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VISION AND MEANING IN NINTH -CENTURY BYZANTIUM

Imagtm Extgt'Jir in thr Homi/i(J Q!Grrgory o!Nazianzur

Byumincs used imagery to eomm un iauc a wid ~ rang~ of i"u~s. In the comext of lconoc!:asm _ the debate about the legitimacy of rdigious art conductM between ca. AD 730 ,,"d 843 - Byu. ,,,inc aut hors themselves daim~d that visual im ages could tlpr~" c~ruin ide .. be"~r than words. Visi01lllnd Mrllning in Ninth-Cm fUry BYMntium deals with how such visual communication workM, and cxami ne> the lJ'P<" of me.sages that pictures could convey in .he afl~rm.th oficonocI..sm. hs focus is on • del uxc manuscr ipt comm;"ionM around 880. a copy of [h~ fourth-century sermonS the Cappadocian church father GrrgoryofNazianzu. which w:as p...,'en ,~d to the Em peror Basil I, founder of the Macedonian dynasty, by one of .h~ gre. ,es. scholars Byz:tmiu rn ever producro. th~ patriarch I'hotios. The manuscript was lavishly decor.tro wi th gilded initiais, clabo rate hcadpi ~s, and. full-page miniature befor~ each of Gregory's sermunS. Forry-six of these. induding over 100 distinct scenes, survin. Fewu th.n half. however. Were directly i",pired by the homily [h.t they .ccompany. Inste.d, mos[ func_ I inn as commema ries on the ninth·century court, and. C:.<cfully deco"'tructed, both provide us Wilh inform~ tion not av. ilable from p,~served written sources and, perhaps more imporl.nt, show US how vi.ual imagescommunicatediffercndyfrom words.

Th~

or

DR L(St[~ BRUHA K~R

is Seniot Lecture r at the Centre for Byzantine, Onoman and Modern Gre~k SlUdi~" University of Birmingham. She has edited Byztmrium in Ik Ninth Ctntury: [Had or Aliw? and (with Robert Oustcrhollt) Thr Sllrrtd lmagt £ail andWm, :as wdl:as conrribtlling choP lers and art id es to numerouS publication. in Byzantin~ slUdies.

Cambridgr 5rudirJ in PaLlrographyand Codicoiogy
GENERAL ED ITOR S

Rosamond McKiuerick N"""ham 0>lkp. U"i",..,itycjC.mbndg. T",,,, W~b~r Trinity ('''U't'' U"i"",ity DfGtmbndgr
EDITORIAL aOARD

l«>nard Boyk Vati,." Libmry Virginia Brown PO"lifir4//"";'~" for Mtdi,,,,/Studitl. Ton""" J. p. Gu"'~n Univmityofuidm P:t.nick McGurk Birkbrt:k C"Ikt" Lcn""" Nigel Morgan fA Hob. Uni"'''ity. J!,f./boum. Richard Rouse U";",,,ity ofC.lifomia. LOI Ang'''' David Wright U"iw:"iry"jrA/'fo"'"", &rhlry This new series has bc.:n ",tablished ro further the study of m.nuscripts from the middle .ges ro the renaissance. It indudes books dcvOled ro panicula. types of manuscripts. thei r produc1 ion and circul alio n, 10 individua l codices of oumanding imporr..ncc, and to rq;ions , p"riods and scripts of especial imerest 10 scholars. Certain volumes will b.. specially designed to provide studenrs in the 6dd with reliable introductions to central topics, and occasionally a classic originally published in another language will ~ trambtcd into English. Th e series will ~ of imerest nOt only to schol... and studoms of medievallitcratur, and history. but also ro th= logians, art historians, and others working with manuscript sources.
ALREADY
I.
PUHLISH~"

Bernhard Bischoff Malfuscnj)fS,mJ Librariu in the Age ofCharlnnagn, 511 JRJ46 J

°

2.

Richard Gameson Th, EarlyMdiroal Bibfr

44HOX

J. Nancy Nctur Culturallmtrplayin 'M Eighth Cmtury: Tht Tn'trGDlptls and tht Making"fa 5<riptDrium at Ethmtnu 411112
4. William Nod Tin f/Il,.ky fulur 464911
\. CJ,.rlc. E Brigg>

Gil" of&m~' Dc Rcgimin< Principum: R<adi~g andW,.i,inX I'Dliti« at eo"" and U"i",..,iry, c. 1~71-':. 1)15 570\J 0

6. Lellie Brubak~r Vi,ion and Munin! in Ninth-Cmtury Byzantium: inuit, as Ex'fpi, in tIM Homilie, ofG>qory ofNazWnzus 6l11J 4 7. Franci,Newton TIMScriptoriumandLibraryllt MonttCastinClflf8-IIOf \8J95 0

VISION AND MEANING I N N I NTH-CENTURY BYZANTIUM
Imag~dJ Exegesis in

the Homilies of

Gregory ofNazianzus

LES LIE BR U BA KER

I!IJi! CAMBRIDGE
\(]Jf
UN IVER S ITY PRESS

CAMBRIDGE UN IVE RSITY PRESS Cambridge, New York, Mclbow-ne, M.drid, Cope Town. Siog.po«, SID 1'0010. De lh i

Cambridge University Pre .. Th. Edinbu'lIb Building, Combridge CB2 8RU, UK Publi.hed in the Unitod Statu of America by Cambridge Uni,..-.i,y Pr..., New York
W'" W .cam bJ id go ,org

In formo, ion on this 'it Ie: www.eambridge.org/9780SlI62IH1 " Le, lie Brub.kcr 1999 This poblicotion i. i. copyrigh t. Subject 10 .... tutory exception aod the pro.i. ion. <If rcle.",,' <o!lcctive li".o.io~ .g.-cement<. no «production orany part m.y toke pl ac. without the written pcrmi.. ion of Cambridge Uni ve", it y Pre ...

'0

First publi'hed 1999 ROp<inte<l 2001 Tbi. digitally printed yo"ion 2008

Library of Cvng"''' Calalogu;"!; ;n

P~b1ic,,'lon

dala

Brubaker. Le.lie Vi,ion ond m.oning in nin,h ·century Byzan ,ium: I"",go 0' . ,egc,i, in tho homilies of Gregol)' ofNazi .... u. I L•• li. Brubaker, p. em. (Cambr idge Stodie. in palaeoogrophy ond cod ioology) lodud .. bibliognlpbic.l referenc,", and index . ISBN O--S21 -621 S3-4 (hb) L Bibliothi:que notioo.le dc France. Manuscrip'- Gr..cu. S WHlu''''' ';<Jn.. 2. Bible --- I1 lu",-"I;OD'. 1. Gregory, of Nui.nIU', Saint _ Art. 4. Illumination of book> and manu , orip". Byzantine. 5. Orthodox Ea.tern C bu.-.:b --- S.rm"",. I, Tille. II. Seri ... ND3185 .B57B78 1999 745.6'7487-<102 I 97-433 85 CIP
ISBN 978·0·521 · 621 53·3 hardback ISBN 918·0 ·521 · 10181 · ] p.perback

For Christopher

Contents

List ufillustrariuns Preface Acklluw!cJgml>n n; Abbreviat ions
bllrot/ll(tiQlI

page x
XVII

.. ..

XXII

CuJimlugical J e.,nipI;OO Loca liza tiun and date Prod lIet iOIl and Ji,' !rihlll ion of labou r The ph ysical [dari"mhi!, hem'ern rex I ~nd m;ni ~ lIm's Samons wililOlll illmHJtions and "IUS1' milliallJr<-:; I listury "f the "'''tlme r;pl p~ ris.gf.) I 0 and 0( h.a il iusrr;llcd manuscripts of Gr<cgory's Humilic's

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Sitillg flit' lIIillimlll"t'J: ill/tlKl'r)' ; 1/ Ihl' lIilllb B}" l.:lruillt I)<:[cqnio" of the ";sll,,1
Text and image in nimh-anmry manuscripts leulluphil" argument s "MIll illl,,!;e,; N in th -ce ll! llry p"l!crns of i magn )' konugraphy and the issue (""IiI ion ']·hc (uuniuns of images i 1\ the fl int h ccru II')' Mini;!!LI'C:' al"\ "\llh ~ lHici(v

(('II/III}

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IIII"I'III0ry

Hibliogr~phy

Index

"

1llllStrations

BETWF.EN PACE S XXII' "NO I

.

I l'ari).gqlO. (Av: Ch rbl enthroned 1 P;u is.gqlO. f. Br: Emprcss Eudokia Ibnked hr Leo :md AlcXJ ndl'r 3 P<l ri).gr,slO. f. Bv: cross
-I l'.H i~,gr.)lO,

r. Cr: nnss

S Paris.gr.I IO. f. Cv: Emp..:ror Basil I Ibn ked hy Elijah an.:1 Gabriel 6 I'Mis.gr.; lo, f. Jr: :I , annund:uion and visilali un : b. ~c n~ from Ihe life of Jonah
7 1'3 ri~.gr.s lO. (. 10\': a. crucifixio n; b. dl"l>osition and ( luo mhll1l'lIf: (:. chai rcte ,II l'aris.gr.slO, f. pv; manyrdom of Ihe :lposlin 9 I\His.gr.slO. f -13"': a. G r"gory and hi.\ f.lIni I)': b. (lI nn;11 of Kaisa rius; c. dealh of

Gorgoni:1
10 I'M is.gLS IO. creation :lI1d i.'x pulsio n of Adam and En~: c. ]" losc5 r«cin-s the Ia\\'li: Gregory preIchi ng in N,l1.ianzus

f.

)!\': ~ .- b.

II Paris.sr.Slo, f. 67\'; a. vision uf Isaia h; h. Cn-gory consi.'Cr;\(cd bishop of Sasima 12 l'ari).gr.s ro. f. 69v: a.--c. scene5 from Jhc lift' of Joseph 13 P;lri ~.sr.S l o. f. 71V: :to lhsil. Gregor). of Nyssa. and Gregory of Nali~ln'll1 s: h. Job 011 his clunghc:tp q 1~.!ri).gqlO. f. 75r: trnnsfigur.lIion 15 Paris.gq to. f. 78r: a. hailstorm: b. Grt'gor)' prt'achinlt 16 P.lri).gqlO. f. S7v: a. calling of Peter. And rew. Jam(;~. :l1ld John: Ch rl)t :lncl Z:lchi:ls: calling of Ma!! hew: b. Chri.IJ and tl,,:, rich yo wh: co nve rsion of Nalh:macl: c. com't'rsion of Gregory's father 17 Paris.gr.51O. f. 1 04r: scenl"S from the life of 5t Basil 18 Paris.gr.510. f. 1 37r: a, Aclornl ion and dn.-am of tht· Magi: b. mass..crt· of the innocents; Right of Elilabe th and John the Baptist: martyrdom of Zachari.u: c. Prest'malion 19 Paris.gr.jlO. f. 14J\': l. Jeremiah r~li scd fro m Ihe pit : pcnitcnce ofD,wid: b. pa rablt' of the Good Sa m:lrita n: c. ht'aJing of the paralytic at Bcth,·sJ<i: ht'aling of Ihe wo man wilh the iSSUt, ofhlood and tile raising of Jairus' daughter !O Paris.gToS tO, f. q 9r: a. Gregory and B<isil l1eal lh<' sick: h. L>ivcs and lau rus

,

IlIu~lralions

2r I':lris.gr. sro , f. r6 sr: a. Christ among lh l, docror.~ : b. u:mpr;uion of C hri sI: Co multiplicalion o( lh l' loaves and fi shes 22 l'aris.gLS ro , f. 170r: a. healing of the leper: healin g of Ih e man wilh dro p,y; healin g of [he demoni acs: h. hl',[lillg of dll' cel1luriun's serva nt; healing of Peter's mOlhn-in-law; c. Christ walks o n wal er 23 Pari s.gr.S lo, f, 174v: a, sacrifi CI: oflsa;!c; b. Jacob's slruggk with Ihe angel: Jaco b's dream; c. an ointing o f David 24 Paris.gr.5 IO. f. 196v: a. raisi ng of Lrlarus; SUPP( T al Si mo n's; b. entry illlo Jerusalem 25 P,lris.g r.llO. f 2ISV: a. judgmel\! o( Solomo n; b. co nvl"fs iun of Ihe Sama ritan woman: healin g o f the lt'n lepers 26 Paris.gf.SlO, (. u6v: a. Moses sl rik<:s waIn fru m a TOl·k; b. Jo~h u a STOpS [h <: sun and moon: Jos hua m<:<:IS [he an g<:l 17 P,[ris.gr.slO. f. 239r: a. Gr<:gory and Ih e.' Empl"fur Tlwodusius; b. Grego ry leaves CO!lStantinupk· 28 Par is.gr.j ID. f. 164v: J . Moses :lnd Ihe h urni ng bush; cll nvl"fsilln of Sa ul; ascensio n of Eli jah; b. cros ~ing of Ihe Red Sea wilh Ihe da rKe ot Mi riam 29 Paris.gr.Slo, f 285 r: visio n of Haba kkuk 30 PariS.gr.SIO, f. 3Otr: PeIHl'COSI JI Pa ris.gr.SID. r JIOI': a. healin g of the man with the widlCred arm: he,ding of lhl' IWO men born blind: b. hc;l ling of Ihe bell! woman; parable of thl" withered fi g I reO' 32 Paris.gr.51O, f. J 16r: a. healing of dlC blind n1:1n al Siluam : parable uf Ihe widow's mite; b. healin g of [he paralytic al Ca pcrnaurn: rai sing of Ihe widow's son al Naill J3 l'ari.l .gt.)JQ, f. 3J2V: sce nes fro m Ihe life of Cyp ri an H Pari s.gr.5 JO. f. Hor: m an }'rdo m of Ih<: Makkalx-es JS Paris.gr.510, f: H 7": a.-b. sce nes fro m Ihe life of Sa mson: c. G idt'un and Ihe Reece; martyrdom of Isaiah 36 Paris.gr.lJO. [ 35)r: Council of 38 1 37 Pari~.gr.510, f. 360 r: a. tower of B'lb<:l; b. Noah's ark J8 Paris.gr.Slo. f. 367"; sce nes ffom thl' history of the A rians 39 Paris.gr.llO. f. 374": SCl'nes from the life o f Jul ian the Apostate. part I 40 Paris.gr.Sl o, f. 409v: scenes from rh e life of Julian !Ill" Apos1':m·. pan II 41 Paris,gr.slO, f. 424v: a. (Ill of Jericho: h. israel iles· victory ove r Ih e Arn aleki[ es: c. G regory writing 42 Pa ris.gr.510. f. 426v: missio n of the apostl es 43 i'uis.gT.)JQ, f. 43Sv: a. Ihree Heb rews in rhe furna ce: Daniel in Ih e lions' den: h. Isaiah and H C7.c ki ah: Manas.\es 44 Par is.gr. llO, f. 438 \!: Ezl'ki<:l in the valley o f Ihe dry bo nes 45 P,lris.gr.510 , f. 44o r: scenes from Ihe lives ofConsta nlin t and Hdena ,,6 Paris.gr. Slo . f. ,IS 2f: scenes from the Iife of Grego ry of Na7.i'lI l"lUs 47 Paris.gf.l IO. f. 3/611: headpi ece to ' Tu Klt'do ni os' II

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Illustration.< 78 Istanbul, Hagia Sophia: no rth tympanum mosaic. Ignatios Th~ophoros 79 l'aris.g r.54). L j.flv: Gregory of Nnianws and his fadwr widl the citin'ns of Nazia n:ws; GO:J,;ory pr.·;!Ching on the hailstorm So Nomisma. ohverse (Du mharton (hks 2h.,) of 1-:61-:- 1-:79: Chrisl emhroned 81 Istanbul, Hagia So phia: room ovl'f thl' vcstiimk, musaic o(Christ emhroned 82 Istanbul. Hagia Sophia: narthex mosaic. Ch ri st l"Il1hroned bd(.!fl· Basil or Leo VI 83 Istanbul. Hagia Sophia: M.:krl'ton mosaic. noss 1-:4 Rome. Palazzo Venezia: ivory casket. lid 8S Moscow, Historical Musellm, COd.129, r. s8\': Constantine 86 Istanbul. Hagia Sophia: room over th ~ vestihule. mosaic ofConst.lI1[ine 87 Nomisma, rL'W,se (Dumbanon O~ks ,\V I) uf868(?): B;lsill 88 P"ris.gr.9z3. r. nr: Jos~[lh :tnd Pharaoh 89 SeilS, Cathcd,,!1 Trl'asury: ivory cash·!. apOthl'Osis of JO~l'ph ~o Paris.gr.91.J. r. !46v: Samson and [he foxes; Samson slap thl' Philistines 91 Paris.gr.92j. r. t6tv: Moses pra ying; Samson d<.:SHOYS th.:- hOlls<.: of Ih .. Philistill~s: Elijah praying 92 Vat.gr.747. L 251r: Samson destroys tlw houscofthe I'hiliSlin<.:s: burial of Samson 93 Ronl e. P:tb no Vene/.i:!: ivory ca., k<.: l. coro nat ion of David: D,l vid and Goliath 94 l'aris.gr.92.l. f. 80r: Samuel praying: Samud wilh a heiler: anoinl ing of David; Micah d<.:ceives Saul"s messe ngers 95 Ronll", I'alau;o Vl'naia: ivory casket. David cu tS the hem from Sanl"s tunic: anointing of David; David play~ b<.:(or<.: Saul 96 I':tri~.gr.l}~, f. .lv: Jnoillling of David 97 Vat.rt·g.gr.l, L 163r: anoiming of David 98 (a\'u}in: eas t wall. Joshua and till" angel: north apse. Nikephuros I'hobs, T hl'ophano. CIl"sar Bardas 99 Vat.palat.gQ3J, shl'C[ s: fall of Jer icho 100 Oxford. Bodleian Lihr:!fY. MS ROl" 6. f. 4r: H ahakkllk's vision !Ol Vat.gr.746, r. 97r: Jacob's dr.:-am !01 Mou1H Athos, Pamo krator 6 1. f. 161': Cou ncil o(StS IOJ Moscow, H istorical Museum. COd. I ~9, f. {,zv: men .Ii nging in pr.:ti5C uf God; I'entcrost 104 Moscow, H istori<.:al Museum , COd.129. f. 17r: apmdes preaching 105 l'ar is.gr.9!.l. f. 92r: Mallhew. John, Peter 106 l'aris.J,;f.913 , f: 270V; I'alll (retouched) 107 Rome. San Paolo fllori Ie lllUfa: brom.<.: doors with lht" martyrdom of the aposd<.:s t08 Rotll\:. S<ltl I',IOJO fumi Ie nmra: hronze doors. detail. martyrdom of Mark XU I 11 7 11.6

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III,urr.lli"", 10') Jerusalem . CRock Patriarchal Libr:tr),. cod, Saba w8. r. 9 1\': m,tnrrdoms of John. Luk(·. Mark, M:a uh C'w: 1 !.1f!holorm'w, Simon . Thom.u 110 h·los(()w. H islO rical MUSi.:u11l, Cod,119. f, 3}r: David wilh ChriSI and Ih l" Sarn;!rir,lII woman III MoutH Alhos. l'atHokralOr 61, f. 42V: Christ and thl' S:II1l,lril:tll worn:lrl: tile Jews 1;11110 till: ground bdo r(' C hrist 112 NewToblr: Iwalingofrh(' man with rhe witill'red:lr111 113 l'aris.gr.9!}. r. !!lV: C hrist healing rhe dumb man posses~(.J by a demon. rhe 1ll,1n wirh Ihl' wilhered arm. four WOI1WI1. rwo blind men. the luna tic. and the (wo men born blind lI4 l'aris.gr.9l}. f. jOt\': Christ rcia tt'S Ihl' "amble of thl' \\' i(lo\\'s mill' lIS Florence, Lau ren zi:llla plm,G.l}, r. t54V: Christ relates Illl' pa r:lble of lhe widow's Illile 11 6 Fil'SChi, Morgan reliquar),: extl'rior, lid. crucifixion 117 Nl'W ' Iokah: crucifixion 118 r-Ioscow, Histo ri cal Musellnl. C \ Od.129, f. 87r: enrombnll'nt 119 Old 'Ioblt: deposition: l:nt()mbmclH llO Mounl Athos. Panrokrator 61, r. t09r: chairete 121 /vluunt Sinai. Monaslc ry nfSt CUhl'rine. apse mo~;]ic: tran,figur,L tion IH ,\losco\\'. H islOrical ~vl use llrn, cod.n9. f. 8S\': transfiguration III l'aris.gr.91j. r. 69r: cu rse of Ad,lm. Ev('. and. the serpent Iq 1';Lris.gr.I108. f. -t7r: scenes from Ih<' hiswry of Adam :lIld Eve I!S f.,.loscow, HistoriClI MUSI:um, C I19, r. 11 9V: cheruh gllJrd.ing the g.11e Od, of paf'J.dise t!6 l'.Hi~.gr. I!08 . f. 49\': scenes from til<" iliswrr of Adam and En117 Rome, St;] Maria Antiqu:r: J:rcob :tnd Joseph IlS ::'l'm. Cuhe<lul Trl'asury: i.,.o ry casket. Jnseph ap proac'ht:s hi .. brothers 31 DOlhaim; DJ"id and rile- lion t19 Vat.gr.7 46. r lI G,,: Jose-ph cast inlO the cim·rn.Jnserh·, brOII1l'rs bluody 1

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III U>I ral iOlls
1.19 140 I'll 142 14.1 t44 t45 146 [47 148 149 1,0 151 152 15,\ 1)4 1)5 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 16] 164 t65 166 167 168 [69 170 171 Vaueg.gr.l. f 4(,\,: Moses and dle hurning hu.~h : crossing lhe Red Se't Paris.gr.139, r. 419V: crossing tht." Red Sea London. Brirish Lihrary, AddAO.73[, r. Il7r: crossing [he Rcd Sea Moscow, Historical MUSt."UIll, COO.H9, f. lOllT: crossing [he Red Sea Moscow. Historical Museum. cod.ll9, f [4SV; crn.,sing the Rl'd Sea. rh e dance of Miriam Moum Athos. I'antokrator (,1. f tOj\': crossing [ht." Red Sea Moum AdIOS, PantOkralO r 61. f. lO6r: crossi ng the Red Sea. the dancc' of Mirialll Paris.gr.w, f. 16r: crossing Ihe Rcd Sea Paris.gr.HoS. f 149V: G ideon London, British Library. AddAO.73 1. r. SlY: penitence of Da\'id l'ari.~.gr.IJ9 . r. 136v: penirenct" o f David Val .gr.699. 66\': ascensio n of Elijah Moscow. Historical MUM. ulll, coJ.129, f. 41V: ascension of Elijah · P:lris.gr.923, f. l68\'; JlTl'llliah; ascc'l)sion of Elijah Paris.gr.9l;, f 2>7r: Joh's wift." with Joh on his dunghill Vl'nin', Marciana gr.u8. f 2Jr: Job's wife wilh Job on his dunghill VaLreg.gr.l, f 461": Jo h's wife and fri ends with Joh on his dunghill V'1I.gr,699, f 7\r: D,lllici in Ihe lions' dt."n Paris.suppl.gr.610. f. 212\': Habakkuk's Qde Mounl Alhus. I'arl{okrator 61. f. 222r: dUt."e H ehrew., in [ht." fiery furnace Alhens, Elhnike Bibliothekt.", (od.7, r. 216\': sacrifice of Man,ISscs Paris.gr.92], f. 2)2V : Isaiah an d HC'llliah Paris.gr.ll9, f. 446v; Isaiah Jnd H e7.ekiah Rome, S[J Maria AllIiqua: annunciation Romt", Sta Maria Allliqua: annunciation Moulll AdIOS. I'antu kratu r 61, f. 55V: a nnun c i~tion New Tobit : annun ciatio n Moscow. Hiswrical Musellm, COd.JZ9. f. 85r; vis iwtio ll Nt"W lokalt: calling of Peter, Andrew, Jam t"s and John Flort"nce, L:llJl"t"n1.iallJ plu t.6.23. f. 9r: call ing ofPt"tt"r, Andrew, James and John Nt"w Tobll : calling of M Jttbl'w Florence. Laurerl1.iana pllll. 6.2}. f. J7r: calling of Manbcw FlorellCt", burenzi:llla pluI.6.2J, f. 39r: Christ blcsst"s tht" children: ChriSI wilh Ihe rich yo uth: Christ tells tht" apostles .. bout thc kingdom of heaven Paris.gr.92), lllr: Christ bt."aling tbt" lepl."[, the ccnturion's servant, I'eter's Illo ther-in-bw, and two blind nlt"n Moull! Athas, Pall!Okrato r 61. f 144r: Christ healing (be dt"mon iac and rwo OIhers ]40 ]41 HZ ]44 345 346 347 348 HI 3\"J 3Si 357 ;,8 l59 ;62 J6] ;64 ;67 ;68 370 372 J7J 374 377 378 379 ,80 381 ,82 383 38) 386

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slH."plwrds recounr rhe episode as Ch rist and discipk sail away 175 New Toblr: Chrisl healing rllt mall wilh drop"y and Iht' celliurion's ScrV:IIlI; tht' raising ofJairus' daughler 176 ROIllt'. San Saba: Peter reKll~J by Chr i ~1 177 Berlin, SI:urlichc Mus<:en, ivory with Leo VI, rll(" virgin M:lry and an archangel
I'HOTO l;II.AI'I I CII.ED IT S

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393 39R

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jigs. 61, 107. lOt). 127. 1]1. 161. 16J. /16: Romc, Ministero per i heni culturali e

ambieIHali, Istittlw CClHralc pcr il caralogo e b dOClIllI(·1I1a7.ione jig. 61: J. Cledat. /.(' mOllllSffrl' ('( 1,1 I/{hopoll' de BrlOII;I. Memoires de l'institUl frarh,ais d'archcologie orientale du Caire 12 (1904-19°6) figs. 6J. 6f: ROSS;Jnll, Musco Dioccsa no di Art<: SKr:l jig. 66: Mastcr and Fd lows of Corpus Christi Colkge. C lIllbridge jigs. 68. 11). 168. 110, 111. 174: Florcnu:. BibliotcCI Mcdicca-Laurel17:1an:1 jig,.. 69. 102, /II. 120. IJJ. 144. 145. 15t), 164. '1J: by pnmissioll orlhe Holy MOll:mt"ry ofl':lnwkraror. Holy Mounl:lin (Molln( Alhos) figi. 7] . -4: by pnllli .~,io n uf Ihc Holy Monastery ofVatopeJi. Holy Mountain (Muull{ Alhos) jigs. 15-77. 92. 97, 99. 101. 129, IH, Ij), 1j7-1)9. IfO. IH. l f6:. BibliO(('ca Apostolica Vnieln:! jigs. 84, 9J. 9f ROlll l " Palazzo Vellezia jigs. 89. uS: C liche Musecs de SeIlS. L. De Cargolltl fig. 9S: Lyn Radler fig. 100:. Oxford. The Bodleian Library jig•. 109. ljO: Washington Dc' Library of ColJgress jig. 116: New York. MctropolitalJ Museulll of An fig. 121: I'ublished through tht" councs), of Ihc Mi chigan -l'rinn:tun-Akx:llldria Expedition to Moul11 Sinai jig. 1)6: Vicnna. Osterreichische N:nion:!lbibliorhck jig•. '41. 148: by l'("fIllissioll urlhe Brirish LibrJry jig. IJ4: Venin" Biblioreca N:lzionale Marci;llla fig. 15!l. Athms. N:niona! Libr;lr)' (Lconidas Ananiades) jig. 1J7 : SI;la rliche Museen zu Berlin l'rcussischcr Knhurbesil- Musccn fiir l. Sp~r:lIllike llnd Byzantin ische Kunst

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II

Introduction

Gregory of Nazianzlls, th~ fourth-century Cappaaocian church father, was a prolific writer whose eloquence and theology so appealed to the Byzantines that they produced more copies of his sermons than of any other non-scripmral tex i. The ninth-century copy orhis Homilies in Paris, Bibliothequc: National, de France, codex grac:cus 510 provides the full edilion orhis forry-four orations, \ as well as four of Gregory's letters (cwo each to Kledonios and Nc:kra rios), two p('>ems. and two tex ts not written by Gregory at all; rhe anonymous Signiftcatio in Ex~chirkm. and the 'Meraphrase ofEcc1esiastes' now assigned to GregoryThaumaturgos. The vira orGregory ofNazianzlls, written by Gregory the Presbyter, is partially preserved at the end of {he manuscript, where an indeterminate numberofleaves have been lost. Paris.gf.510 is an unabashedly luxurious manuscript. It is large and long, and glitters with colour and gold leaf: most text pages (fig. 47) include at least twO gold or painted initials and indicate imporrant text passages with gilded marginal signs: painted headpieces originally introduced each sermon: and the forty-six mini· atures - which incorporatc ovcr 200 disdnct scenes - are full-pa~, full-colour, and surrounded by gold ordecorated frames. The text itself was written in uncial rather than the faster and more economical minuscule. 1 The evident cxpeme involved, the coordination of labour implied, and rhe overall visual eft~ctof the manuscript arc. however, rarely noted in modern publicadons on Paris.gr.jlO: though the Paris Homilies has been cited more ottcn than any other B)"Laminc manuscript (and probably more often than an y Byzantine mon ument except Hagia Sophia). among the thousands of pages of discussiun o nl y perhaps fifty deal even tangentially with the material attributes of the book. J
'ClI,ual ,,,,di,ion ,~p .... m~d by [':o,i •. gr.jto i, ~on,idercd.later in ,hi, ch.p«,. 'The actual co>! of ,he m.nu.erip, i. unknown; for commen!> on ,he ClIpcmc> incurred in book proJu~'ion. how<;vc'. s<c K.. v;or; (l9'}I). ! Kond.koffll (,891). 57- 74, i, ,h. mo" Iloubl. excep,iun. bu, >« .1'0 Bo,di e , (188j), 6" 89; Franll (1914): Wcip.mann (19lj), 4; Nordenf.Jk (1970). '99: and Brub.ker ('99!). For the extenT of the bibliography un r ..i•. g,.jl0,..., the yearly ii"ing> of m'rlu« ript <ira'ion s in Scr;p'Q,;"m, which
1 Th~

Vi,ion .nd m~.ning in nimh -a.mury By..;tnlium Paris.gr.jIO has been accorded its posidon of prominence for reasons that hav~ littl~ to dowith its quality: it remains on~ of the relatively few Byzantine manuscripts that can be localised and dated with precision, and it co ntainsa vaSt repertoire ofimages. Paris.gr.po contains such a wealth of extended narrative sequences that one of its major roles has been to function as an iconographical repository for modern scholaf$ to draw upon. The miniatures cannot, however, always be seen (as they sometimes have been) as reprC5entative of all-encompassing ninth -ce ntury iconographical traditions. Though the core groupings of many individual scenes repeat conventional formulae, the pe ripheral trapp ings an: often unattested elsewhere; and while this may be an accident of sUlViV'.II, a genuine idiosyncrasy of the manuscript is that the shape of the page as a whole usually affec ts the pn:sentation of th e scenes pictured on It, with co mpositions adapted to complement other scenes on th e page. T he miniatures ofParis.gr.)Io do not necessaril y su ppl y a rdiable iconographical stepping stone; instead. they reveal how and why the visual worked in quite specific circumstances. Paris.gr.jlO was a private book, and its miniatures sometimes deliver perso nal mes.o;ages. It is perhaps for this reason that the meaning of the illustrations in the Paris Gregory only began to be de<.iphered in 1962, when Sirarpie O cr N ersessian published her pioneering study of the relationship betwccn the texts and images of Paris.gr.po and demonstrated that th e miniatures often acted as commentaries on - rather th an direct illustnttions of - Gregory's sermons. Standing on th e shouldef$ of such a giant, I have pushed the material a little further: and, as this is a book rather than an article, I have also been able to conside r th e manuscript from more than one pers pective. These pers pectives all point back to the personalized messages conveyed by Paris.gr. slO, How and why these messages were formed and delivered is the subject of th is book.

COD I COLOGICAL DI!SCR11'TION

In it.S present sta te, Paris. gr. po consists of 464 folios (ca. 4ro x ca. 300 mm) plus an introductory garhering (If. A..-C) of five miniamres,i The manuscri pr is toO fragile
.lmoS! wi,hom fail nme .. Ie: " one new refe...,nce ro the manuscript over , he preading.ix mon,h •. In " Spnharaki, (981), 6-9, the select bibl iography on rari •. gr.jIO lill. two densely packed colum n, of an oversized p.ge; the only o lher manuscripl eve n to approach Ihi • • mount of cillitio n i. the Menologion of Basi l II. Sp,uh.rak.i. included only di",u"ions focused on r..,i,.gT.5lo; Ihere are pc ,hap' len limes .. m.ny pusing ref.reno;c. to the m.nu""ipl . • Though the I..t folio of p..is,gr.jlo is numbered (by. modern hand ) 465, thi. same hand omincd 181. rubli,hed ",wunto of Ihe .ize of Ihe m.nuscripto vary. Omont (1919) , 11 give> 418 x lOS mm; 8Ju~cdt99')' H6,givcs 41 5 x )00. J h.vc not been allowed to me .. urc Ihc manu5Cripl; photograph, comain ing ""I.., however, .uggs.. t thll p:.ge r.nge fro m 404 to 418 mm high. and from '7' to j05 mm wid •.

,i..,

,

Introduction allow unrestricted access; as noted throughoUi thi s book. the Bibliotheque Nationale has never allowed me to handle it. BUI, because the amount of text written on each page is remarkably consistent, the amount of texr missing - as revealed through collarion of the Paris text (on microfilm) with editions of the Homilies published in Migne and Sources Chreriennes - gives a dear and quit e precise indication of how many leaves have rerished. AI least twelve folios, and probably thirteen, have been lost from the body of Ihe manuscript; the end, abruptly cut off in mid-sentence, lacks an indeterminate number of pages. Probably during the fourteenth century, Palaiologan scribes rep laced three of th e lost pages, and inserted the apparently spurious thirty-fifth sermon. (See the diagram of quires: Appendix C.) With few exceptions, the gatherings are arranged in regularquatcrnions. Quire signatures (numbers) appear on the first folio of all but five of the fiftyeig ht qui res; eighteen of these, placed in the upper left margin, are in the ninthcentury hand responsible for the marginalia of Paris.gr.po, and this same band aprended two small crosses, aligned with the rulings determining the left and righ t margins, at the top off. 61r. At a later date - probably during the Palaiologan period - most of the qui re numbers were rewritten . In some cases, the larer signatures were placed below rhe original numbers; in others, rhe ninth-ce ntury numbers were over-written. When rhe manuscript was trimmed, possibly in conjunction with its rebinding in ,601, aU bUI eighteen of [he original signatures were excised; fortunately, most of the later numbers survived. In the quire diagrams that appear in Appendix Co the Greek number below each gathering refers to the quire signature. T hose not enclosed by parentheses Of brackets indicate a signature in the original ninth-cenTury hand; parentheses denote a Palaiologan signature, brackets a hypothetical one. Quire 20 (K), for example, both retains its original signature and displays a later one, while quire 4' (MA) shows no signature. The scribe carefully wrote tht"" text on ruled lea vt""s in twO equal columns of forty lines each (Leroy's ruling WCl),S using a regular uncial with a slight but pronounced slant to the right. Letter forms are generally consistent, Ibough the pointed loop of the alpha.~ does not always join the bar in the same place, the cross-bar of mu may be eit her pointed or curved, and twO forms of xi arc used interchangeably. Slanting uncial of rhe type found in Paris.gr.slO recurs throughout the ninth century; it is, however, nOI common after 870, by which time minuscule - a script introduced around 800 thai was faster to wriTe (and Therefore cheaper to commission) - had become standard. The relative scarcity of uncial by the 880s may explain why palaoographers have 1101 discovered The hand rt""sponsible for the Paris Gregory in any other manuscript: Werner Jaeger's aTtempt to lillk the Homilies with a group of texts associated with Vat.gr.2066 has not met wide
to
s Juli~n Leruy (1976).

}

Vi,ion:rnd m~~ning in ninrh -c~mury Byzantium

a"epran,c} and re,ent ~xaminations of nintil-,enrury sai pt simply ,ite Pa ris.gr.slO as an ~xample of slanting unda L7 The most similar s'ripr that I have found appears in Vat.gt.l625, fr. 216-219, a fragm ent of a text by Theodore of Stoudion. 8 The de,ision 10 use un,ial rather than the more rompaa and les.s ex pensive minuS(; ule pr~umably signalled twO things 10 a late ninth-,elllury audien cr: overt luxury and, by th ~ 880s in Consranrinople, the past. The old-fashioned script reiterated the authority of the tradition that lay behind Gregory's text. Four of the marginal signs that had been associated with Gregory's Hom ilies since th e sinh <:entury supplemem the text (fig. 47).9The original sigla are nearly all formed of gold leaf (a few were added in a da rk ink by a later hand), and ronvey the sa me message as the uncial text: the patron of Pari s.gr.510 followed tradition and spared no expense in doingso. In addition 10 the traditional marginal signs, four homilies ,arry marginal numbers beside Gregory's referen,cs 10 mythology whi,h rorrespond with a 5ixthcentury commemary written by Pseudo-Nonnos.lOThe text, which exists in illustrated versions, II may once have followed the homilies. Spof"adic (and un edited) scholia also appear in the margins. One thousand four hundred and forty-five gold letters and t72 initials with palmed deroration are distributed over the 433 nimh-century text folios; twenty sides - six falling at th e ends of various homilies, with less than one column of text used - are without initials, while many pages have three or more: f. il3v,on tains eleven. In the quire diagrams (Appendix C), the arabi, numbers along the side of ea,h folio indi,ate the total number of painted or gilded initials on that page; if there are two numbers, the lower one signals how man y of these received add itional decoration. On f. 2V, for example, there are no enlarged initials (though there is a rolophon, indica ted by the letter C), whi le on f. 5r there are five; of th ese, one is d aboratdy decorated and the other four arc gold. Fifry-o ne headpieces remain; they are signalled by (he leuer H in the quire di a· grams (Appendix C). All were originally numbered, and the (Greck) numbers are endosed in parentheses immediately bd ow the H marking; bra,kers indka te that the headpiece number no longer survives. Compare if. Ir and 33t. The forry.six miniatures - five prefacing th e text (If. A-C) and forty-one ime· grated or inserred within it - arc indicated by the letter M in the quire diagrams (Appendix C). All will be considered in detail in subsequent chapters.
.. Jaeger ('947), .'p. 9'"""91. J have eumined moo< of the manu.e, ip" in Jacgd. group: ,heir sc lip,. >Te only generally . imil,. !O that ofr.,i, .gr. 110; the layout and deco~~ri<>n quit. different . ; E.g. Cavallo ('977), "'p. 98-99. • Sec J ulien uroy (1961). , Sec ASlfUC (")74) and Mo ....y (t9h) . LO Sec Brock (1971); Declerck (t976, 1977, '9787"9); Accorinti (I,}?O): Nimmo Smith ('99')' " Weitz mann ('911b), 87-1l8.

,Ir.

