rising sun". ("Pradesh" means "state", "territory" or "region") in reference to its position as the easternmost state of India. Like other parts of Northeast India, a majority of the people native to the state are of Tibeto-Burman origin.[citation needed] A large and increasing number of migrants have reached Arunachal Pradesh from many other parts of India, although no reliable population count of the migrant population has been conducted, and percentage estimates of total population accordingly vary widely. Part of the famous Ledo Burma Road, which was a lifeline to China during World War II, passes through the eastern part of the state.The northern border of Arunachal Pradesh follows the McMahon Line, a border delineated in the Simla Accord that was signed by the United Kingdom and Tibet in 1914 but not by China. Both the Republic of China (ROC) and the People's Republic of China (PRC) claim the northern portion of Arunachal Pradesh as part of the former provinces of Tibet Area and Xikang (for the ROC), respectively the Tibet Autonomous Region (for the PRC). The PRC often refers to the claimed areas as South Tibet. Itanagar is the capital of the state.

Early history
The history of pre-modern Arunachal Pradesh remains shrouded in mystery. Oral histories possessed to this day by many Arunachali tribes of Tibeto-Burman stock are much richer and point unambiguously to a northern origin in modern-day Tibet. Again corroboration remains difficult. From the point of view of material culture it is clear that most indigenous Arunachali groups align with Burma-area hill tribals, a fact that could either be explainable in terms of a northern Burmese origin or from westward cultural diffusion. From the same perspective the most unusual Arunachali group by far is the Puroik/Sulung, whose traditional staple food is sago palm and whose primary traditional productive strategy is foraging. While speculatively considered to be a Tibeto-Burman population, the uniqueness of Puroik culture and language may well represent a tenuous reflection of a distant and all but unknown pre-Tibeto-Burman, Tai and Indo-Aryan past. According to the Arunachal Pradesh Government, the region was mentioned in the Hindu texts Kalika Purana and Mahabharata, and is attested to be the Prabhu Mountains of the Puranas, and was where sage Parashuram washed away sins, the sage Vyasa meditated, King Bhishmaka founded his kingdom and Lord Krishna married his consort Rukmini. Recorded history from an outside perspective only became available in the Ahom chronicles of the 16th century. The Monpa and Sherdukpen do keep historical records of the existence of local chiefdoms in the northwest as well. Northwestern parts of this area came under the control of the Monpa kingdom of Monyul, which flourished between 500 B.C. and 600 A.D. This region then came under the loose control of Tibet and Bhutan, especially in the Northern areas. The remaining

Sir Henry McMahon. Another notable heritage site. with the collapse of Chinese power in Tibet the line . this agreement (Anglo-Russian Convention) was renounced by Russia and Britain jointly in 1921. has led to suggestions that the Idu (Mishmi) had an advanced culture and administration in pre-historical times. drew up the 550 miles (890 km) McMahon Line as the border between British India and Outer Tibet during the Simla Conference. such temples are generally south-facing. provides some historical evidence of the Buddhist tribal people. never occur more than a few kilometers from the Assam plains area. The Chinese position was that Tibet was not independent from China. Bhismaknagar. The third heritage site. which ceded Tawang and other Tibetan areas to the British Empire. Drawing of McMahon line British map published in 1909 showing the Indo-Tibetan traditional border. In 1913-1914 representatives of China. the 400-year-old Tawang Monastery in the extreme north-west of the state. British administrator. However. Recent excavations of ruins of Hindu temples such as the 14th century Malinithan at the foot of the Siang hills in West Siang are somewhat automatically associated with the ancient history of Arunachal Pradesh. so Tibet could not have independently signed treaties and per the Anglo-Chinese (1906) and Anglo-Russian (1907) conventions. However. inasmuch as they fall within its modern-day political borders. Again.[citation needed] The Tibetan Government and British Government went ahead with the Simla Agreement and declared that the benefits of other articles of this treaty would not be bestowed on China as long as it stays out of the purview. however. The Chinese representative had no problems with the border between British India and Outer Tibet. however on the issue of the border between Outer Tibet and Inner Tibet the talks broke down. However. Thus. most Arunachali tribes remained in practice largely autonomous up until Indian independence and the formalization of indigenous administration in 1947. and are perhaps more likely to have been associated with Assam plains-based rather than indigenous Arunachali populations. the Chinese representative refused to accept the agreement and walked out. The sixth Dalai Lama Tsangyang Gyatso was born in Tawang. came under the titular control of the Ahom and the Assamese until the annexation of India by the British in 1858. Tibet and Britain negotiated a treaty in India: the Simla Accord. However. especially those bordering Myanmar. Simla was initially rejected by the Government of India as incompatible with the 1907 AngloRussian Convention. The Tibetan and British representatives at the conference agreed to the line. no evidence directly associates Bhismaknagar with this or any other known culture.parts of the state. This treaty's objective was to define the borders between Inner and Outer Tibet as well as between Outer Tibet and British India. any such agreement was invalid without Chinese assent.

