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**A Novel Direct Torque Control of an Induction Motor Drive with a Three-Level Inverter
**

Maurizio Cirrincione , Marcello Pucci, Gianpaolo Vitale

Abstract-- This paper presents a novel Direct Torque Control algorithm to be applied in induction motor electrical drives supplied by 3-level diode clamped inverters. It presents also a very simple algorithm for avoiding capacitor voltage unbalance. Results obtained with numerical simulations show that the employment of a 3-level inverter in such a control scheme permits to obtain the same dynamical performances as those obtained with a 2-level inverter with resulting far lower torque and flux ripples as well as a lower harmonic content in the stator current. Some considerations about the consequent benefits as for EMC of this drive are also presented. Index Terms—Electrical drives, Multi-Level Converters, Induction Motors, Direct Torque Control

for a 3-level inverter as well as a very simple algorithm for avoiding capacitor voltage unbalance. In particular this control scheme is compared with the classical DTC and its advantages are highlighted with regard to the torque and flux ripple and the harmonic content of the stator voltage and current waveforms with resulting enhancement of the EMC of the electrical drive. The paper is organised as follows. Section I describes the novel DTC algorithm, suited for a 3-level inverter. Section II shows the voltage balancing problem typical of multilevel inverters and proposes a very simple voltage balancing algorithm for the DTC scheme. Section III shows the simulation results of the novel control scheme, compares them to those obtained with a classical DTC and also discusses them in the framework of the EMC.

I. INTRODUCTION IGH dynamic performance control of the electromagnetic torque of an induction motor can be achieved mainly by means of two control strategies: Field Oriented Control (FOC) and Direct Torque Control (DTC) [1][2]. In particular DTC offers attractive performances in terms of fast torque response, simple and less computationally cumbersome control schemes, robustness against parameter variation, no need of a PWM modulator and current regulators. However, it presents some drawbacks, like torque ripple, variable switching frequency, the well known problems at start-up and those of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) due to the high frequency harmonic content of stator voltages and currents. On the other hand, there has been a growth of novel power converter topologies as multilevel inverters [3]÷[14], which permit to use a multiple voltage supply under the same type of switches, and can be therefore suitably employed in high performance high voltage electrical drives with induction motors. Some paper have focused on the application of DTC or DSC (Direct Self Control) to multilevel converters [5][6][9]÷[14] but the most of them require involved predictive algorithms. This paper presents a very simple and not cumbersome DTC control scheme, which is the natural extension of the classical DTC for a 2-level inverter to a DTC

H

II. THE DIRECT TORQUE CONTROL ALGORITHM The proposed DTC algorithm, which is employed with a 3level inverter, is a natural extension of the classical DTC to multilevel inverters. In this paper the so called diode clamped 3-level inverter has been used as shown in Fig.1. With such an inverter the possible inverter switching states, for each phase, are shown in Tab.I where Sx is a variable which identifies the switching state of an inverter leg. Each voltage space vector generated by the inverter is then identified by a 3-component vector, like (2 2 1), where each component is given by the value of Sx for each of the three legs of the inverter: Fig. 2 shows the hexagon of the 19 voltage space vectors which can be generated by such an inverter. The proposed DTC algorithm employs only 12 active voltage space vectors, divided into two categories on the basis of the parameter LevU (voltage level) as shown in Tab.II, without using either the null space vector, for dynamical reasons as explained later in this paragraph, or the active vectors (210 102 120 201 021 012), which are characterised by three different numbers, for capacitor balancing reasons, as explained later on in §III.

This work was supported by C.N.R. M. Cirrincione, M. Pucci and G. Vitale are with I.S.S.I.A – C.N.R. Section of Palermo (Istituto di Studi sui Sistemi Intelligenti per l’Automazione) Viale delle Scienze snc, 90128 Palermo – Italy (emails: nimzo@cerisep.pa.cnr.it; pucci@cerisep.pa.cnr.it; vitale@cerisep.pa.cnr.it).