Introduction
LOCALIZATION AND DATI::

Th~ localization and dat~ ofParis.gr.51O depend on the disturbed first gath~ring of

the manuscrip t (if, A-C). Folio A, now a si ng!~ sheet, originally had ~ bhnk recto: the m~nuscript ~ppar~ntly ope n~d with the portrait of Chris! on f. Av (fig. l) . Folios Band C form a bifolium which rem~ins imact, but has b~en r~v~rs~d.ll T hc miniaturesof th e Empr~5S Eudokia (d. 882; f. Bf: fig. 2), a cross (f. Bv: fig. }), a s~co nd cross (f. Cr: fig. 4), and the Empe ror Basil I (867-886: f. Cv: fig. 5) ar~ now in incorrect hierarchical ord~r: Basi! sho uld come befo re Eudoki a, an a rrang~m~ nt confirmed by th ~ vem: framing the empress's port rai l whi ch begins ' Basil, em peror of th e Romans, pr~coo~s yo u ... '. '3 Thc reversal occ urred while the manuscript was in Byz.antine hands, at some time after the middle of th e tenth century - when th~ minia turist of the Leo Bibk co pied th~ original disposition of {vvo cross~s framing d~dicatory portraits '4 - but before the late founeenth C~llIury, when the verse enframin g f. Br was copied onto f. Av: 15 had th~ original order still been retained, the tra nscri ption would now appear on f. Cv. Folded co rrec dy, th~ bifolium's origina l disposition of a cross (f. Cr), Basil (f. Cv), Eudokia (f. Br), and a final cross (f. Bv) resembles a commemorative diptych with exterior crosses ~nclosi ng portraits. IG Henri Bordier rightly r~jec ted Berna rdu s de Montfaucon's opinion that the initial gathering co nsti wted a lareraddition to the manuscript: 17 epigraphy, colou r, and decora tive detai ls of ff. A-C match thei r counterpartS in the rest of th e boo k. Though all of the frontispiece miniatures are bad ly damaged, the frame on f. Av duplicates th~ alternating quadrilob~s of headpieces on If, }16v (fig. 47) and 427r, and the facial modelling of th~ twO boys on f. Br is so similar to that of the frontal angels on f. 67v (fig . u) that th~y must hav~ been painted by the same hand. IS We cannot divotce the frontispiece minialUrcs from the rest ofParis.gr.51O. The imperial portraits of the frontispiece seque nce provide strong evidence that th e manuscript was produced in Co n srandnopl~, ' 9 and allow us to dat~ it with some precision. Leo and Alexander are d~signated d~spomo n f. Sr,!O a titl e that Leo a ttain~d in 870, and Alexander so metime kfore the midd!~ of November 879: Basil's ddest son Constantine (crowned 867/8), who died in September 879, is nnt
"Stt 0 .. N",~i .n (' 96:). 198; ,h" is wrong, however, in d ..ing .h" rev ......1to tho r60o. rebind_ ,ng. U Stt chap'~' -t . ,. V>< ... g.gr.l . If. !f-JV; Minidill" ('90j), pl •. 3-6; Duf.en ne . nd C.na" (]988), ' 9-10 . Th is rcl.,ionship h., b«n n",,,d by m.ny previou> ",hoi .." >« Ihe di"" ..,ion of If. Bv·Cr in chap •• , 4.
" I wOllld like .0 thank Nancy s,...'len ko for he. hdp in ",nscribing Ihe inoerip,ion, . nd Ihot !;.vlcnko for hi ....i".nce in d.,ing ,hc h.nd fO thc >ccond half o f . he fo""e<n.h ccn,UlY, ,hi! da.ing h., becn confirmed by Charles A"ruc, whom I ,h.nk ror ,,"'mini ng ,he in",i p. ion in December 1986. r~ So too K.I.vr"lo" · M",,,,;ncr ('978), 14. )1 Bordic, (,885) , 61. " The imperi.1 costumc worn on f. Br, ,hough no' iden. ic.l, .ec.ll, Helen., . tti .. on f. ,8j' (~g. 19), to<>_ " Cf. Wil",n (1967) , 57 '" JG.1.vrt70u_Max.inc, ('978).

,

Vision ~nd m~~ning in ninlh-«ntury Byunrium

included in the sequence. Eudok ia, who died shortly after Leo's marriage to T heophano in th e winter of882, appea rs: Thoophano does not. Folio Br must have been painted after Constantine's death and Alexander's coronation in the final months of 879, and before Leo's marriage in 881. and the subsequent death of Eudokia. l l The frontispiece sequence thus indicates that Paris.gr.510 was completed between late 879 and 882. Aslightly earlier dating has been proposed by loannes Spatharakis on th e basis of the underdrawing now visible beneaTh the badly Raked f. Bv (fig. 3), which shows a central imperial male figure jointly crowned by an archangel, standing on the (viewer's) righ t, and a third. hardy revealed, figure on the left.22 The underdrawing anticipates the final composition on f. Cv, and most scholars have assumed that it is a preliminary sketch for that page. a ponrai t of Basil Ranked by Gabriel and Elijah, H Spatharakis, however, identified the underdrawing on f. Bv as a portrait of Basil's son Constantine, and redated th e manuscript's commission to 879, arguing 1 Thar Constantine's unexpected death led to the covering of his portrait by a cross.Z Spatharakis' thesi s was refuted by loli Kalavrezo u-Maxeiner, who noted that Basil's son Constantine, unlike the man on f. Bv, was nevet shown bearded; that to placc the heir-presumptive after his moth er and younger brothers contradicted impetial protocol; and that the reverse of this leaf (f. Br) must anyway post-date September 879 because both the inscription and framing poem identify Alexandet as drcpow, a rank he attained only after Constantine's death. 2s Kalavrewu-Maxeiner is surely correct, and OTher argumems against an identification of the underdrawing with Constantine can be adduced; most basically, there is no reason to connect Constantine with Elijah and Gabriel, while there is ample reason to connect his fath er with th em. 16
1\ Sec IX. Ne". "ian (1961). 198 and, on ,he impli""'iom ofTheoph.no'•• b.. nC<', Mango .nd H.wkins (197<), )7 , Eudokia 'ppea" wilh Con". nlin~ and Ba.il on Whol "",ms 10 be. co mmemOJa· ,i"" coin >truck aft~r her de .. h, and long Const.",inel (Grierson 11 1,1 lt97JJ, 481: fo<icon",I ... , paralld., ..e G,ie,,,,n lIl .1 [197JJ. 8-9). hut Con.tantine's .b.ence: h.", ind;""le. th" cru.. i. nOl a m<mo.ial ..que"ce. U Velmam (1974), fig. 7 (incorreclir I.belled f. A., and with G.b.iel i,lcnlified .. Michael) and Sp.. h. raki. (J974), fig. \ "'p,oduoe d.,ail, of ,h. most vi.ible underdtawing;. line drawing of .dd itiona! troCe5 '1'1""" in Kal . vre-wu-Mucine, (1978) . fig. J. Velman. (1974), '41 - 145. noted Ihe high qu.lity of th. d",wing and 'I"'cul.,ed ,h., • mini .. ."i.. ",hCfWil<C un ... e< ..d in p.,i '_g'_Slo '.,.. r<>pon.;blc. Thi •• eem, unl ikely. as underd .. wing vi,ible elsewhere in ,he manu$Ctipt il equ.lly fine; it wo •• pp.rcntly ,i mply mo'e difficult '0 pain' ,han '0 d",w derail. The question of why de",il roon 10 be ob$Cured was d",wn ., .ll ,emaim. " Spa,haraki. ('974). H Sec further the diKu ..ion off. Cv in ohaple, 4. ' j KaI,v'e<ou.Maciner (t978), Sp.lh ... ki, ([1989], 89-9J ) la,c' .peculned "' •• Alexander mighl h.ve been crowned btforc 879, Ih .. Conslanl;ne wa, of .ge by 879 and ,hus could h.ve been .hown bearded . • nd Iha. Euduki. was pl.ced befu.-c Con.",n,ine btcausc _ as i. gonerally 'gr..,d (..., e.g. Mango [1 97J]) - •.he was not hi. mOlh .., He .1", .!lgg.... that ,he manu""ip' wa5 commissioned by. dono, in the ci,d~ of ,he emp.-c ... Sp.,hanki' propo •• d "rangem.", rem.ins vi '''"lIy umh;nkable in !C.m, of ,h. Byzanline impe,ial hierarchy. MSec <h'pler 4.

.f..,

6

lntroduCiion Paris.gr.SIOwas, then. completed in Constantinople between 879 and 118l for the Emperor Basil I and his family. This locates the manuscript in the midst of a crucial half-century in the annals of B)7.antium: years of economic recovery, and of rdigious consolidation following the end of Iconocl~sm, the imperial policy that officially banned rdigious imagery between ca. 730 and 787, and again from III} (or 1115) until 843. The Paris Gregory is, in fact, the only sc<u rdy dated Byzantine manuscript from the second half of the nimh century, and it is the fitst surviving illustrated book produced for a Byzantine emperor.

PRO DUCT I ON AND DISTRIBUTION OF LA BOUR

The production of Paris.gr.slO was well organi7-c:d, and the same process was used consistently throughout the book. When an enlarged initial was ro appear. the scribe paused to outline il before cominuing with the text; the ink outline of the initial is clearly visible in severallellers where the paint has Aaked, and this outline must have been completed before the adjacent text was written, for the text flows smoothly around its contours. Further, we can still decipher exac tly where the scribe dipped pen in ink, and the pattern formed by the progressive lightening and then abrupt darkn ess of the ink demonstrates that the scribe wrote th e text continuously; there was no need to pause to block in an initial, for its oudine was already thereY The enlarged letters are thus integrated within the text, ~ process that coincides with a change in the location (and imporrance) of the ini tials. In earlier Byzantine manuscriptS, enlarged letters appear at th e beginning of a naturally occurring line of ten: ro signal a particular passage, the scribe would enlarge [he first letter of the next line of text. IS In Paris.gr.po, with two exceptio ns among more than 1600 initials, the firs! letter of the passage to be marked received the enlarged letter; when an initial was required, the scribe began the passage ro be marked on a new line.1?The increased status of the enlarged letters is confirmed by their embellishment, in paint or gold leaf, in a separate process after the text had been completed: the paint on the far right edge of a painted inirial is occasionally superimposed over the text. The writing and th e painting were clearly distinct processes, and th e scribes.seem not to have anticipated elaborate ornament: even when initial terminal dc<orations ate quite extensive, they never infringe on th e [ext space, for no space was left for them by the scribe. The autonomy of th e two ptOcesses, and the distinct approaches to th e initials taken by the (conservative) scribes and the (some times fbmboyalll) illuminators, suggest that, in an apparem break from earlier Byzamine practice, lhe scribes were not responsible for the embellish" I ,h.nk Mid•• d McCormick ror ,hi, ob",,,,,uion . .. See Bmb •• • r ('99r), 16-l7.

7

VISion and m~an; ng in ninlh-untu'}' Byzamium

ment of the enlarged initials. Pa ris.gr., lo seems to provide our earliest evidence of an aUlOnomous group of illuminalOrs. h is also the first datable and unquestionabl y Byunrine manuscript with paimed inilials. A de~ikd study of these inilials has appeared dsewhere,lO and will nOl be repc:oued here. The illuminators also painted the dceofalive headpieces (fig. 47) tha t once prefaced each of Gregory's sermons: initials and headpieces share th c motifs of th e st riped ca ble, multi-coloured rows of heam, five-lobed leaf decoration, and an unusual palmette form , as well as ma n: common jewdled pands. However. in only o ne instance - Ihe miniature and incipit initial {o 'On EaSIer' (fr. 285r- v) - are the non-figural dn:orations visually coo rdinated with a miniature. Further more, the visual vocabulary used by the miniaturists the mselves d iffers from that used by the ill umi nators: the blessing hand of the hand -ha5ta epsilons (fig. 47) is, for example, in v;l{iably shown with Ihe palm facing in ward; in COntrast, the- miniaturislS consistently d ected to revc:rse th e blming hand, an d dJ"C'W them with the palm exposed ro {he viewer." Not onl y, th en, do the illuminators seem to have been distin ci from the scribes; they also seem to have- been distinct from the miniaturists. There seem to have been at leas t three illuminators, most conveniently di stinguished by a predilectio n for a particular type of terminal desce nder: trilobe (three small circles attached 10 the base of a lettet). grape cluster, or foliate scroll. The ttilobe decoratio n reveals a patte rn of allocation in the fi rst quarter of the manuscript, wh ere trilobe: initials appear in every third quire: J2 at Ie-a.n al the beginning of production, quires were far med out to the illumi nators following a fairly regull r syste m, and th e painter of the t{ilobe: inilials received every third quire. Collaboral io n between the illuminatOrs was apparently loose, fo r initial forms are neither homogeneous nor consistem, and a \'ariety of lener shapes (twO forms of mu, for example) appear. TllI:ore is no evidence thai the illuminators formed part of an es~bliihed scri ptorium. nor do any other manuscripts reveal their contrib ulions either solo or collectivdy.

THE I'HYSICA L RELAT I ONS ItII' BETWEEN TEXT AND MINIATU RE 5

After the five- miniature frontispiece u=que nce that cdebrata; ChriSl's blessing of the Empctor Basil I and his fam ily (fr. A-C), most of the illuSlr:1.tions in Paris.gr.po arc full y integrated into the fabric of the manuscript: the end of the preceding sermon or the beginning of the following one occupies the: other side o f thirty-two of the fony-one text miniatu res. Theconrinui ty of the text ensures that these mini at ures retai n their original loca tions a.nd preserve the inte-n ded disposition of tex t
10 Brubaker ('99' ); he .. . 00 urli~r bibliography. ~'s.,e If. 5lV, 71r, 87". !64v• .n8v (figs. 10 . '~. ,6.18. +4}. II Two in qu i... two and live. one in qui re ~ighl, Ihr(e ill quir< dcvcn and two in quire loun«n.

8

Introduction and jm~ge , 'I'his ~rrangement simplificti matters for modern interpreters, but it has nor been kind TO the miniaTUres: painting on ruled parch ment encourages Raking, and the images are often badly damaged, Presumab ly for this reason, full-page miniaTures were more normally painted on un ruled leaves that were inserted into the tex t. 33 Apart from Paris,gr,Slo, the exceptions usually appear in manuscripts where mos t of the illustrations are nO T fullpage: for example, pictures incorporated within the rext dominate the early fifth -century Vatican Virgil, and the occasional fu ll-page miniatures have TeXT on th eir reverse,3' Another exception is provided hy the sixth-century Vienna Dioscorides, a herbal with each full -page plant miniature facing a page of explanatory texr: rhe miniatures thus have the text belonging to the previous image on th eir reverses. The Vienna Dioscorides, howeve r, was a deluxe presentation copy; herbals did nO! regularly contain fu ll-page illustrations,3~ Like the full-page miniatures in the Vatican Virgil, those in the Dioscorides deviate from a tradition of smaller pic. Tures inserted in the text. Paris.gt.510 apparently continues this pattern. No other illustrated copies of Gregory's se rmons usc full-page illustrations: in all other copicti, the image always shares a page with text (figs. 48-55, 79, 100) . The integral min iatures in th e Homilies perpetuate the integrated format normally used for illustra ted copies of the text. It is possible that in Par is.gr.510 the retention of the integrated formal represents a bow to tradition, for the miniaturists demonstrably knew about painting On unru led and inserted sheets: the fronti spiece sequence is unru led, and eight or nine miniatures in the body of the manuscript were painted on inserted single leaves, unruled, and with blank bac ks.J.6 The first ten miniaTUres, in fact, follow this system: after the five frontispiCi:e mi niatures, five imerted leaves with miniatureS on one side and a blank reverse appear in the first seven quires of the manuscript. There are no integral miniatures until th e eigh th gathering, wh ere f. 67
hw full- p.~ mini.,ure! p.oou,rd in ,h~ ~""~tn M,di"tfan~.n I>.fo", (0. during) ,h. nimh ",ntu.y .urvi'e; . hose Ih" do. huwev .., ,,"ually .h. ,.., ,h~ir I~.f wi.h . noth~r mini •• ur~ (a. in .he ,ix.hc~n.ury R..bbul. and Ro" .no (;o'pd$) o r were painted on unruled leav", ,hat rcmainrd blank on .he ""v'''''', ~.g . •he nint h-<:entury miniatUre> ofP,in",ton, Garnott 6 .nd the fronti.piece tu ,he Khludov I'.al t~" [..:oter BY'.ntine . u mpl .., t"", . lmo't.lw.),", follow thi. fo'mub , ... do pre,te nth ,century La.in bool", e.g. the .ixth- or seventh_eemury Ashburnham Penta,euch. ,he ocvcnth - and eigh th<emu.y in,ul.. go.pdbooks, th~ .ighth.antury Vesp.,i.n l'<altcr, and the ninth_«nt uty '!outoni.n Bible •. " O n (he full·p.gede .. h of Dido in the Vatican Vi.gi l (elA, [19Hl, nO.lt; h!.l. ,.,,21. f. 40.). p.in"d in Rome ca. 400. >« Weitzm.nn (''In), }6. In (h. nimh-<:~mury ·Ch,i"i." Topography' (v.t.g,.699). eight.en "f the ,i"y-on. mini . "" ", ar. full -p.ge (If. 'IV }S •• "'V. 41'. 49'. Ilf. )9'. 6,v. , 63v, 66v, 7"', 7)', 76 ., hv, SJv, 89" "4V, "IV); .bou, half were p.in(cd on unruled ,h..... ,j G.,stinger (t979); And."on (1 977). ,. S« the n<'X( nore. Q uire 47 i, p'obkmari.; i, , • • ,.inly h.. on., and possibly tWO, in.. "ed mini .tu'.. ,
JJ

9

Vi,ioll

~nd m~allillg

ill

ninth-{~ntllry Byzamium

comains the end of Gregory's sermon 'On Peace' on its recto and a miniature on its versQ,37 The insertion of unruled leaves containing full-page miniatures into regular text gatherings is common in Byzamium,l8 but the combination of TWO systems of illust[;uion found in Paris,gr.slO, inserted and integral, is so unusual that the break beTWeen Ihe two systems in thecighrh gathering mUSt indicate adecision to change the format at this poim, It is however hard to imagine reasons for switching from inserted to integral minialUres: inserted leaves allow greater flexibility (scribes and paimers can work independemly) and provide a smooth surface that takes paint more easily, while the integrated formal fo ll owed from f. 67 onward required the precise coordination of scribes and miniaturists and imposed an uneven ruled surface on lhe painters, The shift is unlikely to have resulted from an abrupt decision to trim production costs: in a book the length ofParis,gr,S'o, the sixreen folios (eight bifolia) saved by imegrating the miniatures would have had little financial im pacL Were cost-cutting th e issue, full -page miniatures are un likely to have been included at all and each new sermon would nOt begin on a fresh page, often leaving considerable empty parchment on the final page of the prcreding homily, instead and especially given the care with which Paris,gf,Slo was produced - the change in format &Cems to document a rad ical change in plans, Thischangeoccurred after the scribes had already begun work on the teX[ and had completed the first six homilies, meticulously outlining the enlarged initials for the il luminators but neglecdng to leave blank sides for miniatures, Since the scribe,.; habitually left a blank side for a miniature before each sermon from the eighth quire On,l' it seems reasonable to assume that they wefe only told to do so after they had completed the first seven quires. Either the designer of the manuscript at first forgot to tell the scri bes to make accommodations for pictures, or the design of the manuscript itself was revised in m~dias us, Both possibilities ~re co nceivable, The careful design otherwise evident throughout the manuscript suggests , however, that the shift in forma t reAects a genuine change in plans rather than the correction of an oversight. If so, the decisio n to illustrate Gregory's sermons was mad e only as the scribes began the eighth gathering, While the coherem and self-comained fromispicce .sequence might Ot might not always have been in tended, it appears thal Paris.gr.5IO may not originally have been conceived as an illustrated text, Whatever prompted the change in plans, miniatures were inserted into the first seven quires; th ereafter, the
II All of , h. inserted I•• v., _ f. 3 in ,he lin" qui~, If, 30 and p in the founh, f, ~ J betw •• n ,h.lif,h and .ix,h, f, j1 ktw<:<:n ,h. ,ix,h and ..:ven th, f. 347 in quire 44, f. )67 or (and?) f. J74 in quire ~7, and f. ~3S in quire SS _ di"upt the regul" qu ... rn io n sy".m u",d throughout P"i •. gr.5'o. Sec Appendix C. J.t Se. notOl) .oove, " Th •• '''''plion. are 'On him",]f' (Homily .6), which w;u un iltu.nated (= page 11 ) •• nd , h.l.n.r to Engri"', now p rcf.."cd by an inserted miniature (f, ~J sY) that su.taim nO rd ation,hip to th.letter and may well allO originally have bc.:n unillu", ..cd (= "bapt.r a), On ,h. probl.m~tic quite ~7, "'. App"ndix C.

'0

lmroouerion scribes left aside free for a miniature before most sermons and th e traditional, integrated format of Homilies illustration was fol lowed for the rest of the manu5l:ript. Once the die was cast with the first integral min iature on f. 67r, the following twenty-three miniatures share a leaf with either the end of the preceding sermon or the beginning of the neX! one. The system breaks down , however, in quire 44; though a space WaJ; left for a miniature (f. 346r is blank), f. 347 isan inserted leafwith a miniature all its verso. Inserted leaves can of course be moved without disrupting the text, and this may in fact not have been the original location of the miniature; its alternative site, however, follows thc same pattern: it precedes a recto left blank for illustration (f. }19r in quire 41) .'0 Whether Ihe lapse in ,he inregraHxl system occurred in quitc 41 or quire 44, su bseqUClll miniatures are integrated until quire 47, where again a page left blank for illustration (f. 366t) was ignored and a leaf with a miniature on its verso tipped in (f. 367). There is one more inserted miniature (now f. 4}5r in quire 55), th e original location of which is unclear; the remaining seven miniatures that follow f. 367v are all integrated. If the miniatures were painted more or le55 in the order they appear, perhaps the three inserted miniatures that appear toward the end of the manuscript wefe painted separately in order that the scribes, ill u m inalOrs and miniaturists could complete their work at roughly the same time.

S E RMOl'S WITHOUT ILLUSTRATIONS ANO

LOST

MINIATURES

Of the homilies now without miniatures in Paris.gr.51O, only one was clearly never illustrated: 'On himself' (ff. 13IV- 238v) could nOI even ha\'e supported an inserted minialUre, for the text of Ihe preceding sermon ends on the recto of its opening text page. Three texts, all in the third quarter of the manuscript, follow a blank page: the empty f. 149V faces 'On (he nativity' ; f. 308v, 'To Nektarios'; and f. }19r, 'On Athanasios'. These blank pages were apparently intended to receive illustrations that were never painted. It is possible that miniatures were once inserted b.:fore these thr~e texts, for aJ; we have just seen the inserted miniatures on fr. 347 and 367 follow blank pages, and the former may in fact have preceded 'On Athanasios', leaving the blank f. 346v befOre the sermon ' In praise of Heron' that it now prefaces. Though there is no way of telling whether or not Ih~ illustrations were actually completed, the folios on which six additional miniamres could have been painted have ~n cxcis<:d at the beginning of the following sermons: 'On peace' : the original text now begins on f. 63r; (he lost rwo paragraphs (sufficimt for a single sid~, leaving a blank recto) were replaced in, probably, the fourtc.:nth century.
"' St"Cch.pt<r~.

"

Vi,ion ~ nd m~ming in nimh-eentury By""ntium 'On the Son' I: a folio is missing lxtwcen ff. r87 and i88: its recto originally contained the final words of the preceding so::rmon: its verso could have conuined a mlllJature. 'On the Holy Spirit': nearly si x paragraphs from the beginning of the text are lost: with headpiece 23, this text would have filled three: sides of the bifolium lost from the middle of quire 26 between the present ff. 204 and 1O'j. The first of the four sides (origina ll y facing f. 204v) was not needed for text and could have contained a mini ature. 'On Virginity'; a fo lio is missing between If. 21} an d 214: its recro originally contained the final words of the precedingso::rmon: irs verso could have contained amllliarure. 'On light': f. 256 is a fourteenth-ce ntury inSeH that contains the final wo rds of the preceding sermon. T he lost folio (half of a bifolium, with f. 261) would have accommodated this text on its recto; its verso could have contained a minIature. 'On New Sunday': a folio is missing betwt'en ff. 297 and 298: its verso ona: contained the opening paragraphs of the homily; its recto could have contained a mllllature. In all of th est: cases the relevant folios might have bee:n removed to acquire the miniature. However, in each of the three (au'S where the end of the preceding text is lost, very little text - the final paragraph or only pan of it - would have been written on th e reero. Such almost empty pages were habitually pilfered fo r their blank parchment by late r scribes, and rhis may be an equall y plausible explanation for those leaflosses. If so. no miniatute evet occupied the verso, and 'On the Son r, 'On virginity' , and 'On light' were once preceded by a blank page meant for an ill ustration that was never painted.

HISTORY OF TH E MANUSCR iPT

We know very little about the history ofParis.gr.51O after it was made. Neither its decoration nor its miniatures had a great effeer on later Byzantine an outside of a small circle of manuscripts produced in Constantinople, and probably for members of the co urt and patriarchate: the Paris Gregory had limited and c'li te viewers. Yet the manuscript surdy remained in the capilal and was in at least occasional use unril the late founeenrh century, the dale of the latest B)'7,amine additions to the manuscript. 41 It had moved west by the carly sixtee: nth cemury. and is variously listed as number 129, IS and 1}2 in catalogues of the library of Cardinal Nicholas Ridolfi (nephew of Pope leo X): Omont plausibly suggested that John
. 1 S« "OIe!1

.oove.

Introduction

Lascaris acquired the manuscript in the late fifteenth century on one of his buying trips to Constantinople after the Turkish conqueSt. From Ridolfi, Paris.gf.510 passed {O Pietro Srroni, and rhen, around 1558. 10 Catherine de Medici;· it entered the Bibliotheque du Roi in IS94. Here it was rebo und in 1602, and recdved its present cover bearing the arms of Henry I V. After a series of other appellations (no. 15) [ClV] in 1622, no. 1809 in 1682) it beca.me graews SIO in T740:H h remains one of the mOM precious manuscripts owned by the French slale (which wok over the Royal Library after the revolution ) and, because of its fragile state, is jealously guarded from use.

PARI5.GR.SIO AND OTHER ILLUSTRATf.O MANUSCRIPTS OF CREGORY'S HOMILIES

Gospels and psal ters, the primary biblical works used in th e liturgy, make up the bulk of all B)'"l-:llltine illustrated manuscripts. T hough lack of wear suggests that many of the most heavily decorated were displayed rarher than used, it was nonetheless putative service books Ihal were normally produced as luxury items.-13 A sdection of Gregory's Homilies, tOO, was recited over the course: of the liturgical year in the orthodox church. Some are already incorporated in the ninth-century typikon of the G reat Church (Hagia Sophia) ana attes ted in a ninth-centurycolle:cdon of sermons associated with IilllTgical feaSTS, bm the definitive sdection and arrangement of sermons for liturgical us e seems {O have occurred in the tenth century:" Though the circumstances of their recital are not entirely dear, the socalled liturgical editions of the Homilies (called by the B}'"lantine:s rhe 'read words') comprise about half of all extant Gregory manuscripls.·~ This is also the group most commonly illustrated (figs. 79, 100): George Galavaris catalogued Thirty-six copies of the 'read' Homilie:s with illustrations, the ea rliest of which date to the eleventh centucy.'6 In contrast, Paris.gr.slO is one of the three earliest examples of the full edition of Gregory's works, a group Ihal makes up only about one per cent of all pr=:rved manuscripts of the Homilies. Only two of the surviving copies of the full edition received illustrations: the Paris Gregory and a manuscript, also of the ninth century, in Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana, cod. E.49/S0 inf. (figs. 48- 5S). Both illustrate the set of Grtgocy·s sermons called the 'collection of fifty-two'
" Omont (1919). 10-11. On expo" of Greek m.nuK,ip" to ir.ly in ,he fifteenth cen.u ry, >« R. Nd",n (1991). " Se<: lowden (' 990), :63- .80. .. Sec G,I,vari,1t969), 9-10 . • j He ... lId in ,.m.ind.r of ,hi. p...graph [ ,ely 011 I. rgely unpubli,hed materi.1 p,,,,,ided hy F., her J ustin M"""y, whom T,h.n k for numerou, diKu"ion, of rhe Homil ico .ext ... di.ion. The pre_ limin.ry .nd b..i. otudy of rhi , .radition rem,in, Sinko (t917, (913), wh".., eo ndusion$ 1rC in the proces, of king r".. i..,d .. work progrco, •• on .h. minor edirion of .he Ioga; in Pari. (intermittently publi,hed in SCI and the m,jor edi.ion being prep.red in louv.in. <-6 Gabv.ri. ( ' 'J6?) tcl"oduc.d mo" of the mini.,ures.

,h.

,h.

'3

Vision and

m~aning

in nimh-century Byuntium

(known a'l 'family n' to teXT scholars); the other early group of Gr~gory manuscripts, the 'collection of forry-scven' ('family m') has no illustrated members,·7 Th~ illustrations in these twO manuscripts are quite different from those in the liturgical editions, the miniatures of which. like the pictures in many gospel books and psairers, responded ro public rituals. Tht" so-called liturgical homi lies differ from the Paris Gregory both textually and pictorially: in no case can a convincing parallel bet.....een a miniature from the litutgical editions and one from Paris.gr.510 be drawn:16 The Milan manuscript is the sale copy of the Homilies with illustrations that cver n:semble those ofParis.gf.5lo. The connection between the two ninth-century manuscripts is not, however, straightforward. Their texts arc far from idt"ntical. Though both belong to the 'family n', this family ha'l a confusing stemma, and the Milan and Paris Gregories often present variant readings that are at odds with each other.·? Generally speaking, the Milan manuscript is considered a better wirness 10 the original text than is Paris.gr,jlo, and indeed the Paris Gregory often stands isolated from all other manuscripts in its readings and the order in which the .sermons arc arranged. so Someone (Photios?) extensively edited the text. In the opinions of its various editors, Paris.gr.510 nevenhdess preserves, after the Milan Gregory, the best witness to the family; and it .\.Cems that a text very like that prt"servcd in Milan was copied, with modifications. by the scribes ofParis.gf.FO. We do not know when Gregory's Homilies first received illustration, but the fact that the two oldest copies with miniatures belong to the same text family hints that if an earlier illustrated manuscript existed it probably belonged to 'family n'. While nothing in either of the ninth-cemury copies conclusively demonstrates the existence of an older illustrated text, comparison of the few scenes shared by Paris.gr.510 and thc Milan Gregory suggestS that the miniaturists of both were sometimes inspired by - or at least familiar with - similar picture$ in more ancient copies of Gregory's .\.Crmons. The Milan Homilies contains almost 250 marginal illustrations, nearly all composed as hlack ink drawings filled in with gold, with touches of ted paint (figs. 48-55). \t The miniatures respond directly to the text, though narrative episodes arc often reduced either to thci r essential components or to a portrait of the major protagonist. The only images not inspired directly by Gregory's words arc the extended author portraits that preface most of the sermons; these show Gregory delivering the homi ly (the first words of which are usually inscribed on ascroll he holds), often
. , The ne!;'Otive ""idence i. preoented throughout ,his book. ~ See , he comment:! in SC '47, H-6S; SC '70, >5- ,6. 32; SC 3"9, 67-80; SC 3,8, 64- 73. '" For Mil.n •• ec esp. SC 31S, 64- 65. 73; for Paril, $CC «p. SC '70, 15- ,6, J1 and SC 31S, 70-7). " Gr>bor (19430.) published nearly.1I of the preserved mini .. urel .nd connected them with the rdeva", pa..'>g« in ,he PC edition of ,he Homili.. (note, however, rhat pI. V.I corre'ponds with PC 35:4'0-421 . not 460: .nd pI. X" oorrc.ponill with PC }5:1156. no, 115); fot culout reproduCtions, SCt Cav.llo (19Sz). figs. 46.-.67.

., Sci: Bern.rdi in SC '47. jJ_6S.

'.

1ntroduCliun
to a group of p<:ople and occasionally with the subject of the sermon pictured

alongside. Though universally agreed to beor Ihe ninth century, the Milan Gregory has never h«n dated with further precision; it has been attributed to a number of provincial locales, most recent ly to B)I'Lantine ltal y.~l The manusc ript has been hadly treated: rebindings have left the text disotdeted, and nearly as many of its marginal images h;lve been excised as still remain. Sometimes we can still identify a losl figure or scene through its remaining inscription: for example, the titulus IC XC Ranks excised medallions on PI" 506 and 662, Peter once appeared on p. 129,John the Baptist on p. 199, Mo~s on p. 639,Abraham and Jerem iah on p. 660, Cyprian's beheading on p. 351, J~cob's muggle with the angel on p. 422, and th eanastasis on p. 54+ Several times-as, for example, on pp. 69 and 133 - the shape of the excision and its location at th e beginning ofa new ser mon suggest that a preaching scene was excised, and sometimes the location of an excision furnishes a cl ue as to the original subject matter presented. But most often there is nothing left to indicate the intended subject or the excised image; and wh en, as occurs throughout the manuscript, whole margins have been removed, there is no way of knowing whether the strip was removed for its unmarked parchment or for the images that may have been painted on it. While we may speculate that the Mi lan Gregory originally contained about twice as many images as now .survive, we can detetmine the subject maHer of only a handful of these now-lost pictu res. The Milan miniatures that are preserved differ radically from those in Paris.gr.510 in their style and function. While the M ilan Gregory recalls the ninthcentury Sacra Paraikln (Paris.gr.92J ) in its margin~l, gold forms arranged in abbreviated scenes or preseme<l as portraits (figs. 58- 60, 64, 88, 90, 91, 94, 105, 106, 113.114, 123, 152, 153, 160, 172),\3 the technkal quality of the Milan manuscript is far below that of th e Sacra Paralklnand, unlike (hat of the la tter manuscript, its somewhat cursory style does not demonstrate even tangential t ies with that of Paris.gr.5Io. Funher, rather than pres~nting exegetical supplements to Gregory's s~rmons as does Paris.gr. po, th~ Milan miniaturist drew inspiration directly from the text. Though by their vcry presencc the Mi lan images authenticate or validate textual descri ptions, So( and like all miniatures reframe the words that they accompany. thcy do nOt self-consciously expand the meaning of Iho~ words ro create visual commenraries. On the surfau, i, would appear that the only featu re Ih~ two copits of the Homilies share is their 'family n' text. The differenus betw~n the ways that the painters of the two manuscripts handl e images, however, make those visual parallels that do appear doubly significant. Th es~ parallels are of three types. First, although mosl of the Mihn marginal poHrairs accompany passages that
"C.""lIo (,977), ror-In); G .. b.. (197.),

.0-.,; c..v.llo ('98», S06-soS.

"Wei<1.m. nn (1979') reproducw the mini.rures . .. Sec Corrig. n (1991), 11il-1!9, '38; .nd. on the u>c "fim.go< to v.lid ..c. text. ch.prer I.

"

Vi,ion and

m~aning

in ninrh-..;enrury Bytantium

did not inspire illus{r;nion in Par is.gr.51O. these passages were often marked by {he Pari5 scri be with an initial or marginal sign. T his suggesrs eithe r that th ese were simply th e obvio us passages 10 sign. or that the makers of both manuscriptS had before them a copy of Gregory's Homilies that flagged these same phrases with an image - as in the Milan copy - or a margi nal notation, as in Paris.gqiO. The marginal notations th at habitually accompany Gregory's sermons from at least the sixth cenlUry have been catalogued, but not fully coordinated with {he se rmoo s.~~ Comparison of a selection of the homilies suggests tha t the correspondence between th e passages marked in the M ila n and Paris Homilies goes beyond the remit of traditional scribal notations, but only further work on the annotations will permit predsion on this point. The second type of paralld is found in instances whete the Paris Homilies shows a narrative composition tha t centres on a figure who is represented by a portrait in th c Mi lan co py: Abraham's aborted sacrifice of Isaac on f. 17 4 V (fig. 23), for example. responds 10 a passage in Gregory's sermo n next 10 wh ich the Milan painter placed a bust of Abraham. ~ But because the function of the illustra{ions in the two manuscripts is so d ifferent, it is unusual 10 find the same passage illustrated with the same narrative scene in both books. The third type of parallel - formed of the images {hat su rvive in the Milan Gregory, where so man y crucial narrative sce nes have been excised, and recur in the Paris Homilies, a manuscripr almost diametrically opposed 10 th e Mi lan copy in its sryle and the role of its miniatures thus takes on particularweight. Fi ve miniatures in Paris.gqlO find echoes in the Milan G regory. and fi ve more illustrate Ke nes that inscriptions demonstrate were excised from it. The five scenes or groupings tha t the twO manuscripts still share will be considered in detail in later chapters; they are simply listed here: t Gorgonia's death , illustrating Gregory's funeral oration to his sister in the Pa ris (fig. 9) and Mila n (fi g. 49) Homilies. Tbough much of th e Milan image is missing and th e figure of Go rgoni a is reversed, the groupings and architeCTure at each end of the deathbed are th e same in hoth manuscripts. z Gregory and his father, illustrating the historical circumstan ces tha t prompted the first oration 'On peace' in Paris (fig. 10) and Milan, Ambrosiana E.49/S0 inf., p. uS. In th e only biographical scene inserted on this page in Paris.gr.po. the twO Gregories stand together as they do in {he Milan manuscript. It is the inclusion of the pair at all in Paris.gr.po that is no table; the surrounding composition does not appear in the Milan manuscript. 3 The trip le portrait of Gregory, Basil. and Gregory of Nyssa accompanying 'To G regory of Nyssa' on f. 7 1V (fig. I)) of rhe I'aris Gregory and p. 1)8 (fig. 51) in the Milan text; here. again. it is the indu5ion of the trio on f. 7 1V that re<::alls the
"Sttch.pt<fS·

,6

Introduction Milan manuscrip t. Paris.gr.jIO frames the figures and joins them with an image of Job; both features are lacking from the Milan Homilies. 4 Julian's visit to the demon, illustrating rhe first 'I nvective against Julian' in Paris. gr. po (fig. 39) and Ambrosiana E.49/'jO info (fig. 53). Both books prese01 an extensive narrative scene that, aside from the reversal of the two major figures, is virtually identical in rhe tWO versions. The most imporTam difference is Ihal in Paris.gr.5Io tWO historical details have been added. 5 The portraits of Basil and Gregory of Nyssa ill umaring rhe second 'lnvecrive againstJulian' on f. 409V of th e Paris manuscript (fig. 40) and p. 785 in the Mi lan Gregory (fig. 55). T hat the pair, .scemingly unmotivated in the Paris scene which relics on Pscudo-Amphilochios' Life of Basil rather than Gregory's sermon - appear in th e Milan manuscript, where Gregory's oration is rhe sole teKwal . . . . tnsplra(!on, suggests a conne.:;(!on. Except for Ju lia n's visit to the demon, these are all biographical scenes or portrairs of the sort habitual in the Milan Gregory but morc rarely found in Paris.gr.5 Io. Their duplication thus suggests some SOrt of affiliation, but this suspicion is strcngthencd only by rhc narrative of Julian's visit to the dcmon. T his is by far the most significant of the shared images, for it is the only one [hat exrends beyond portcaiturc; it is also - if only bc:cause it is a narrative sccne with a relative wealth of shared incidemal detail - the most convincing link between the twO manuscripts. Thc abbrcviatcd nalllre of most of thc scencs that the m'o manuscripts share makes the Milan excisions of narrative scene~ that would help define the relationship between Paris.gr.slO and the Milan Homilies particularly frustrating. The sce nes in Paris.gr.510 for which preserved inscriptions do<:utnent lost images in the Milan Gregory i[Justrate: t 'On the plague ofhai!': the incipit miniature in the Milan copy has been excised ftom p. 146. Most i ncipi t miniatures show Gregory preachi ng to a groupof monks, but sometimes the image is more specific. Gregory's sermon on rhe Makkabees in the Milan Homilies, for example, shows Gregory preaching beside twO rows of figures: the bollom row represent~ the audience; the lOp row portrays the subjects of the sermon. 57 Elsewhe re, Gregory preaches against Julian the Apostate in the centreofthecomposition, Aankedon oneside by his audience (in thisca;;e agroup of monks) and on the ot her by his subject, J ulian .1~The excised miniarure on p. 146 thus presumably showed ei ther Gregory preaching or, as in P~ris.gr.510 (fig. 15), Gregory preaching with his father by an image of the hailstorm. 2 'On theology': [he miniature ofJacob's struggle wi th the angd, identifiable by its preserved inscripTion, once appea red on p. 4:2-2 of the M ilan manuscript; the scene recurs. with an identical inscription, on f. [74V of Paris. gr. 510 (fig. 23).
" G",b>r (r'J"')' pI. XXIX.