[14] The 14th Dalai Lama. a Government of China’s Official Government publications. who led the Tibetan government from 1950 to 1959.”Besides. although in 2007 the state government has shown signs to resume barter trade with Tibet.had no serious challenges as Tibet had signed the convention. published at Peking in 1917. but erupted again during the Sino-Indian War of 1962. More recently. The cause of the escalation into war is still disputed by both Chinese and Indian sources. With the China poised to take over Tibet.[15] He clarified his position in 2008. "It shows the whole northern Boundary of India more or less according to the traditional Indian alignments". India unilaterally declared the McMahon Line to be the boundary in November 1950. the People's Liberation Army (PLA) already occupied all these areas (Arunachal Pradesh) but they announced a unilateral ceasefire and withdrew. in 1938 the Survey of India published a detailed map showing Tawang as part of NEFA. .[15] According to the Dalai Lama. altered its position on the McMahon Line in late 1947 when the Tibetan government wrote a note presented to the newly independent Indian Ministry of External Affairs laying claims to the Tibetan district (Tawang) south of the McMahon Line. when civil service officer Olaf Caroe called attention to this issue. Tibet. accepting the current international boundary. During the war in 1962. saying that as far as Tibet was concerned "Tawang is part of India". China soon declared victory. In 1944 Britain established administrations in the area. The issue was quiet during the next decade or so of cordial Sino-Indian relations. notably the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN). therefore it was forgotten to the extent that no new maps were published until 1935. as early as 1917. The Government of China had also published the “Postal map of China”. voluntarily withdrew back to the McMahon Line and returned Indian prisoners of war in 1963.[12][13] The PRC has never recognized the McMahon Line. However.[11] The situation developed further as India became independent and the People's Republic of China was established in 1949. The war has resulted in the termination of barter trade with Tibet. and forced the last remnants of Tibetan administration out of the Tawang area in 1951. the British finally published the Simla Convention as a bilateral accord two decades after the Simla Conference. was quoted in 2003 as saying that Tawang was "actually part of the Tibetan administration" before the Simla Accord. "In 1962 during the India-China war. who are believed to have base camps in the districts of Changlang and Tirap. The NEFA (North East Frontier Agency) was created in 1955. Arunachal Pradesh became a separate state of India in 1986 despite the fact that the dispute over its sovereignty has not been settled with China. the PRC captured most area of Arunachal Pradesh.[citation needed] In 1938. from Dirang Dzong in the west to Walong in the east. After the war. 1917. Sino-Indian War The “Postal map of China”. and claims Tawang on behalf of Tibetans. The Survey of India published a map showing the McMahon Line as the official boundary in 1937. however. Arunachal Pradesh has come to face threats from certain insurgent groups. published at Peking in 1917.