0-7803-7967-5/03/$17.00 ©2003 IEEE

2. II VOLTAGE SPACE VECTORS EMPLOYED IN THE PROPOSED DTC ALGORITHM u1 u2 u3 u4 u5 u6 LevU High 2 0 0 2 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 2 0 0 2 2 0 2 Low 211 221 121 122 112 212 100 110 010 011 001 101 performances of the electrical drive. the effect of the voltage space vector with LevU=”high” is to cause high variations both in the torque and in the stator flux. On the basis of the sector i (i=1. SxC of the upper devices of the legs of the inverter (see Tab. In this control strategy no null vector has been used to obtain the best dynamical For the list of the employed symbols see the appendix. is the natural extension of classical DTC. 3b): the output of this comparator (Tout for the torque and Ψout for the stator-flux linkage) can be either 2 (–2) or 1 (–1) according to the positive (negative) value of the torque or the flux error: if the value of the error is within the hysteresis loop. SxB.I) with the following formulae: ψ sD = (u sD − Rs i sD ) dt ∫ ψ sQ = ∫ (u sQ − Rs i sQ ) dt (1) u sA = U d 6 (2 S xA − S xB − S xC ) u sB = U d 6 (2 S xB − S xA − S xC ) u = U 6 (2 S − S − S ) d xC xA xB sC (2) The electromagnetic torque is estimated on-line by the knowledge of the instantaneous values of the direct and quadrature stator flux linkage and current components: te = 3 p ( sD i sQ − ψ sQ i sD ) ψ 2 (3) . at the expenses though of higher ripples in the torque. As clearly shown in Fig.6) with LevU= low can be obtained with two different switching patterns and this is exploited to avoid the capacitor voltage unbalance. any ui space vector (with i=1. otherwise ui with LevU=”low” is selected. 1 Schematics of a 3-level diode-clamped inverter Fig. then the output of the comparator is 1 (-1) if the previous comparator output was 1 or 2 (-1 or -2). 2. …. while the effect of the voltage space vector with LevU=”low” is to cause smaller variations. …. 3a): its output is the reference torque. The stator flux linkage amplitude is estimated with a classical open-loop “voltage” flux model based on the well known stator equations of the induction machine: The employed DTC block diagram. TABLE. 2 Hexagon of the voltages of a 3-level inverter As it can be seen from Tab. a voltage space vector ui (with i=1. In the control scheme the stator voltage components are computed on-line from the knowledge of the DC-link voltage and the switching state SxA. Speed control is done by employing a PI controller which processes the speed error obtained as difference between the reference speed and the measured one (obtained by the encoder in Fig. 4. It shows that the closedloop control of both the rotor speed and the stator flux linkage is performed.see Tab.6 . The use of more voltage vectors in the 3-level inverter fed DTC than in the 2level inverter fed DTC permits therefore a corresponding reduction of the harmonic content in stator voltages and currents. shown in Fig.6) in which the stator flux linkage lies and of the magnitude of the errors of the torque and flux loops. If the absolute value of the output of one of the two the comparators is higher than two. Both torque and stator flux controls are achieved by using 4-level hysteresis comparators (Fig. 3a. I SWITCHING STATES OF A 3-LEVEL INVERTER SxA S1A S2A S3A S4A 2 On On Off Off 1 Off On On Off 0 Off Off On On TABLE.II. than the voltage space vector ui with LevU=”high” is generated. as shown in §III.III) is generated.Fig. …. 2.