" Ibid .. pI. LXVII .1.

'7

Vision and meaning in ninrh-cenlUry Byzantium

3 'On Pemecost': this scene, identified by inscription, most unusually once prefa~d Gregory's sermon in the Milan copy (p, 577) as it docs, on f, 30n (fig. 30). in Paris.gr·510. 4 'Against the Arians': all of the relevant scenes have been excised from the Milan Gregory, where the sermon fills pp. 591- 602; the various scenes arecollectoo on ( 367v of Paris.gr. 510 (fig. 38) . 5 The second 'Invective against Julian': cwo scenc.o; of Julian's advance on the Persians have b<-:en excised from the M ilan m:muscript (pp. 763, 764); a single image o( the advance appears in Paris.gr.510 on th e fi rst ~gister of f. 409V (fig.
40 ) .

The fruslratingly frequent ~moval of narrative sce nes shared by both manuscripts from the Milan Gregory is, presumably, coi ncidental. M any mo re than JUSt these narrative scenes have been excised from Ihe M ilan manuscript, and it seems improbable that the Ambrosiana text was systematically physically pilfered for models by the miniaturisrs responsi ble for Paris.gr.5Io. The parallels are nonelheless suggestive and, combined with the evidence of the shared scenes, seem 10 indicate Iha t bu ri ed beneath lhe minialures of the Paris Homilies lies a manuscript with illustrations that resembled in some ways those in Ihe Milan Gregory. The one narralive scene that bolh nimh-century manuscripts ni ll retain - Julian's visit w the demon - reveals a constellation of unusual shared details lhat would be hard to understand without postulating that the cwo miniaturists relied on an older and similar visual tradition. It is this that makes me suspect chal the other, more random, parallels becween (he books should probably be attributed to familiarity with an earlier illustrated Homilies; for unless the Paris miniaturists knew lhe Milan Gregory itsdf(a possibility that cannot be excluded), the tradition that they see m w share can only have been conveyed by an illustrated Homilies. Ahhough, aswe have seen, Paris.gr.SIo apparently was not originally intended to have illustrations, the correspondence becween marginal notadons in Paris.gr.51o and marginal portraits in the Milan Gregory, coupled with thewimessof the motifs shared by the two manuscripts, sugges ts that the I~xt followed by the Paris scribe could well have had th~m. It may, in faci . have been [he presence of piClllres in che text provided to the scrib<! that inspired the inelusion of mi niatures in Paris.gr.5Io. Be that as it may, comparison of the Paris and Milan manuscri pts suggests that the artisans responsi ble for Paris.gf.510 kn ew at least some pictures that resembled those of the Milan Gregory. If! am correCt in supposing Ihal the Paris minialllrists had before them a wpy of Gregory's sermons with images that r~semb led those in the Milan copy. [he 'modernization' apparent in Paris.gr.Slo (to which we shall rewrn in chapter 1) su rely isola ted it from any conventionally illustrated Homilies manuscript as much as if the miniatures had been compiled d~ novo.

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I

Siting the miniatures: imagery in the ninth century

This chapter explores, from ~veral different vantage points, how the makers of images reproduced and reinforced patTerns of ninth-eemury Byzantine society, and how they contributed to the production of those patterns. It investigates ninthcentury Byzantine images as indices of socially constructable meaning, and as constructors of social meaning. l My focus is on the presuppositions {hal conditioned {he way [he pauon ofParis.gr.51o could envisage the manuscrip t, the way its producers could concei ve it, and the way irs original viewers could see it. While the private meanings that an image could have for any Byuntine arc irretrievable, we nand on sligh tly firmer ground when we tryro understand the socially constructed meaning of images for ceruin defined groups. Even then, the tics that bind obje<rs ro their produce rs, context, and audience are seldom ardcul~tcd; however imperfect, our best guide to how images could work and how people could understand them in the ninth century emerges from the assessment and comparison of recurring patterns in both verbal and visual communications. The following discussion of these patterns has been divided into a number of com partments which overlap inexrricably; they arc: isolated only to darifY the arguments. logether, I hope, they will givea framework for ninth-century visual culture, inside which Paris.gr.51o Gin usefully be viewed.

BYZANTINE PERCEPTION OF THE VISUAl..

Bytantium was not a monolithic culture, and the ways Byzantines wrote about what they saw depended on the situation and intent of the author, and differed as well over time and place. Nearly all, however, sound foreign now; Byzantine
I Sec Spiegel (1990); .1." M arx (197J). 146: B,""haw (197\). 11S-'19; H alda n ([986); Mord~!\d (1991), '7~~o.
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l4~l7;

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Vision iUld meaning in ninlh-amury Bp,anlium

responSCSIO the visual as(X pl"(ssW. in wOlds ale quite distinct from modern pe rcep~ tions of B)7.amine att.lTwo (Xamples illuminate the contrast. T he apse mosaic at Hagia Sophia (fig. 56) is one of the f(W surviv ing remains of ninth -century mon um ental imagery, and it is the only one for which we have a contemporary teaction. The mosa ic shows the Virgin Mary, scaled, with the Christ Child sitting upright on her lap;) the response was delivered in Hagia Sophia by rhe pauiarch PhOlios, who prached a sermo n co mmemorating the completion of the mosaic on H nly Saturday (19 May) in 867.· The se rmon h;l!; age ndas beyo nd {he descrip tion of a mosaic that Photios' audience could anyway see as they listened to him. Were we [0 assume ThaI Phorios' inlent was art-historical descri ption, in faCt, it would be hard 10 reconcile his words with the mosaic preserved at Hagia Sophia an d a number of scholars have duly argued that the mosaic we now sec is nOl (he one Phorios inaugu r.lIed. ~ But we CilnnOi read Photios' sermon as if it weI"( a museum Cil talogue, nor ca n Y>'C suppose thai the perceptions and expectatio ns of Photios and his ninth-century aud ience dupliCiited our own. As Liz James and Ruth Webb nOted, th e type of t(Xt in wh ich we no rmally find Byzantine desc riptions of images - ekphr.uis - \Va!; never in tended to provide an objective record; instead, ekphrasis focused on the mea ning of the depi ction.~ They suggest, co nvincingly, that Photios' aim was 'to express the Virgin herself, nOI to record a panicular image of her for posterity'? Photios nonelheless twice referred specifically to the q uali ty of the image. The first I"(fel"(nce - ' for the painter's skill , wh ich is a reRection of inspira tion from above, has thus eractly establ is hed the natural (life-li ke) imitat ion" - reads oddly to a modern viewer. for the mosaic is nOI. to our eyes, a 'natural imitation', and Photios seems to deny the mosaicist the autono my that we assume for art ists. But we follow different criteria from Ihe Byzantines, who distinguished between idolswhich represented something imaginary - and icons, which had the original holy figures as prototypes. and differed from them only in subSfance. Any religious
Fot ~n ~~r1y ~'I'reo>ion of <M Mal 10 diY<>1U ........,Iws f.orn mod~.n I""tJul'pOli.iom when .luling wi,h 8yun,iurn, 1ft L.:m~.!.. h9IZ). 4'r11. • Mango . nd ]·hwir.i", ('96s). 1'1-111. , Homily 17: ed. I..aou rdu (,919). ,64-']1; Iran •. Mango (1918). Ul6- 196. Sec: 100 ibid.• 279; Co.ma<;k (19~1). '1'. '5l-'5.; Mac,id", and M.gda] ino (1988 ). 79-80; Sann."..: ('9'14). U'- lJI. On Pho,i". (pa, riarch '58-867. 877-886). 1ft ODB), 1669-.670, . od chap,er S. • M"" """,o']y. Oikonomide. ('985b). " ' - "5; for, ,horough c,;rique. Sp«k ('98,). )o.-)n. ·l.m.. :rnd Wd)b (199'). 1 ]bid., 11- '); quotation. '). • .y".;....,.."... I.,.. Y~ 1o"",,9.~ ...,"""t.... q {'"'Y~ yix'"'l 0';"_ ,;,,,p'fl~ "s.~o,. ,,~~o,. ;""!<I. (cd. Loou.<h$ r'9591. , 67); u imi]ar uarul..,ion '1'1""<$ in M~ngo ('9s!). 190. Jama and W<hb (' 99' )' I), supply an al(~sn" i,",,: 'The .., of pain.ing ... has oct "I' such iUl eUc, ;miu,ion of her .... 'ure· . Hown~ •• Ma"" til ,,,,";11 follow:. no.mal. c ~uici:r.ing ~ _ ."phLl.n at;Cu»,iw: . inguL" noun func.;on. as an .djeaiw: - 'na,u,al' or 'lif.·]ikc' Iftm •• p",fe rable ,rand •• ion ,n ·ofh.. nature'. I ,han k John H.ldon for help on ,hi, poin<.
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image was thus by definition 3 rep roduction of the original, ~nd inspi""d 'from ~bov,"'; if inspiration came from the arti s~n :IIlone, the result would have been ~n idol, nO t an ioon.9 BYLamine tex ts th us almost invariably played down the 'an o( the painter'. Al exp""ssed by the 787 Council, 'the idea, therefo re, and the tradi rion ilfe [the fathers'], nOt the painter's, only the an is of the painter'.IO Photios' 'the painter's skill ... is a reRcction of ins piratio n from above' and, in a different sermon, 'a divine power sUJXrior to our own has formed its beauty'll contin ue the distinction between the inspiration and the execution. As Kenn elh Parry observed, the Byzantine use of the term 'life-like' could simply mean that rhe image: was inspired by a real person mher than rcpreseming, ny, an imaginary mythological bcast. 11 That Photios (among others) reaCted wi th in the accepted fram ework of onhodox image theory should not, however, blind us to his sympathy for, and res ponse to, beauty and skill. n Photios' second qualitative reference rcads: 'To such an atem have the li ps been m:llde Resh by the colours, th~t l hey ~ppear merely to be pressed togethe r and stilled :u in the mysteries. yet their silence: is nOI at all inen neither is the fairness of her form deriv:lltory, but father it is the real archetype.'H T he end of this semence links image and prototype; the opening lines describe and t hen imerpret; (or PhOlios, the mosaic is a window to a real woman, and he is exploring his rea ctions 10 her as mediated through the image. I} This is not the way that we normally respond to Byzantine images, and Pho rios' raction to the visual suggests a difre""m way of thin king and ralking about what one sees- a difrerem way ofseeing - from the way we see ;md process the seen. Photios' response 10 the Hagia Sophia mosaic is not unique. In his Ufe of Tarasios (patriarch 784-806) , writte n between 843 and 847, Ignatios the Deacon comments on a lost (or imagined) marty rdo m sequence ch3t shares numerous points of resembla nce wirh the martyrdom o( the Ma kkabces painted less than forty years later in Pa.ris.gr.5Io ((. Hor; fig. 34).'6 Al in virtually all Byzanline depiclio ns of manyrdo ms, the dyi ng saints dici t lillie sym pathy (rom nlOS( modern
' Sft nOl .. . , ••8. Ind 10 b,d.ow.
.. Manu XII t. ~11C: S.h •• (,,8&.). 8•. Sft .1>0 n<>l~ 71 below: de Moff~i ( 1 ~74). 69- 71: and Cormock ('9nb), 'II, '17, ,61. Th~ iconodl.... ""mlemoed pointe .. fOr Ih.i. gretd: e.g. Mlns; XIII. ,.810: 'rans. S.h.. (19860). 8" ond Mingo ('971)•• 66. I ) Homily 10.)' cd. Laour<bs (' 919), 100: ,ran •. Mango (1918). 181. Il P.ny (1989). r80-.8 •. Kuhd.:m .nd M.gu;~ (19911. M. , uggcsI Ih., 'life_like' mam ,h.1 on Im."e followed re<ogr. iubl~ C()nnniion., ~nd .urvey lOme of 1M e. r1ier l i,e" ,u~ on Brunline ....S" of 1M lerm. Stt now M"IIuile (/996). I ) So 100 M."UI,t(1991). 'J7-1 }S. I. F.d .l.ao'mw (1919), ,67: Iran •. Marw> (1918), 190. II cr. Jam .. and Webb (' 991). I}. " Ed. Heikel (.1191): I. So.-vt... ko (1914): • new nti,ion or .1K by S•..,h...... Efthymi.uliJ i. npcclnt, .... Efihymi.di, (1991 ). O n f<>m. of in'~'1'~. ivc probl~m' il poses, Speck (19a6): on Ih. m"'yldom >equence descri bed, W.lter (19So). Wol.k. ·Conul (19 80). Brubaker {/989. 1; on i.. poui _ ble loulion. Ruggieri (1991). 101. On T.....;n •. ODR}. IOU.

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viewers, to whom they ap~ar remarkably detached. Yet Ignatios describes images of martyrs in highly emotional terms. He ignores even the names of the saillts to concentrate instead on the viewer's response to their torments, as a typical semence demonstrates: 'For who would sec a man represented in colours and struggling for truth, disdaining fi re ... and would not be drenched in warm tears and groan with compunction?'17 Ignatios' description is more directive than Photios' - though Photios too us<:d rhetorical questions to channd the sympathies of his audience'~­ but both suggest that in the nimh century empathy was an accepted literary tesponse to images that seem to us detached and StatiC 19 Such literary convcmions apparemly reproduced the act ual perceptions of ninth-century Byzantines, when the tears, fear, marvd and amazemem inspired by
" E..l. Heike! (, 891), 413, tr.n>. l. Sevtenkn (1984). Stt fu"h~. ,he diKu"ion off. HO' in dnp'e< 6. " E.g. Homily '7.1: cd. Uourd .. (I~JS9). '70: l.an>. M.ngo ('918), 194,
,. Stt further Brub.ku ('989')' Jame' and Webb {199 ' l confla'e emo,ion.l ,c'pon", it> gcne"'[ wi,h .pccific m.t>ifC'SlOtion, of eOl",ion , h.. ,he au,ho .... u, .. the audience i, will cxpctiet>c< (c.g. proiected tears). whieh do nO! """,me a ".nd.,d of image writing until around ,he ycar 800.

Siting the miniatures: imagety in Ihe ninth centu ry Images are recorded in numerous and disparate sources. The Acts of the Ecumenical Council of 787 cite rhe rea rs rhat contemplarion of religious images generated as proof of the sanctity of such paintings. w The Parastmds Syntomoj Chronikai (written sometime between 775 and 843, probably around 780), a guide to the antique sTatuaryofConstantinoplc composed by less highly trained authors, fails to provide any real dacriptions of the sculptures and instead concentrates on their effects on the beholder.ll The spurious letter of Pope Gregory II [0 Emperor Leo III - probably, as Jean Gouillatd argued, written around the year 800 by a Constantinopolitan monk - describ.:s the compunction, emulation, and tears inspi red by images on three separate occasions.12 An account of the conversion of Boris of Bulgaria in 864, pracrved in a text from the middle of the tenth century, records the king tkmanding an emotional response from imagery: Boris asks a cenain M ethod ios to paint 'anything he might wish. on condition that the sighl of the pai nting should induce fear and amazement in ils spectators,.n Authorswriting from a range oflevels assumed Ihe power of images 10 elidt emotional and personali~d res ponses. As these le"ls make clear, ninth-century B)7.amine writers saw images as images tha t were sUM:eptible to qualitative remarks such as Photios'. But these autho rs also assumed mat an image was 001 only a material depiction; th eir response was not only to the image, but also to the subject of that image. Texts dealing with monumental images and icons presume an interactive rela tionship, expressed in personali1.ed terms. that seems 10 parallel Jived experience.

TE"T ANn

! MA G~

IN N IN TH-CENTURY MANUSCRIPTS

Miniatures in manuscriptS were not usua ll y exposed to public gaze, and they were not the subjects of ninth-ccntury ekphrasis. Their cultural mili eu is defined by twO characleris[ic features, both of them required by the medium itself. First, and obviously, viewers of miniatures had access 10 books; and secondly, mOSt of them were almosl certainly literatc. 24 What proportion of Byzantines were literate, either functionally or actively. is unclear; it is nOI even certain to what ,,,rem literacy was
'" M.n,i Xli!. 9 . II . ,1. &t Rou~n (19S ,). ~ H-~H; S~n"~"~ (!99~) . ""i. T~m h~d long bttn "'-'0ci.,rd w;,h pi~ry and P"'"Y'" (...., ~.g .. Cam~ron 1[9791. W 3"d no[~ 3!; Auz.py [1987]. !6!); it i, [h~ ovcr! associ~,io" ~xp'CS<cd h~,~ ,ha, is wotlhy of "ol~. " Ed. c.m~ron and H~"in (1984); on rh~ dal<. I. s.,vt~nko ('99Zb). ,89-'93; Kro,~n ([994). '[-5 ' . Cf J.",~. (1 996) . n Gouill attl (1,68). 185 lines 114-Jl6. 1891in<:< [54-[58. 189-191 Ii"". [64- (6). s." oJ", S•• in ('980), 89-IJ7 . Fo, '''OIher .""mplc. c.:,nig.n (199j). 'J Ed. Ikkk .. (18,8). ,6,-,64' Iran •. Mango (' 971), '9<>-[91; .,," .lso Co.mack (I977b). 160-[6,. ,. A donor who govc. dccorawi book !O' ch urch migh' or migh' no, be li[e •• ,e. bur onct rh~ manuscrip' w" housed in • church ttea.uty its audi,,,ct w... umm• .,icaJly limi"d.

'J

Vision and maning in ninlh-anlury BYUnlium

confined 10 particular groups in thc ninth century.2' Bur mos t Byzantines had at least passi ve fami liarity with books as public veh icles of comm uniC1uion and authori!}', particularly th e go~pels and perhaps also the law codes: at the very least, Byzantines heard texu read aloud, and ope ra ted in a s}'Stcm that recognized the potential a\lIhority of the written word. It no netheless remains unlikel y that most Byzanti nC!l had frequent access to mi niatures. Functional service books were rarely iIIustrated /' wh ile ill um inated manuscripTS were expensive and o flen kept locked in lib ra ries and treasuries, which restricted (and defined) their audiences. T he small scale of miniature painting sugges ts, tOO, th at viewe rs of miniatures were alm ost of necessity the actual readers (or viewers) of the text; it also assumes an intimate relationship between image and beholder. Mi niatu res cannOt be seen as didactic tools meant to educate the unleflered or co nfi rm broad truths to a general aud ience. I"slead, they add ress a restricred group, most of whom could have written, read, and thought about texu. More than ;my other pictorial medium, miniatures speak to and for the sarru: audience a.s do texts; thq share a specific cultural niche wit h the authors of, and in tended aud ience for, most of the texts thaT provide our written docu mentary evidence for the ninth century. Though words an d images communicate differently, here each can legitimately be used to help understand the other.17 As eKprcsscd in written form, most Sta tements abom image'S througho ut the ninth century appear in an ti -Jewish polemic (Iale! recycled intO the anti-Islamic dialogues) or in t('X IS generated by the iconocla.st debate and ils aftermath. The ico noclast deoote, in particular, subjected one crucial compo nem of illustr:ated manuscripts - the relationship bcrwcc:n tex t and image - TO intense sc rutiny. The miniatures in a manuscript usually pres uppos<: a text; a text accom panied by them may presume images. The two can in teract wi th each other; whil e miniatures woul d not exist with out an enframing book, the w:l.y th at they in terpret the worru can have profound implications on subsequent intcrpretll[ion. Such interaction is evident in th~eXlens ively illust rated manuscri pts prc:sc ryed from the nin th century. In addi tion to Paris.gq lo, th e manuscript$ of concern here are the copy o f the HomitiC!l in Mitan, int roduced in the Introduction (figs. 48-H); the Pari s Sacra Paralkln; the marginal psalters now :l.t Moscow, Mount Athas, and Pa ris; and the Vatican 'Christi an Topography'.
lI On Byun,ineli'erxy, Browning ('978). J9-14 • • nd Mulktt ('990), '5ii-,8s. The promin<ncc: or ,;, ul; ;n Brunti ... paiming may '"lIP''' widnp,.ad p..,nmic litcracy; ;t may ~u.Uy likely, Uld po ... • ibly at ,he: Ame ,ime, india •• the: symbolic po ...... of ,he: written wo.d _ an avmut profitably nplon:d by Kholal'J doling "';,h .he: lotin ...., (e.g. C>mille [1 9851. '~9; McKiue.ick [I??OJ. 197- 3.8). thou&" ill applia, ;"n to Byumium is problema.ic .ince: a brood". sp«ltum or ' M popu_ lac. 'p'p"'entiy rod th • •e ,han in the WOt. mo.e div.... li,......,.., """ ptudu,~. and silent •• ading $C'Cm. n~. to h.ve di..! out: ..., Moffa, ('9n). 85-91; ratl.gean (' 968). 1"9 and fl979) 164- 178. " Sec: Low<kn (1990). n Cf. Di.bold ('991). S".bakc. (1995).

Siring rlK miniarulO: imag.ery in the nin m century

The: Sacra Para/kk ( Pari ~.gr.92}) contains a callenion of quotations anribured to John of Damascus; like the Milan G~gory. it includes marginal illustrations in which thc predominant colo ur is gold (figs. S8-60. 64. 88, 90, 9t. 94. lOS. 106, 113. 114. 12), tS!. IB, [60. (72).ll Also like those of the Milan manuscript, the mini· atures of the Sacra Paral/t'" include a large proportion of portl'1oits, often in medalliorn. and usually reduce narl'1otivr scenes to their essentiili. The miniaturist of the Silent Pam/kkwas, however, lessconstl'1oined by the text, and was a more proficient painter. In faCt, the Sacra Pam/kla is stylistiaally rela ted to Paris.gr.po. and for this reason I am inclined to attribute it ro Constantinople, and date it to the third quanerof the ninth century.!? The Khludov Psalter in Moscow (Historical Museum, gr.129) , like the Milan Gregory and the Sncm Para/kk, contains margi nal illustl'1otio ns. though in the: psalter they are in full colour (figs. 57,8S. 1 1 110, 118, I n, 12S, I } I . 141. 143. 151. 0}. 04. 1 66).1O Some pictures iIlustme the p~ l m tCX IS directly, in a fashion analogous to the Milan minia(Urc:5; others provide inm:ad a visual commentary on the text. and in Ihis anticipate the Paris Homilies. Unlike those: in me Paris Gregory. however, the commenrary miniatures in the Khludov Psalter are: usually at least partially cxplained by accompanying inscri ptions. For this reason, among others, the psalter is believed ro pre-date Paris.gr.FO: it was probably produced between 843 ~nd 847 in Constantinople.}! Mount Athos, Pantokrator 61 (figs. 69, 101, III , 120. 133, 144, 145, 158, 164, 17J) is closely reiate<i, and was evidently made: slightly laler ~ bUI still apparen t.lyearlie:r than Paris.gr.S lo _ also in the capital.3l A third. now incomplete:, ninth-century marginal p~lter. Paris,gr.lo (fig. 146), was probably produced in Constantinople as well. H The 'Christian Topography' was compiled in (he middle: of the sixth century, apparently by Constantine: of Antioch, known since the eleve:nth century by the invented name: ofKosmas [ndikopleusles. JoI It Ke:ms likc:ly that the text was illusII Rq>roduad in W~i,unann ('97~); colour ftproduClioru in 0 .... ])0 ('921), figs. 4j<J-46J; Byu,.....(1?91). 170 with url;~r lir . ... ure. " On me stylc,....., fu"h~r ch.!"er t. W';.ZlT\,Inn ( 19~a). 10-13 •• n,ibu,a ,he P"",{kIA to Pal"";n •. G ...b.. (1971). 11- 4, 87-88 and C..all" (1~ 1). f06-soS ..gue for an hal;';'n, . nd po:m'f» Rom.n, origin. Jaeger ('94'), '01-10.: Wrigh, (1980). g, and Cormack (r<]Ub), 6J! nOI" J9 :usign i. to Con... ntinopl •. On the d',e, O.bolO. (19810) . ... Reproduction. in S(cpkin. ('977). C"rrig.;an ('991) pro. ides [he moo< ,holOugh " udr, wi.h urli.. litcra.ure. J! The >.<Wei",ion wi.h ,h~ p...i. rch Me,hodios, fir!( p,oprucd by L Sevtenko ('9'6S), b .. been .ndonN by WoI,., ('91i1), no •• nd by c.,lIig.;an ('99 ' ), 114- 1,.. J1 ~produced in Dur.. n"" (196/0) and, p;lrt;~lIy. f>c,kb nid .. n "t J ('979), figs. lSo-"7. On ,he ob.ing. w",h., (1987), no; fOr diK\W;on and •••Iior li,em",., Corrigan ('?91) and An<krson (' 994). .. Reproduced ;n D"f.. nn~ (966), Byu"u ('?91), ,.<J-no "";, h ca.lier li ..... ,u..: on [he ob, •. W'!tc. (1~7). 1'9 . .. Wolob·Conu. ('989), 18-JO p,,,,,;d... he ,.identifica,ion. which i. b...d on ,h. writings of

s.n..

An.ni.ofShi,..k.

"

Vision a nd mean ing in ninth-century Byz.;lntium

trated from its in~ption : Constantine/Kosmas was convinced that biblical and scientific reasoning demonstrated that the world conformed with the shape of the ark of th e covenant, an argument clarified by the use of diagrams, maps, and images Ihat arc introdu ~d in th e te);t itsel f.'~ For his thesis, Constanti nel Ko smas was taken to task in the ninth century by the patriarch Photios.J.6 The te);t was nonetheless copied and illumated at thi s time. and survives as Vat.gr.699 (figs. 75- 77, 138. ' 50, 156).J7 Close fo rmal ties with the Paris Homilies sugges t that the Vatican ' Topography' was produced in the capital during the last quarter of th e ninth century.'S 111e miniatures themselves are eclectic in both subject matter and format: all are painted in fu ll colour. but may be framed or unframed, full-page or inse tted in one of the two columns of text that run down each page, and they pn:sent both isolated figures and developed narrative seq uences. Two Job ma nuscripts - Patmos, Monastery of St Joh n, C od.171 (possibly of the late eighth century) and Venice, Marciana gr.538 (dated by colop hon to 905) should also be mentioned here.l ? Though they will be only ran:ly cited in the follow ing discussion, which focuses on manuscripts with a broader range of subject matter, it should be nOted that their marginal miniatures allow the same kind of interaction between text and image that occurs in the marginal psalte rs and the Mi lan Gregory. 40 'lbe range exhibited by the manuscripts JUSt introdu ~d is not terribly surprising, for the Byza ntin es WrOte (a nd presumably thought) more about imagery during the years immediately precedi ng the production of these books th an at any other tim e in their hisrory. Byzantin e writings abo ut images, some directed against Jews and othe rs concerned wi th the iconoclast controversy, may resonate with deeper co ncerns: Averil Cameron has suggested that the controversy surrounding the use of sacred images formed part of a larger intellectual realignment, a battle to determin e who had access to th e truth. 41 However we interpret the debates, ninthcentury miniatures illuminate an actuality: how painters really formed images whil e, and shortly aftet, Byzandne theories about images were being expounded and while, perhaps, th e B)'7.antine world was redefining itself. Taken together, the wo rds and the pic tures allow us to exa mine the interface bctW~n theory and praclice; between what the Byz.antines wrOte about images. and what the images themselves communicated.

"sc t41 . IS9, and 197; W<>I.b (1961) .
.to In hi, Bjh/j.,htltd<>n which ~ chapter S). <<><lex )6: ed . H~nry I (,919). It; trans. Wilson (1994),
)I_ p.

J' Reproduced in Swrnaj<>l<> (19<>11); ~ al", W<>[,ka·Conu. (1'190). 151- 191 , with tarlier lircnturc .

On SOme of thcd..... iationsof Ihe Vatican manuscript from ito modd. Bruh.ker ('9 77). }O Julien Leroy ('9H). 7)- 78. argued fOI .n halo-Greek origin . ... Wcium . nn (19)1). lip. )11-)49; Cavallo (1981). 106- j07 • lip. 4Sl- 4H · .. St. Colligan (1'192) ••• p. 104-111. ., Cameron (1991h) . $0. al,o D agron (1979).

,6

Siting th~

mini~turcs'

imagery in

th~

ninth century

tCONOPH1LE ARG U MENTS ABOUT IMAGES

The preserved cighth- and ninth -ce ntury texIS that deal with imagery are almost all iconophile,n and they conCentrate on four issues, the definition and justification of images: the role of tradition: the funClions of images: and the relationship between images, teXls, and speech, I emphasize th est iss ues with caution in the following discussion. The textual evidence has the adV",l.ntage of providing words, which we think we can understand, about images, the understanding of which is mote elusive and diffuse. H But the written word has its own distinct type of cultural imprint. What Janet Nelson has claimed so neatly with regard to th e Carolingians - ' Literacy is a kind of techno logy, literacy is also a frame of mind, and a framer of minds"" - is, I suspeCt, equally true of ninth-century B)'"lamines, and particularly those Byzantines for whom minialUres were televant. A change in medium refr~mes the message: it also refra mes ways of thinking about mess~ges. Whi le the visual and the written are not ant ithetical (mi niatures and {(xts were normall y directed by, for, and at the same p<'ople, operating within the same cultural and historic~1 formation), they arc different, and their distinctions, ~s weI! as their shared features, are important. T he definition of images officially proposed by the iconophile Council of 787 reads: 'The [sacred] image resembles the proWtype, not with regard to esse nce, but o nly wit h regard to the nam e and to the position of th e members whi ch can be characte rized ' . ~5 The Council's diSTinCTion between image an d prototype relied on earlier arguments:16 coupled with the argum ent that Chris t's incarnation had effectively destroyed the whole nodon ofidols,'7 it was meant to defuse the charges of idolatry levelled by, in this instanC(, the iconoclasts by de monmating that th e Christian image itself was nOt divine, because it did not partake of the divine
., The mon '«en' ,heological , um m..y i. G;akali, ('994); ~ at.o e.g. J e Maff~i ('974); Rouan IAudpy] (19 8,); AudrY ('990); Purr (1996b). lconophile refu ta,ion. of am;-ilmg< !Cnets 'e~eal. at lean d imly, the othe r ,ide of ,he argument. a. does iconod"" imagery: ~ G .. bar ('957) . 115- ,80 ; M ..ngo ('972), '5'- ' B, '16-,6j; Co rmack ('977a); Lafom";n~-Dosognc ('9871.); ,he Je"",ip,ion of how ,he iconod"" Emperor Const.ntine V ·la~;,h.d m"ny allowance. from the public tr. .. ,ury' on 'a g.... number of arti ...", ,ki lled in conmUct;on' in Nikephoros' B",v;arillm (.d . Mango 11990b]. t60-,61); and ,he V~,ican P,olemy of 7H (Wright {1985] , 355-J6» . " 5« Mile. (,98\), 29-J5 . .. J. Nelson ('990) , 261 . ., "1>n,i X!lT , 4~ B4-6,cf. 2pD. 217D. 26 ,D; tr.n •. Sah .. (19 86.), 77. 84 . 89. 9' . .. E.g. by John of D.mucu. ("'. note 61 btlow) - 'An im age i. onih eh.nete, wi th ito prototype 1 "1"'-'.6'''''0.1. but with • .:em;n differcn",. "i. nOl lih its .rchecype [a.px'n,,"o.1 in ~ry w:ly' _ in 'Ag:l.in" th""" who ....ek di.i ne imag"-I.9: cd. Kotrer (1971). 8J- 84; ,ratlS_Anders-on ('980). '9. Sc<: furthe, Aleunder (1958). 2J-SJ . 07lconophile telltS u;ually credit thi, formu l.,;on 10 rhe pa .. i.rch Germanos. who ....,igna, ion in no co;neidd with ,he in .. eduction of konodas m. Sec: Grumel ('911). 165- 171 ... p. 169-171: .nd Schonborn (1976). '4 S. John of D.m . """,. among mh.", r.i,er.ted , he differences bttwecn ido l, and im.ge>: 'Again" th"", who .ttack dj~ine imag..' t I. 4-11 : cd . Ko". r (1'I7S), i'-7\. 7?--80. 96-101 .

'7

Vision and maning innimh·ammy Byzantium

essence of the prorotype:08 Further, divinity was adored, and received i4trtia, but images were only honoured, and received pros/ryntsis. The Council that reinstated Iconoclasm in SI5 obligingly dropped the charge of idolatry,·9 bu t - perhaps because the point was important in contemporary argumems directed against the Jews and Muslims, who aim opposed religious images - around SlO the deposed iconophile patriarch Nikephoros continued to n:but the charge, arguing that idols were fraudulent images becauM:, un like images of holy figures, they had no archetype. SQ Nikephoros also countered the arguments presen ted by the Council of8 15 that a picrure of Chris t either heretically circumscribed both his natUres, human and divine, or M:parated them by only represeming his human nature,~l by vehe· mently refuting the equation of circumscription and paiming.S! The iconophile separation of the divine essence from the image insisted that the viewer bridged the gap between the visual reflection of divinity and its genuine contemplation. The viewer, in other words, participated in the meaning of the image. Modern image theory has devoted itself to demonstrating that this interaction is inevitable - it is, for example, crucial to Ernst Gomb rich's 1956 concept of the 'beholder's share' and to Victor Burgin's concept of the 'seeing subject' thirty years Iater S} - but that the Byzantine viewer supplied the essence of the image is not a figment of modern specuJal'ion; it was acknowledged by the Byzantines themselves. In Byzantine terms, 'the power of sight ... sends the essence of the thing seen on to the mind' .so h is no accident that recognition of this process and an emphasis on 'the power of sight' (to which we shall return later in this chapter) coincided with wrinen definitions that demanded a M:paration between the essence of an image and its form . ru the ekphrastic textsofPhotios and Ignatios the Deacon have already been used to demonstrate, ninth-century BYlamincs charged the beholder's share with singular importance. The force of the beholder's share in the viewing of images is implicit in another major tenet of iconophil~ rhetoric. Following in the footneps of St B.asil, iconophile theologians continually insisted. that 'the honou r given to rhe image is
of 11.1 ich~rl Synkdl",: Cunningh.m (199'), 68-71, 76-79, L.dner (r911), ) - )4, ""p. '~-I6 . .. S« Altlander ('9jJ), ~0-4' . )0 Anrirrhni,,,, J. 18- 19: l'G 100:177: Mond""in-Ibudine, ('990). '09-110: .lso Abander (r9s8), '99, and TIlwi. (I98~). 140-'41. In ,he ",me p....ge. Nikcphoro.. rr.,scd thot ,he image and it> archerype differed 'in ..... n". and .ub"r.u um·. and added that an image w.I.S 'an . rtifact ,h.ped. in imila,ion of. pot'ern bu, differing in sub,tancc and lubj«t; for ifi. doc< no, diffe, in ",me ,espect, i, i,no',n image nor an object d iffering from ,he m..dd'. On Nikcphoro. ([»tfi..eh 806-8lj), ~ ODB ). '477. S« also a letter from Theodore of Stoud ion (I'e nOI< IIj bdow) '0 Plalo: PC 99:joo; If'n<. Mango ('97l) , 171- Il4. O n ,h. nCcc<sity of ,hi, 1fgum~nt in .n,i·Jewi,h and an.i·hl.mic polemic, Corrigan It991). 37- 40. 9'-N. II Alound" (r9jJ), 40. Cf. Schonbom ('976), 16'-168. " Alexande, (19j8). >06-111. O,h" . ",i·icono<1:... polemics - •. g. an .nonymous refuta.ion of John ,he Gtammarian : Gouillard (1966). '79 - nOle ,h., 'r=mble' does no, mean rhe ",me ,hing as 'be idemicoJ·. Ij E.g. Gomb,ich (' 969) (hi. '9)6 Mellon lecm=) and Burgin ('986). 69. » Photiu •• Homily 17.): ed. Laouru... (1919). '70-' 7'; (r,n,. Mango h9S8). 194_

... S«

,h~ Lif~

=

,8

Siting th~ mini~tures; jm~g~ry in
tr~nsferred

Ih~

ninlh C~nlury

to i1s proto[)'pe','l for anyone 'who swears by an image, swea rs by the one The image rcp resents'.l6 The viewer prays to an image, realizing at least in theory that it is not the painted or scul pted form itself that receives veneraTion or sup plicating prayers, but the pe rson that the viewer unde rstands is represented .s7 The association between image and prototype made by the beholder was intimate. TheCouncilof787 asked, 'Who does not know that when an image is dishonoured the insult applies to the person who is depicted?';'S Nikephoros tdls us That th e Emperor Phokas' son-in-law hated him because 'he had been insulted on account of the removal of his own image [from) alongside that ofPhokas';'9 and the miniature in the Khludov Psalter, visually equating the iconoclast John the Grammarian whitewashing an icon of Christ with Stephanos and longinos tormenting Christ on th e cross (fig. 57), expresses this same idea pictorially.60 As Nikephoros' account demonstrates, the close affiliation between image and proto[)'pe did not apply only to religious images, and the iconophiles were careful to observe that 'dishonour shown to the empero r's image is dishonour shown to the emperor himsclf'.61The iconoclasts' denial of this quality of images was, we are fold, resled by SI Stephen the Younger. According to his vita, in an attempt to unmas k the hypoc risy of the iconoclasts the saint threw coins bearing the effigy of [he emperor on the ground in the presence of [he coun and it was onlywj[h great effort that Constantine V, comprehending the trap Stephen was laying for him, restrained his attendants from anacking Stephen forthwith. 61 The iconoclast argument tha t an image of Christ heretically divided his divine and human natures by representing only the Iatt~r was apparently a favourite of the Empero r Constantine V. As the iconophiles wer~ quick to point out in return. the disinclina tion to distinguish betwe~n Christ's two natures implicit in Constantine's thCliis smacked of the Monophysite heresy,6' The distinction between Christ's human and divine nature~ was, indeed, stressed by iconophiles from Germanos (patriarch 715-730) onwards, who saw in the incarnation a
"John ofO.mucu" ·Ag. inst ,ho ... who mock d ivine imagcs' I,~I, 3! (_ 11,31, tII ,,.S ). 1l1.4" cd. Kour, (1971). 108, 147, 'i): lIOns. Anderson (980), >9, )6, 89. life of Michael Ihe Synkello.: Cunningham (1991), 9'--'.13. fur Nihphor ........ T.. v;, (1,84), lJ. 50. fu"h. , de Maff.i 1'974), 4[- 4S· jO John of Damascu •. 'Against ,ho,. who ~uack divi ne im.ges' lI.u: cd. KOller (197S ), no; IT.m. And.,son (198o) . 61--66 , )' In pu.,ie., .uch d.,.duncO! was nOI .lways Ih ... , and individual, wmcrimes responded dir«dy '0 Ih. icon', m" c,i al presenc.:.ce funh., Au.ery ([987): D.gron (1991). ,.. M.n,; XIll, )l\D; lrans, Sah •• ( 1 986~), '41. .. BTroiarilim 1,1: cd . Mong" 11990b), ji-J7. "" 1, i. aJw • polcmi""[ " ",emom . ",u.ing the i",n"dam of denying Ch ri,t'. hum.n o",,,,c, .. John of Dam.scu" "'gainst Iho ... who ,{lack divine image. 11,61 (ei,ing Chty..,,,um), 11,66 (citing Anastasio,): cd. Kotter (t97!), 16)- '6S; tran •. And.,""" (19 80), 68, 69-70. Sec ~l.so Lo.dn., h9jJ), W-U, .nd n"'e \9 .bove . ., PG '00: IlS6D- 1l60B. Marie-Frana Audpy'•• diti"n "f ,hi. 'n' i••• p«tcd sholtly, ., For di",m,i"n (rdying primarily on Thcodorc of SlOudi on: not. "l below), Ott Henry (1976). 21- 11. cr. Sch<l noom (1976). 17'-171.