Since its formation there have been four times general assemblies in the state. Governor was appointed as the head of the UT. Arunachal Pradesh was made a full-fledged state with 60 members in the state legislative assembly.There are occasional reports of these groups harassing local people and extorting protection money. Later on in 1987. Assembly Constituencies Lumla (ST) Yachuli (ST) Along East (ST) Chowkham (ST) Tawang (ST) Ziro-Hapoli (ST) Rumgong (ST) Namsai (ST) Mukto (ST) Palin (ST) Mechuka (ST) Lekang (ST) Dirang (ST) Nyapin (ST) Tuting-Yinkgkiong (ST) Bordumsa-Diyum Kalaktang (ST) Tali (ST) Pangin (ST) Miao (ST) Thrizino-Buragaon (ST) Koloriang (ST) Nari-Koyu (ST) Nampong (ST) Bomdila (ST) Nacho (ST) Pasighat West (ST) Changlang South (ST) Bameng (ST) Taliha (ST) Pasighat East (ST) . The present government is being led by Shri Nabam Tuki who is the Chief Minister of the state. Political History The political history of Arunachal Pradesh dates back to 1975 when it was made a Union Territory (UT) with a separate Legislative Assembly and for this purpose a Lt.

Arunachal West 2. Arunachal East Chief Ministers of the state .Changlang North (ST) Chayangtajo (ST) Daporijo (ST) Mebo (ST) Namsang (ST) Seppa East (ST) Raga (ST) Mariyang-Geku (ST) Khonsa East (ST) Seppa West (ST) Damporijo (ST) Anini (ST) Khonsa West (ST) Pakke-Kasang (ST) Liromoba (ST) Dambuk (ST) Borduria.Bagapani (ST) Itanagar (ST) Likabali (ST) Roing (ST) Kanubari (ST) Doimukh (ST) Basar (ST) Tezu (ST) Longding-Pumao (ST) Sagalee (ST) Along West (ST) Hauyuliang (ST) Pongchou-Wakka (ST) Lok Sabha Constituencies 1.

Sankaranarayanan Joginder Jaswant Singh Took Office 20 February 1987 19 March 1987 17 March 1990 9 May 1990 17 March 1991 26 March 1991 5 July 1993 21 October 1993 17 May 1999 2 August 1999 13 June 2003 16 December 2004 4 September 2007 27 January 2008 Left Office 18 March 1987 16 March 1990 8 May 1990 16 March 1991 25 March 1991 4 July 1993 20 October 1993 16 May 1999 1 August 1999 12 June 2003 15 December.K.This is a list of Chief Ministers of Arunachal Pradesh state in India. Sl. Sinha Arvind Dave V.D. Arunachal Congress Arunachal Congress (Mithi). C. Pradhan Gopal Singh Devi Das Thakur Loknath Mishra Surandra Nath Dwivedy Madhukar Dighe Mata Prasad S.K. 2004 3 September 2007 26 January 2008 present MLAs WITH ASSEMBLY CONSTITUENCY REPRESENTED . Bharatiya 3 August 2003 9 April 2007 Janata Party. Singh K.No Name Prem Khandu 1 Thungan 2 Tomo Riba President's rule 3 4 5 6 7 8 Gegong Apang Mukut Mithi Gegong Apang (2nd term) Dorjee Khandu Jarbom Gamlin Nabam tuki Took Office 13 August 1975 18 September 1979 3 November 1979 18 January 1980 19 January 1999 Left Office 18 September 1979 3 November 1979 18 January 1980 19 January 1999 Party Indian National Congress People's Party of Arunachal Pradesh Indian National Congress. Pande S. Indian 3 August 2003 National Congress United Democratic Front. Indian National Congress 9 April 2007 30 April 2011* Indian National Congress 31 October 5 May 2011 Indian National Congress 2011 1 November Incumbent Indian National Congress 2011 *Died in office List of Governors of Arunachal Pradesh # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Name Bhisma Narain Singh R.