the DTC drive has been loaded by a controlled DC machine (see Fig. 3a Block diagram of the DTC drive with a three-level inverter III. 1) if the switching pattern is not properly selected [7]. where the effect of the voltage space vector u2low on the capacitors voltage balancing is described. Effect of the voltages space vectors on torque and stator flux linkage (arrow up=increase. In particular all the voltage space vectors with LevU=”high” do not unbalance the capacitors in any way.Fig. 3) with separate excitation. 5. CAPACITOR VOLTAGE BALANCING ALGORITHM One of the problems due to a 3-level inverter is the possible unbalancing of the capacitors voltages on C1. Voltage unbalancing of the inverter capacitors . 1) while the other connects them between the points 1 and 0 of the inverter. double arrow up=strong increase arrow down=decrease. arrow down = decrease) Fig. On the contrary all the voltage space vectors with LevU=”low” unbalance the capacitors as shown in Fig. TABLE III: ADOPTED CONTROL STRATEGY te ⇑ ψs ⇑ te ⇑ ψs ⇓ te ⇓ ψs ⇑ ui+1 ui+2 ui-1 Control strategy (i sector) te ⇓ ψs ⇓ ui-2 (arrow up= increase. Fig. Fig. Finally. 5): one of them connects the motor windings between the points 2 and 1 of the DC link (see Fig.3b: 4-level hysteresis comparator It should be remarked that the final switching pattern is selected on the basis of the elaboration of the “voltage balancing algorithm”. as described in detail in §III. 4. double arrow down=strong decrease) Fig. 5 shows that the same voltage space vector can be generated with two possible switching patterns ( (2 2 1) and (1 0 0) in Fig. 5. C2 (see Fig.

otherwise. then the sign of the current provided by the DC link is compared with that of the last instant when a LevU=“low” vector had been applied (the kind of switching pattern in the last instant k* in which a LevU=“low” vector had been applied is memorised) and. 6. highlights that the harmonic content of the stator voltage at high frequency is highly reduced by employing the 3-level inverter topology. the following normalised standard deviation has been employed δ = 1 T 1 n (T − T )2 . a speed step reference of 150 rad/s has been given at t=0.6 s. 8.3⋅10-3 [H] 0. The instantaneous value of the DC-link current can be computed on the basis of the instantaneous measurements of the stator currents and of the switching state of the upper devices of the legs of the inverter [1]. C2. It must be remarked that.87 Rotor resistance Rr [Ω] Rotor inductance Lr [H] 252⋅10-3 Three-phase magnetizing inductance Lm 236. In particular.1 s while a step loading torque of 13 Nm (rated load) has been given at t= 0. Fig. In contrast to this all voltage space vectors generated by patterns like (2 0 1) definitely unbalance the capacitors as they have only one possible switching state [7] (Fig. which shows the FFT of the voltage waveform at steady-state as obtained with both kinds of inverters. a voltage space vector with LevU=”low” is selected.8÷1. Ti is the torque at the i-th sample time and n is the number of samples.The switching configuration in 5a) and 5b) have opposite effects on the voltage unbalance of capacitors C1. voltage balancing algorithm). 9 shows the torque responses of the two control algorithms. in steady-state. where ∑ i 0 T 0 i n T0 is the desired torque. 5c). control algorithm. Fig. to compare the torque ripples. in the first transient only lowlevel voltages are used while at higher speeds also high level ones are employed.8 4 Protection time Tp [µs] Fig. while the dynamic of the torque loop is in both cases almost the same.8Vs. For this reason this kind of voltage space vectors is not employed by the proposed algorithm. induction motor. to avoid capacitor voltage unbalance. It can be observed that the control algorithm automatically selects whether high level or low level voltage space vectors should be used. In both cases.6. TABLE IV: PARAMETERS OF THE INDUCTION MOTOR Rated power Prated [kW] 2. Table IV and V show the rated values and the electrical parameters of the induction motor and the inverter under test.2 Rated voltage Urated [V] 220 Rated frequency frated [Hz] 50 Pole-pairs 2 3. RESULTS The goodness of the proposed DTC algorithm has been verified in simulation on a PC. then the other switching pattern type for LevU=“low” is selected to permit the capacitor voltages to be balanced.0266 Moment of inertia J [Kg⋅m2] TABLE.5 ÷0. the torque ripple obtained with the 2-level inverter is much higher than that obtained with the 3-level one. The voltage balancing algorithm and the consequent switching pattern selection which takes into account the voltage balance is shown in Fig. Voltage balancing algorithm The results obtained with the DTC algorithm applied to a 3level inverter have been compared with those obtained with a traditional DTC algorithm applied to a two-level inverter.88 Stator resistance Rs [Ω] Stator inductance Ls [H] 252⋅10-3 1. All simulations have been performed in the Matlab®-Simulink® environment. . Fig. 7 shows the rotor speed and the stator voltage usA obtained with both inverter topologies. In particular the DTC drive has been modelled in all of its components (three-level inverter. V: PARAMETERS OF THE INVERTER DC link voltage UDC [V] 560 Rated current Irated [A] 50 Maximum current Imax [A] 100 Commutation frequency fc [kHz] 10 Switch off time (25 ° C) Toff [µs] 0. if the sign of the current does not change. IV. after having magnetised the machine at its rated stator flux of 0.5 Switch on time (25 ° C) Ton [ns] 0. then a voltage space vector with LevU=”high” is selected as well as the corresponding switching state. If the absolute value of the comparator output (Tout or Ψout) is more than 2.