Vi, ion :utd

m~aning

in nimh-antury Byuntium

Fig. 51 Mo<CtJw. HUI(Jrical Muuum. cod.129./ 67r: C/"U'ifoOo" . iC(J,,(}(/mu whiuwIISh a" ico" (Jf

Oml

Siting th e miniam,,,,:

imag~ry

in the ninth

~ntury

justification of religious images. 64 Both points were well expressed by John of Dama5CUS (ca. 675--ca. 753/4), who WrOte, on the difference between picturing the incarnate and the divine Christ, 'I do not draw an image of the immortal Godhead, but I paint an image of God who became visible in the flesh';65 and, on the incarnation as justification for reli gious art. 'It is obvious that wh en you contemplate God becoming man, then you may depier him clothed in human form. '66 It is difficult fO assess how familiar the Byzantines clustered around the capital were with John's corpus (whil e the 787 Council defended his name from the abuse heaped upon it by the 754 Council without actually citing any of his iconophile writings,67 thi s ca nnOt be taken fO imply that his works were unknown;~ and certainly some of his writings were cited in the third quarter of the nint h century by Photios);69 bUlthe ideas that John expressed are echoed by contemporary sourcc:s wriuen in Constantinople and its environs. The Council of 787, fo r aample, argued th e incarnation thesis even more slrongl y than had Joh n: 'by making an image of Chris t in h is human form one . . . con fesses that God th e Word became man truly, not in conjeerure'.70 The iconodasrs' denial of imagery was therefore seen as a denial of th e incarnation, as aptesse<:l by, among others, the 787 Council and reitera ted in the Synodikon ofOrthodoxy.7 1 The force of tradition and the witness of the Old Teslamentwere alsocalle<:l upon fO justify the production of religious images. Such sratements derived th eir authority from th e strength of Byzantine belief in th e impo rtance of the past, as exemplified by the Acts of the 787 Council: 'The making ofimages is not an invention of the painte~ but an accepted institution and tradition of the catholic C hu rch; and that whi ch excels in antiquity is worthy of respect.'ll Old Testament references
.. SecGrumcl (1921) , ,67: Henry ('976), l l-ll; ~nd notc 7' below. oS John of D.m.Ku.<, 'Against ,hn~ wh o alUck divine im.S<" 1,4: cd. Kotter (1971). 76; ,u ",. Ander",n (1980), ,6. On John, see ODB " ,063-1064. " John ofD.m..,,, •. 'Ag.insl lh"", who at{.c~ divine im.s",,' 1,8; d. 1,16, II: «1. Kotter (1971), 81 , 89.1 54: Ifans. Ande,,,,n (1980). 18, 2,. 40 . ., Mansi XlII. }l6C-D . 357~-D: "aJU. SaIL" (1986a). 168-1]0. .. Sec Cameron (1991C) . 87-88 ; San"e... (199~). W9-.13 . .. St. Amphiwhi4. qu."ion. 80. '30. and 135 (~d. W"",~,ink 5 119861. IU-II~. '39: 6.1 11 9871. 18) an d ~pi"b I and 161 (ed. uourdaund W~"':rink I [198 JI . 15; J [ 198~]. 19). 70 Mansi Xl II, JHE; IUnS. hlu (19860.). 160. /I 787 Council; 'thry ,poke iniqui'ic' as.in" Ihc n>lure of hi. in,:.m>lio,,' (Mansi XIJJ , >Ol E; Iun •. Saha. (1986al. 10): see fUlIher Parry (1989). 177- 1]8 . and Babe, (19'.11), 17-60. who lrae.. ,hc idea back 10 G~rmano" who built in ,u rn on ,h e Quini sexl Council. Sec aI", c .S. • lener from Theodore of SlOudion 10 John ,he G .... mm .. ri.n (Gru mel [19J 71, 181) and ,he Life of Michael ,he SynkelJo. (Cunningham [1'1911. 88-89). Kalavrcwu (1990) h... uggested Ih a, Mary. identi n",!ion .. Ih"w~<JS ,hiftcd 10 mtlf, Ikcu in Ihe nimh c~",ury bccau.e rhe new emph .. i, on Chri,,', hum.nity "ui'cd a." ... on M.rya. mOlher. ' M.nsi XJ!I, 1\18 (cf. 11 7D, noEl; Iran •. S.h.. (1986.), 84 (}9, 61). Ste .1", John ofD.m"",,,,, 'As.in" Iho~ who m ack divine im.gei 1,16 (. ]1 ,11), 1.60 (. 11,16, 1I1.1l), 1.66 (. 11,69): cd . Komr (,971), Ij8, ,6" 166; " .n•. Anderson ('980), 4), ~I, 47; .n d Nikephoro" A"li"hrti, ,,, m,l. PG 100:380; Mon,bin _B.udinot (1990), )86: A!c:. nder{ 1958), 44; T,,"vi, (1984), '14- 11).

3'

Vision and

m~aning

in nimh-antury Byz.:mtium

were cited to demonstrate that God condoned imagery, as witnessed by the cherubim on the ark of the covenant {Exodus 25:18-20}.73lconophiles also latched on to the visions of diviniry recorded in the prophetic books of the O ld l estame nt, and argued that the ability of prophets to see an image of divinity was extended to all humanity through the incarnation, whco ordinary people sawChrist.7"" Many of the themes that run through the texts in defence of images were also communicated visually. Perhaps the ~t-known B}'7.antine work ro suess the significance of the incarnation is th e apse mosaic at Hagia Sophia (fig. 56); the Virgin and Child mosaic Ihal replaced the cross in the apse of the Koirnesis Church at Nicaea around the middle of the cemury also had the incarnation as its main theme. 7s The inclusion of many scenes from the infancy of Christ in Paris.gr.5iO (figs. 6, 18, 21) may parallel this interest. In the Khludov Psalter, a sequence of scenes pictures David attesting to the meaning of the incarnation; still others visually demonstrate that Christian images were not idols, for idolatry had been rendered obsolete by the incarnation.76 An emphasis on the witness of the Old Tenament, and especially of prophets, also runs through the ninth-century marginal psalters,n and may have tecurred in monumental form in the mosaics of the Church of the Ho ly Aposdes, redecorated during the reign of Basil ].78 Similar interests appear in the Vatican 'Christian Topography', which, unlike othet Byzantine copies of the manuscript, includes an unprecedented group poruait of those who witn essed Christ's incarnation, and a full run of Ihe prophets; it also incorporates a .sequence of images of the ark of the covenant and tabernacle found in other 'Topography' manusctipu, but which had obvious relevance in the ninth century. Finally, passion imagery that stressed Christ's human suffering proliferated in the ninth century;79 ali did visions of divinity. which were trans formed from timeless liturgical images into historical scenes.1lO On one level, this collection of images reproduced Ih.: ideas of the texu defending images in visual rather than in writ ten form. But even from this restr ict~d p~r­ spective some of the diffe[~nces between the ways words and images can communicate are apparem.~ 1 PicfUres anathematized anti-image semim~nts morc
.h~ 787 Council (Man,; Xlll. >.8SA: 'Un,. Sah a, I'986a], 110), and .IOf,", from .h~ pmi:lt~h ofJ.. u.. ]~m 10 Uo V a'quo«d in .h. lif~ ufMich.d ,he Synkcllo,: Cun ningham ('99'), 60+-6\. '~7 nO!~ 86. " :itt futther chap«. 7. n B.rbc. (1991). '" Corrig.n (1992), J7-40 .

" E.g.

n Corrig.n (1992). 6'- 77.
" So Iftmu, (1979), l~I-'.,U: but comp= N. Sevtcn ko ('99;1~), 164 and no •• 24. Th. Church of ,h~ Holy Apostles (.h~ Apostol.ion). buil, in ,h< foutlh an.ury, ",buil, by J",.inian and fu"ho, dec· orated by Justin ll. W1.> r~pairro and "Ppa",ntly ,cd~<Of>tcd by 8 ..,il: Vita &.iilii, 80: cd. B.kker
(,8J8), JlJ; Iran •. Mango (1972). '92: on thi, tc~t. <t. chap'~r 4 nme 47. On .h. history of ,h. church . see Malicltij (",6). "3-'1'; Mogui", ('974) . "'-127,Epn.in (' 982). 79-8'; D.mu. r('984),1J1- 141; Mango (19900). A tcn,h-an,ury ckph .... stic account W", w. ill.n by Con"on,in. ,hc Rhodian (cd. t.q; .... nd [.896], , ...."'. Mango 1'9ni, 199-101): • IWdf,h -e<:n,ury on. by Nikolao. M.sarit'" (cd. Downey r'957]). " Stt ,he discussion off. lOV in chapter 7. 00 :itt ch.pter 7. ot :itt further C.o,mack (1986.).

Siling lh~ mjni~tures: im~g~ry in

the ninth c~ntury

actively {han any text ever could: thc:ywere self-validating, and they had the power of immc:rliacy. Ninth-century Byzantines might know from texIs thaI Ch rist's incarnation had entitled them to venerate his imageor toshare in th e visions of Old Tes tame nt prophels; by dispensing with the intermediary of the written word, images ena bled them to venerate and to panicipate directly and intimately.

N I N TH - CENTURY I'AT TE R NS OF IMAGERY

is no homogeneous 'ninth-century manuscript uyl e', nor are there consistent principles oflayout and organization. There are, however, three panerns worth remarking. The first is, in faCt, the heterogene ity of ninth-century manuscript illuminations, both as a whole and within individual manuscripts; the second is a general tendency to avoid elabora te setti ngs; the third is the material splendour and brightness of so many of the miniarurcs. The tend ency to avoid compla settings is overt in the Milan Gregory, wheu most of the marginal scenes prcscm figures in a minimal setting or without any backdrop at all. While there are several cona:ivable reasons for this - among them the technical ineptitude of the painter and the possibility that a model with equally minimal settings was followed - the Sacra Para/Ma and the Khludov Psalter, of higher technical quality and with many scenes created e~pressly for them, show the same lack of interest in backdrops and su pplementary detail. The three manu scripu all comain unframed marginal miniatures, which may have constrained the miniarurists. Howeve r, two nimh -century Job manuscr ipts and the Paris Homilies,~~ all with framed picrurc:s, display the same features. Though the miniarurists did indeed include backgrounds, these are normally flat washes of colou r: a green strip for the ground below an unmodulated blue field. In the Paris Ho milies and, still more, the Job manuscripts, the miniaturists also usually placed their figures in the front plane against this Rat blue ground, which is only occasionally enlivened by a buildillg or a columll. The frame, in other words, may in these manuscripts be held responsible for a coloured backdrop to the scenes, but most of the miniatures in the Paris Gregory and the Job manuscripts arc as lacking in supplementary details and complicated settings as arc: those in the books with marginal illustrations. The same is true of the framed miniatures in the Vatican 'Christian Topography', sav.: that h.:re the miniatur ist omitt.:d ev.:n the colourc:rl hackground: ligures and essential objects appear against the neutral parchment. Though The execution differs, a lack of inTerest in bac kground and supplementary narrative detail remains charactcristic.83 Ninth-century miniaturists seem intent
" The Job manuscripts (occ: notc J9 above), c''''ption.l1y, cont.in f .. mcd margin.1 minian"',•. OJ Wh. t rem.in, of ninth .cen tury monumen,,) ut in C omtantinopk rc.st:mhl", the miniature. in this re' p«<: ~ ch.ptet 1 .

Th~re

JJ

Vi,ion and

m~aning

in ninth-antury BYl.:mlium

on displaying action or portraits witham distracting p3raphcornalia: thcoy concconrrarcod on com municating the co re content, not filling out the narrative with supplementary detail. The various formats wcod by thco miniamrists demonstratco that no single framework enjoyed hegemonic status in the ninth Cent ury, and th e Paris Homilies and V3tican 'Christian Topography' indicate that formal ~lcrtic ism was acceptable even within a single product. The miniaturist of thco Topography' used virtually covery format ava ilabk, from framed full-page picturcos to unframcod figures inserted be[W~n columns of text. The eclecticism of th e Paris Gregory reveals itselfleM in the rangco of formats uscod - though here we do find great varkty imposed within each of the invariably full- page framed miniatures - than in the absence of any formal homogeneity; several distinct app roaches to representation are intermingled, apparently at random. 84 Even the usually consistent miniaturist responsible for the Sacra Paralkln abandoned flat gold figures on occasion, as a series of paimed and modelled fishes and animals in the manuscript demonstrates.8~ Formal unity was not, it appears, of prime importance. Neither th e emphasis on the C$Sential nor the lack of altcontion to formal unity can be unilaterally attrib Ul ed to matC'fial or technical limitations. T he amount of gold used, the parchment-wasting preference for marginal illustration, an d the sheer numbcoTs of miniaturcos arguco against matC'fiai constraints; while the continuous production of painting and architcrture in Constantinople during Iconoclasm prcosumably consured technical continuity at least in the capital. S6 The status of nimh-antury painters seems to have been reasonably high,87 and thcore does not seem to have been a critical shortagco of talent. The Ignatian Council of 869- 870 banned paimers who did not adhere to the canons of an earlier Council- a move that Cormack bdieves may have been intended to expd artisans who had earlier worked for Photios - and coven if the ban \comporari ly rcomoved all skilkd painters from the scene (wa ich seems unlikely), its conactment implies that more than a few artisans were activco in the middle of the cemury, and that they had sufficiem status to be noted by the Council. With the possible aceptio n of thco Milan Gregory, the patterns we have iso lated within ninth-cemury stylco cannot be attributed coneirely to th e usc of an unskilled labour pool. Coherent landscape and architcrtu ral settings, and compb poses, do in faCt appear sporadically in Paris.gT.51O and the Khludov Psalter,sa confirming that at lcoast in these [wo manuscripts it was not lack of ability that conditioned. the miniaturists' prefco rcona for reduced SC'ttings. It is arguable that what underlay the miniaturists' (or theit patrons') choices was a prcodilection for unambiguous presentatio n. G:rtainly each image is, in itself,
... Sec chapter 2. . \ P.,i'.I\'.91j, fr. '99 ' -V, l00._V, 2..47'-V: Wc;tzmann (1979') , fill'. 146-5 58 • .. St" note 4' .00vt. ., Cormack ('977b). c.p. 160-,6,; Corrig.n (199'), 6-7 . .. E.g. P•• i' .gqlO. fr. jf. 14.1>". 4.18v (fill'. 6. 19. 44); Mrurow. Hi ... Mu •. gr.n9, fr. 46>". 88._~ (fig. IIl): Stcpkina (1977).
H

Siting th~ mini~,ures, imagery in

th~

nimh c~n{ury

diuct. While format and composition often worked with, and underscored, meaning, only rarely were stylistic elabo rations introduced that might distract from or dilute the ~sse nc~ofa scene. Perhaps because the miniatures often participated in comp[,:x dialogues between image and image, or image and word, or image and idea, thei r presentation remainro straightforward; in their formal presentation, nimh-cemury miniacu res provide a functional imageryofclear purpose. Asimilar preoccupation with pu rpose (and appropri~recomext) ~ffected literary cri ticism and ecclesia.ltical debate, where purpose became one of [he uhimare criteria. A5 explained by the Seventh &umenical Council in 7ltT 'One should think of the purpose as well as of the means through which art accomplishes its result. If th e purpose is piety, the result is acceptable; [if nOt,] it is despicable and to be rejc.:ted. ' 89 1n the sam e paragraph, we read: ' The same principle applies to books. If onc describes in books shameful stories, these books are shameful and to be rejccted.'~ In rhe ninth century, Photios too k much the same lack in his lirerary criticis m: the correctness of con tenr remained, for him, one of the most important factors in assessing a given author. 91 Thus, Pho[ios sometimes observed that the content of a book made iI worth reading, though the literary style was deplorable.n Photios praised books in which evil was punished and 'many innocem people exposed to great danger [arel saved'; while he condemned for their salacious content even works he judged well wri llen.?l Phorios, in other words, reCOffim.::nded monllIy edifYing books: Ihe pu rpose, expressed by content, of the works he considered determined wh.::ther or not they were acceptable. We find the same privileging of comenl and effect in rhe text describing the stacues of Consrantinople, the PartlSttlSl!is, which focused on the subject matter, and th e statues' effects on the populace, to the almost total exclusion of remarks on form. 94 Purpose and cont~nt were also important. and linked, during the 7lt7 Counci!, when participants took earlier iconoclast councils to task for distorting the purpose of the church fathers by quoting them our of context. The same text could be interpreled either correctly or incorrectly;9~ it followed that the same image could be either acceptable or despic~ble, depending on its purpose. A5 expressed by John of Damascus: '[God,] who condemned the go lden calf, now makes ~ bronze serpent . . for a good purpose - to prefigure the Ifmh.'96 Personal responsibility was
.., Man.i X!II. l~J D; ,ran •. Sah" (1986a). 76. The iconophile, he,e follow.d John Chrywstom; s« futth., T... s;" ('984), 46-4lI , '" MallOi XlII. '41C; (fans. Saha.. (1986,). 76. "Stt Ku ..... (1961), •• p. Ip. " s"e, for c""mple , hi. Commen" on Maximus ,h e Conf""", in cooic,," '9'-195 of ,h~ JJibliMMlt< (on which s« chap'~t 5): W. Henry [II ('9~1), 74- 89, "'p. 80-8,. " QUOl"ion f,om "od.", 166: cd. Henry I! (1960), t49; ,,,,us. Wil",n [,994), [jJ; s« abo T rc,dgold (1980), [01-101. .. Cam~ton and H.rrin ('9K4), 46', P - ll: sec note 1 1 above . .. SeeTh. ,.f.,ences in not< 202 below. MJohn of Damascus (quoting &',,",nu.), ·Again.t tho"" who mack divine image. 1. !8 (. 1I.!4. 11I,!1): cd. Kon.r [,975). 160; 111In •. And~"on (1980). 45.

"

VISion .nd ma ninl; in nimh·amury Byz.mium

assumed: \:oncerning images, we mUSt search for the truth, and the intention of those who make them. [fi t is really and truly for the glory of God ... then accept them with due honour.'97 Such beliefs put a premium on purpose and function ; the merit of an image resided in its content and use. Literary advocates of this perspective cluster in, and dominate, the eighth and ninth cenwries: th e spare and functional imagery characteristic of ninth-century manuscripts promoted (and demonstrated) the same attitudes in a concrere fashion. Practice and theory, in this case, were mutually reinforcing. The third formal pattern observable in the ninrh.cmtury manuscripts is th e material splendour and brightness of the miniatures. The dominant colourofboth the Milan Gregory and the Sacra Para/kin is gold, and though gold script appeared in deluxe early Byzantine manuscripts, the abundant use of gold m illuminate initials in the text - found in the Sacm Paraikln and, especially, the Paris H omiliesseems to be a novelty of the post-iconoclast period. The palettes used by the miniaturists of the Paris Gregory, the Varican Job, and the 'Christian Topography' included gold tOO, though it fails to ecli pse the other bright and inten5C colours favoured in the.se manuscripts, As Nikephoros' punning reference to the iconoclasts as 'the peT5CCUtOrs of colour [chromaromachOl], rather, the persecumrs of Christ [chrisfOmachOll' suggestS, the potential use of colour as an ideologic~l concept was exploited in ninth-century Byzantium. 98 Liz James has recently pointed out that the imponance and the significance of colour to the Byzantines has been underestimated and misunderstood. Colour, she argues, was '~crucial dement in giving an im~ge meaning'. ~ She aiM) notes tha t, JUSt as Byzantine perception of the visual was different from ours, so mo was Byzantine response m colour. We concentrate on hue (a leafis green, the sea blue): the Byzantines, following the Greeks and Romans, concentrated on brighrness (a leaf is bright, the .sea wine-dark). James concludes that this was one reason why written descriptions of colour stress words like 'glowing' or ' brilliant' .100 An important aspect of colour m the Byzantines was what James calls its 'Iightbearing qualiry' .101 This had theological implications, for light was <::quattd with divinity. k P.seudo-Dionysios wrore, in a text well known to iconophilc sympathizers: 'material lights are images of the outpou rin g of an immaterial gift of lighr' , 101 It is perhaps not surprising, th tn, that bright and clear colours character71 Ihid , H,IO (. HI.9): ~d, Kouer (1971). 99-100: ' rim •. Anderson (1980). IS.~ ••100 Pho,io. , Homily '7,7: cd. Laoutd':l$ (1919), 17z; mn •. Mango (1918). 196 (,For it i, thy [God'.j won! look not . \ ,he ddiciencie> hu, '" ,he in,en,ion . , . '). ~ ·Ag. in .. the konod ..,.: cd. Pi,ca (18\8), 181: u.n. , Travi. (198. ), .1 . .. l.m<"$ (1991). 8... Compote. however, Ko.hd.n .nd M.sui,. (1991l, 8-9. ,,", lamcs (1991). 66-94. e.p. 68, 71, 80-87. ' 0' Ibid .. 80. "" Quo'ed ibid .. 80, 0" ,he ic<>noph ile use of Pseudo-Dion""io., see C.meron (1992b). The 'Cd~"i.:al Hi.,."hy·, fron, which 'he quoted I"'''ogc <orne>, w:u cited, for enmplc. by the 787 Council: M.IISi XIII , lIJE; lI.n,_ Soh.. (1986.), 87,

'0

Siting the miniatu,~: imagery in the ninrh c~nrury

iz.e moS( Byzantine manuscript painting (and mosaics), of whatever century. What is striking, and appears only in the nimh cemury, is the use of vast amounts of gold
ultimate representative onighT and sign of divinity lOl _ to convey this bright· ness. May we assume th at the miniaturists of, especiall y, the Sacra Para/k ill and the Milan Gregory meant to infuse their scenes with material expressions of divin iry? l().1 To a cenain extent, I think we can: to invert and expand Nikephotos, as friends of colour (chromatophilOl), t he friends of Christ (christophiloi) may wel l have found it especially appropriate [Q be friends of gold (chrysophiloi). The lavish use of gold [Q express divinity fits a ninth-century co ntext particularly well, and seems!O correspond with the imroouction of icon revetments which also associa te precious metals with religious portraits.I{I'i But it must be said immediately that no simple equarion can be imposed without caution or qua lificalion. Since good and evil figures alike merit go ld in both the Sacra faral/till and the Milan Gregory (although not in the Vatican Job, where gold is reserved for the good), it is the sanctity of the whole boo k (the manuscript ali an object) or, mo re likely. the validity of imagery itself that is being given a divine imprimatur. We cannot, however, impose a single meaning on the use of gold. It would not only be naive!O suppose that the Byuntines ignored the material value of the gold; ir would run against the evidence. Nikephoros, for example, approved of images that. to imitate th e splendou r of th ei r prototypes, were 'made from the purest and most splendid material'. 106 The physical material (and irs value) was an integral part of the object, and what we would call supe rficial appearance could convey vital meaning. 107 Nikephoros praised artisans who used 'the brighter materials an d the dearer colours, which Rower th e appearance {of the prototype] to the utmost, and are artist ically appe:lli ng and give glory to it' .w/! Material splendour enhanced immaterial glory, and this concept too may elucidate (he ptofusion of gold in the Sacra Parafl(iIland the Milan Gregory.
~ the

t CONOG II. ... P HY ",NO THE t SSU E OF TII.AOITION

Much ninth-century iconography falls into one of twO rough categories: 'uncharacterized' imagery. by which I mean apparcllI ly gcneric iconographical formulae; and images that demonstrate 'single-instance adjustments', by which I mean motifs that serve such a particular purpose that they occur only in very specific ci r'., See J.m .. ('99'), 8~-SJ.
Sec Anderson (1995), 37- 38. ,.. Logor: PG roo:772, A~,;rrnn;...., 11.8: PG ,oo:ll:l; Mond .... in · B.udin<t ('990). 16~: T.. yj, (1984). 37. See . 1", John of D.m .. cu<. 'Again>! ,ho.sc who att .ck divine image. HI. ,)8: "d. KOll" (197S), 100: , ..n •. Ander"'n ('980), ](>6-107. '0' See further I'atry (1989). c.p. 169-170. ,81-,8): Cameron ('99.b): Oni.n. (1980); Roo.n (198,). e,p. 41S-4)6; Canlcron and Herrin (1984). J7 nOle 96 (,he amho ... of ,h~ l'"",,""~i, 'focus on ,he v.lue of mal~,i.1 in '1o""ioll·). '01 [ot01: PG 'OO :7'S: tram. T..vi. (1984), 44.
,OJ

,h"

J7

Vi.ion and m.... ning in ninth-century Byzantium

cumstances. The uncharacteriud images are the more numerous, and show particularly well how the ways that miniaturists treated subject matter are related to the ways that they dealt wi th styk. Uncharacterized images are represented by many of m e marginal scenes of th e Milan Gregory, the Sacra Para/kia, and the marginal psalters, where the absence of supporting figures or objects often results in images so reduced in content that they are sometimes incomprehensible to those unfamiliar with th e more expanded narrative. These shorthand images incorporate only the material essential for their interpretation, and rely on conventional formulae to facilitate recognition. Sometimes, but not always, the full narrative was supplied by the adjacent text. In the psaltets, where many miniatures act as visual commentaries, mean ing is often dependmt on the interrelationship of the psalm text, commentaries on it, the image, and its inscription: I09 the picture itself carried only part of the burden. Recognition of the subject matter was, in these cases, important, and conventional formulae fal:ilitated this. When this generic approal:h was interrupted by a characterizing detail- as in the caricatures ofJews - it stood Out and thereby carried particulat weight, often without any supporting inscription. 110 In the Sacr4 Paral/(Ia the majority of images confine themselves to a portrait or to a single episode of a longer narrative related in the text; when narrative sequences appear, however, they repeated ly overstep the restrictions of the aa:ompanying quotation. The Jacob and Isaac sequence illustrating the citation of Genesis 27:6-18, for instance, includes the episode of Isaac identifYing his son that is not described until v. 22 . 11 t This charal:teristic feature of the Sacra Para/kla has been !:ited as proof that the artist relied on a varietyof visual modds: 1 12 more important, however, is the attitude toward narrative. When sequential scenes occur, the miniaturist of the Sacra Paralklawas interested in conveying a coherent visual narrative block rather than in providing either a detailed correspondence of text and image or an exegetical commentary. Particularizing iconographic detai ls were less impor. tant than th e completion of a recognizable narrative progression: and, even more than in the marginal psalters, such details were omined in the Silcra P4ralkla. Though fo r different reasons, the Sacra P4r4lkla confirms [he evidence of the psalters that a generic, uncharacteriz.ed configuration [hat signalled a parricular episode - an iconography reduced to its essentials - was often desired or at least sufficient; details for their own sake were superfluous. The avoidance of particularizing iconographic details goes hand-in-hand with the formal insignificance of background and supplementary details: when such dctails appear, they are usually one-offs, single.instance adjustments to an estabI.. Se~",p . Corrigan (I99!). " · Cf. Hilin (I9~) . "p. 12, '-4. '" Wcinmann ('979') ' 4'; for mhcr oxamples . ..,. ibid .. ,8 . .of,. 76. 88. 92-93, 95. 1~8-1~9, 117. 159. 167. 169. 171. '74. 178. 18,. ",6. '" Ref.rcnc.. in p.eading nore and ibid .. 117-6~. 116, 1)8,

WI, 107,

,8

Siting lh~ minialura: imagery in ,he ninth century

lished formula. As such, they are important indicators of meaning, and we shall tum to the m shordy, It is perhaps less obvious that the essential conservatism of th e unchatacterized images represents an option; the use of traditional imagery, unencumbered by formal or iconographical flourishes, can convey meaning that goes beyond the subject matter itself, Since similitude between image and archetype was a major feature oficonophile theory, conscious use of traditional iconography deflected the possibility of an y criticism that the image was deviating from its prototype. lr also provided an implicit defence against accusations of idolatry: as we have SIXn, orthodox Christians argued that Ch ristian images had archetypes whil e pagan idols did not, Condemnation of innovation as 'pagan' appea red already in John ofThessalonike's seve nth-century d ialogue with a pagan abOUT the d ifference between idolatry and the veneration of Chri stian images, whe~ John observed lhat 'we do not invent anything, as you do'. Joh n's remark was incorporated into the flori legio n read during th e fifth session of th e Council of 787, III and this Council later expanded his sem iments: 'As for ourselves, we gain nothing but the certainty that we, who have come ro a reverence of God, introduce no innovatio n, but rather re main obedient to the teac hings of the apostles and fathers and to the traditions of the Ch urch ,' II. Further reactions against novelty range from Joh n of Dam35CUS' 'stop your innovations' to Theodo re ofStoudion's 'we have a command from the apostle himself which says that if anybody decf<:es or orders us 1O an co ntrary ro tradition , , , he sha ll not be acceptable', to Photios' 'the memory of men who have used th e brief time-span at their disposal for innovations is fo~ver kept fresh by the eye of justice for the censure of th eir crimes',IIS This attitude, joined with the ins istence that art was not the invemio n of the paime r,116 led to Theodore of Sroudion's condemnation of innovative iconography: 'this deed was inspired not by God, bUI surely by the adversary, seeing that in all the years that have passed no examples of this partic ular subj ect have ever been given' . ' 17 The importance of these condemnations becomes clea r from echoes of lhe anri image response, Descri bing an attempt to persuade the iconophiles to meet with the iconoclasts, Ihe ViM Niutat attributes w lhe Emperor Nikephoros I the statement ' if they [the iconophilesl are persuaded by yo u that their teachings are innovaMan.i XlII , ,64- , 6S: , ... n., ~hng" ( '97~), ' 40, ," M.mi XlII, 108e; 'WI< , S.h.., ('986 ..), 5" Th. Quini'n' Council (69') bad earlier .uggcSlcd ,h.t bi. hop. ,t udy th. chu ,ch f,nh." ... , h.. ,han product new ICx", ... Parry (1989). '70 and note )6, " j John of Da ma.CIl., 'Against th.,.., who .<tack divine images' 1.22: cd, Koll .. ('971), m : ,nn •. Andctwn (r980), 3[, Theodore, leller ro Theok,iSlo. (.pi.de I.l4 : ca, 808), PC 9.:98<!A; ,nn., Alnandcr ( ' 91~), 90; o n Theodore (759-8,6), ...,. ODB J, 2().H -I04\ , Ph",io., Homily '7,1: cd, Laou~ ('959), ,6. 1. ,S- 16\1. t: Iran., Mango (,958), I87, Fo, an earli.. example, Stt ,he Emperor Juli.n', fourlh .ccn,ury dc~n cc of p.g.n im.g.ry: 'Innovation J abom ina,e .boye.1I things' (Opmz, cd, T.ubner, 4Hb), ",; On which ... referenCe> in note ,0 . bove, ' " un .. to Theodoulo$ of S,oud ion (cpistl. I,1 9)' PC 99:917, tr,w., M.ngo (1971), '75,
'OJ

39

Vision and

m~aning

in

njnth·c~ntury

Byu.ntium

tions, let th~m MOp their evil teaching' .11 8 And Photios wrote ot the iconoclasts: 'Accusing us of introducing daring innovations into apostolic teaching, they prided themselves on being, of all men under the sun, the only ones w ho had not dev iated from it: 119 To some, Iconoc lasm was a battle for possession of the authority of the past, a battle that polarized the distinction between innovation and tradition. Underlying this battle was an almost fanatical insistence on tradition as th e best proof of trUl h.l2<l John of Damascus eulogized trad ition at least fiftee n times in th e course of his writings against Iconoclasm, often in rh e sa m e breath with which he decried innovation: ' . .. stop your innovations. Do not remove age-old boundaries, erected by your fathers'; II I or 'We beseech the people of God, the holy nation, to ho ld fast to the tradition of the Church';122 or, quoting Paul, 'stand firm and hold to the traditions whi ch you were taught' . I l ' For Nikephoros, toO, tradition is th e bes t guarantor of truch , 124and one of his highest accolades is 'it bears che seal of the fathers'.I1S Further, of the three requirements for orthodox clergy, Nikephoros ranked preservation of the holy tradition second only to fear of God, and befo re honouring the sancdty of ordination VOWS.126 Faith in tradi tion as th e best assurance of authority was widespread in rhe eighth and nimh ce nturies, and iconoclasts and iconophiles alike insisted chat tradition supported thei r point of vicw.127 The iconoclasts claimed that 'the images of false and evil name have no foundatio n in the tradition of Christ, the apostles and the fathers' .' l! The iconophiles, who had recent custom on their side, universalized fro m this - ·Nor can a single opinion overturn the unanimous tradition of the whole Church'1 29 _ and exploited iconoclast attempts at change: 'Let us not allow
'" Com lnontary and ct.n,. Aleunder (19 \8). 130--1)2. , .. HOlnily '7, 1: roo LlOurda. (19\9), ,6\ 11. 1J- 1j; ' tam. Man g<> ('9\8), 188. no Se~ olso no,~ 71 ,bo""; c. M,tein ('9)0), ')<>-'49, '9'- '98; Gn n' ('960); x h3nbom (1976), 'H-'4j, '48; COfm.~k ('986h), 61j, 637 noto SJ. '" John of DamOK"", ·Ag. in .. those who .. tac~ div;n~ im.ges" 1,u (~f. 11 ,1\, 111,41 ): roo Komr (197\), III (108, '41); !to n•. And~""n ('980) , 3' . m Ibid. 1,68 (E! !,7'): roo Kotter ('97\), 168; !",n•. And~rson (1980). ~9. '" Ibid. ],23 (d. 11,,6): ro oKoner (197\), " }; ' .. n •. Anderson (1980), J'. ' l< 'Everything, ,herdO fe, whi~h ha. ken handed ~r in ,h. Chulch of God, b",h w.inen and unwrilton, i. veneron ro and honoured, .nd .. nc,ifi" bodi" and soul.; and conc~.n ing Ih~K 'hinS' ther< i. no doub. among tho f.ithful.' LOVS: PC '00:617; tnn$. Trowi. ('984), n\. III Anljr-rhn;rl« II1,J: PC '00:)80; Monduin_ BauJinet (1990). 186; Trovi. ('984), 114- 'Sj. ,>6 Sec Tuvi, (1984). 107; d. ibid . "4-1j7. 17'-'72. '" Though ddl.,cs eonduc'ed aIm"", entirely in ttadro quo •• tionl ""'m '0 be a ph~nom~non of ,he I>",iod. I do no, mc.n '0 imply ,hat ttadi,ion W ignorro before the ~ighth century (0« e.g. P. 1> Gray [1981]. 6,-61), ta,h~r. 1 am h ighl igh' ing i" I>""i"~n' .;gnificana in th~ debOle abo u, im.go •. Sc~ Al ... nd~r (1977), 1}8-1.40; .nd AJu.nd~r (19\8), >\7- 258. on ,h. refu ...;on of'.purioui ,ex" by quonng 'genuin~· p.. uge •. '"~ M.n,i XTIl. 168C: Han •. Mango ([971). ,66-,67: Sah.. (1986a). 97. For Nik~pho",,· rdi.l ... ion. Alex.nd •• (19\8), 1.4\. ,n John ofD.mOKU., ·Ag.in .. ,ho,., who >tuck divin e image. 1.1\: ro o Koner (197\1. 117; mm •. Ande""" (198o), )1- JJ.