Shri Ngurang Pinch 13. Shri Gadam Ete 25. Shri Kumar Waii 7. Shri Naresh Glow 5. Shri Tsewang Dhondup 3. Shri T. Shri J. Shri Nikh Kamin 14. Shri Rajesh Tacho 32. Shri Bosiram Siram 30. Shri Phosum Khimhun 39. Shri Kameng Dolo 8. Shri Kamthok Lowang 42. Shri Jomde Kena 23. Shri Karikho Kri 35. Shri Thajom Aboh 43. Shri Rinchin Khandu Khrimey 4. Shri Wanglin Lowangdong 44. Shri Techi Hemu 11. Shri Nido Pavitra 21.G. Shri Chow Tewa Mein 36. Jarbom Gamlin 22. Shri Balo Raja 16. Shri Kito Sora 26. Shri Gojen Gadi 24. Shri Atum Welly 9. Shri Wangnia Pongte 40. Shri Takam Sorang 17. Shri Wangki Lowang 41. Shri Daklo Nidak 20. Shri Thangwang Wangham Constituency 1-Lumla (ST) 2-Tawang (ST) 5-Kalaktang (ST) 6-Thrizino-Buragaon 7-Bomdila (ST) 8-Bameng (ST) 9-Chayangtajo (ST) 10-Seppa East (ST) 11-Seppa West (ST) 12-Pakke-Kessang (ST) 13-Itanagar (ST) 14-Diomukh (ST) 16-Yachuli (ST) 17-Ziro-Hapoli (ST) 18-Palin (ST) 20-Tali (ST) 21-Koloriang (ST) 23-Taliha (ST) 24-Daporijo (ST) 25-Raga (ST) 27 .Name 1. Shri R.T Khunjuju 6. Shri Chow Pingthika Namchoom 37.K Panggeng 31. Shri Mukut Mithi 34. Rinpoche 2. Shri Nyato Rigio 19. Shri Dibang Tatak 27. Shri Nani Ribia 15. Shri Omak Apang 29. Shri Roding Pertin 33. Shri Kipa Babu 12. Shri Lokam Tasar 18.Liromoba 28-Likabali (ST) 29-basar (ST) 30-Along West (ST) 31-Along East (ST) 32-Rumgong (ST) 35-Pangin (ST) 37-Pasighat West (ST) 38-Pasighat East (ST) 40-Mariyang -Geku (ST) 41-Anini (ST) 42-Dambuk (ST) 43-Roing (ST) 44-Tezu (ST) 46-Chowkham (ST) 47-Namsai (ST) 50-Miao (ST) 52-Changlang South (ST) 53-Changlang North (ST) 54-Namsang (ST) 55-Khonsa East (ST) 56-Khonsa West (ST) 57-Borduria-Bogapani (ST) 59-Longding-Pumao (ST) Designation MLA MLA MLA MLA MLA MLA MLA MLA MLA MLA MLA MLA MLA MLA MLA MLA MLA MLA MLA MLA MLA MLA MLA MLA MLA MLA MLA MLA MLA MLA MLA MLA MLA MLA MLA MLA MLA MLA MLA MLA MLA MLA MLA MLA Phone No 2214088 (M) 9436051062 2290798 (M) 9436045192 (M) 9436045120 2215810 2217895 2247877 2218481 (M) 9436040641 2243223 2277162 2350308 2002108 2350052 2216874 (M) 9436044647 2214230 22178837 2350429 2212966 (M) 9436040229 2290459/2351178 2000313 2212608 (M) 9436040846 2291297 2217419 2292378 2217178 2291970 2212291 2218825 2291763 (M) 9436042594 2213221 (M) 9436050783 2291291 2291848 2218736 (M) 9436046094 2290148/2292126 2217239 (M) 9436050811 . Shri Tani Loffa 10. Shri Tapang Taloh 28. Shri Kamlung Mossang 38.

45. Shri Honchun Ngandam 60-Pongchau-Wakka (ST) MLA (M) 9436050893 .

Related Interests