10 shows the stator current isA and Fig. ψsD.37 63. the following normalised standard deviation has been employed δ ψ = 1 ψ ref 1 n V.72 higher.0769 0. 11 shows its FFT. The proposed algorithm is a natural extension of the classical DTC with a 2-level inverter and does not require any predictive algorithm. Hence the global harmonic content for voltages and currents with the 3-level inverter is strongly reduced. isA. that is as much as 1.31A/ms for the DTC drive with the 2-level inverter and 11.79 2 . C.level inverter 105. SxB.I.0205 0. which makes this kind of DTC drives a less polluting system than the classical DTC drive. VII. ∑ (ψ i n i − ψ ref ) 2 . As to the control algorithm the computational burden is practically the same as the one of the classical DTC without any need of more powerful processors. The maximum peak to peak percentage variation of the capacitor voltages due to their unbalance is 0. improving the mechanical features of the drive with fewer torque ripples without worsening its dynamical performances. by employing the balancing algorithm explained in §III. isQ: direct and quadrature components of the stator current in the stator reference frame.0087 2 . te: electromagnetic torque. isD. to compare the stator flux linkage ripples. 12 shows the voltages on the capacitors C1 and C2 of the inverter (Fig. These advantages counterbalance the increased complexity of the circuitry of the 3-level power converter.level inverter 74. The THD’s (Total Harmonic Distortion) of both the stator voltages and currents for the 2 inverters have been computed as an index of the global harmonic content. Tab. ψi is the stator flux at the i-th sample time and n is the number of samples. It can be observed that.75 times and 1.48 68. TABLE.08 . TABLE. Both the waveforms. p: number of pole pairs.VI shows clearly that the employment of a 3-level inverter permits a torque ripple and a stator flux ripple which are respectively about as much as 3.A. ψsQ :direct and quadrature components of the stator flux linkage in the stator reference frame. VI TORQUE AND STATOR FLUX LINKAGE RIPPLES δT δψ 3 . Rs: stator resistance.S. usB.41 higher than that obtained with the 3-level one and that the THD of the stator currents with a 2-level inverter is as much as 1. Finally Fig. usD. isB. APPENDIX usA. Moreover the maximum value of di sA dt has been computed: it is 20. the two capacitors remain balanced in each operating condition. is much less polluting than the corresponding 2-level inverter fed DTC from the Electro Magnetic Compatibility (EMC) standpoint.06 higher than that obtained with the 3-level one. At present the experimental verification of the proposed methodology is being performed at the section of I. The results of the numerical simulations show that the employment of a 3-level inverter instead of a 2-level one with such a control algorithm permits to obtain the same dynamical performances of the drive with far lower torque and flux ripple and a lower harmonic content both in the stator voltages and currents. ACKNOWLEDGMENT All sections have been equally and jointly developed by the three authors. of Palermo. VII THD’S OF STATOR VOLTAGES AND CURRENTS Stator Stator voltages currents 3 . which can be neglected. where ψref is the reference stator flux. on the other hand the reduction of the harmonic content permits a corresponding cutback of the expenses on filtering devices.2 times lower than the corresponding ones of the 2-level inverter. as far as conducted and radiated high frequency emissions are concerned. usC: stator phase voltages. CONCLUSIONS This paper presents a very simple implementation of the Direct Torque Control algorithm to be applied to 3-level diodeclamped inverters. Table VII shows that the THD of the stator voltage with a 2-level inverter is as much as 1.0104 Fig. with the 3-level inverter. in the time and frequency domains. VI. SxA.86 A/ms for that with the 3level inverter.level inverter 0. 1).level inverter 0. show that the harmonic content of the stator current is highly reduced by employing the 3-level inverter topology.S. Thus the DTC drive. SxC: switching state of the upper devices of the inverter legs A. isC: stator phase currents.Similarly. A very simple and not computationally cumbersome methodology for avoiding capacitors unbalancing is presented too. As a consequence the converter will contribute less to the commonmode current flowing through the earth wire with resulting less stress in the windings and the bearings. This results in the reduction of the high frequency conducted and radiated emissions . Ud: DC-link voltage.21%. in addition the radiated emissions from the wires are also reduced in comparison with the 2-level inverter counterpart. usQ: direct and quadrature components of the stator voltage in the stator reference frame. If on the one hand a 3level converter is a little more expensive than the 2-level converter. B.