Siting the mini:llu""" imagery in [h e ninth century

ourselves to learn a new faith, in opposition to the tradition of the falhers'. lJOThc measured tone of these Sratemenrs could, howl'ver, slip easily into mild threats - 'it is no small matter to forsake the ancient tradition of the C hurch which was upheld by all of those who were called before us, whose conduct we should observe, and whose faith We should imitate'l'l - or, as it did with some rl'gu la riry, blanhl abuse. One of Ihe great insults levelled on the iconoclasts by the iconophiles reads: 'Obviously they arc unaware of what the fath ers say.'13! Or: 'It appears that they haVe never re~d what the fathers say. If they have, they h~ve done so in passing and not diligendy.'l33 The iconoclasts are accused of 'rejoicing ... at distorting the tT;lditions of the Church', I.J..I and characterized as 'like swine who have trodden on pearls - I mean the tradil ions of the Church' .135 For 'the fabrication of [sacred] images is by no means new and recent, but was transmitted from the beginning and from on high, and confi rmed in both the old and new oovenams';l;\6 most definitively, the 787 Coullcil assures us that 'all our holy fathers accepted the painting ofimages'.137 The ringing testimonials in favour of tradition and diatribes against innovation indicate how determined was the struggle for control of the past. Visual repercussions of this suuggle can perhaps be seen in the uncharaClerizcd iconography and the lack of formal embellishment found so often in ninth-century miniatures; in any evem, these attri butes reject innovation for its own sake. The rhetorical Strategy employed by the churchmen does not, however, converge seamlessly with the visual evidence. Most of the manuscriptS wilh which we have been dealing had preiconoclast ancestors, and the miniaturists of the marginal psalters and of the Vatican 'Christian Topography', and probably of the Paris and Milan Hom ilies as well, had befo re them illus trated early copies of these texts. Nonetheless, with the possible exception of the M ilan painter Ihe ninth-century miniaturiSls did not fed dury bound to duplicatf' exactly the subject matter contained in these witn esses to
n. Ibid. tJJ.~1 (d. 1.>6 and It, w), ed. Ko,,~r (1971), I~j (117, " 9): Ir. nl. And~rson (1980), 89 (3j. 64)· ' }I Ibid. 1,1: ~d. Kotter ('975), 67; t .. n•. And • ...,n ([980), 14. cr. 1,,6 (ed. Kom, [1971 j, <)0; tran •. Ander..,n h 9tioj, 14): 'Either do .. way with the honour and veneration [he.e ,hin!:, d •• erve, or a=pt [h. mdition of [h. Ch 'lTeh and the vene!>[ion of im.g •• : John .Iso ""mr.SI.d imp<ri. l.dic" with church mdition . and found [he forme. wanting (l I.16: .d. Komr [[9751. 111-(14): so [00 Theophanes. a. no!Od by Sah"" ([986.). 1\. I)' M.n,i X!lI. 1\7<=: [ran'. S.h .. ([986.). 89 . '" Ibid.l.4lIC, Ir.n •. S.ha> (1986.), 81. 1,. Ibid .. 16SA; trans. Saba> (19860). 96. Sc<: .1.., Mansi XIII. 1110 (where Epiphonio. im.gine. [he i""noel""....fu,ing 10 'follow faithfully [he t",di,ion which ~. i"ed flOm ,he beginning'), 117C (where: ,he iconoel.o. ... 'do nul ~~n "Orne dose to ac,,"pting ,he "adi[ion admiucd by w many $.ainu [hrough _ ou, hi"o,y'J; u8C (whete [he i"onoe]""" td u..: It.di,ion 'wi,h con[emp" )' 171E (when: the iconodo,,, >te a,,"mcd of"p<aking flOm ,hoi, "wn belly' ..[her th.n flOm ,radition); 17 jS ([ he i<onod..,. ·h."" ,..""h.d again .. [he f.,het<. [hCY"PI""e the !tadi, ion of the church'): Ir:lnS. Salus ([986a), 5\, 59, 66.100. TOI. 1)' Ibid ., pjC; trans. Saba< (1986. ). [4\. '''" l ife "fMich.el ,h. Synkoll"., '" od. Cunningh am ([99')' 66-67. '" M.n,i Xlll. 169A; [rans. S.ha< (1986.). 98. Se. "",e 71 .Me.

oJ,,,

,.

Vision and

m~aning

in ninth-century Byzantium

pa5t tradition. Whi le the iconography of individual scenes remains traditio nal, images not in the older versions of the text were added in the psalters, the 'Christian Topography', and the Paris Hom ilies, and new combinations of scenes appear as wel l. Nor do any of these manuscripts copy the miniatu re style of the earlier models, and most of them appear to have al tered the format. Although all illustrated ninth-century manuscripts (except for the Sacra Para/uM) were trad itional in the sense that they copied early tens, th e minia lures in th em ac tuall y reframe tradition. Another way that th e miniaturists reframed tradition emerges in the second of the iconographical categories that dominate ninth-centu ry miniatures. Smaller than the unchatacterizcd group, it consists of scenes (or details within them) that appear to have been inve nted lid hIX in the ninth cent ury. Nearly all supplement rather than illustrate th e text they accompany; and nearly all can be classified as 'single-instance adjustments': the miniaturists insened derails or scenes to make precise and time-specific points, ra iloroo to a particular audience. Only rardy do single-instance adjustments become sufficientl y generalized to enteT mainstream ninth-unturyor later Byzantine iconography. Examples of single-i nstance adjuscmems arc frequent in the marginal psalters and also appear in the Vatican 'Ch ristian Topography' and Paris.gr. p o . For exam ple, mOSl of the specifically anti-herClical imagery grafted imo the ninthcentury marginal psalters was omitted from later copies, and even within the nimh- ce ntury group the anti-heretical additions are not consistent.ll8 Singleinstance adjustmems personalized the manuscripts in wh ich they appeared: they fine-tuned th e miniatures ro sui! the raslt:S of the patron, miniaturist, or expected viewer. By virtue of the fact that they supplemented the written narrative, th e single-ins tance adjustments essentiall y reinterpreted the text to reaffirm the beliefs of their creators. Such alte rations have less 10 do with long-range reth in king of the significance of th e scenes themselves than with the interpretation of certain episodes in a particular and tim e- bound context. They depend heavily on a three-way symbiosis between miniature, text, and informed audience; and the critical necessity of the latter is d ear from the enigma that most of these images posed until recently, and that many still do. We will examine a num be r of single-i nsta nce adjusrments in the following chapters. liere , howevet, I sho uld li ke to speculate on how we are to view them against the wriuen strictures condemning innovation. Mosr obviously, the singleinstance adjustments confirm the diffcrence betwee n the rhetorical strategies of textS and the visu al strategies of images. Beyond this, however, Paul Magdalino's observation [hat 'new' did not necessari ly mean 'innovative' to the Byzantincs, but rathe r ' imitation of' or 'superior imitation of' (as in Constantinopl e the
'" 5<:. Omig.n (t991) .

Siting the minialUr~: imagery in ,he ninth century

New Rome),139 suggests that what we frame as new or innovative in Byzantine iconography could have been viewed by its contemporary audience as superior reworkings of old themes, as clarifying improvements rather than :is radical . . mnovatlons. It must, on th e other hand, be suessed that although miniatures exhibiring single-instance adjustments are amo ng the most fasc inating products of the ninth century, they are far from the norm. Most of the pictures in th e marginal psalters and the Paris Gregory. and nearly all those in the Vatican 'Christian Topography'. th e Milan Homilies and the Sacra PardlkIJ, rely on iconographical formu lae typified by their lack of characrerizarion. We are co nfronted with a basic pattern of miniatures that arc essentially pragmatic in their style and iconograp hy, set against a small but significant group demo nsr rating single-instance adjustments.

T HE

~UNCTIONS

OF

TM~CES

TN TilE NINTH CE N TURY

The ways that manuscript images were used to construct meaning in the ninth cemury show considerable latitude, and the results suggest considerable thought and effort on the part of the miniaturists and their patrons. Initially, it thus see ms significant that the writings of the eighth- and ninth-century church councils and of the major proponents of the iconophile cause - John of Damascus, Theodore of Sroudion, Nikephoros and, later, Photio! - stressed the function of images. When we look more closely, however, we find that while the uses of imagery listed in the texts rarely deviated from ea rlier theory, ninth-century mini atu res often play roles quite differellt from those desCfibc<i and, sometimes, from those they had played before. Byzantine religious imagery provided a visual interprerarion of rhe past and on this level can always be defined as instructive orexplanarory; eve n so, ovtrtlydidactic and polemical miniature~ appear to have been singularl y popular in rhe ninth cenwf)'. The anti-iconoclas r scents in the Khludov and Panwkrator Psalters are probably the most famous examples, 1<0& but both ma nuscripts arc rife with pictures interpolau::d in the ninth century that instruct the viewer in the proper inte rpretation of the psalms. In the Khludov Psalter, these interpreta tions are usually elucidated by concise inscriptions; following Kathleen Corrigan, we may identify most of the nimh-century additions as anti-heretical polemic, directed against the Jews and Muslims as well as iconoclasts. I. I The miniatures in the Paris Homilies have a broader focus, but most are equally intent on providing a visual interp retation of their accompanying [eXI. Si milarly, Wanda Wolska-Conus has argued that the
I)'

M.gdalino ('987), jJ- S4; >C •• ho Alexande, (,961), 349-)1'. ,<0 See the d ... ic trio I. Scvtenko ('965), Grab .. ('96S), and Duf,enne ('961). '" c.,rrig.n ('99'). 4J

Vision and m~aning in ninth-ccntury Byzantium miniatu res in the Vatican 'Ch ristian lopography' expand and explain the ~nse of the TeXt. 14! The strength of didactic imagery, and especially of its offs hoots, visual exegesis and visual polemics,IH in the ninth centu ry is clear. No eighth- or ninth-cent ury text known to m e, however, includes argument or exegesis as a function of images. 144The nume rou s specific funClions artribured to images instead fall into three traditional groups: rem emb ran ce and honour, intercession, and instruction. The iconophile writers were not, of course, trying to classifY images into function-defined groups (as classificatio ns, all three of these groups au overdetermined: they enco mpass vinually all rel igio us images, and certainly all miniat ures in nimh-century manuscripts), but rather to explain the ways images worked within the structure of orthodox belief. In discussions of honorific or commemorative images, th e iconophiles stres~d particularly the concept of imagery for th e perpe tuation of m emory and as a reminder of hi stori cal presence. Jo hn of Dam ascus wrote that this 'kind of image is made for the remembrance of past eve nts . .. in order th at gl ory, honour andeternal memory may be given'.14~ He also q uoted St Basil's sermon on the martyr Gordios to authorize th e us<: of images as memorials ~ 'when we have his m emory before o ur eyes it will always remain fresh' - and commented, 'obviously sermo ns an d images are the best means of keeping it fresh' .146 The idea of images as m emory runs through many iconophile teXTS; 'Things whi ch have already taken place are remembe red by mean s of images, whether for the purpose of ins pi ring wonder, or honour, or shame, or to enco urage thos<: who look upon them to practice good and a~oi d evil, '147 For, as Ep iphanios the Deacon told the 787 (;Qun cil, in reading about saints 'we are reminded of thei r zeal' but 'loo ki ng at their sufferings, we come to reme mber their bravery and thei r life inspired by God' .148 When put on the defensive, iconoph iles sometimes restricted the legi timate ro les of images (i n response to the iconoclast (;Quncil of 754, for example, the Acts of the 787 Council claim that 'ttue worshippers .. . have iconographic repres<:ntatio ns only as a means of explanation and remembrance') 149 bur no rmall y the linked functions of intercession and salvation were not only included, hut emphasized. The salvawry role of imagery relates w the redemptive value of ,he incarnation; as John of Damascus wrot<:, 'I saw the human shape of God and my soul fou nd its
'" Wolsh-Conw (1990), '91. I;} On vi.ual ClI<gai" Ott fUT1h~r ch apt~ r 1. I.. Di'Cu"in n of typologies com~. 010"""0 ,h i, funoion. Sc~ John of DamaKw, 'Again.. tho .. who .nac~ divin~ im'g"" Ln, Il ,W, 111,11, 36: ~d. Kolt~r ('975), 86, !!9-no. 1>9, '40_ 10\ Ibid. 111,13 (cf. 1,19, 1,38 [_ 11,)41. 1I,.0-!!): ed. Kotler (1975), 1>9 (94, 149, 99, 101); ,ran. _ Ande"on (1980) , 77 (16, )7, 58- 59) · 1<6 Jbid , J,40-41 (_ 11,36-37): (d. Ko.t~r ('975), ISO' ..,n,. Andot$<) n (198o), lS. 10' Ibid_ I,. J: ~d. Kotter ('975), 86; 'rano. Andonon ('980), 11. O n imagery", encourage imitalion, ..e below: on the emotional imp.e, of imagery implied in ,he fitst d au.e, "'" above. Ma nsi X!lI, J48C-D (cf. 149D-El: tran,. Sah.. (l986a) , I6J (8 J). Ibid. , 177A: tran •. S.h.. (1986.), 104.

l<' l<'

Siting th~

mini~tur~1' imag~ry

in

Ih~

nimh «mury

salvalion.' I5<) He explain~d: 'i mag~s are a source of profit, help, and salvation for us all, since they make things so obviously manifest, enab ling us to perceive hidden things'. 151 Intercessioo was an eq uall y important attribute: Nikephoros, fo r example. credited imagery with 'acknowledging memory and entreating int~rces­ sions'.112 Later, Photios described the Virgin 'depicted in painting as she is in writ ings and visions, an intercessor for our salvation'. In The intercessory power of images was, in faCt, one of th ei r tru m p Gi rds, and references to it are multiple, appearing ev~n in th e tenie Synodikoll V(fUJ. I \4 As intercessoni, imagcs were called upon for protection, 155 and cited for their ability to terrify demo ns, l:.6 t he ir effic.acy at which is attesred by miracles. IF The intercessory power anributed to religious an depends for it.s fo rce on belief in th e relationship berween image and prorotype, developed by 5t Basil, that was held by all known ico nophile writers. It pres umes rhat th e image was, as Gary Vikan has put it, tf:ln sparent - that th e image bridged th e space and time ~par­ ating prototype and viewer.1 18This personalized and intimale co nduillO the divine promoted, and in the orthodox ch urch continues to promo te, communication berween human and divine that bypassed instirurional control: by the eighth century the sac red pottrait, which one could carry as an amulet or hang on th e wall of one's hou~, puc access to divin ity al the disposal of the individual. Peter Brown suggested that th e ab ility of holy men to intercede with God on behalf of the populace, and thus divert power tradirio nally co m rolle<l by the state and institutionalized church to the individual, was partially respo nsible for their persecution during lconoclasm. 119 If we accept this model and apply it ro images, we may understand one of the teaso ns wh y iconoclast bishops and the iconoclast Emperor Constantine V denied the power of images TO inlCrcede with God . l60 The thitd role that iconophil~ treatises assign~d to images was instruction or explanation. The churchm en did not mention visual exegesis or visual polemic under this rubric, but determined that an image could serve as a material aid to
,,. ",s.in" ,hOK who .".~k divino im.g." I.u:..d . Kouer (1971). 111: '''In,. Ande'so" (1980), JO [with mooific;"ion.l. Se•• Iso Ih. Act> of ,he 787 Council: M. nsi XIIl . ,..,IA. 249 £ ' , ...."s. Sail.. ('986.). 76, 8). ,,, John of D.mu.:us . i\g>.ins, ,ho"" who at<:Kk di~i ,,~ image. 111,17: "d. Kotrer ('975). 126: tran>. And ...on (1980), 7<4. '" L"to>: f'G 10'):589' , .... no. Tr.vi. (1984) . 10..,. Sec ..J.o. o n im.go> of .ngd., AmiN',,,,il;lj, [1.'0-1': PC 100:)\3: Mondu.i,,-Saudi nct (1990). 164-167; Trni. (19~4), ..p . .p. '" Photio., Homily '7 .6: ed. uo .. rdn ('9,9). 17" , .... " •. Mango (19,8), 195. , 5-+ Sy".Jihm Vm". I,D: .d. Duffy and Par k" (1979). 114. 1SS E.g. Inhn ofDam.",u., 'Ag:r.i"" lh"", who mack d ivino imagd 1.)6 (. lI.p) : ..d. KomI (1975), 148; , ran •. And.rson ('980), )7. ,-" E.g. ihid. IT ,!!. '7: ed. Koner (,97\). III: I"''''. And"... n (1980). 19. 64. 1P E.g. ihid. III ,! 15: ..d. Komr (1971), 198- 199; Iran, . Anderson (19&0), 101 - 106. t" Vik.n (1989). SO-51. ,.. Brown (197J), 11_1 J, j); see fU n he r Rnu.n (19g,) , 431. ,'" Gem (1977'). 147-'5', and Wortley (19K:), 153- 179; on ,h. bi.hop., Au,.py (1988), )-11.

to,.

Vi,ion and meaning in ninth-century Bynntium

understanding immaterial concepts, as a model for imitation, or as a uaching device. an the fiTS[ of these themC'.l,John of Damascus quoted Dionysios the Areopagite's 'we are led to the perception of God and his majesty by visible images', 1M and argued thac 'It is impmsible for us to think immaterial things unless we can envision analogous shapes,'16l Nikephoros made the same point, and concluded that 'knowledge of the primary form [archetype] is obtained through the figufe [image)'. 1M T he second theme, imitation, was a critical point in the iconoclast debate:: both sides agreed on the value: of imitating the lives ofsaints; they did not, however, agree on how one was to lc:arn about the life to be imitated. John of Damascus asked, 'Shall we not make forms and images of things which arc visible and perceptible to us. that we may remember them, and so be moved to imitate them?': 164 Ihe iconoclasts promoted verbal or written understanding. In the so-called ethical theory of images, the iconoclasts denied rhe efficacy of visual aidf-mlmoil'( and admitted only [he imitation of the virtues of saints and the eucharist as acceptable 'images' ,16~ T he iconophiles replied ThaI the eucharist was not an image ofChTisr, but Christ himsdf. 166 Nikephoros argued that virtues are secondary actions of the (p ri mary) bodies of saints - virtue cannot exist without a person to enact it - and proposed that while: virtues expose capabilities, images reveal the saints themselves and are thereby more worthy of honour.167 The critical disdncdon was between imitation of a life known th rough written and oral tradition (the iconoclast position) and imitation of a life known through both words and images (the iconophile pmition). The significance of this d ifference is clarified by icono phile arguments in favouf of using imagery to teach. The Seventh Ecumenical Council praised 'images placed inside the churches ... for the purpose of teaching', 168 and championed imagery 'for the purpose ... of
,6, John of D.m ascu., 'Again" Iho .. who mack di.ine im.ges' I.)o-)J (_ 11.16-7): . d. Kom, ('97j), 1+4- '4j; mil>. And. ""n ('980), ).4-)1 (with modific;uion.) . m Ibid. I1I.>1 (cf. Ln. ',ho mind which i, d~,e'mi ned (0 igno,. co'po,eal 'hingo will find i""lf w~.hn.d and f,usm.,.d·): .d. Kout, (197j), u8 (8~~5)' ".ns. And~,.on ('980). 76 (20). ,.. A1lrirrhtrin" 1.,0: PC '00:177. 289; Mond ..in· B.udinel (990), no-n2, A1ex.tndor ('958). 100. Cr. I'G loo:7480- 789B; tran •. T ""vi. ('984), 49. ,M John ofOarn.scu" 'Again.{ tho .. who mack di.in. im's.'!,)J (- 11,17): ed. KOlle, ('975), '4\; (""n •. Ander",n ('980), H. Se. 01", not~ '47 above. '6, Anasln. (1954). l\l-l60; G.m (1975), 4- U ; P.ny (1989), 171-t71 and noto 44; C unningham ( !~r), '9-',; and ron (J991b). John of Dam""", agro.d ,h.t word. - but not only wo,d. could p!ovide imag..: 'i m. g.. ar. of twu kind,; .i,h., they arc word. written in boob . , . 0 ' e1 .. ,hey male,i..! im.ges'. 'Again., ,ho.. who .ttad. divino imag." !II.>,:.d. Kotte, ('97j), ' lo; WlIl'. And.,..,n (' 980). 77-7 8. ,.. S.., T.f, (1980/, ), 71. '<7 On N;k~phoro" points .... A1.xand" b9jJ). 49. On Ih. iconophil. respon .. ro ,he ouch. ,;" os an image ... S.h.. (1986b). ,.. M.n.i XlII. 241A; ... n•. s..hos ('986.). 75 . Se. 01", John of Oamoscu •. 'Against ,h"", who .".ck di.ine im.gcil.,8: .d. Kouor ('97j). 9~' [lans. Andelson (1980). 16; and Pho,ios. Homily '7.1:.d. uou,Jas ('919). ,64; ,ran •. M.ngo ('918). 186-.87.

urn.

.n:

Siting th~ mini.tut~: imagery in (he ninth a ntury

rem; ndi ng us of the gmpel and expla; ning its Story' . 169 Whil e the explanatory rol e of ima~s was somedmes grounded in the traditional topos of picture!; as a text for the illitera te - ' What the book is to the literate, the image is to the iIJiterate't 70 _ not all iconophiles accepted this formula; 17l unlike many of their we!;tern counterparts, eighth. and ninth-century By.t.antine authors never endorsed what Parry has called a 'two-tier system' dividing the elite book-Iearnet from the simp!.: picture-learner. In On one levd, in fact, those iconophileswhowrote that images functioned as a book for the ill iterate simply conveyed thei r homage to earlier arguments. A more prominent iconophile argument e!;pollsed the even older topos of the equa liry of texts and images. 17l Nikephoros, for example, noted that 't hrough calligraphic genius T teachings of divine history ap pe~r to us ... by th e excellence of he painting, those same things ate show n to us',17' used the word 'graphe' for both painting and writing, and argued thai only the scri ptural wtitten account and pic. torial impressions represent 'what is factually true'. m Another earlier idea ThaT recurs repeatedly is the belief that painting fulfils the purpose of writing: John of Damascus observed ,hat ' images and se rmons serve the same purpose' .176 and. in a famous lener, the iconoclast emperors Mi chael 11 and Theophilos wrote to Louis the Pious that 'those [images] th at were displayed in high places they permifted TO remain, so that rh~ pictuu mighr S(fV( as scriptuu'.,n To Nikephoros, it followed
'" Man.i XI IJ. 1~8C: Iran •. Soh", (1986. ). II J. L John afD. ma",,,,. "Again" Ihase who mack divin~ i m.g~ .. t. '7 (d. 1.47 l~ 11. 431, n, IO): .d. 10 Ka".r (1975), 9) ('j I. 99): Irans. And",on ('980). >5 ('9, 58). Cf. ,he Life of Michael Ih~ Synkdlas: ~d. Cu nningham ('99,).66-67. and (or Nik~I,llor"' . Travi. ('984). 48. On ,h~ ,opos: Kcssler ('98ja), .'p. 75- 76, 86, Kc-..I., (1985b). ~.p . ,1>-10. 17-18: and. , ho ugh hi, ,.ntr.l"rgum. 1lI foil. 10 canvincr, DUff.n ('9 89). '" E.g. Throdo<" afStoudion : :ICC r o"y ('989). e,p. 167-170. , , r.tty ('989). « p. 166-,67' $tt 0.1..., San"er," (1994). 109. For Ih. walerll po.i,ian. :ICC M"Ki".,ick «(990). 197- JI8: J. NcI>Cln ('9'10). esp. 164-165, 195; .nd Hahn (19'10). 7-10 . "J E.g. $, &t.i l. .. quoled by John of Dam a",us: 'Bor h pa;n,.., of worill; and pain'et1 of pi n ures illustr." v.laur in h.ttle: ,he form . r by Ih•• t! of ,h~tor;c. Ih.l.,,", by do .. u'" of . he b,u.h. and bolh encau "'g. everyon. to be brave. A .poken accaUlll .difi" .h~ U f. whil~ a .i l~nI p ic,ur. indue.. imitation· . 'Ag.iml th"", who mackdivine image. 1,46: d. 1.31 (~ 11.18.1Il .+4): ..I. Kotte. (19751. '5 '. 145; tran •. Ander,.,n (19 80). 11>-J9. Fa< ,h~ 787 Council: Ma n,i XIII. 177B· C: Iran •. Soh... ('986.). IN. Sec.l.o nale 148 .bove: Kes.l .. ('98Sa). 84-87 an d B.rno rd (1977). tt. '3 . '" AfM/ogeti("W Mllior: PG 100:7 48; !fan<. Travi. ('984), 45. Simil. , ",n,im.nl> appear in John of Dam"",u •. 'Again" Iha", who "tt"ck divine imagd [. ' 7 and m.ll (~d. Ka " .' [1975], 9 J. Ill; Iran •. And ..,.,n [1 9801. >5. 72); Throdorc uf Stoudian (l'>.rry [19891, 1]1-(71 ): ond th~ Am of ,h~ 787 Council (M.n.i XIII. l1oE-u,A, lj1e, 19oA: tr.ns. S.h", I'986. J, 6 1, 69, 10j). Correspond ingly. •h~ Council caunt.red inveu iv.... ag. in .. paimjng by no' ing , he illogic of cond.mning painters but no, ""ibes; Man.i XI1J , 149A: Inn •. Sah ... ('986.). 81. 1 A"ti"h"iC~1 III. j: PG ,oa:J81-J84: Mandlli n· B.udin~' ('9'10)' IR8 - '90: Trav i, ('984), 411 . 7\ 17. 'Again" tho .. who m ack divin~ im"ll'" 1.4 j (. 11.4'); cf. 1.56 (. n, 51): .d. Kotter ('971) , Ij I, Ij9; 'ran>. And.""n ('980), )8, H. Sec >.I,., , h. 787 Council: Man,i XIII. 169B. 180A. :l IlA (wriling> are '.nimale ico n,·). 348C-D; " ,n •. S.h.. (198601). 98. IOj . ')1 . ,6:l. For . fourth.cen,ury eumpk,:ICC Grq:ary "f Ny.... far wham Ih ....crcd image i. '.ilcnl ",ri plUre ,h., . peaks from the w~I1' (PC 46 ?37C-74aA). In Letter af81 4 f'om Mich . eI II ond Theophila. m Louis ,he Pia",: MGH Con";!i" A,vi MTo!ini Ih. 471>-479: heeman ('9R5). 100-105·

Vision and

m~aning

in ninth·untury Byzamium

that anyon~ 'who accepts the wri tte n acco unt will necessarily accept the pictures as wdl'. 178 PhOl ios la ter continued in this same vein: ' Does a man hate the teaching by means of pic tures? Then how could he not have previously rejected and hated the message of the gos pdS?'179 The specific rdationship between images, spee<:h, and texts thus became a significant issue of debate during Iconoclasm. ISO Iconoclasts such as John th e Gram marian Slressed the primacy of writin g over sight,181 while the iconophiles found images either equivalent to, or more powerful than, speech or texts. Superiority of visual over written witnesses was implied early by Cappadocian fathers sueh as St Basi l,182 and reiterated by. among others, Anastasios of Sinai in the seventh century, 1 and Nikephoros, Theodore ofSlOudion, and Phorios in the 83 ninth . Nikephoros argued that 'we all know that sight is the most honoured and necessary of the senses and it may allow apprehension of wh at falls und er percepti on more distinctly and sharply [tha n spoken wordSJ'.IS' He held that while speech could be dislOrted , visual representatio ns remained dear and distinct; images, therefore, were the more rrustwonhy documents. ISS Tho ugh less concerned with arguing this particular case, Theodo re maintained that written accounts were of necessity based on what the autho r had seen; the visual thereby implicitly took preceden ce over the writte n. 186 Photios, who drew extensively on ea rli er discussions, presented an impassioned plea for the primacy of sight in 867= Martyrs have suffered. , . an d thei r memory is conuinNl in books, These deeds thq a r~ alw seen performing in pictures. and painting pre~nts th e martyrdom of tho~ bles~d men more vivid ly to our knowlNlge ... These things are conveyed both by stories and by pictures. but it is the spectators rather lh~n Ihe hearers who are drawn 10 emubtion ... Ihe comprehension that comes aboul th rough sight is shown to be far superior. I ~ He continued: indec:d much greater is the power of sight .. , . it ~nds the ~s~nCe of th~ th ing sc:c:n On to the mind. letting it be oonv.:yed from there to th~ memory for th~ concentration of un&i1·
'" Anrirrhnir.... IIJ", I'G to<l;J80; Monduin · B.udine{ (199"0), 186-187; M. ngo (1971). 17k "" H omily 17.\: .d. Llourd .. ('9\9). '70: \ ... n$. Mango ('9\8). ~93-~94: or. laru in ,h •• ame .. rmo n: 'if h. {reat< ei,her one wi,h reverenCC or with con,~mp' . he nt<:c .. arily k<,o~ .he .. mc on the othd (Homily 17.6: e<l. ~urd;i$ [l9s91, 17': ,nn., Mango [19S81 . 19S). '''' Se. d. Maffei ('974). S~I. '" Gouillard ('966). '76. The l ib,i Carol ini m.de ,hc .. mc point: Gcro ('97J»). IS. Sec alro "I<under (19SJ), 14 not< ~L 111 A. nou,d by iconophilc: e.g. John ofO.mo<cu<. ·Ago.in .. , ho .. who ....ck divine images" I.H (. 11,)0. II 1.46): ed. Kottcr (1975) , 1'16. For o,her cady cumpJ ... ..., K=lcr (198 ja). 84-8 j. \0) Sec Kamoni. (1986). 41-44. 57- 18. u< •Refuw io' (unpubli,hed): ,nn •. Alcundcr ('918). 111. See .1.0 Alu. ndcr ('9SJ), 49. No'e .ha. Nik.photo. her. dose.ibc. text< ... ·heard·. II) Anlirrhrricu,II1,5: I'G loo:,8'-J84; Mond",in·B."dinct ('990), 188-'9"0: Travis (,984). 48. Set: .Iio Purr (1989). 179-180. ,116 Pa,ry (1 989). esp.lll-In 179-180. "7 Homily 1M: cd. Laourd .. (1959), '70; " .n,. Mango ('958). ~94.

"

Siting !h~ minialUr~s:

imag~ry

in

ch~

nimh C~n1ury
1I

ing knowledge. Has the mind seen? Has i! grasped? Has il visualized? Then dfortlessly lransmitted the forms lO lhe memory. 1M

has

Ninth-a:ntury arguments for the primacy of sight were, as Jean-Marie Sansterre has noted, par( of the iconophile rhetorical arsen;.l; they should not be taken to indicate that images had more authority than the scriptur~.I891t is non~theless a measure of Ihe power of the visual in ninth-a:mury Byzantium, and of the fora: of the image-prototype equa tion, that images were by definition authentic; in contrast, texts (other than scriptur~) were susceptible to change, misinterpretation, and altel";\tlon. '!IOThe emphasis on tradition and th e au tho ri ty of the pas! fed into a concern with the authenticity of the texts thar transmitted that past, and philological interests rose conjointly with the steadily increasing rdiance on tradition as proof of truth. The Constantinopolitan Council of 680-681 has, indeed. been termed a council of antiquarians and pabeographers beouse of the zeal with which its members collated various copies of the same tel(( to expose interpolations and determinecorrecr readings, a proa:ss that also involved verifying the signatures and handwriting in. and carefully noring the physical properties and age of, relevant manuscriprs. '91 Demonsrration of the veracity of a text was a major concern, (or falsification of documents was rampant in Byzantium: indeed, forgery seems almost to have been a closet industry by rhe seventh century. In Certainly forgeries continued in th e eighth and ninth a:nturies: Cyril Mango has cited an inscription fabricated in 781 purporting to convey th e selllimen(s of a pre-Christian pagan and prophesying the luminous reign of Constantine and Eirene. l ?! We have already noted the letter forged around lhe year 800 tha t pretended to express (he pope's words to Leo II I, and Marie-FranceAuzepy has argued that the legend of Leo's destruction of the icon over the Chaike gate was invemed at ahout rhis same time. I... T hat rhe Council of869 could (apparently slanderously) accuse Photios of btibing people to forge bishops' signatures using both fine and coarse pellS to vary the handwriting, and thaI Symeon Magister and Niketas the Paphlagonian could state, correctly or not, that Photios fabricated a false genealogy - intended to demonstrate Basil's illustrious lineage - in such a way that it 'looked ancient', demons[rares that spurious documents, and carefuHy crafted ones at (hat, rcmained an acknowledged fact oflik 195 Problems of authemicity haunted even the authors of the secular ParaJttlStis;l?6 th ey obsessed the Council of 787. Participants brought whole books with them to '" Ibid. ,.. S.n>!.,," (1994). ". So •. g. Anastasio. orSinai: ... Cameron (199Ib). '" See V.n den Ven (19j\117). JIB-no; a.rdy (19)6). 19Q-Z91. I., Bard)' (19j6). '" Mongo (1963), 101-107. ,.. Auu'py (19?O); (or ,hele"er. nme 11 abo ... '" For rhe Council, Mango (1958). '99; Symffln·, Annaln. cd. Btkker (18j8). 689; (or Ni~,as. PG 1 0j:j65--8. Other nimh·cenlury implic;"iolU in MeCOImick (1986). 191-1". 1 FOI~ri .. were nm 95. ",,,,ieled 10 BY7..mium: ..., e.g. FJ/uhungm (1988). ,.. c.m~ron and Herrin (1984). ~ j-+i. 87. 180. 199;'" no .. II above.

Vision and meaning in ninth-a:mury Byzantium

accuraty and compl~[~nO$ of their quotations, and a KCond co py of ~ach text was fr~qu~ndy consult~d. t17 In corollary, the Council condemned the iconoclasts for vio lating the textual evide nce. They w~re accused of effaci ng and excising pasS2.ges favourable 10 images in books avaibbl c 10 them (or even of burning the whole offending manuscript);ln and of falsifying and co rrupting texts. t'1J Tlu: iconoclasts 'are fonified behind forged and int rusive writings'; they were 'forgers of th e truth'.lOCI The iconophilc:s clurged their opponems with disto ning,lOt quod ng OUt of co mext,lOJ inveming,lOJ miS<juoting, zo,j and plagiarizing;lOS they 'twist the knowl~dge of divine and true doctrine according to their own desires'.206 The iconophiles claimed th at the iconoclasts relied on heretical t~x ts to buttress th eir arguments: they 'have ordained as their own fath ers and have SCI up as teachers, [those] whoofold had bccome defendersofimpietyand atheism, and were driven out of r(:llch from the catholic Church'.1fT} Nor, acco rding 10 the
"" ~ .. ('9Bb) , )9: Vln d~n V~n (1911117), ",: SP"'Y'" ('97' )' In. Docu menu reM;! durin!; .ht .hird ..... ion _, ••1 confi. med .. aumem ic by ~roon.1 wi."n" Mansi XII . U4SC-IIS4B . 00 ". Sec Van <kn Ven ('911117), JJ5-H6 . ... Mansi Xlii. llj8_116C. 137D: .raru. SahOi ( ' 9~6.), 6S. 74: .h~ Council ... ponded: '~ery Chris.i.n, .h... ro,e . when h.ppeni ng .0 hear of spurious boob, muS( _pi. upon Ihem and no! .ccepl .hem in any w.y': M.n,i Xllt. 193B: Saha. (I986a) . "S. For .imil....nlimen .. from Nikepho,o<, ...., G.umd (' 959). '~7- '3S: T •• v;. ('984), '44 nOl. 17. - M:uui Xli[ , 191£. Ju8·E; Ir.uu. h~6a), 117-118, 'lJ- IH. Fo. o.her """''''tiotU of fotp;<ry, JCC AkuJlder (1 958). lS4, 1S9. • , E.&- 'olthough they UK.M .. me word., .heydccqKivdy oI,e. <Mi. meaning' : Mami XIII,.,.A (£ .S,D. 288B): Ir. ..., Saba< (1~6a) , 6} (,08, ".). Fo, Nikephoros, Itt Aknnde. (I9SI), .n-.\6. >60-.6 ,: T.. v;. (1984).1 47, 101 E.g. 'a ehan eleriui( ofh ... tia is to p.rKm ... ,.menll in a f"'llmen'M form' o. '.hey cu. off a whole phraK dcai .flllly in orde. III lu,", ,h •• impler one.: Man, i XIII . 3".1:. 185D (d . lODE-JOID): " an •. Sahl$ ('986a) • •,,, 111 (t1~_ 11 s) .nd romme", •• y "1lJ- I34 not. S4. "'. E.g. 'ha~ing fabrica.ed .he ,,"u.-.ed slogan ... wnuld . hat they h.d pr... rvcd hi...achi ng<, 1$ _11 .. .hose of all om holy f"hen, unb roken': Mam; XIII , •• lA, 19)B. '96D. E, 19]B-JooA; u·" n•. Sabu ('9116a) . 14 ••• 8. Uo-' ll. John ofD ....ucu •• i'lpin.. <hose who divi ... inug"i ll •• 8 (ed. Kt.nCl' {197S1, 116-117): fo, Nikephoros, ...... WI> fond of demon ..",.ing a p. ...&" .... an io,o"«1 in'crpola,iort by ronl ..... ing i. with OIh., quora.ion. from <he .. me author. Itt Akx:ond~r ('9s8),1S7-'S9 •• 61, - E.g. 'fo • •hey ... k as ronf... ioo, wh ••• he o.thodox Q.i,, ,ians have n""" ... id ·: M.n,i XIII , 16oC: .",n•. Sahu (' 986. ), 9' . 10) E.g. 'hning Itolen ," 'eme n" from <he f.,hu$, which Ihey put forth .... h.i. own, .hey .. y .he f"lIowing . .. ': M. n.i XliI. U IC: ... nl . ~ .. ('986.). 61. "" l>.bn.i Xli[, >.8.8: 1~9c' 192.A·B. JooA·D, »SA: S.h... (1986.), '07, "4. IIf' ",-11.4, '44 . Stt also T",vi. ('98.). '.7. On .no<he. fron., MusIinu .nd Chri.,i.n. flung .he lam. ch:ugn b..,k and fotth: ...., Corrip n ('9'91), e.p. 711-10). 'JII1 Nikcpho' M. AJN"tnina M.;.,,, l'G 100:81) (h.", 100 Nik<pho<Ol condemned .. uden .. stud· ying he""icaI .em: ib id .• \6. -16S). Stt also T ,,"vi$ ('984). lJO •• j6', 140, .60-1 169-170 and, for 61, simila. a. gllmenu in N;kpholOi unpublw..:d ' ~rll'01 io·. Alexander (l9S8). l SI, lIS. The 717 Council recogni ...... his probl.m ".,Iie" M:Ulli XIII , lsJA. 3'lA-J2.4C; ":lJU, Saba< (t98b ). Ss, IJ4-'4). In <aponK •• he Council ordered .he dnnue.ion of all but one or IWO '"""mplH' oficonoclOl' wri.ing>. and recommended ,he .ame ".>lmen' fo r.1I h.... i.col",o,b: sec Van den Ven ('9SS'S7), 333.

~n5ur~ [h~

''''no.

sm.1$

cr.

.".d:

.ha.

cr.

",0,.

Siting th o miniatu,..,s: imag.ry in th. ninth c.ntury 787 Council, was th is innocent khaviour: 'When those who dn'iate from the catholic Church are about to say something wicked, they begin with what everybody confesso. By king right on this, they hope not to k disbelieved on the rest. Thus, having slated a few things properly, they now mix gravel with the pearls.'l08 T he problems (real or p<: rceived) with forged and adulterated tats, combined with the emphasis on tradition and the corresponding interest in tuts Ihat accuratdy conveyed that tradition, g;ove rise to authori tative lists of patristic ci tations the florilegia . As ea rly as the Council ofChalcedon in 451 , a SOrt ofproro-florilegion emerged, and the form was in full bloom by the 649 Lauran Council. W'J The florHegia kcame another of the critical nodes of the iconoclast debate,no and each side created versions promoting its own vis ion of the truth. ll I As his fin;t overt step toward reinstating Iconoclasm, Leo V convened a committee to compile a Rorilegion of passages ag;oinst religious imagery.l ' l On th e other side, lists of patristic 'proo/i;' supporting images appeared in the Acts of pro-i mage councils, and in polemics against heresy.2 13 The Sacra Para/lad of John of Damascus is th e only known illustrated Aorilegion. 21 4 Thai iT was produced ~hortly after Iconoclasm is nOt, [ think, coinddental. The ren reproduced a collection of patristic and biblical citations, compiled by an iconophile hero, thar had kcome the autho ritative versions with the so-called restoration of orthodoxy in 8.U. llS Nonetheless, th e vidssitud es of the iconoclast conflict, which had favoured first one side and then the other for nearly 11 0 yean;, camion ed against complacency. The shape of intellectual dialogue did not change fOTsome while; indeed, iconophile sentiments continued to k voiced until rh. early yean; of rhe le nth century. Long-standing and still intense preoccupa tions with tradition and, concomitantly, with Aorilegia merged with a contemporary reinterpretation of rhe role of imagery to make the Sacra Paralkla a particularly appropriate text to em bellish wirh pictures. Ninth-century arguments for rh e primacy of sight joined with concerns about aurhent icity to fuel a growing consensus th at images could confi rm the historica l
,.,. Mo.n,; Xlii , ~57 B ••n",_S.h... ( 1 9~6o.), 89_ "" See V.n den Ven (1951'17), }tl- 318. p. Gray ('98~), 61. ". On which .ce M.ngo ('975) , B- }4; Ca m•• on (,990), "'p. t06-107, 109, 117; C.meron (199)b); ('99U), 101_'0}; AIe.. ki. ('994). ", 5« ap. C.meron (,991a), 154- 1jj, 167- 168. 2" On .hi. group .nd ,heir W<)rk, sec AI""andcr ('918), •16-a7, 1}7. ll j For. coll.r;on of .he li,u, .ee Morrin (l9}o), 146-'49, '94- ' 91, '97-198; for a particularly ",, 'en live sequenc< of twenty.,i. te~t5 in Nikephoros, PG .00:8,.--83>. 5« a]", Al"".nder ('91) ), .nd. fo r the Ilorilegion of Theodore Crapto., the I.ife of M i,h.eI the Syn kello., }O: .d. Cunningh.m (!99 ' ), "0-'" .nd .6S not. 100. ,,, ThOugh J- R. M." in (1950), 191->91, ' f'CC"I.ted rh ... hypothetical iIIu.tm cd copy of Ihe s"'yingo of thc Fath c.. was one ",ur", for the ili",,," ,io n. in ,he Sacra P"ralkt... " s On .h. pi". of ,h. s"..,.,. Pa .... fkt.. within ,he ,.x, .... I,radi,ion of ico noph ile Ilorclegi. s« AI.uki, (' 994).

I'

VISion and meaning in nim h-amury Byunlium

truth of a text. Thu a piclUr~ could tae on the function and purpose of a '5C31 of authenticity' is clear from a number of preserved passages. John of Damascus quoted Maximus the Co nfessor's 'they tou ched these [images] with thei r hands, in co nfirmation of what had been s,aid'.116Theodore the Stoudite wrot e that 'th~ true argument that Christ is a man is that he !;an be- pictured'.117 In his se rm o n of867 inaugurating the mosaic of the Virgin, Photios noted: 'Christ came to us in the flesh. This is s«n an d confirmed :Uld proclai med in pictu r«, the taehin g made manifes t by means of pe rsonal eyewitness and impelling the spectato rs to unhesitating assent. '118 Images authenti cated reality; what co uld be seen validat~d what co uld be- r~ad or hc:ard.119 In 1958, Paul Alexander noted this line of argument in th e writings of Nikephoros and John of Damascus; he tra ced il 10 Aristotl e, and s,aw it as ,In exam ple of 'the scholastic type of reasoning' that, for him, characteriz.ed the last ph a.K" of the iconoclast deb:.J.te. uo Aristotelian in ui Lim:.J.te inspiration Ihey maywdl be, but th e references to the primacy of sight were not only scholastic exercises. T hough the frequency with which the topos appears suggests that it had become an iconophile rhetorical device,l2l the numhcrof references to it also argues that it was an important indicator of meaning. Ideas about the primacy of sight were ingrained in ninth-century Byzantine written culture, and conveyed to a wider audi ence through sermons.

MINIAT U Jl. ES AN D AUTHENTICITY

The Sacra ParallTlo includes several hundred isolated portraits of th e biblical and patristic autho rs quoted in the text. These are essentially auth or portraits, and as such find numerous ninth-century paralJels. 221 In th e Slum Para/uta, however, the au thors pictured are prese nted in an unusual way. About half of th em art enclosed in medallio ns (figs. S8, 59, lOS), a format also used to isolate portraits of figu r« men ti o ned by Gregory ofNazi:UlzU in the Milan H omilies (fig. ,,8); as C orrigan S noted, this formula was probably meant to evo ke ico ns an d th~ r~by provide a visual a uth~ntication to tht biblical or patristi, text qu oted or paraphrased in the acco mpanying t~xt. u.l As interesting here are th~ authors who, on over a hundred occa:Against (no.., who . 1tKk divi ne inugcs· 11.61= ~ . Kou~. (' 971), ,64; Andeno n ('980) , 69. f or ~Iier ~nmpkJ ond diSCU$$ion , f« Kessle. ('981"). 86- 87 , ond Kcoder (19Sl b). 17. m Epistle [1.6.: PG99,u8IA. 111 Hornily ' 7.1" ttl. laourdu ('919), '70; I...... M:lIlgo (1918), ~91. lit Sc.:: '00 Co.mack ('9'1), ' 74- '76; and. on .... ,d.,flI uSC of .cal inl~ '0 valid.;"o tho OOn'~n" of lo... e... Mulktt (' 990). 181. no Alexande. (' 918). lII-~ U . >.!I cr. S-anm, ... (1994). m E.g. in the St.".. P ""luw itsclf (W~il1.m.nn 11979.1. figs. ~-7) . •he Milon Homilico (CnN' .. 1'94)']. pl •. Il. VI, [X, XIl, p;wi.,.). ,he Khludov P",h. (~pkina l '9nl, f. 'v) and 1':o.6'.gr.IIO (/ig. 41 ). "'Cort igo n (1991), 118-11\1. 1)8.
I'~

''''M .

,.

Siting dIe miniaCUlft: i m~gcry in ,he

nimh century

sions in th e SDcm Paralle!a., poim or gestu re: to their own words (fig. 58);ll4 others hold ~ns th at they di rt(: t toW:l.ro th e te):1 :1.5 if they had physically just written th e passages qu oted (fig. 59);m whil e still others hold a book open lOW:l.rd the text column. as ifdisgorging their words into the ninth-century manuscript (fig. 60). 216 Such figures ate not uniq ue to the SDcm Pam/Mil:. the Mi lan Gregory retains thirtet: n figures pointi ng at the to n , and in a temh-cenwry lectio nary at Moum Athos Matthew and Luke put pen to meir grupels while Joh n poims 10 his. ll7 1berc: arc:, however, far more: eumples in the SDcm PamllelA than in any other Byun line man usc ript. Why? The person who com missioned the Sacra Pamlf,.la. and th e miniattJri5lS who ill u5trated it, were faced with a particular situatio n. In a world where ques tions of who had access to the authority of tndition. of co rrect usage, and of what constifIlted the truth had been the focU5 of acri mo nious debate for over a century, the producers were faced wi th the task of pre.seming autho ritati ve tens. But in the cli ma te of debate ,hat characterized ,he eighth and nimh cemuries,ua how was one to demons trate conclusively that the ton s qU Oted were: indet:d the aut hori tat ive venions n th er than forgeries. excerpts taken ou t of contex t, misi nterpretations. or worse? The ma kers of the Sacra Para fltla called upon the authority of sight: the images provided the 'seal of authe nt icity' that demonstrated the accuracy of th e quou tions.m The poiming, writi ng, and book-holding figures visually confirm the tex t; meir prototypes spnk through them to veri fy their words. The autho rity of the text 'is seen and co nfir med and proclaimed' by the pomaits. and iu lesson is indero 'made man ifest by means of perso nal eyewitness' th at, il was presu mably hoped, would 'impellhe spectators to unhesi taringassem'. Gol d , the sign of divine
Woitzm.nn h979a). figs. 5 (john of D.m"""U' himself); 66 (M.,....): 19<'. '95. 198. 101. 107. '09 (D.~id); H2 (ZOpl.... lpc~kingJ; 125. '30 (job): 'JJ. 'H. ~0.'4'.1~", 255. 15~ (Solomon); .68. 171. ' 77-'79 •• 84. 21i<) (S;r.(II): 191. 198 (Ho!lC>.); Jo6 (Micah); Jll (jod) , 319. H ' (Zcch .. ,iah); }w- HI . " D. In. }S4-JS7. JS9 (iRiah); j6 ' _j6: Uw:m iah); In. }79 (wkici): 400. 404. 41 ). 4}6 (M .. uh......): 4!J (Luke); 414 Uohn and I~I~.); 49J (Prtcr); SO}. 50'i-SoS. 1" -1' 40 S. 6-S '9. 111. 117- 1" (I'lIuI), 'iJl (jam ...); m (Peen); H O(A, II~); 569. 171- 171, 174. U6. ut-sB" S87 (l»Iil); 601-«>' (Ocmonl of Rome); 611 (Didy"",",); 6~ ( Dion~i.,. lhe ArNp;toglto): 6}1 (F ..,.,alhi.,. of Ant;a<:h): 6411-649. 6j t- 6n. 6S1. 661-667 (G . rgory of Nui , n1u,); 67' (Gregory of Nyua); 698. 70"'704 Uohn C hry>o. lOm ), 7)8--74' (Ph ilo). m Ibid .. figs .• _~. 6 Uohn of D,mucus): ,87. 101 (O.vid): 110 (l'>.uI ). '" Ibid .. fi gs. 7 (john of Oam,« u.): ,86 (D.vid): 481 (joh n); 6!0 (Gregory of N07j.n.... ); ..,0 .1.., fig. 1'1 (P.ul hold •• n open book and loolui 10 the «>I of Pari•.gr.9i). Authors ,I ... ut<nd doS«! booIu loward ,he manuscript: 'nt: ibid,. figs. 4'!' 4J7-440 (Ma[lh"",); 460. 46). 461-466 (L.. ke); 47~ Uohn); soo. 1' 0 (1':1...1), 541 (Al h ...... in.); 173 (&..;1). m Moun' Ad..... .... y .... cod.86. If. 94' . Ilor. 154" Wei,unann ('935). figs. Jo6-}08. In ,he MiLm Gregory. two of ,he poin, in& po".. i,. sho .. Gr<:gory. on« sw.ding and Dna in a mtdal1ion; ,h. ttmoindrt:uc otandi n&014'1"'0"''''" figutco (mO$dy p' OpMU) holdin& inscriMd feroll., and in fo .. r ~:We> .dj=nl 10 aboloi marking Ihoi. q ........ word, in ,h. 'UI: Grab.a. ('941")' pl •. III" - J.
II<

IV"-J. V.j. VIlJ .J. IX.). XV]] .1. XXV.J. XLVI.1. 1..,.
UI And had ill '0011 in Ih~ sevomh centu,y: l « c;..m."", ('99U). «p. 91-9 4. j/8_100. m On Iho m«iall ion po, ... i.... seal. """ Co ,dg;o n (199 '), H-71.

"

Vision and

m~ning

in ninth-ccmury Byzamillm

Siting the

mini~tures:

imagery in the

n;n~h

century

, ,
• •
Fig. f9 PariJ.gr.92). f

,
[~r:

David ",n·ting. HOWl. Micah. andjn-nniah

"

VISion and meaning in nimh-c~mury Byuntium

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,6

Siting the miniatures: imagery in the ni mh century

light, marked the images as infused with God's approval - as well ru; theconnivancc: of a wealthy patron. The portrairs in the Sacra Pamilrla exemplify one form that the symbiotic relationship between words and images could assume in ninth-cent ury Byzantium: the lext generated the ponraits; the portraits validated the tC1<t. The mutual reinforcement word and image could provide wru; expressed by the 787 Council thus: T he representation of scenes in colour follows the narrative of the gospel, and the narrati ve of the gospel follows the narrative of th e painting.'lJO As we have seen, th e rela tio nship played itself out in other ways as well: miniatu res authorized interpretations of tens, and could provide auronomo us visual commentaries o n th em. In th e Khludov Psalter, for example, an author portrait of D avid was placed beside many images, accom pa nied by a capt io n wherein he explained the rela tionshi p between the psalm verses and their illustration. These images do not authenticate the text-in-itself (the psalms were evidently not in need of this); they verified a particular interpretation of it .l} \ The sym biotic relationship k tween text and image continued in the Paris Gregory. Although they lack \he explanatory captions introduced in rhe ma rginal psalters, we shall sec that many of the Hom ilies illustrations achieved sufficient autho riry to function as nearly autonomous exegetical commentaries on the text. Ir is probably significan t that th e autonomy of the pictures in Paris.gr.510 extended to th eir li beration from th c confines of the text: they arc among the earliest fu ll-page miniatures in Byzantium. Nearlr every 'single-instance adjustment' to trad itional iconographic formulae appears in the exegetic or polemic miniatu res in the Paris Gregory and th e ma rgi nal psalters. But in the Sacra Hlra/kla and th e 'Christian Topography', too, images supplemented the texts in important ways specific to time and place: 1 .ll they changed, in fact, the way onc interpre ted and underSTood the tcX[. The consequence of thi s chain of developme nts is that the texts of the manuscripts we have considered, as th c Byzantines read them, cannot he fully compre hended without taking into account the pictllTcs (hat the Byza ntin es saw at the S<ime time. The miniatures document a reassessment of [he texts, and reveal an attempt to visualize how old words could have mcaning in a changed world; they exemplifY how mea ning was created and recreated in ninth-century Byzantium. In the second half of th e ninth century, words ahout art continued to focus o n issues that had been raised by Iconoclasm. Whether or not various individuals had personal reasons (0 perpetuale thesc iss ues. acrim ony and its progeny do not die quickly, and Iconoclru;m was anyway sy mptomatic of a larger cultural realign'''' M.n.; XI!1 . 169B, Iron •. S~h .. (1~86.). 98 . HI Corr ipn (J992) . m FOJ ,n.l.l<o<, s« nOf< J7 .bow ond ch~pter 7.

Vision and meaning in ninlh-c.enlury Byzamium

rnetn. Z» In this realignment, words abou t images were a prime vehicle through which other ideas and con Ai(ts could be aprcssro. T ha t arguments about images ofrc:n masked other issues does nOI mean that the images th emselves were nonesscntial; indeed, it indicates their symbolic signifia-ncr. But the talS in the end tdl us less abou t ninth-c:entury Byzantine images than abou t the thought system in which they participated. $orne of th e ( ha racreristic ways in which images communia-ted through and with this system have been ex plored in this chapter. How \he prOCOll playro iuelf ou t in Paris.gf.pO is what the rest of th is book is about.
l))

Dallro n ('979); Cam.lOn h991b), •• p.

)5- 41.

!.

2

The Miniatures: internal evidence

Paris.gr·510 contains forty-six full-pag~ miniatures (figs. 1- 46). Their contents arc listed ~quential!y, folio by folio, in AppendixA. and by topic in Appendix B.

TY P ES OF SC EN ES SELEC T E D F OR ILLUSTRATION

T he subject maner included in the minia tures ofParis,gr.5 Io ranges from iconic portraiture to enensive narrative sequences picturing bi blical, hagiographical, and historical episodes. Such iconographical diversity recurs in many iIlusrrarcd copies of Gregory's sermons; Paris.gr.SIo is distinguished by rhe quantity of its images. The iconic images:m restricted to the frontispi ece s<:quence (figs. I -~) and to portraits of Gregory and his family (f. 43V; fig. 9), ofGn::gory, Basil, and Gregoryof Nyssa (f. 7tv; fig. 13), and ofH dena and Paraskcv( (f. 185r; fig. 29). T he portraits are formal, with passiv( figures confronting th ( vit:Wer in snict frontality; all, aside from the emhmned Christ on f. Av (fig. I), stand; most wear clothing indicative of rank and sums. T he interest in surface appearance reRected by this dignified display was at home in ninth-cent ury Constantinople, and th e emphasis on formality and hierarchy. signifYing poW( { an d presrige, recurs in later Byzantine portraiture as well. 1 Narrative images - hiscorica l, biographical, hagiographical, and biblical appear bo th as single episodes and in s<:qucnccs. The biblical scenes ilJustra{( Old and New Testament episodes in roughly equal meilSUre, 1 with isolated incidents an d extensive s<:quences drawn from both. T he mos t significant difference between the two lies in th( way that the narrative is assembled: Old Testamem sequences tend to be longer and rdativel y s<:lf-contained, while New Testament sequences are shorter and inclined to be grouped the m atically.3 T he m iniaturists mixed disparate events and gentes with abandon. Iconic por'S« Appendix B. 59

Vision and m... ning in nimh-ccmury Byunlium traits abut biblical scenes 71'1; fig. (3) and hagiographic images (f. 43'1; fig. 9); Old Testament and New Testament sa nes are ofte n joined (fT. 3r, 143'1, 115'1, 164v; figs. 6, 19, 15, 18); hagiographica l scenes coexist with episodes both from the Old Testament (fT. 51V, 67V, 414v; figs. 10, 11, 41) and from the New (ff. 87", 149r; figs. 16, 10); history is injected with hagiography (f. 409'1; fig. 40). The variety and juxtaposition of scenes in Paris.gr.po demonstrates that rhe idea of isolating genres was never eJltcruined; !lor were there 'appropriate' combinations. Instead, the over-riding consideration was evidently the meaning of the page as a whole.

«(

THE CONCEPTUAL RELAT I ONSIIlP BETWEEN TEXT ANO IMAGE

iT is possible to isolate four different ways in which scenes included. in the text miniatures relate to their adjacent texts; they illustrate the historical circumstances under which Gregory delivered the sermon;' they picture the main theme of the homily as expressed. in its title;\ they depict scenes sele<:ted from among the episrn:ks mentioned in the accompanying text;6 or they parallel the theme(s) of the sermon exegetically, without relying on an example adduced by Gregory.] The scope admiTTed by these categories is1arge, and there is little attemp t to segregate them. Only ten miniatures - all illustrating scenes never mentioned by Gregoryrestrict themselves to a single calegory; most blend two or even three ways of relat· ing to the accompanying sermon. Folio 52V (fig. 10), for e~ample, picttlrcs the hi sIOrical circumstances that inspired the accompanying sermon 'On peace' (the re<:onciliation of the Nazianzus communi[)" pictured in the lowest register on the right); an episode mentioned in that sermon (Moses re<:eiving the laws, on the left side of the same register); and an Adam and Eve sequence tota ll y lacking from Gregory's text. The only generali1.ation that can be extrapolated. is that the theological orations ami personal ruminations (including letters) usually received e~eget­ ical illustrations. while miniatures accompanying the biographical or historical sermons tend to picture sccnc~ dC5cribcd in the text. The Homi lies corpus includes five panegyrics (to Kaisarios, Gorgonia, the elder Gregory, Basil, and Athanasios),
• Foliol43v, pro 67V. 71V. 78., 104'. 149<. 185'; "&,. 9-1" IJ, Ij , 17, 10, 19. j fu lio. 78,. 104'. IJ9'. 185" JOIf. JJIV. )40'. l67'". l74v, 409v, 4}8v, 452<; fig •. '5, ' 7, >7 , '9-30, }3- H, )8- 40, oH. 46. • Folio< J'. JOV. 51". (>"Tv. 7'v. 87'", Il7', '4JV. 149', 174v, 115v, u6v. 1J% 164v, J60', 4"6,,. 4Pr: fig>. 6-7,10--11.13.16.18--20. I}. I)- IS. )7. 41, 46. 1 Folio. }2V, 4)V. )2V, 69'" 7)'. 87'". 1371. 14)V.165'. '70r, '74v, '96v, lIS", n6,·, 164V, IS)r, ;IOV. ;16r, H7v. 355'. ;60 •• 409v. "'''V. 4lIY, 438v, 440.; figs. 8-10, n, '4, 16, ,8- 19. 11_ 16. 28--19. )1-)1. 3S- }7. 40--41. "3- H· • Folio< 3'''. 69". 7\'. 165" '70" 196v. }IO", )!6r, 35)r, 440'. II i. po$<iblc that If. 347" and 4Jj" .houJd bt .dded to Ihi, group; Ihe Ploblem. ~on n<<1ed with these: tWo P"SC' will be con,id.."d ble. in ,hi.
~h.pt.,.

Th~ min i~tu rcs:

;nlernal evidence

four praises (to Mamas, Cyprian, the Makkabees, and Heron), one vita (of Gregory), and fWO sermons against Julian th e Apostat e, The sermons dedicated to Athanasios and Mamas are not illustra ted, and the miniatures now accompanying the funeral oration to Kaisarios and 'On Heron' are both on inserted leaves and may be misplaced, Of the remaining eight, only the miniarure accompanying the funeral oration to Gregory's father pictures anything bur episodes drawn from the subjo:-ct's life, The significant conceptual relationship between image and text, however. is dialectic: how each miniature worked with its accompanying text, and what the combined message of word and image might say to a circum scribed ninth -century audience, This can ncver be a simple relationsh ip. When an image introduces a text, it predisposes the viewer/reader TO think in certain ways about th e words that follow, and that same audi ence sc:c:s an image embedded in a text. Effons 10 decode the image--{ex{-audience messages are obviously necc:S5ary when there is no overt conno:-ction between the sermon and its illustrati on, but even in th ose cases wh ere Gregory specifically mentions an episode that appears in the accompanying miniatu re, we cannot simply pres ume that modest pictorialization was the goal. Gregory's refe re nces to the sce nes pictured range from the rare explicit description (as for the scenes ofBa.lil's life on f. lo4r; fig. 17) to allusion (as when 'all must come inw th e net of God, and be caught by the words of th e fi shers' rece ives the calling of James, John, Peter and Andrew as an illust ration on f. 87V: fig, 16). Often one episode of see mingl y minor im portance to Gregory's narrati ve receives illustration while other more central themes are ignored. The selection of episodes to picture was not, however, whimsical, but seems rath er to have been carefully thought through, Ju illustrated by the examples that follow, the episodes selo:-c ted were normally chosen to make a particular point, and they were frequ ently combined with scenes not mentioned by Gregory at all in order 10 focus the visual commentary even more sharply. T he inscri ptions appl ied to individual miniatu res do litde to explica te the se nse of the page as a whol e,~ but we are often guided to th is point by markin gs in the text itself. At; noted in th e Introduction, Paris,gr,51o is the first prese rved Byzantine book to incorporate painted initials, and it retains over 1600 of lhem (fig, 47).10 While rhe quantity of deco rated letters - nearly 90% of which are gilded - was presumably meant to underscore the luxurious quali ry of the manu.scripl, lhe panicular circumstances lhat shaped the manuscrip t also made enlarged initials an asset in another way. Because the miniatures of the Paris Gregoryoften serve as visual commentari es on the sermons rather than as literal illustrations of th eir co ntent, the connection be tween a picture and its text is sometimes not obvious, and at times a short digression -or even a single phrase - determines the subject of the min ia ture.
' Th~ r."" """"p,ioM ""i ll "" no .. d, <tt furr h« Bmb.kcr (J996b),

,. BruMk~r (1991); <tt al", Appendix C.

6,

Visioll and mcallillg in lIillth·cclltury By:z.:m!ium These cfUciallilles are signalled, almost without exception, throughout Paris.gr.Fo ei ther by marginal quotalion m arks (ob%i) or, more com monly, by enlarged initials. Thirty-five of rhe text ill ustrations certainly ~tain their original location; of these, three are exegetical images with no direci connection to any specific passage in the accompanying ho mily, and one has lost its se rmon. A relevant text passage co uld be marked o nly for the remaining thirty-one illustra tions, and of these twenty-seve n include ann otatio n in th ei t accompanying text to aid the reader in inte rpreting the picture. II Two rely exclusively on oboloj to mark the crucial lines, two use both oboloi an d ini tials, and th e remaining twenty-three: depend entirely on enlarged letters to signal the vi tal passage. Some of the painted initials in the Paris Homilies thus have a specific function th at is, to my knowledge, un iq ue: they play the role of ummata, tying the minia tute to the text it interptets. It should nonethel ess be noted that the ummald initials conse rve an older scri bal practice of using marginal signs as a ~ of index. Furthe r, no t all initials serve as /tmmali/: the distr ibution is often governed by the layout and content of the Homilies rext.!! The interaction be tween the mini atures and th e sermons is straightforward in those casCli wh ere the miniatu ~ illustrates th e circumstances un der which Gregory delivered th e sermon, or pictu~s die main theme of rh e homily as expressed in its tide: f. 7S r (fig. IS), for exampl e, prefaces Gregory's sermon on a hailstorm and shows him delivering it below a representation of Ihe s\O rm; f. 30Ir (fig. 30) introduces ' On Pentecos t' , and duly depicrs the biblical event. Miniat ures tha t present sce nes selected from am ong the many more episodes mentioned by G~gory in the text of the sermon in vol ved either an dement of chancc or of choke: I shall argue for th e la tter, and u.se f. 137r to provide a paradigmatic exampl e of how such selection could be used 10 provide a visual co mmentary on the text. Discussion of the fourth type of interaction, quasi-indepe ndent exegesis, follows.

&kction as commmtdry
Folio 137r (IS )1.I (fig. 18) Folio Il7r shows scenes from the infancy of C hrist: the adoration of th e Magi sha~s the first registe r with the Magi 's dream; the massacre of the innocents pairs with the flight ofE1i1.abeth an d the martyrdom of Zacharias in the second: and the presentation in th e templ e spreads across the whole of rhe lowesl register. IOThe miniature introduces Gregory's n ineteenth homi ly, 'To Jul ian the tax coll~ctor' , the text of
II A1 1..e nmed in the diocu"io n. of individual mini.tu rn. following the fo lio number ind icate> it> placement: f. tpt i. the "The numhcr I .. it i. nowprncrved. Morey (1919), 91; Shorr (1946), '7- 31; D., Nersc"ian (r9 61), •

Ii!

6,

The miniacur",: internal

~idenee

whi ch begins on the verso of the miniature and runs to ( 143r. 15 The pinure is thus assuredly in its imended location, and Gregory mentions two of the illustrated scenes - the adoration of the Magi and {he massacre of the innocenrs - in his twelfth paragtaph. Both passages were signalled by the scribe: the only marginal obowiin the homily mark the citation from Luke with which G regory begins his brief account of C hrist's infancy, whil e a gold initial introduces the passage on the massacre of the innocents later in the paragraph. The remaining scenes on the page, however, are not mentioned, and eve n the adoration and {he massacre were selected because they complement the most important theme of the homily, not because: Gregory devoted much time to {hem in his sermon. 16 'To Julian the tax collector' concentrates on sacrifice and offering. Gregory counsels his audience to ' render unto Caesar those things which are Caesar's' (Matthew 22:21),1 7 but admonishes Julian: 'you who are the regist ra r of our taxes .. . enrol my people in justice, in sanniry and benevolmce, taking into consideration noth ing but the faCt that our Lord was born du ring such an enrolJnent'.ls Gregory th en briefly relates th eeve nts surrounding th e birth of Christ, endingwith th e massacre of the innocems; he notes that most p<:ople cannot duplicate the cosdygifts presented to Christ by the Magi, but argues that offeri ngs from the spiri t are more significant than material ones. 19 The theme of offering reassens itself in references to the parable of the widow's mite and in lists of approp riate gifts to God paraphrased from Exodus 2j and 3j. 10 From among th e infancy episodes mentioned by Gregory, the mini atur ist pictured the two most relevant to the theme of offering and sacrifice: the adoration of the Magi,ll and th e 'sac ri ficial' massacre of th e innocem s.l1 The Magi's d ream and rhe Elizabeth and Zacharias episodes continue the two narratives; more importandy, the slaying of Zacharias reinforced the theme of sacrifice, and linked the middle with the lowest register: fo llowing the Protevangelion (which identifies Simeon, the priest at the presentation, as Zacharias' successo(13), che conjoint images present successive priests of the (em pIe at Jerusalem. The pr~ntation fits well wich the scheme of offering and sacrifice expressed in the first twO registers. I( rcpresen!S {he ritual offering of a firs(born male child to
1\ PC 3pO-H-!064: on ,he ,onte~', G.II . y (1943). , .8. " ror ,h i. "',",on, nei,h.r ,he Milan Grcgury nor the liturgical edi,ion. of ,h. Hornili •• include< any of ,h. "'.".. picluted Oil f. IJ7" d. G,..bar ('94Ja). pl •. XXI_XXII: Galna,i, (1969). 42-46. " PC 3f"Oj6A9-10. " Ibid .• "Oj7~-IO: ,,..n •. Galava';' (,,6,). 43. " lbid.,lOj7AIO..-C,. >0 Ibid., 10j.B,. ,,_20. " For a cl..,ic ""p,... ion .... John Chry...... lOtn'•• ighlh homily 'On Matthew': PG 17:81-84. " PhOlios. for ",,",mplc. omph ••;ud the .a.:. ifieial role of ,he 'n ...... crcd child",n (Amphiflllhi4. qu .., ion >.6, PG 10'''9'- 197; cd. We.... i" k 4 {' 9861, 9"-99) while Throdo", ofMop. uestia compared ,he m ..... er. with ,heerucihion (Reu .. {1957]. 99). " P'Olcvangc!ion 14: Honnede and Sch n",mckhe' I (1963). 388.

6,

Vision and m~nins in nimh -umury Byumium

God, and the sacrifice of cwo turtledoves (prom inently held by Joseph). The episode consummates the idea of offering and sacrifice inherent in the upper tWO registers and supplements the underlying theme of the homily, Visual parallels with the rest of the page confirm mat the presentation was meant to continue the ideas expressed above it, Not only do th e high priests and the temple of Jerusalem unite [he lower two registers, but ,he presentation is also connected wit h the adoration at the top of the page. Joseph's stance is the same in both scenes, and he, Mary, and Christ line up in the third register direcrly beneath their portrayals in the first: though Mary sits with Christ in her lap during the adoration, the positions of the figures arc otherwise virtualJy identical, and Christ turns to gesture toward the Magi as hc reaches toward Simeon in the presentation. These composi tio na l links parallel ninth~century commentaries, such as one written by Photios, that related the offerings of the Magi to sacrifices in the temple. 14 Liturgical associations may also be relevant. The presentation was celebrated on 2 February, with supplemen tary readings from Hebrews 7:7- 17 that include a passage which dovetails with th c sense of the homily: 'Here tithes are received by mortal men; there, by one of whom it is testified that he lives.'2l Folio I37r illustrates how scenes were selected from among those mentioned by Gregory, and th en com bi ned with other scenes to ptovide a unified visual commentary that supplemented the main mem e of the acco mpanying sermon. Details widlin the miniature itself add densiry to the meaning of the page, and communicate a different series of mes.s.ages as well . As in virtually all Byzantine depictions of the adoration of the Magi (Matthew 2: 1- 11 ), f. Ij7r shows the en throned Mary holding the Christ Child.16 The exotic ' Persian' dress of th ~ Magi conforms with sra ndard practice, while the configuration of the uio, with {he first Magus half kne.:ling and the other cwo looking at each other, recurs in an eighth-century fresco in Rome (Sta Maria Antiqua; lig. 61), and in an early tenth.century wall painting in Cappaclocia (Old Tokalt).27 Sta Maria Antiqua also anticipated the mOSt unusual elements of the composition, th e ind usion of Joseph and th e half-figure of the angel hovering above Christ;18 both also appear in (cnth-century Cappadocian frescoes that are
,. Ampbilo,hw. que5!ion J06 : 1'(," 101:1I48- IJ 51: N . Wc.rerink 6 ['987], 10 4-10j.
I) M.w,. I (l96j), U<>-l2j. " Fo r 1W0 of ,he !":lre e. c.ption., s« W.it:r.rnann (19j,h), W-61, fig>. 6, 10; and Florence. Llu,.plut.6.2" f. 6v (Vel man. [19711. fig. 12). In Pari •. gr.jlO, , he Ke n. i.l><oni""Uy titled in rcd on ,h.

f,arn. >i "1"'''''.1",)",,, /lay"'" ('the wo"hip of the Magi'). " G'lineiscn ([911). fig. 8,. 1'1. XXI; Ep!fcin ([986), fig. 20: s« al.., ,he rnargin.1 p",he" London, BL Add.to. 73 t, f. 1[jV (Dufrcnn e [1966). 1'1. jt) and London, BL Add.19 ·JP, f. 92< (Dcr Nene>,i.n (1970J. fig. Ijo). n On ,he . ngcl . 'n[icip:"ed in John Chr)'SOstorn', ""'enlh homily on Matthew (PC 17:78). -'« B", •• gli (198 j/86).

7"'.

6,

Th~ mini~turn: i m~rn ~l

evidcnc.

Fig. 61 Romr. Sill Moria Antiq"o: ~rolion oflh~ Magi

considered to be reliable witnesses ro slightly earlie r Co nstantinopolitan tastes.2'.i As Charles Rufus Morey observed long ago, the Gregory adoration virtually dup licates thai al Sta Maria Anti(IUa;J(I irs painter was evidently familiar with a tradition current in eighth-century Rome which, as the Cappadocian wall paintings confirm, remained fami liar in th e By7.amine capital in the last quarter of the ninth century. Most important here, such dose analogues suggests that the visual parallels drawn bCfWttn the adoration and the preu ntatio n on f. 137r were not achieved through iconographic manipulation of the adoration; instead . modifications were imposed on Ihe com position of the prc:sentation in order to unify the page. Un like the familiar adora tion, the dream of Ihe Magi (i dentified as such by Ihe legend 0 XP H MATICMOCTO N MArON) makes its first preserved Byzantine
jO.ICph rccun at O ld Tokail and Kili~I ... ,h. h.lf-.ngeL ar N~ Tobh (.lCcond qum.r of ,h. " nr h c<nt u,y): Ep.<tein ('986). fig •. W. 64; R.. t1. II (1967). fig. 169. Vel;n ('9S0). 8S-88 .nd BU",,&li (,98S186). 42- 47 catalogue eumpla of th• • doration that i ndude th. (nor molly (ull·l.ng,h) .ngcl. On the f",m.l.nd i"o nograph i~ rdation,hip bc,w«n ,h. paiming.> in O ld Tokah an d sligh<iy earl i.. ptoduCts (rom Constan tinople. Epmin «(986). 'S-19; on ,h •• am. relation'hip b.<ween New Tobit and c.,nstantinoplc. ibid .. }9- 44 (though Thi . rry [19891. e,p . ~J' . ,ugg<'" in>lead linb with "" M<>rcy (19~9). 9j· Grotgia).
1'l

6,

Vision:md m~~lIillg illll illrh-untury ByT3mium

appearanc~ 011 f. 137r. Th~ Magi sl~ p, uncovered and in a vertical pile on a hillock, as ~n angel strides roward th~m g~turing its warning. The biblical description of

the episode (Matthew 2:12) makes no mmtion of an angel messenger; though this is a standard f~ature of apocryphal t~XtS such as the Protcvangdion. 31 the Homilies version of the dream hru; litde in common with eithncontemporary western renditions or the few middle B)l1.an ti ne images that survive.'l Instead , the dominant figures of the angel and th e central Magus dupli cate a form ula associated with a different dream, that of Joseph. Joseph's d ream immediately follows th e adoration and dream of the Magi in Matthew's accoum (2: 1}) ; illustrated gospelbaoks, all laIer in date than Paris.gr.slO, inse rt it between the ado ration and the massacre of the innocents which follows o n the nex t register off. 137r.JJ It is possible th at the Homilies miniaturist knew an infancy sequ~nee that anticipated those p reserv~d from later periods, with an image of Joseph's dream precisely wh ere the dream of the Magi appears on f. 137r, and adapted the Magi's dream from a representation of Joseph's. The middle register com bines th e massacre of th e innocents (H BPE<l>OKT ONI[A]) with Elizabeth and the infant John the Baptist hiding in the mountain, and culminates with Ihe martytdom of Zacharias. For the massacre (Matth ew 2: 16), Herod (HP06.HC) sits, Ranked by two guards, and directs a single soldi~r. Though in its general morphology this group re mains fairly consim:nt in B)l1.anti um, earlier examples (fig. 62) anticipate Herod's ges ture, and incl ude barh attmdant guards, whi le lat~ rexam pl es show but a single guard, or none at alJ. YlT he response of the moth ers - who do not appear on f. 137r - and the manner of dispatching the child ren varies considerably. 3s In Paris.gr.slO, the soldier raises a sword with one arm, and - unusually but dramarica lly - suspends a child by its hair with the other. 36 The gospels omit the midd le episode of the seco nd register, but [he
P'otevangd io n ~r:4: Henn""kc and Schn.. mdch" [. 386. " Sc:c Yc,in (1<)50), 'OO-'Oj. [n ,he WCSt, the Magi no,m . lly huddle together und" a .i ng[e blanket in • large bcd: Schi ller [ ('97')' 99-'00; bu, compare .he Men ivory of Ca. 8so di«u«cd by Oc.hman ('989).55, fig. 29. The middle ByT3ntinc go<p"lbooks Florence, Laur.plm.6.'3 and Paru.g'.74 om;, the episode, no. doc. i, 'pp"ar in ,he Magi «quen"" in Y.,.g,.IIS6. Mount A,!!",. fuphigmcnou '4 and Jerus.o.lctn. raphou '4 follow ,he Pro,evangdion .CCilun, ~nd .how ,he Magi awake when ,he an{:,l . pp""'" ..,., Lafon,aine-Dosogne ('915) .••6-"7; Lafontaine-Dosogne ('9 87a) , U'-U4. Sec e.g. Flo,""na. Lau •. plm.6.1j. If. 6v- 7r: Vdman. ('97' )' figs. 11-'4; and, for a simil., dream im:1;e, the cuhed.. of Maximi.nn" Voll>:lch and Hi.me. (' 96,). fig. 2JO. E.g. the R>bbul. Go,p"ls of j86, a fifth-antury ivory in Milan, and ,he sixth- o ......en,h-century fr=oa .. 0.,;, Abu Hinnu (fig. 6.): Fln.en"". Laur.plut. I.16. f. 4V (Cccchdli tI .. I. ['919]); Yolb~ch ('976). no. "9: Cl<'d.t, ('902). 9; Grunei .. n ('9<1). pI. XXIX. For btcr e~.mp le>. Millet (,9t6), 'j 8-16J. l! Sec S,.vropoulon-M.kri ('990). "'p. 366-J69 . .. The mmif .ceu", in a pos,-Byantine go.pclbook and, p"rh~I'" at !Xi, Abu Hinni" Dcr Ner ..ssian (19261'7), fig. 17; Grilnci .. n ('9n), pI. XXIX; Lafonraine·Dosognc ('97S), fig. 57. The hair-grasping iuelfi. common: e.g. Volb"h (,976), no.,86; By"""" ('991), h...Jl3; Vel ma". ('97')' fig. '4; Omont (n.d.), pI. 7; l.afomainc-Dosogne (197j), fig. 600; St~vropoulou·Makri ('99""), fi g.).
}I

66

Th~

miniatures, internal evidence

Fig_ 6] [kir Abu Hi""i.: massllt" 4 rlu i""ocmrs. E{izab~rh lind joh" rh~ Baptist hid;"g ill th~ mO""I4;". Zuharias

Protevangclion descri bes the flight of Elizabeth with John the Baptist in detai!. 3? As is onen the case with apocryphal material. images of Elizabeth's flight appear with some frequency in pre-iconoclast and Palaiologan art, but more rarely during the middle Byzamine period proper, e:tcept in Cappadocia. JB Two major variants appear: Elizabeth fl ees,39 or, as on f. 137r, she hides in the mountain. The latter episode differs in the number (if any) and weaponry of the soldiers pursuing Elizabeth, in Elizabeth's position (s tanding or seated), and in whet her she is fully exposed or half hidden in rhe mountain. Folio 137r shows a single soldier bearing a lance searching fo r Elizabcth who sirs, half obscured by a rocky outcrop, safely within the mountain."o The closest comparison appears in the si:tth- or seventhcentury frescoes al Deir Abu Hinnis (fig. 62) ; a si:trh-ce nrury p)'ll'is now in th e Louvre is also similar, but shows the full figure of Eliza beth.i I Parallels bctween f. 137r and Deir Abu Hinnis continue in the fina l scene of the middle register, the martyrdom of Zacharias , which, li ke Ihe flight of Elizabeth. is missing from rhe gospels but appears in the Protevangelion. 42 Unl ike rhe tenthcentury Cappadocian wall paintings at O ld Tokab and ~avu~in, which show the discussion between Zacharias and Herod's henchm en, or rhe Menologion of Basil
" Pro'cv.ngdion 11: H~nn ecke . nd Schnee melcher I (1963). 387. '" For. 'UI">""Y of ,he monuments, >e<: Ufon .. in._Dosogn. (' 975), 1)0-13'. '" E.g. GlOb., (' 918). pI. LVI; Moun , A,ho •• E.phigmenou ' 4, f. 4' OV: PeI.bnid.. ~11l{. t (197). fig. 39 2. See "I.., ,he Sin.i i<:o n r<produced by Lafonto ine· Dooogne (1971) . fig. 10 . .. BOIh FJi'i.Obt, h .nd John "" identified by inscrip,ion" !'MORET . nd 0 n pO<l.[PIOMOC (,he foreru",,«) . .. CI~d., (1901). 9: on ,h< pyxi •. Volba<:h (1976). no. ,86. u ter eumpl.. such ... the RockefelkrMeCormick New Tes,amen' ,how . half_figure "fEli,... bt,h. but no soldier: Chic.go, Univ.Lib.96j. f. 9" (Willoughby [1 93']). ., Pro'n·.ngd ion 13' Henncckc .nd Schncemckhe. I ('96j), )87.