605 time (s) 2-level inverter 0.2 0.3 time (s) 0.015 1.99 0.4 0.595 0. Rotor speed and stator voltage usA Magnitude (V) 10 5 3-level inverter isA (A) 5 0 -5 3-level inverter 0 1 2 3 4 frequency (Hz) 5 6 7 x 10 4 1 1.6 0.04 0.3 time (s) 0.1 0.02 Fig.595 0.2 0.02 0 200 400 2-level inverter 600 800 1000 1200 frequency (Hz) 1400 1600 1800 2000 Fig.04 0.08 0.06 0.6 0.61 0.3 time (s) 0.4 0.5 Fig. Stator current isA 15 torque (Nm) 10 5 0 0.01 1. 9.005 1.150 speed (rad/s) 3-level inverter speed (rad/s) 150 2-level inverter 100 100 50 50 0 0.1 0.615 Magnitude (A) 0.5 0 200 0 -200 -400 -200 -400 0. 10.605 time (s) 3-level inverter 0.1 0.1 0.5 200 usA (V) usA (V) 0.02 0 200 400 3-level inverter 600 800 1000 1200 frequency (Hz) 1400 1600 1800 2000 15 torque (Nm) 10 5 0 0.08 0.2 0.1 0.06 0.615 Magnitude (A) 0.1 0. Spectra of the stator voltage usA (mind the different scales) Fig.005 time (s) 1.025 1. 7.02 1.995 1 1. Spectra of the stator current isA .12 0.12 0.03 30 Magnitude (V) 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 frequency (Hz) 5 6 7 x 10 4 5 isA (A) 2-level inverter 2-level inverter 0 -5 0.01 1.015 time (s) 1.61 0. Electromagnetic torque Fig.2 0.4 0.3 time (s) 0.4 0. 11. 8.5 0 0.