6,

Vision ~nd m~aning in ninth-century ByZ<I.ntium

II (ca. 1000), which ponrays a convenrional marryrdom of the '.s.acrific~ of Isaac' ryp~, Paris.gr.Slo and Deir Abu H innis picture a soldi~r lunging toward a kneeling Zacharias (ZAXAPIAC) stat ioned before an elaborate architectural backdrop in the forecoun of the temp le. H A sim plified version of this same formula recurs in the middle Bruntine tet raevangelion in Paris, where Zacharias' martyrdom is used to illustrate one of Christ's parables."" Relatively close iconographic parallels with a single monum ent are unusual for the narrative sequences in Paris.gr.51o; and the ties between the SIXond register off. 137r and Deir Abu Hinnis, coupled with the adoration's parallel at Sta Maria Andqua, may suggest that the narrative of Christ's infancy spread our over the first and s<:cond registers followed a single - and relatively old - source, heavily dependent on the apocryphal Protl'V:lngelion. If so, however, rhe later witnesses to isolated scenes that we have seen in Cappadocia and the Paris tetraevangelion indicate that any sequence drawn on by the Homilies miniaturist continued to have currency well into rhe middle Byzantine period. The coherence of the upper twO registers is, in any event, underscored by the manipulation of the composition of the lowest register to express visually the thematic and exegetic relationships among all of the scenes on the page. The bonom reg ister devoles itself to a single theme, the presentation in the temple (Lu ke 2:25-35). The composition is asymme trical: in order to line up Joseph (lOCH !!», Mary and Jesus beneath their portrayals in the adoration of the first register, the anion in the lowest tier shifts to the left. Simeon (CYMEO N) thus stands dead centre - benea th the Magi of the adoration - and an ornate altar set before a structure evidently meant to represent the temple occupies most of th e right side, beneath Zacharias' temple. The bottom register has been arranged to complement the scenes above it: the holy family redupl icates itself, Simeon's outstretched arms parallel those of th e Magi, and the temple - outside and inside - lines up on the

right.
The presentation does no t M:Cffi to have been celebrated as a great feast by the orthodox church unti l the eighth cemury, and representations of it before that time arc rare."s Dorothy Shorr argued that the elevation of the presentation resulted in a shift of attention from the narrative account of the priest Simeon recognizing the Messiah with greal joy (the hypopanu- which is in fact the legend attached to this scene on f. 137r: H YTl O n ANT H ) to a morc hieratic and symmetrical image focusEp<lcin (1986).1i)\. ~J; R<,.d~ II (1967), lig. J<>7; Va' .gr.161j. p. 14 (Mmo/8gio (1907)) ; Griin.iscn (1921), pis. XXIX_XXX. ror an unformna[dy f!":Igme n,ary .inh-c.m ury Co"".minopoliran '~pr~· scnm i"", L>.funuinc_Oos<>gne (1975), 2JI.lig. 59. .. Puis.gr. 7<1. f. 46" Omon, (n.d.). pI. J8. ' j 11 islil"lt ~i!od in . Ii" drawn up by J"hn ufEuoo..a: Mill~, ('916). 10. 1J. Thelifth-ctnmry mo.ai~ ., S.. M"i. Mo.ggior~ in Rome i. ", bt" I.ng<'miilly ,.1a!~d!O l'l~r prescnwions (Karpp {19661. pl. Tj, for ~ diff....:", i"'"'p, .... io". Spain [1979)); ,h. f!":Igm.n,ary .. v.",h-ctntury mo.. ic ., rhe Kalcn de rh."e Comii in Co""aminople, how""... generally .micip"" Ihe im . ge on f. Il7" Striker . nd Dog.n Kub.n ('97r), 1\1- 1\8, lig. "; Slriker~nd Dagon Kub~n (1~~7), l!l-I'4, pI. '4S.
'J

68

Th~ miniatur~:

imern"J ""id~n'~

ing on the presentation proper. A group of enamel reliquary crosses demonstratcs the existence of the symmctrical 'liturgical' formula, with the figures grouped around an altar, by the ninth ce ntury, and it remained the most common way of depicting thc prcscntation thcrea fter in Byzantium.46 Folio f. 137r can not, howcvet, be slotted into this dcvelopment as an example of 'archaic' retention of an earlier formula, for apart from the skewed composition the presentation in Paris.gr.SIo corresponds clo$Cly with a group of roughly contemporary works. The ninthcentury Mmvili tr ip tych, the Khludov Psalter. and two CappadO(:ian churches of ca. 900 (Kili"lar and Goreme 6a) are striki ngly similar: the Psalter even duplicates the somewhat lopsided disposition of th e ciborium over Simeon's altar. ~7 Of these, all bu t the Kili"lar fresco join with the Homilies in portraying Jesus nearly in Simeon's outstrerched arms. a motif (hat nnds parallels in contem porary $Crrnons and, according to Shorr, reveals the first tentative impact of th e new liturgical impo rtance of the presentation."'s It is onl y the position of the altar that distinguishcs Paris.gr.5iO from thcse examples: the figurcs are pl'actically intcrc hangcable. While other ninth-ccnruryversions emphasize the central altar in accord with new liturgical requirements, Paris.gqIO balances the presentation against the adoration of th e Magi and martyrdom of Zacharias to consolidate the visual themcs of offering and sacrifice. Neither thematic nor compositional coherence, however, required the dream of the Magi, rhe flight of Elizabeth, or the stress on the temple of Jerusalem and its high priests. The dream and the flighr may simply instance narratives continued despite the faCt that the additional scene no longer sustained the point made by the first - a type of expansion familiar in the ninth century from the Sarra ParalbY9 _ but Elizabeth's flight, and the emphasis on the te mple and its pries t, also introduce twO currents that run throughout the manuscript. Thcse stcm from, and rdue to, the audience rather than playing against or with the text, and they shift the ways selectio n may m: used a.\ commentaty to a diffe rent level. Elizam:lh provides the female component of the middle register, a balance to Mary in the top and bottom tiers. Her inclusion fits a broad tendency in Paris.gr.po to counTerpose images of women and men; 5(l Elizabeth's portrayal with the infant John the Baptist also conforms with a general ~ mphasis on family rcla"
.. I(,,,,,,,ni. (19g6), IN_IO). lig> . 2\ •• 16•. I'm • i..e, eumple. see Mount Atho •. Iviron j: l'ddo.nidcs l't III I I ('97f). fig. 18. Furthe, eumpl~ in Town.ley ('974), l J..-)O. For .n early .. ym me, · ricol composition .ec e.g. the (now 10>') f'esco from St. Mat;. Anti,!u. (70j-707). wh~", Ann. joined Joseph behind the Virgin (Crlincisen [19t d. pI. ICLXVII. >); for tWO rare la,er one •. the Bri"ol Psal'er (umdu h. BL Add.~O.7Jl. f 163v: Duf",nnc ['966]. pl. 60) and . ll cic>'e",h-.:ch'ury ivory pl.q uc in 5, I'c:,e .. burg (Goldschmidt .nd Wei,zm.nn II [t9)01. no. \9). both of which omi, Jo ... ph alld Ann • . " I(,m.on i. (,986) . fig. p b; Mo.scow, Hi".Mus.II9. f. t6Jv (~pki n. ['9771); ksd. II (1967). fiS'. j8. 59, 97. .. Shore (19~6): Ott '00 Maguire (1980/81) .•'p. 164- 167 . .. See ch.p,., ,. \0 Concomi!1n!ly. nlcn .nd women are rarely prrsenrod in opposition, which rn.y be one re.ron why ,he mothe.. have be. n omilled from ,he m>suClc.

Vision and mraning in nimh-amury Byzantium tionships: mothers and children (especially sons, as Mary and Jesus in lhe enveloping registers) or husbands and wives. The~ themes will be considered in chapter 9, but I Rag the patteTllnow to indicate that the significance ofEli7..abeth's presence on f. l}7r probably goes beyond a desire 10 sustain coherent narrative blocks. Folio 137r also introduces the apparent impact of the patriarch Photios, who stressed the sacrificial role of the massacred infants and linked th e offerings of the Magi with sacrifices in the temple in a chain of connections that unites all three registers. 51 More idiosyncratically, Photios was interested in the high priesthood and Ihe temp le in Jerusalem. As Michael Maas demonstrated, his glosses ofJosephus in the Bibli/J(h~k~ ignored huge chunks of the texts in question and instead concentrated on Hcrod, the pricsls, and the tcmple. ~l Thc priCSIS and thc tcmplc are, of course, exactly whal receive exceptional emphasis on f. In r, and it is this curious mess that suggests the guiding hand ofP hotios. Photios was interested in th ese particular sections of Josephus for a specific purpose. In his summaries, Photios not only isolated the sections pertaining 10 Herod, the high priests and the temple; he also rearrangcd thc material he selccted in order to rnah it corrobora te his argument that secular amhorities should not intervene in religious affai rs." Photios was, in othcr wotds, using (or manipulating) older texts to buttress his own concerns. This pattern is no t unusual in Phodos' writings;~' indccd. he was simply exaggerating a familiar characteristic of the eighth and ninth ccncuries. 55 BUI his interests here go beyond Ihe use of past authotities to justify his own conclusions, for he reveals an almost obsessive fascination with the temple itself. As Maas put it, 'he lays on with a trowel technical specifics about its rebuilding. He loves numbers and precise measuremcnr,. [Phorios] includes lengthy descriptions not essential to the development of his theme but nonetheless revealing of his own predilection for detail.'x; While the focus on Zacharias and Simeon could be interpreted as underscoring Photios' interests in the status of religious authority, [he emphasis on the templc - which, along with the alignment of the holy family in the first and third registers, resulted in acomposition of thc prCSCntarion rhat is withom parallel- is both more unusual and more overtly reRective of the personal interests of the patriarch. s7 The writings of Photios have strong bonds with the miniatures of Paris.gr.po; the nacure of this relarionship will be cofl.lidered in chapter 5. Here, one additional point dcscrves mention. In his synopses of Josephus, Phodos was not only selective of the material he summarized, he also added historical details. These induded, for
" Mus ('990) . ,8'- '94. On the Bibli.,htluStt ch.p'" 5. " M ... (t99O) .• ~. ,8, -187. s.~ "Iso Aloxandd. r~m." k •• reported by um~,l. ('9&6). '''9 nol< '5' and ch,p'" 5. s.-..•. g.• ,h. di",us.;on off. }55r in ch.p'" 5. " s.c. ch.p.er r. ,,; Mu. (1990). 188. " "p... ll~l m.y bt drown with PhOlio' in".",. in Chri,,', .omb. di<cus...J in connection wi,h f. 181' ;neh'r«' 5.
jL

s." not~. 22 and 14 .bove.

Th~

miniatu, ..: internal evidence

example, the fact (omitted by Josephus) that Herod authorized th e massacre of the innocents. 58 We shall fi nd precisely this SOrt of almost oflhand suppleme ntary detai l rampant, in visual form, in the miniatures of Paris,gr,5 Io,

imagt as tx~g(fiJ
Exegesis literally means 'leading OUt' , Practically, it means interpretation, and usually the interpretation of biblical or patristic tex ts. In the miniatures of Paris,gr,po, image as exegesis - visual interpretation - worb in a number of ways, Most basicall y, the miniatures interpret th e past: like virtually all other Byzantine images, those in the Homilies creale a vis ual memory of what pas! events looked like, Some of the miniatures no t only construct or reconstruct th e past , but envision links between [he biblical past and [he ninth-century present, Agai n, Par is,gr,'jlo is nor alon e in this: "id~the page in the Khludov Psalte r that juxtaposes Ch rist's torments on the cross with the defacement of his image by iconodasts (fig, 57), Also like the Khludov Psalter, th e Homilies miniatures interpret the text that they accompany. AI; we have just seen, the intnprerntion may be conveyed by the selection of particuJar passages for illus tration, It may also, however, be conveyed by scenes not mentioned in the text at al l. While all biblical images can be considered visual exegesis in the sense that they re-interpret a written narrative, and all miniatures sanction a parti cular reading of their accompanying text, this group presents image asexegesis. T he following minia tures exem plify the process. Folio }6or (J7) (fig. 37) The miniatures that parallel the theme(s) of the sermon without rdying on the text for specific examples are often among the most difficult 10 u nd erstand, and can pose methodological problems for modern scholars. Sometimes, however, the visual analogy is reasonably dear, and seems 10 have been based on allusions made by Gregory himself in th e accompanying sermon: such is the case wi th f. 36or. ~9 Excision of the prefatory headpi ece to G regory's third oration 'On peace' on its verso has muti lated the upper register, whic h retains portions of the construction of the tower ofBabel;60 the lower register portrays Noah's ark. Though Gregory mentions neither episode ~ and the Milan Homilies includes a different seque nce of images, all of which stem directly from the texr6 1 ~ the beginning of 'On peace' I [J on its verso demo nstrates that th e minialUrewas intended to introduce this sermon.(.l
\. Omon, (19'9). 28. pI. L1; Ocr Nem:<si .. n (196.), l"9-~IO. '" Bottli.. (1885), 8;1, misiden,ified ,hi. <une .. Noah building the ark, an error ,h., ha, betn rectified in mOlt. bu, nOt all, $u!,s.,qucnt li ...... 'urc. " Grab.. , (J9W' ), pis. XUX.>-3, L,I, L1.4. L1L, . ., SC >70. 1IS-~59. The .. ,man i. somer im•• incorrect ly referred '0 .. ,he second o .... ,ion 'On following an erro, in ,he MaUl;" edi,ion replimed by Mignc in PG'I.
sa Stt M.... (1990), c.p. 188.

P'''''''.

7'

Vi,ion and

m~:rning

in

ninth-c~ntu'Y

Byzantium

The loss of Ihe headpiece means Ihal we do not know the precise tide given to Gregory's oration by the ninth-century scribe; in several medieval copies, it is aptly subtitled 'to the lovers of discord',6J The sermon contains a lament o,-er the perilous condition of Christianity around lhe year 380, which Gregory blames on malice and trinitarian heresies.&1 He lists the disasters ensuing from God's displeasure at this stale - 'countries devastated, myriads of fJllen vicdms, the earth covered with blood and ruins, people speaking in barbarous tongues' - and wonders 'Whar person of good sense would not lament the present situation?'M But, he continues, even sensible Christians now &n [he fires of discord, and he exhorts his listeners to strive for unity and peace, and to avoid that refuge of the enemies of orthodoxy, superficiallanguage. 66 Gregory reminds his audience that [hough heresy rends the church, there is only one true battle, the struggle against evil, and thai Christ he<:ame a human man in order to die a human death, be resurrected, and thus save them alL67 Gregory's complaints about the misuse of language, and especially his referen ce to 'peo ple speaking in barbarous tongud, evidently suggested the image of the tower of Babel (Genesis 11;1--9). Beyond this, Sirarpic Ocr Nersessian argued that th e image provided a visual parallel to Gregory's accountof the destruction of unicy within lhe church;68 in othcr sermo ns copied in Paris.gt.5lO, the tower of Babel appears as a biblical analogue to fourth-century heresies, in contrast with the onhodox trinitarian view in which 'all speak th e same language' .6~ Der Nersessian observed that similar oppositions appear throughout Byzantine exegesis and in the liturgy for Pentecost, where the bestowal of tongues on the apostles thaI ena bled them to unifY the world through Christ is set against the- confusion of tongue-s imposed by God to disperse the gentiles. The tower of Babel acts as a visual encapsulation of the perils of ecclesiastical discord and particularly, in Gregory's wrirings, of discord brought about by trinitarian heresies - lhe subject of the orallon. At; Oer Nersessian noted, the pendant scene of Noah's ark complements the tower of Babel; while the latter symbolized discord, Noah's ark represented the concord of the unified church.71l Most Byzantine commemarors saw Noah's ark as a prefiguration ofbaptism,7] bur in the nimh century Phorios appropriated a less common reading more relevant to f. 360r. In 'On the Annunciation', Phorios addrcs.sed Mary as the ' living ark of God, in which th e second Noah, having come to dwell, took in and saved well nigh our emire human race, that had been subSC >70. >06-.08. .. [bid .. 222. ' j lbid .. 111- 22.4, "'Ihid., 1)0, 'H. 141 . •, Ibid., >46-'48 . '50. ~16 . .. D~r N~r", .. ian (196,), '09-210. ..sc '70, 1.86 .nd nmol . .,. D., N~r..,,,ian CilM John Chry..,,,om'. 'The ark il the church, Noah is Christ, ,hc dove Ih. Holy Spi,i,. ,h~ olivo b"'!lch ,h~ divino phibn,hwpy. A. the ark in the mid.t of tho watell prOlected ,ho.. ;",;d~ it . •0 d"", tho church prOfec, ,ho.sc who have ""'yed': In L"uN> ctmno Vl.7 in PC 48:10}7-I038. "Stt Dani~[ou (1956). 75-115; j)ani~lou ('960), 69-10:.
Oil~.

Th~ milli~!Ur~5: i[l{ern~1

evidence:

merged by the storm of sins, and afforded us models and examples of a second life and a more divine eonduct' .n Here, the ark is a fYpe of the Virgin, Noah is a type of C hrist, and the waters of the deluge represent human sin. n Noah in his ark prefigures the advent of Christ as man, a rheme that recurs in Photios' sermon 'On Holy Saturday', where Noah's ark is contrasted wi th the 'world saving ark of the saviour's body', the incarnate Christ. 7' Photios' use of Noah's ark confirms and augments Ocr Nersessian's modern interpretation off. 360r. Through the incarnation of Ch rist, prefigured by Noah in his ark, Christians escape the 'storm ofsins' represenlcd here by the tower ofBabt:1. Belief in Christ's human nature remedied the discord caused by the trinitarian heresies railed against by Gregory in the third oration 'On peace'. The miniature is thus imcrnally unified and, though evidently inspired by all usions in the text, prcsems a pictorial commelltary on the sermon Ihat relies on ninth-century interpretations of the scenes pictured. 75 Folio 143'1 (19) (fig. (9) In addition to scenes Ihat visually pick up Gregory's implicit allusions, some exegetical miniatures incorporate scenes indirectly inspired by Gregory's reference to their main protagonist. Folio 143V does both in its upper register, which shows Jeremiah in a pit and the penitence of David. The lower registers, with the parable of the Good Samaritan above two healings (of the paralytic and of the woman wirh the issue of blood) and the raising of ]ajrus' daughter, provide an independent pictorial commentary.76 Folio ' 43'1 prefaces 'To the people of Nazianzus and the prefect' (Homily 17), which begins on the facing leaf. n Gregory dd ivered the sermon in 373/4 during a dispute between the citizens of Nazianzus and the provincial government; he assured the crowd of the relief the Lord brings to sufferers,78 urged the prefect to be merciful, and likened his sorrow over the conRict to Jeremiah's suffering for hrad. Gold initials signal both sentences on f. '44f that deal with the prophet's trials,79 presumably to link [hem with the opening image of Jeremiah on the facing page. Following Henri Omont, rhis scene has customarily been identified as Jeremiah being lowered into the pit Ueremiah 38:5-6) . In fact , however, we see rhe prophet " Homily 7.7: ed. uou,d .. (1919), 81: 'ran$. Mango ('91H), 148. 7J Th~ lat!~r oquorion app"rcntiy rdic< on Revel .. ion 17:1j: sec D.nidou ('960), 71- 76. " Homily tJ,7: ed . uourd.:u. n8-. 19: I",n •. Mango ('918). ~09. 7"l On Ihoiwnography of tho tWO ",.n'$, sec (h~pl.r 8. "" MiIl.1 ('920). 1~ 1: Omont (1929). 20_21, 1'1. XXXIII: Morty (1929). 36, 95; Buchth.1 h9j8). '7-30; Gallay (194J). uJ-n~: Dcr N..~i.n (1 96,), 211_216: W.ilunann (1 979') , '75- '76, 181; Ishizulu. (986), J-n ; Nuki.. ('987). 4' S- ... 6; Brubilir (1996a), 11- 13: Brubalr... (1996b), IOj-I06.
n PGJS :964-<;1h.
71

the

"",i. lext.

E.g. ibid. 969An- 16. marked wi,h "bolo" on f. '4Sr: num.tom .imil" sentim.n.. " ..ignal led in

" Ibid .. 964Bi....,6\A6. 96\ B6-tJ.

Vision ~nd meaning in ninth-amury Byzantium

raised out of the mire by twO youths at the d ircction of King Zedekiah, who watches from a (Ower Oeremiah 38:7-(3). T he inscription - 'Jeremiah in the mire' (IEPEMIAC EN BOPBOPa) - neither confirms nor denies this rcidentificadon, which is based on the presence of King Zedekiah, who distanced himself from the lowering ofJeremiah into the pit bucdirectcd his release from it, and the 'old rotten rags' held by the twO youths (one of whom looks w the king for directions), which replaced the cord that low.:red Jeremiah into the pit during his removal from ir.1IO We have, then, a portrayal of Jeremiah inspired by Gregory's teXl, but instead of the prophet's trials, we sec: the result ofZedekiah'sdemency. T he substitution res ults in ascene th at augments Gregory's plea that the prefect ofNaziam:us should be merciful; it supplements rather than ill ustrates the text. The penitence of David shares the uppermost register with Jeremiah's release: fwm the pit and, like it, ill ustrates the theme offorgiveness. Gregory docs not refer 10 the penitence directly, but h is freq uent mentions of David's grief and release fwm sorrow by God's patdon - nea rly all signalled by gold initials or marginal quotation markssl - presumably encouraged the image of David's co nfession of, and release from, sin. While Bathsheba (BH PCABEE) wa tches from behind the: king's empty throne, David (AA[YI ]t..), prostrate at Ihe feet of the archangel Michael (0 APXHCTPAT HfOC), confesses to Nathan th e: prophet (NA6AN 0 n rO<l> HTHC). Although the image agrees broadly with Byzantine iconographic tradition, its exclusive emphasis on David's adm ission of sin finds few parall els. S! T he accompanying inscriptions - 'J have sinned against the l..:>rd' (HMAPTlKA Tn K[YPI ]O) next to David, 'and the l..:>rd has put away thy sin' (KAI K[YPIO ]C A<I> HAE[N] TO AMAPTHMA COY) before Nathan - are unusually extensive for PariS.gr'51O,!3 and the (wri tte n) spo ken dialogue brings an immediacy to {he episode that makes explicit the theme of peni tence and mercy. Because Gregory did not specifically describe the episodes pictured. the M ilan Homilies incl udes neither.!H Yet the Jeremiah and David epiMldes reinforce Gtegory's descriptions of the relief the Lord brings to sufferers, and express the virtues of leniency in a way particularly appropriate to th is sermon. Gregory
No comparable eu/nple exis" [0 . emem thi, reidentification: f. [43V show. [he only pre""rved Brun,i"e version of ,he pit epi,ode in ei,her of i" version •. while [he few medieval wes,ern namples (ON A. Heim . nn • •. v. 'Jeremi.,. in LeI!! 1[970]. 390-391) are far la .. r. and do not ",,,,,mble Pari•.gr. 1[0. Je ... miah . wi,h long grey h<J..ir and beard. d"" •. however. confotm in rypc wi[h hi. pom. i" in othe, n;n,h-cc:n,ury Gr.ek books (fig. Ip), '"'" .1", Weinmann (1979a), ~g<. 361 - 17" Gf:1.M, (194)'), pis. IV.j. IX". XUX.j. The Iypc p...i".d in many larer Byz.a.mine ""am ple.: Lowden (1,88). 10....')"1, figs . I'. 69. 71. '''7. ,oS. " E.g. on f. '«r. which m.rk< PC Jj:961C9-11 (ob%,) and 968A1O-l1 (i ni'ial). " Stt ch.pte, 8. " Sec Brubaker ('996b) and ch.pte< 9; for latOf Wcstem cumpl.. of ,hi. typ< of di.logu •• C~mjll. (19 8\) . .. Instead. ,he miniaturist depined 7..eph.ni~h and {W(I pr• • ching portf:1.i", Gf:1.b>., (19 .. ).), pi •. XXII ... , XX!lT .I-l.
to

The miniatures: intnnal n<idencc

exhorted rheddze nsofNazianzus ro obey their lead~rs, but he was most concerned to ensure that the prefect was mcrcifui,85and both scenes selected for the upper reg· istet play ro this them e: Zedekiah listened to Jeremiah's friends and freed t he prop het, while God, through the intermediary Natha n, heard David's admission and delivered him from sin.86 The second register illustra tes the parable of the Good Samaritan (Luke 10:30---37) in fout scenes set against a unified Iandscapo: background. Gregory does not mention the parable. but its point - that th e Good Samaritan, who showed mercy, was the beSt neighbour - underscores his message fO the prefect. Iv; depicted on f. 143'1, the parable also graphically demonma teS the relief God brings to those who sufter: to em phasize that the Lord is the source of comfort. Christ replaces the Good Samaritan in the miniature, a substitutio n accented by his central location and the unusual placement of Christ and the rescued man on a se parate, foreground plane. Two of the sce nes derive from Luke 10:30: 'A cena in man went down from Jerusale m to Jericho, and fell among thieves, who stripped him of his garments, and wounded him. and depaned. leaving him ha lf dead.' T he min ia turist visualized. the journey by framing the register with walled cities, Jerusalem (nO [AIC] I[ HPOYCAIA H M) on the left. and Je ric ho on the right (TIO[A1C] IEPIXO). The 'certain man' departs from Jerusalem on horseback - a detail found in no other version - and in the ensuing scene. stripped of his clothes. he is bea ten by thrc:c: thieves. S7 Next, a priest (lEPEYC) and a Levite (AEYlT HC) pass the blc:c:di ng man by (Luke 10:31- 32); the two men, identical except for the head piece worn by the priest. look back at the dying ma n and gestUre in consternation bUT stride vigorously away toward Jericho. Finally, the Good Samaritan, as Christ, se ts the reclothed man from Jerusalem on his own horse: (Luke 10:34). Wh ile most versions of this episode show £he Samaritan leading the horse on which the wounded man sits toward an inn in ]eri cho. 88 nei ther the Rossa no Gospels (fig. 63) nor the Sacra ParalMa(fig. 64) follows f. 14}V in showing the wounded man clothed; on Iheother hand, Rossa no provides the only other instance wh ere Christ stands in for the: Samaritan (a detail perhaps suggesled by references 10 Jesus as a Samaritan such as
/'C lS'976--9R . oA2 .. Ano,h •• levd of ,ignificancc migh' he attached '0 these im. ges. Photio, huill. and """-. late r o{Jeremiah ,," ,h" outskirts ofCon"antinopl" (Herg.nrilthe r II [t8671. 7!J). a bu. ied in. a Mon .. comm i"ion ,ha, sugg.", a rondn"" for the proph., on ,h" p. " of ,h" p.tria."h; Pho,ios al<o linW B..il '0 David. h••" .hown •• pem ing (se. chap,,,, 4). The conjun",ion of th" rel" ..ed Jeremiah (Photios~) .nd ,he .epen ting David (a.. il ?) i,. th•• ef" ••• intriguing. ,hough its possible i"'pl ica, ion, go beyond ,he confines of ,hi. eh>pm. v Wcinma~ n (1979a). 176. erroncou.ly c.edi", ,he G.egory ilJu«n ro. wi,h un iqud y .howing both the mippin g .nd ,he bea'ing. The "'en. i, i"",.ibed 0 ll£PIflEC!lN EIC TOYC AH CfAC .. fu. [h. s""" Pa",!!,'" and Ro, ... no im.g... Stt nm" 91 below; for ,h. '.<f.n-angc!'a (uuo,plu •. 6.• ). r. l18v and Pori,.gf,74. If. !J!V- !Ju). Vdma'" (197')' fig. 111 and Omon, (n.d.). pI.
0)

,,,,y

11 6.

71

Vision and

m~~ning

in

ninth-c~ntury

Byzantium

Fig. 63 Rim"no

G",p~&.f 7":

/"lTilbk ofth~ Good S.:mtlritan

that in John 8:48),89 and the Sacra Parafltla is otherwise the closest comparison to the sequence in Paris.gr.5IO. Weinmann isolated seven distinct moments of the Good. Samaritan natrative illustrated in the five manuscripts that include the cycle. 90 Within this group, Paris.gf.5IO and the Sacra Parafltla (fig. 64) favour a distinct manner of represe nting the parable rhar shares neither scenes nor derails wirh th e OThe r versions. The two ninth-century sequences alon e include [he represe ntation of both Jericho

,6

fig. 64 PdriJ.gr.j23, f 320V: OriJ! difmding I~ IlfrOi/&.; Chri'l rt:lAting I~ ""rllblr ofl~ Gcwd Samllrilim

and Jerusalcm,~1 the trio of thieves (brandishing identical clubs), the priest and the Levite, and the man straddling the Samaritan's horse rathe r than ridingsidesadd le. Though the Sacra Pdralkla does not follow f. 143V in replacing the Samaritan with Christ in this last scene, the weight of the other correlations implies that both miniaturists adapted a sequence familiar in ninth-century Constantinoplc. 91 The heaJings of the paralytic, the woman with the i.>.sue of blood and Jairus' daughter in the bottom register continue the th eme of salvation through Christ, a connection st~ssed visually by ~peating ChriST'S placement in the Centre of the composition, where th e healing Christ's halo extends into the top border of th e reg" !'ari ,.gr·9lj, f. 3l0Y: Weinmann (l979a) , '71- 176, fig. 417a. Jerusalem. bu[ nOl J<licbo .• ppears in the Ro ... no Go'pel, (f. or): C.va llo ~..l. ([98 7), '4)-[4); Weirrm.nn (1977), fig. 32.
" Sccch .ptcr~.

77

Vision and

me~n;ng ;n

ninth-«ntury Byzantium

ister to meet the feet of Christ as Good Samaritan as they protrude down inro the same frame. 93 The miniaturist presenrs the first mi racle simply: Christ blesses a man with a bed litter slung over his shoulders, who looks back at Christ as he walks away from him. The: scene includes none of the narrati ve derails th at distingu ish the healing of the paralytic at Bethesda Uohn S:2-IS) from the he:a1ing at Capernaum (Matthew 9:2- 7, Mark 2:3- 12, Luke: 5:l8- 2S), an d no identifying legends remain; but f. 14}V probably represents the paralytic at Bethesda, for the Capernaum healing appears on f. 316t. The: abbrev iated image reptats a wid espread formula, and exemp lifies Christ's healing and redempt ive powers. 94 The healing of the woman with the: issue of blood an d the raising of Jairus' daughter form part of the same narrative in the syno ptic gospels (Matthew 9: 18-26, Mark 5:22- 43, Luke 8:41-56), and they are visually linked on f. 143V. As Christ turns to speak to the kn eeling wo man, Jai rus prostrates himself at his feet: to the tight, Jairus' daughter lies, apparently dead , surrounded by mourne rs. Two diffe:renr momenrs in the accoum of the healing of th e: woman wi th the issue of blood were pictured in the ninth century. The: Sacra Paralklaillustrares the first, whe:n the wom an crept behind Christ, tou ched his hem, and was cured (Matthew 9:20-li . Mark 5:25-29. Luke 8:43- 44).?S Paris.gr.SlO illustrates the ne~ 1 episode - of which Mark n O--H ptovides the fu llest acco unt - wh en Christ turned, asked who had touched him, and the woman fell down befote him and confessed. Like th e: healing of the paralytic, the confession of the woman finds early Christian parallels; both also surfaced in anti-Jew ish texts. 96 This connection does not, however. seem to be stressed on f. 143V, where the selection of the confession sce:ne rather than the healing that preceded it suggests a return to the them e of th e top register: compassion and men:y. Christ, sutrounded by Peter, James, and John (Mark S:37, Luke 8:51), fo rms a srrong cemrai axi s tha t is anchored by the prostrate woman on (our) left, and Jairus, in proskynesis, on the right. fu Jairus begs Christ to save his daughter, the man behind him ges(Ures as ifro indicate {hat she has died. Again, an unusual moment was selected fo r illustration, for although the daughter and her attend ants occupy the right q uarter of the register, the actual raising of the child is not shown. This omission, coupled with [he portrayal of Jairus in proskynesis, indicates {ha t the image is less a heal ing scene than a visuali ZOItion of the 'ruler of the synagogue'
" Jai,u' d~ughte. ""d the G ood Samaritan >te 01.., tangentio1ly linked in the liru.gy: Luke 8:4'-56 Uairus) _, '~ad on th~ twenty_third Sunday arre, Pent"'''''' Luke 10:25-'7 (Sama,iun) on the twen ty_fourth : Ma"n, 11 (1963). 160: Brubaker (19'96. ). 1>-13. "Sec Sch iller [(1971). t6jl: Underwood (19n), 190. Th e episode was $Omel imc$ interp reted a$ an allu.io n to b..pti .m, but t he abw:ntc of a healing pool on r. 143V ,uggcst> tin , thi. meaning w ... no' int~ndcd here. 'I Pa.il .gr.91,. f. l i l t : Weinmann (1979a). fig. ~ S4 . .. Schiller J (1971). 178- [79: Hcnncck.c . nd Schn""mclchc' I (' 96J). 4S7. On . nt;-hetctico1 imagery in Pari •. g•. sIO see ch. p<'" 6.

"

Th~

mini<otures:

im~rnal

evidence

kseeching Ch Tist'~ aid. fu in David's peni tence, the accent is on the humility of authorities before God. 97 The concepTual link between David's penitence in the top regi5t(~r and the vignette of Christ flanked by thewoman and Jairus is cemented by thecomrosition of the page. T he twO receive precisely the same amount of space, and Jairus lies exactly below David ; the balancing females, Bathsheba and the woman with the issue ofblood, are also aligned. Vertical al ign ments bind the second and th ird registers as wdl~ the last scene of the Good Samaritan narrative reverts to th e ce ntral foregro und in order to associate Ch rist as Good Samarit an with the comforting C hrist of the lowest ti er. Folio 143V presents an exceptionally unified com position; its images of mercy and humility provide a coherent in terpretation of G regory's 'To the prefect' th at supplements the themes of the sermon. Folio 196v (14) (fig. 1.4) The fina l two exam ples of exegetical miniatures indude<! in this chapter incorporate scenes not alluded to in the accompanying oration even at second hand. Folio 196v, the simpler of th e two, devdops a coherent linear narrative that supplements the text on several interwoven levels. While most mi niatu res in the first third ofParis.gr.Fo are divided into Ih ree registers, f. 196v opens a series of len miniatures preserved in the middle of the manuscript that show full-page pictures or, more us ually, pages div ided into fWO registers, as here. Th ree interconnected episodes appear~ Ch ri st ra ises Lazarus, and eats at the house of Simon, above the entry into Je rusalem.~ Gregory mentions none of these in the accompanying sermon , his seco nd homily 'On the Son',9\1 which concerns the relationship between God and C hrist, and was comidered obscu re (and im rortant) enough in the ninth centu ry for Phodos to devote a lengthy sectio n of his Amphilochia to its darification. loo Gregory's main thesis is that Christ acted as an intermediary between heaven and earrh; he rcdeemt"d the sim of the world through the sacrifice of his crucifixion, and so reconciled hu manity with God. It is precisely th is theme (hat the miniature addresses. The thrce scenes pictured were d osdy co nnected in li tu rgical and imperial cereV ] am grald,,] loAmhony Cud~r. who =~ndy r~minJ~d me IhOl pr"'kyn"'i' can imply forgi...,. no.<: ]oir....· hu mili!}' will be hi, .. I•• tion. See ,I", Cuder (1971), IJ-' 10. n Omon. ('9~9). !), pI. XXXVIl1; Morey (919), 96; D er N~"" .. i.n (1961), 104-10\: DinkJ~r (IlI70), 39-40; Weinm.nn ('971b), 616: Brob.ker ('981) . )-4; Brub.ker (1996,). II . .. SC '50, >26-175. lX. Ne"""i.n (1961), 104- 10j connected f. 196v with ,he Wl"ong lermon; Ihe m ini1ture i. none.hek ... certainly in its in,end«llocation, for the end of Ihe prec«ling hom ily con· clud.. on its .ecto. The Mil.n G.eg<>' y ill"'''a1'' .hi, se.mon wilh ito "'oal preaching "en e, medal · li"n pof1"~i ts "fPaul, Adam, and Ch.is •.• nd ""<> Old "I""... men. g.oup> in p •• ye" Grab •• (194}» , pl •. XXXIII,I_XXXV (excluding XXXIV,4). ,oe Q u..,io n 78: PC JOJ:489B-491D; cd. W.... ri nk V (1986). 101- 108. On Ih~ Amph;{ochi<t ... chaplet \.