Caianiello” for the best Italian PhD thesis on neural networks. “A Space Vector PWM Method for Three-Level Voltage Source Inverter”. May/June 1996.2. A. Power Electronics and Variable Speed Drives. electrical machines and drives. A. Power Engineering journal. Roboam.5 1 time (s) 1.A.1. Industry Application Conference.5 Fig. [2] W.D. [7] . Fang Zheng Peng. Since 1994 he has been a researcher at the Section of Palermo of I. “An Observer-Based DTC of Induction Motors Driven by 3-Level Inverter for Improving Low Speed Operation”. Oxford Science Publication.S. Ji-Yoon Yoo. In 1996 he received the Ph. “A Predictive Direct Torque Control Scheme for a Three-Level VSI-Fed Induction Motor Drive ”. [4] C. REFERENCES [1] Books: P. IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference. [11] C. EPE 1993. 1196. IEEE Industry Application Conference.6 0. [14] Xuezhi Wu. Song. His current research interests are electrical machines.-C. Since 1996 he has been a researcher at the Section of Palermo of I.S. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications.. Applied Power Electronics Conf.R. October 2001. APEC 2000. Choy. [10] K. Bakhshai. [6] Kyo-Beum Lee. Y.5 280.N.-C. 2001. M. 1999. “Control of Electrical Drives”. L. 5th Annual IEEE Conf. “Improvement of low-Speed Operation Performance of DTC for Three-Level Inverter – Fed Induction motors”. diagnosis and identification techniques of electrical drives. “Multi-Level Direct Torque Control with Imposed Switching Frequency and reduced Ripple”.8 279. & Exposition 2000. T. B. Lipei Huang.I. system identification.8 279. Joos. Martins. vol.R. [12] A. (Institute on Intelligent Systems for the Automation). Seixas.I.R. 1. Periodicals: [3] Jih-Sheng Lai. Severo Mendes. Zhang. (Institute on Intelligent Systems for the Automation). February 1998. PESC 2000.S. vol. H.S. F. M. M. Italy.5 2 2. Industry Application conference. Wu. Springer Verlag. A. His degree thesis received the “Italtel” award for the best degree thesis. Summer.D. n°3. vol. M. “Space Vector Based on Classification Method in Three-Phase Multi-level Voltage Source Inverters”. Meynard.A. 9th International Conference on Electrical Machines and Drives.S. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics. J.I. I. Since 2001 he has been a researcher at the Section of Palermo of I. Papers from Conference Proceedings (Published): P. Brighton. 1. (Institute on Intelligent Systems for the Automation). [9] V. 12. Walczyna. control.6 0. [13] X.N. vol.3. Italy. vol. A. N. [8] A. H. Lima. intelligent control. His current research interests are power electronics and electromagnetic compatibility. 2000. Hu. n°5. Donoso-Garcia. IEE. His current research interests are neural networks for modelling and control. vol.R.2 280 maximum peak to peak percentage variation = 0. Steimel.A. Newton. P.N. Ick Choy.4 uC1 (V) 280. BIOGRAPHIES Maurizio Cirrincione received his “laurea” degree in Electrical Engineering from the Politecnico of Turin in 1991.5 1 time (s) 1. Italy. R. 44. Voltages on the capacitors of the inverter VIII. Saligheh Rad. 1998. R. degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of Palermo. J. X.21% 279. Hill. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics. Perelmuter. degree in Electrical Engineering in 2002 from the same University.2 280 279. “Direct torque Control of Three-Level Inverter Using Neural Networks as Switching Vector Selector”. J. “Three-Level Inverers with Direct Torque Control”. 2000.Balancing of capacitor voltages IX. vol. In 1997 he was awarded the prize “E.S. Marcello Pucci received his “laurea” degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of Palermo (Italy) in 1997 and the Ph. intelligent control and power converters. Choi.4 uC2 (V) 280. 280. 2001. R. Leonhard. 18-19 September 2000. vol. G.5 2 2.-C. Lee. August 1997. n°4. Vas. Gianpaolo Vitale received his “laurea” degree in Electronic Engineering from the University of Palermo (Italy) in 1988. 48. 32. Joong-Ho Song. “Direct Self Control of Induction Machines Fed by a Double Three-Level Inverter”. “Space Vector PWM Strategy for 3-level Inverters with Direct Self-Control”. “Multi-level convertors – a real solution to medium/high-voltage drives? ”. A. “Sensorless Vector and Direct Torque Control”. “Multilevel Converters – A New Breed of Power Converters”. [5] Xiao Q.

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