79

Vi,ion and mOoning in nimh-umury Byzantium

monial, where the raising of La7..arus was associated wi th the Palm Sunday ,elebraTion of the enuy into Jerusalem. The cypikon of the Great Church (Hagia Sophia) entitles the sixth Saturday in Lent the 'SaTUrday ofSt Lazarus'; readings fnr the day commemOrate Lazarus and anticipate Palm Sunday, celebrated the next day. WI The same combinatio n appears in the Book of Ceremonies, which entitles the ceremony for the sixth Saturday in Lent the 'Vigil of Palm Sunday'. I tll Pho!ios, among others, explains th econn~ti on: human salvation depends on Chrisc's resurrection, and 'the resurrection was because of the deaTh; and the death because of the crucifixinn; and the crucifixion b~ause I a13rus came up from the gates of hell on the fourth day' .11IJ The Palm Sunday service itself describes the supper aT Simon's house and the entry into Jerusalem and, in his two hymns 'On lazarus', Romanos cemented the connection between all three episodes pottrayed. 1o-1 In aggregate, the scenes form an introduction 10 Christ's passion sanctioned by numerous sources and provide a fitting corollary to Gregory's .second oration 'On the Son'. This interpreTaTion is reinforced by the presclllaTion of the individual scenes. As a revdation of Christ's power to overcome death, the raising of T azarus Uohn 1I:1~44} was frequently depicted. lOS The image on f. 196v is unusually simple, showing only Mary (MAPlA) and Martha ([MAP9jA) prostrate at Christ's feet as he commands Lazarus to rise from the dead. Nearly all other examples of this scene include far more detail: even the abbT<::viated account at Old Tokah incorporates a spectator, and most include a group of apostles and friends of J a13rus (fig. 65).106 In {he H omilies, Lazarus, wrapped in graveclothes, stands within a rectangular opening cur into a hillside, and the .selection of such a gravesi te is also uncommon in the ninth-century: contemporary (and later) versions normally substitute a narrow gabled building or a small mausoleum. 107 A final unusual feature of the scene on f. 196v is the siu of Mary and Martha, who in other ninthcentury and Iat~r Byzantine examples are almost invariably presemed as diminu'" ' Th. 'ypi"OD, which d=,i~ [h. daily ,.,vict, o""".,.rd in Con.un';nopl •. has bttn publi,hrd by Mat.,", ([963) who dates its <ompo.>otion W [he lat< ni nth (pou-878) 0' arly ,.nlh 'emury; 0« abo ODB), 1tJl- lt 33· See cop. t he "op.,ion and the ev<;n;ng b:,ion (Maleo. II i t96) i, 6!-6s1, ,he laner oi,;ng 7 charioh 9'9, a pa .. agc abo quotcJ ;n tho go.pcl "'<ounts of ,he enlry into Jcru,.l<m. ..... urimoniis 1.40 Utl: rd. Vogt I ('967a), 158-159. '"J Homily 9.2: rd. Uourdas ( t959), 90: ".n•. Mango (1958). ,65. ,.,. M.teo. II (196J). 6~-65: SC "4. 160. "4. On Rom.no,. who died aftc! 555> $« ODD j, 180]_1808 , .nd on hymnography. ODD 2. 96<>-96. . 101 Stt. c.g .. Scholler I (1971), 181_186. ,0.; Fo,Tok.o.lt. Ep"cin (1,86). 64. figs. " and. for th. Now Church. 79. O,h., .""rupl .. : Rossano. 00"",,,0 Mu •. . f. If (Cavallo U III. [1987 j, ,,0-1>,: Weitzmann 1'977]. pI. '9): C.mbridge. Corpus Ch,i"i CoII.ge. rod .,86. f. U5r (ibid .. pI. 41): Mount Amm. Panmkr:l.tor 6,. f. '9' (Duf,cnn. [19661. 2J. pl. 4; Pdck.mid •• U III. J [19791. fig. 18\); london, BLAdd.'9.'P. f. JIV (Dc, Ne, .... iaD [1970]. 2\. fig. H): Flottnct. Laur.plut.6,'j, f. 19Jv (Vdm.n. [19711, fig. IlI8); ""-,i,.gr. H. f. '921 (Omont In.d.l. pI. ,6). to' Even ,he SIIerll PII",lkllf, whioh omi".11 detail. of ,he KeD. except me mummifird Lu;"u •. pl.eeI him in a .m.li gabled building: ""-,; •. g'.91J. f. 188. (Wc;"mann [1979al. fig. 4111).

'0' en

80

Th~ miniatur~s: internal

""iden""

Fig. 6r R9"I"'O Gosprls. fIr: f>lu;ng offAz.JruJ

8,

Vision ami maning in ninlh-«mul)' Byz.;omium

dve figures. 10& While the hill-tomb and the full -si1.l,'d women appear in earl ier versions such as that in the Ros.sano Gospels (fig. 65) , it ma y nonetheless be significant that both Romanos and Phorios emphasi u: the role of Mary and Martha in the LalaruS episode: each slresses that Chriu performed the miracle itself indicative of his div inity - OUt of mercy and compassion for the twO sisters. 109 Christ's synlpathy with suffering humanity. his d ivinity, and even his powe'r to r.lise the dead arc all evoked by Gregory in the' course of his 5CCond ol";1tion 'On the Son', though not in relation to Lazarus. The image in Paris.gr.SIo, with its emphasis on Mary and Martha, provides a visual parallel to these traits withom relying on Gre'gory's te."<t for its particulariling examples. All four gmpels lI a rr~ te' the next scene, C h rist 's supper in the house ofSimon , here brieRy identified by the inscription 0 ~m NOCTOY C1MONOC ('the supper at Simon's').IIO The episode was invcsted with to nsiderable importante in the ninth cenNry: the f)'pikon of the Grea t Church cited it on five d ifferent occasio ns, and Photios devoted two 5CCtions of his Amphil«hia and twO texrs now preserved as CItena fragm ents to it. lll Photios viewed the occasion as an antiti pation ofChrisr's death and an exemplification of the remission ofsin through C hrist, I 11 both themes that correspond with Gregory's text. Though the' supper a! Simon's house appears in the middle B)'lantine tetraeVOl.ngelia in a form generallysimilarto that on r. 196v, the scene was nO! offen illustrated; only the detail of the woman washing Christ's feet recurs with any frequency. I " On f. 196v, the miniaturist suggests th e' interior of Simon's house by placing a triple portico in the background. Before this, C hrist is seated upright at a semi-elliptical table' shared by four other men, one of whom sits in front of the table in profile. A woman, her v;uc of ointment before her, kneels and dries Christ's fcct with her hair; she is identified as H n OPNH (' the harlot'), but as her ochre robe duplicates that worn by Mary Magdalene in the preceding scene it seems reasonable to assu me that r. 196v follows John's identification of the woman as Mary, in a passage read during the liturgy fo t Palm Sunday. ll~ Christ motions to his
'- In , he flo~nu 'ctr~ngclion , how~. ,ho- " ·Om(n are drpict"'! mo.e o. Ie>:> normal,i,e; ,he eompooi,ion i. O1hcrw~ dj~jm ila. from f. t?",v. I.. Romano<. 'On t.a~«H' n . ",f"'in (SC t I~ . '99--:19); l'ho'ios, 'O n Good Frid ay", ) (cd . u ourd ... [19191 . , 6; ' .... n •. Mango l"n8). 19). " . Mmhc:w 16,6-'j. Mar~ I~: )-9, Luke 7:36-10, John n:t - 8. 111 MltC<l. [('96j). )4- )7, )36-JJ7: II, 64-67. 7l- 79: PGIOI:JI7- 368, J93-)96 (td . Wcs<e rin~ V [19861, 7- 14 . .H-JI); Rcll~ (1917). J!7- JH. Th. Amp1!i!«1!iil i. d i$<:u<scd in , hap", I. ,,, S« ""p. PC lOI :n7-}68: cd . ~'o'<"ri n k V (,,,6). 7-1 4. ,,' Fot the ~lOfcnu ""f"KV:Ingcclion. LaU •. plll, .6.1,. K. 118v, 194" VdJ1'L:ln<hn' ), figs. 106, ,89. fur d>e .. oman wuhing Chris, ', fttt ..,., e.g. ,he KhludO¥ Psalter (f. 84" Sttpkiru. 11977JI 3nd the r. nlOkr:l.lor Poahe. (f. IISr. D ur"," ne ['966], pI. ,8; Prlek.:onid.. ~I "L ['979]. fig. 111). ". M.. ,em II ('96}I, 6. -67. Matthew.nd M1.k 'imply doc.i!>c an unnamt<! wom.n pouring oint me'" on Ch. j,,·, h •• d , .. i\lu"..,ed in Florcnce, [.au •.pJut.6.1j . fr. \Jr. 91f: V.lm.ru (197tl, fip. 109, IH. L"ke d.scribes ,he "".". ;t.S il ' 1'1''''' on f. 196v.• nd calls ,h. wom.n a .innct:..,., ibid. fig .

."'.

Th~

miniafUfOS:

jn!~rnal ~v idenc~

dinnt"r panners, named in John's gospel as Simon, Lazarus and tWO apostles; th e figure in profile with whom Christ appears to cxchange ge5lures may be Judas, who queried the woman's rash wasteofa no int ingoiL As notN earlier, the entry into Jerusalem (Marrhew ZI:l---9 , Mark 11; 1-1 0 , Luke 19;29-38, John 12:12- 15) in the lower regis ter forms a liturgical whole with the scenes above it. Christ's capacity to redeem sin and to reconcile human ity with God, TWO significant themes of Gregory's sermon, were also associated with th e episode by nimh -century authors, Photios, for exam ple, wrote about the entry: ' Blessed is he that cometh to offer himself as a sac ri fice for our sake, to ex piate all our sins. and to reconcile us with the Father. 'l l~ As one of the great eve lHs of th e liturgical yea r, th e ent ry into Jerusale m was depicted fro m an early period. 116 The iconography of the scene v-JTies lirde; rhe v(."fsion o n f. t96v disting uishes itself primarily by the ab5Cnce of th e extra-biblical details common in many ve rsions. 11 7 Christ, accompanied by a cluster of apostles, rides toward the walled ciry of jerusale m, where a group of citizens bearing palm fronds (John 12:13) awaits him; immediately before Christ. a youth spreads a garment on the ground as described in the synoptic gospels. The mOST norable feature of the scene is the inclusiOJl. for th e first time, of a small child tugging at a woman's hand in the far right corner. This detail - perhaps inspired by rhe em phasis on children in the gospel accoums - had a long history in o th er contexts, nearl y all of them. like the entry into jerusalem, represematio ns of processions. The Augustan Ara Pacis rrio.e provides an illustrio us antecedent; a more direct co nncc[ion may be provided by Exod us images, panicularly the crossing of the Red Sea, in which, as Erich Dinkier nored, the 'Frau mit Kind' appeared o n sa rco phagi from the fOUT{h ce ntury. 118 Folio 196v provides one of the c1eare.o;t examples in Paris.gr.510 of an exegetic rarher than an illu.llrative accomp anirnem ro Gregory's sermon. In rhis case, th e exegesis is grouJlded in a mult itud ~ of contempo rary interpretations; indeN. th e composi tio nal grouping had such resonance in its period rhat th e selection of scenes se~ms almost over-det~ rmined . Folio 16sr (21 ) (fig, : ) u Folio [65r prcscms a themati c rather th an a narrative selectio n of sce nes, and thes~ are USN to unders core a particular motifin [he sermon thaT follows. Tht" top registe r pkrures the young Christ among t he doctors in tht" synagogue at j t"rllsalem ; the seco nd illustrates the rempta tion of Christ; and the OOllom presems the multi Humily8 .\: cd. u ourd.. I[9\91. &&. ["m •. M.ngo ([9\8). [60 (.s Homil y &. 6), ," Sec Dink]« ([970). On [h. ,d'fi"n,hip bc:""«n [he <,nlfy .nd ,h. imperi.1 .dvem... ec><emuny - which ;" I believe, offen ove,-emph.,iuJ _ s« MacCormack ( 19 8,) . 64-66: C.ufygio'u. Toppiog (1977)' 1Plo add;,;,," [0 D;nkJ ..,.,,. Schiller II (197'), ,8- .. : Lell ( 1968) .193- 197. I" Dinkier (1970).
I .}

8,

VISion 300 meaning in nimh-«nlury Brumium

plication oflo~ve$ . 119 Though rn~ thiro paragraph of the accompanying $O:rmon, 'On dogma and the inst~lIation of bishops', 110 contains severaJ allusions to the t~mp le al J eru s~lem pictured in the upper twO registers, I!1 Gregory me nt ioned none of the episodes presented; he concentr:ued inste~d on d~finition$ of doctrine ; nd the prOJN:r role of the priest. The tex t in f~ct supplies few n:Hrative details susceptiblc to d irttt ill us trat ion, and the' Mib n Gregory includes only ; pretching scenc an d the dea th ofOz;. , ;lluded to e'ariy in the sermon,I!! The Paris minialUre is. howC'Ver, as!§uredly in iu original lOCH ion, for the text begins on its verso and the scenes pictured exp~nd upon the them e of th e $O: rmon. Christ's di.~ourse wit h the doctors is considercd to mark thc beginning of his ministry, as it W:l$ th c fi rst occ:l5io n on which his kn owledge was made public. Luke 1:41- 49 explains Ihat Mary, Joseph and Jesus went to Jerusal em to celcbrote l'assover; when his p;re nts departed. Jesus ra rried behind. Mary and Joseph noti ced his absence, returned to the city, ;nd after th rtt days 'found him in the temple, sit ting in the midst of th e docto rs'. exp13ini ng the wo rd of God. The episode exemplifies one of the major themes of G regory's sermon , the C Ontf:l5t between tfUe knowledge, given to humanity by God, and the fa lse knowledge professed by 'the imp rovised sages, Ihe self-elec ted theologians who, in placc of the possession of wisdom , are content with Ihe simple d~sire to possess it', IlJ Christ among the doctors purveying true knowledge provides a visual antithesis to th is condemnati on of false wisdom which. hen-Ided by an enlarged and decorated ini,ial , opnts G regory's sermon. Th ree distinct mom ents unfold across th e register from right ro left . On the far right, the young Christ walks aw~ y from two jagged peaks toward the central t... mpl~. H~ re, J~sus sits amidst the doctors; thi s portion of th~ miniature has fl aked badly, but its identification is confirmed by the: inscription on the frome: above: 0 X[Plc ro ]c MECONTON I1IJlA.CKAAON (,Christ among th ~ leachers'). On the left, Muy and Jesus embrace at th eir reun ion while Joseph ([l fl]C HllJ) watches. m The core componentS of th e register appea red early; in the Augustine GosJN:ls (fig. 66), ; product of sixth -century 1t; ly, the young Jesus sirs from;lly between two older doctors while Mary enters from rhe I~fl. ll~ Tho ugh f. 165t preserves the earliest record ed instance of the semi-circular grouping associated with C hriS[ among the: docto rs, the compositional form ula had long signified a forum
'" O mont (' \11\1), 11, pI. XXXV; D. r N . .... .. i. n (961). UlJ-r06. ,. SC "70. J6-BJ . 1>, Stt Mosur in SC 170, 6 1--6j 00" , . '" G,.I».. (1\l4P). pI. XXX.'_l; SC 170. 60 U "-lj.
I1J

SC 170, )6( I;I- }). '''' TO on EZHTOYM[EN CI E isin",ribnl . 110..., ,h.i. head.. ,n CLA 1 h91S), "0. 116: Cambridge. Corp... eh.i..-i conrg<. cod.lI6. f. I1\1V 'IX'' ;nrna"n ('\177). ; pl. 41. Th. Gospel'. omission O fJOKph w> • .ln">O« c....inly d ue .0 ,he li mited >pac< .vailable .... i,hi" ,he confi nnl "lU.!"t of ,h. compo>i, ion, fQT h. 'ppeu, in "illu.lly . 11 or"', U.piclio" s of thi> scene; •. g. Florence, '..aUl.plu,.6 .• ). f. 1 (Velm.n.< 11971], fig. 1 ra.i'.&1.74, f. '1()V a" d iu Sla .o"i~ .ela06v 88), livco ([).,. Ne.",,,i.n ('9.6/71. fig>. 48- 5°).

8,

The mi niawrcs: intern al evidence

I

"

, , • •

~.

Fig. 66 C,mbridff. Corpu, Chrill;

Collq;~.

rod.286. f U9V: Luk. wi,l, ,unn fro m his gos,,1

.,

Vision ~nd ffi<=ling in ninth -century BYl"n,ium for learned discourse; it ultimately derives from semi-circular groupings of philosophers, and was appropriated for Christian use already in the cataoombs. 126 [ts retention here is panicularly appropriate, and serves In stress Christ's rol e as the source of true wisdom. 'While the image is badly damaged, what remains finds a parallel in a related but differem episode painted on the walls of New Tokah in Cappadocia during the se.:ond quarter of rhe ten lh century (fig. 67). m TIle l okah scene immediately follows the presentation in the temple and precedes the calling of John the Baptist (if is thus located precisely where Christ among the donors fits in the narrative structure), and it shows four figures arranged in a semi-circle around Christ. The arrangcm cm, and eve n thc positions, of the figures correspond closely with the image on f. 165r; however, rhe Toka!! Christ is represented not as a child but as middle-aged. Christopher Walter identified the scene as a representation of midPeme.:osl, for which service the gospel reading Oohn 7;'4- 30) begins, 'Now about the midst of the feas t Jesus went up into the temple, and taught.' llS The two gospel accounts of Christ teaching in the temp le have evidemly been conAated at Tokah, but f. 165r and the fresco are nonetheless related; in whatever guise, thc composition was apparently familiar in the capital and is unlikely to be a de novo compilarion by the Homilies miniarurist. l1? Mary and Joseph habitually enter from the left to find Christ in the temple; f. 165r repears this convention, adding only the twist of showing Mary em bracing Jesus. The embrace, described in the apocryphal gospel of Thomas, appears only rarely,uo Its inclusio n here furthers the (right-to-[eft) narrative, emphasizes the emotional relatio nship of mother and son, and, with Christ's approach [0 the temple on the right, frames the central scene in the temple. Christ's first teaching is followed in Ihe second regisler by what lrenaeus called th e triumph of divine pedagogy, the temptation of Christ in the desert.l3I In his Adversus Htlereus- a text now preserved complete only in Latin but available in Gr~k in th e ninth century, when it was read by Photios Ll 2 - Iren aeus (among others) also saw Christ's struggle with Satan as analogous to the struggle of the
Ll6 Hanfm.nn ('9S')' WS - I}}, Ma,h",,~ ('99}). '<>9-"'. ~ .lso the rda ..d mOS>.;c of Mosc. and the Egyprian sag« a, S,a Mari. M.ggiore: KorpI' (,966). "I. 8). m Ep>«in (1986) . 70. figs. 66...07. ''' Wah., ('979). 'S-,6; Eps.cin ('986). 70. 86; M.,.o, II ('96)). lIo-m. I ,hank F.,n.. W.h.r for forth., di<CllMion on ,hi. IOpic. '''' Th. daoon,c cxedr. behind ,he "'''''nl glOup on f. ,61' ('IlIicip...d in ,h. Mo,.. Ilw... ic .. S", M..i. Maggiorc; nOle ,>6 .bovt) dots nOlo how~.,. "ppear n and n,ely ,ecu," in I.... ex.mples. .... which i",«3d ponny Ih. group ",."d on 0 ,yn,h'onon· lik • .em i·circul.. bench: "'" •. g. MOUn! A,ho •. Diony,iou S87. f "I" PeicKanidc, "al. , ('"7l), fig. >1t. '30 nenneck. and Schneemekher 1 ('96,), W6; J... fontoine·o..,wgne ('971), In-1J8. 131 S"in er (1961), 196. m 8ibliollH"kd>« ch op", I), code. 110: ed. Henry Jl ('960), 94-9S' ,rom. Wilson ('994), '10 .

86

The mini:llur~s: intern.l cvid~",e

Fig. 67 Nrw Tukalt: pmrnlillion .. mid-f''''Uto,1

chu rch against heresy. IJJ Such an lInerpre{OItion probably conditio ned the decision to picture (he temptation on f. 16jr, for i! doverails with the accompanying sermon, wherein Gregory posed his definitions of doctrine as oppositions to the great heresy of his own day, Arianism, Beyond this, Chris! as representative of the victorious holy wisdom of the orthodox church joins Christ among the doctors, the source of true knowledge, to form a unified vi~lIal paralkl ro Grcgory',~ condemnation offalse wisdom, The three temptations shown in Paris.gr,510 follow the order of Matthew 4:1_11.134 Satan, standing on a hillock before Christ, challenges him 10 turn stones into bread; following lrenaeus, commentators interpreted tbis tem ptation as pining a preoccupation with material goods against the virtue of being satisfied with divine nourishment. 135 This temptation is not often illustrated, but the
1.» S'einU ('96,). 20j_106. ' J< T hough innocen' of BY-L>n,ium. Squilbc<k ('96617). "S- Ij1. provide. discu..,ion ond 0 ca(~­

loguc of we«",n <nmplc<. 1)< Steiner ('96~). lob. Gregory ",uShl)' p.",lId, ,hi, ""n,imen' SC 170. 56 (l:j--7).

0, ,he hcginning of 'On dogmi:

Vision and meaning in nimh-amury B)l"l.:lmium

'~or"'(:;'f-Il7\<'Zt"VEIO ./ ' r ~I!I""'
6 1 """' ... ttJt.rTU!> I 0

-

.

~

.

. . ..,.... .. .· ~ Ue....,_ . e '-t ... _..-nt ' .. , ::hi .... i"-. u-fU . e
'
0

... . " .. ~ " /. " "Hca&rTOO .... ~..... &.r1:1/1" .b . .r-"CLI

Co

-ro

i CD'

/"\' "V""""'"

" .

,,~' "' -..,- ~ r"'""T ....... ~ {" .... _L, -" 0 15"1UJI I ...

' K~

' .- - ' ...:ron ......,."~' c--n-E:,-/

Fig. 68 Flormu, uurmziana pIUI.6.2J. f 199r: Innpwliom ofChri'l

composition o n f. 165T generally resembles an example in lhe middle Byzantine Florence terraevangdion (fig. 68), save that the later manuscript shows Satan next to, rather than on, the hi II. I J.6 For the second temptation, Satan placed C hrist atop the temple in Jerusalem and, with a mocking quote of Psalm 91:11, urged him to cast himsdf down, a suggestion represented by the devil 's sweeping gesture on f. 165r.137 Christ stands on a squat grey temple, its pinnacle rising high behind him: a thematic connection be(Ween (he young Jesus teaching in the temple and the temptation on top ofil was made by aligning them verticall y. T he second temptation is, however, dis· tinct from that in the Horence tetraevangeHon (fig. 68), which shows Christ and Salan planted firmly on the ground gC5tuting toward a tower, In this case, other BY'_antine examples exist, for Satan's quotation of Psalm 91 assured for the second temptation a place among the miniatures o( the marginal psalters (fig.
' ... L.ur.plu,.6.~J. f. '09', ,hows ,h . ,hrec tcmputinm in a .ingl. <omp<»ition: Vdm aM (1971). fig. 191. In Ihe Sarra Pa"'{/'M ,he ,h",. temptation •• '" .., c<>llap$<d ,hat compari'on with Pori,. gr. STo i, fmil.: Weinm.nn ([97~')' ,6" fig. 398. "'Th. insc,iption _ 0 X IPICTOjC II EIPAZOMENOC EN TO I EPn - is m",ely descrip,i'e.

88

Th~ mini~lures:

infern.1

n'id~nce

- ,.."

Fig. 69 Mount AlmH, PamoJmlfOr 61, f [Jov: umptation ojChrirl

69).13" The psalter illustrations are closely interrelated, and share some features with the image on (, )65r, notably the position of Christ, his location on top of the temple, and [he aClive stance of Satan. The marginal co mpositions are nonetheless far from identical to that in Paris.gr.5Io: Ihe psalter miniaturists placed Christ on fOp of a large temple, omitted the backing tower, and located Satan at the base of the temple rather than beside Christ. Finally, Satan took Chrisl 10 a mountain, and offered him 'the kingdoms of the world, and the glory ofthcm'. On r. J65f, ChriSI sta nds frontally, while Satan, looking back at him, strides and gestures toward a gold caske{ represeming the glory of all kingdoms of [he world. Thc Gregory composition again differs from chat in the {ctracvangclia (fig. 68), but it resembl es a mid-tenth-century wall paint' ''' M"",ow. Hi".Mu •. cod.1t9, 9tv (s.:<p kin~ ['977)), Mount Atho., P~ntokwo, 6,. f. J30Y (Ouff~nn. 1(966). pl. ~o). London . RI . Add.40_7J' , f. '54' (ibid .. pl. 56), London, Bl Add.I9-}P, f. 12JY (0.. N<nes,j.n 11970], fig. !O' J.

r.

8,

Vision aod m~a ning in nimh-a:ntury Byzantium

ing in NewTokah (fig. 70):139 though the fres<o reverses the positions ofSatan and Christ so that Jesus strides away from, whi le looking back at, the devil, the stances of the figures are similar, and bo th images share the sq uat gold casket. The lowest register illustrates the multiplication of loaves and fishes (Matthew 14:1}-21, Mark 6:}1-44, Luke 9:ro--I7, John 6:1-13). In the centre of the symmetrical com position, Chri5t stands frontally, arms outstretched to bless the two fish (Matthew 14:17) held in the draped hands of the flanking apostles. Des pite th e ins<ription - 0 [XPICTO jC EYAO[ffl:jN [TOYC] ri ENT[E AjPTOVC K[AI T jOYC [~ jVO lX6V[AjC (,Chtist blesses the five loaves and the twO fishes') - the miniaturist has not shown Ihe blessing of the bread. Rather, the twelve baskets of bread that tcmainctl after th e meal (Matthew 14:10) float against the deep blue sky, above the multitudes grouped in clumps on either side of ChrisI. Though even the often conservative wall paintings at Old Tokalr (fig. 71) prese nt th e episode as a linear narrative of the type familiar from the tetraevangelia versions of this scene, f. t65f retains the symmetrical composirion which was standard during the pre-iconocl:m period. l40 Those responsibl e for these early represemations - and the designer of f. 16~r - apparemly favoured the static format because they valued the miracle less for irs narrative potential than for its symbolic weight as a eype of eucharist. 1•1r On this interpreration, Romanos' hymn 'On the multiplication of loaves' is a typical informant. ln Like most commemators, Romanos conneCts the miracle with the eucharist; the constam refrain of the hymn is 'Christ, the celestial bread of immortality'. For Romanos, the essence of the miracle is not the procuremem of a meal for the multitudes, but the nourishment of all humanity with words of truth, knowlcdgeofjustice, and spiriwal food. ]43The hieratic composition on f. 165r suggests that a similarly non-narrative interpretation, linking the miracle with the other scenes on the page and with the sense of Gregory's sermon, was envisaged here, The theme of divine nourishmem unites several scmes on th e page. Jesus with the doctors opens the miniature speaking words of onhodox rrurh, the 'spiritual food' of Roman os' hymn. The victorious Christ of the temptation may implicitly contjnu~ th e themc; although the words are not inscribed on {he page, all Byzamines knew Christ's response to Satan: 'Man shall nor live by bread alone, but by every word {hal proc«de{h our of the mouth of God' (Matthew 4:4). The eucharis ti c nourishmem - and the loaves and fishes that symbolically represent it provides a literal equivalent to the divine 'food' dispensed in the uppermost rc:gis'" For (he Florence (eff3e ..... ngdion. see nO!~ (J6 ~bov,; Pari •.g'.74, If. 7' (M,tthew) and 6jr (Mark) in Omont (n .d ,) , pis. 9. 19; forTobh. Epstein ('986). fig. 70 . ,.., ForTohl" Epstein (1986) . figs. ~9-)0; fo, ,he t<1= .. ngdi~. Vdnl~n' (1971).lig. 21 J and Omon' (n.d.), pI.. 16, 18, 70, 71, Ill. 'll . Th~ Khludov P..J(~r . Iso .how. an a'ymmeltical wmpo>i'ion: Mo><ow, Hist. M",.gr"~9, f. JOV; &epki na «(977). '" For commentary .nd examples, Und erwood (1971) .•60, ~6S-.66, I8S- I88. '" SC " 4, It o-I )l. ,., Sccesp. "roph e 9: SC "4.1t8.

The

minialur~s,

imc.naj evidence

Fig_ 70 Nrw Taka!.: third frmptaliM oiCIJriil

9'

Vision and meaning in nimh-century Byzantium

Fig. 71 OM 7;,k,,": mw/rip/i("rioll qflk Jq"WI "nd folm
ter, a connection stressed by the vertical alignment of the young Jesus in Ihe templ e above Christ blessing the fishes. In a sense, the word bc.::omcs flesh as th e viewer's eye travels down the pag~. folio 165r provides a coherent and multivalent commentary on Gregory's sermo n that is literally independent of rhe ten, although il parallels Gregory's concc:rn with th e nourishmem of true knowledge. The miniarure relies on analogy and metaphor; it functions as visua l exegesis, rather than as illustration. The miniaturist ;lCcomplished this by juxtaposing and aligning scenes, and by sdc.::ting particular but apparently familiar iconographical formul ae. The lext of Paris.gf.5 10 is stable in the sense that it is a copy of Gregory's fourthcentury sermons; nonetheless, 10 the extent that th e s.cribe marked passages relevant 10 the audi mce's undemanding of the pictures, it wao; made ro work explicitly with the miniatures. The miniatures also work wi th ,he text: though they would not nist without it, and though their ultimate inspiration rests on their role as
9'

The miniatures: imernal evidence

adjuncts to Gregory's words, the pictures in an important smse have a life of their own, and infuse the words with new resonance. While the sermons provided what we might now call the contro!' The miniatures told their ninth-century audience how 10 read them: they imerpreted the text for the viewer, and showed what could be gleaned from Gregory's words. The paradigmalic examples considered in this chapter demonstrate that, as Ocr Nersessian noted in 1962, the miniatures often complement and supplement Gregory's texr. Bur I th ink that we can now extmd that formula, and question its implication rhat images arc necessarily subservient to words: in Paris.gr.51O, the miniatures arc active creators of meaning. I • •

Thr imuud minialtlrrs
With one exception (f. 3r), the inserted miniatures occupy the verso of the follo so that the pictures face the opening paragraphs of the text they preface, and LO that extent they arc physically coordinated with rhe body of the manuscript. However, these miniatures arc the only ones in Paris.gr.510 that could be moved without disrupting the text, and it is dear that some of them were. Given the often complicated relationship befWeen Gregory's sermons and the picrures that accompany them in Paris.gr.51O, the group as a whole thus presents a special set of problems. j;ortunately, some of rhe inserted miniatures certainly retain their intended loeadons: ( 3r (with the annunciation, visitation, and scenes from the life of Jonah; fig. 6) and f. SlV (Adam and Eve, Mos!':s, and Gregory preaching; fig. 10) accompany sermons that refer to one or more of the scenes portrayed, as do f. }67" (the persecution of the orthodox; fig. 38) and f. 374V Oulian the Apostatc; fig. 39), one of which has been inserted into the problematic quire 47. Two more arc probably al so still wheIC they were intended to be: f. 3lV (fig. 8) prefaces Gregory's funeral oration to his brother Kaisarios with the deaths of [he apostles, 1 4~ while r. 43V (fig. 9), picturing Kaisarios' funeral and thr death of Gregory's siSTer Gorgonia, appropriately linlu The eulogy 10 Kaisario5 with the funeral ora tion to Gorgonia. Folio 30V (passion sequence: fig. 7) originally prefaced the first sermon; it was moved perhaps because its location caused considera ble wear and [ear on the page - to introduce Gregory's third homily, which has lost whatever mioiaTUIC (if any) it ever had. The remaining twO inserted pictures pose more difficult problems. Folio 347V (35) (fig. 35) The three registers on f. 347V comain five sce nes from the life of Samson in the top and middle bands, while Gideon praying joins the martyrdom of Isaiah, sawn in two , in the bottom TieT. T he miniature, painted on an inserted half-leaf with a blank recto, now prefaces Gregory's ' On Heron the philosopher' in the damaged
'" Sttch. pt<r6.

93

Vi,ion and

m~aning

in

nimh-c~nrury

B)'7.:Imium

forty-fourth gaThering. [I is, however, difficult to s~ any relationship between This text and Ihe images on f. 347".146 The sermon focuses on rh e tole of the Christian philosopher, eJ( toHing Hero n as a stellar example, with a number of digressions on fourth-century church history (these chiefly (o ndemn he retical Se(ts) and a lo ng excursus on tht" Holy Spirit. 1~7 Gregory mentions the Nazirites (a group, though Gregory docs nO! tell us this. whose members followed Samson in allowing their hair to grow untrimmed) bur he neith er nam es nor otherwise alludes to Samson: he speaks several rimes of martyrs (in the abstract), but never in a way that might suggest haiah. ' <8 Nor docs the internal logic of the picture corres pond in any obvious way with Gregory's theme. Samson, a well-known type: of Christ, was also occasionally lauded as an early martyr: l " hi s story might thus be linked tangenti ally wilh Isaia h's martyrdom below. Gideon praying for the dew ro fall on his Reect", meanwhile, was habitually interpreted as foreshadowing the Virgin Mary, 1 'iO with whom Isaiah tOO was consistently connected by Christian wriTers. lS I Gideon, the sixth Judge of the Old Testa ment, and Samson, the thirteenth Judge, were also connected in the New Testamenr. ISl Hebrews tt: 3Z-40, in fact, could be read a5 weaving all three proTagonisTs on f. 347V toge tht"r in its listing of heroes of the faith and the suffering they mdured.I Sl Verse 31 reads: 'And whaT shall I more say? fOfthe tim e would fai l me to tell of Gideon, and Barak, an d Samson, and Jephthae: David also, and Samuel, and the prophets', Ve rse 37 returnS to Isaiah: ' They were stoned, th ey were sawn asunder . .. ' . 1~4 Gregory docs not cite this sectio n of Hebrews, but as he coJlStantl y extols Hero n it could be that the illustration supplied a catalogue of Old Testament herot"s to complt"ment Gregory's subj e<:\ by providing bibl ical parallels. Such a connection, however, seems tenuous , and given the disruption of the quire as a wholt" I suspect that f. 347V no longe r retains its otiginallocation. 1 \~ Of tht" eight sermons now lacking illustration, o nly one suggests a plausible affiniry with f. 347V. In 'On Athanasios', Gregory paints a sympatht"tic portrait of the bdeaguered bishop. I\{; H e compares Athanasios' suffe rin gs with those of C hrisr, and. in a paf<1graph introduced with a gold initial, explicitly con nec ts him
O ther ... peets off. )47'" willl>c con. ider<:<! in chap,. " 4. 6 and 8. '" SC 284. 156-205. On Ih. Nuirit •• . SC 184. ,\8 and no ' _ 1; ,hi...,,;on of ,h . ,ext, along wi,h .ny m .. kin~ [h .. might Ona h.v. aided in the miniature', inlcrpret.,ion, i,lo>l from P..i,.gr.51O. Grq;ory .. fe .. to m.ny" ,hroughout , h, .. rmon. ,., s.., W. A. Bul". ,.v. ·Sam,on· . LeI i (1971). JO>--J8. '10 E.g. John of Damascus, 'Ag.>inSllho>c who ><I.ck di,..in. image>' !II, H: .d. Kotl.r (1975). 1>9: tr. m. And."on ('9S0), n. Pho,io •• Ho mily M: .d. I.aoUld ... ('959), 59: ,rails. Mongo (1958). 119. The text dC$C'i bing ,h" ~e nt 'Pf'Ca" in ,he Iyp ikon of the Grea, C" urch as 0 ,e.ding fo, Epi phany. • Iso One of ,h. p'incipal day, ofbap,i,m in ,h. orthodox rite: Matcos I (196j). 178. 'j' Sec H. Hilll ander. •. v. ·I>.ia." , LU 1 ('970), 354- 319. ' )' And by G'''gOlY him,IClfin hi, owion 'Again" Jul i.n': PG )S:5iS R. ' '1 So Bul" (ntH. [49 .b,,·,.). ;5. 'M Oil ,h. un;v.,,,,las,oc;., ion of , hi. pas.age wi,h !..iah. sec Bctnh.im .. (J9P) . 31- 33. ") Sec Apf'Cndix C. ,,. SC '70. "0>--'9J. PhOlio •. f""tld Athanasi,,; not<,.,..,rthy: sec his .. mark. on the vita, "odex 158 in [h. Bib/iotl"I" (sec ch'p,e, S) : .d. Hen'y V!II (19n). J1>-40, tran •. W il$o n (1994), ')'-144·

1<'

, <6

Ii",

'IX).

"'I'.

The miniatu ..... : internal evi d~n~ with Samson and likens th ~ trials of his church to the cutting of Samson's hair. 157 Following this lead, the history of Samson may originally have provided a visual biblical anritype for the sainr. 15R The marryrdom of Isaiah might also play 10 this theme, but as Athan:lSios was well known for hi s 'On the Incarnation', it is also possi ble that Isaiah, and the episode of Gideon and the Reece ~ both exegetically associated with the Virgin - pay tacit homage 10 the bishop's famed text. 'On Athanasios' begins on f. 319V; f. 319r remains blank. The same si tuatio n prevailed wheTe f. 347V now sits: a blank side (f. 346v) preceded the opening of'On Heron'. The blank page before ' On Athanasios' appears in q uire forry-one; the next instance of a blank page was that preceding 'On Heron'. It seems plausible that during one of the manuscrip t's later reb indings the inserted leaf carrying the Samson miniature was relocated by someone who remembered that the miniature had originally accompanied a sermon prefaced by a blank page, bl![ missed the correct location byone slot. Folio 4}SV (43) (fig, 43) On f. 43)v, Danid in the lions' den, th e Hebrews in the furnace, the prayer of Man:lSSCS, and Isaiah with H e""lCkiah are arranged in a regular grid, 159 Non e appears in the accompanying It-tter to Evagrios, l60 and no typological or exegetical link 61 between th e letter and f. 435V is readily apparent. 1 An inserted leaf with a blank roxto that now appears in a disturbed gathering, f. 43'!V may well no longer be in its intmded location. Bur it is difficult 10 see what olher teXI it might have been meant 10 illustrate. Elsewhere. Gregory mentions each of rhe episodes pictured, but never all four together and always in a sermon that retains its ilJusrracion. 161 Nor do any of the sermons currently without illustration offer an obviously appropriate hom e for the four scenes. More than for any other miniature in the manuscript, the text~ image connection heTC remains opaque.

fORMAl. CON5 1UEI<.A"1"IONS

The stylc of the miniatur~5 ofParis.gr,,!1O is not homogeneous. Min iature; display different ways of composing a page, of creating figures and thc objects that are, in
'" SC 170, '71. ,64. '''' The Milan Gregory and rh~ l;,urgical Homil i", preface ,he "'rmo n with a port ... it of Athan ... i",: Gral>o.r (,9430), pI. XXVII: Gala",ri, (1 969). 1) - 17 · 1>. Orher ... peets of f. 435V will be con. idcrcd in chapter 8. ,60 PC 46:1I0I-no8 . ,6' So'oo W~irtm.nn ('947). '49 and Ocr Ncrswian ('96.). 218-219. The Mibn Grcgury .how. G'~ory handing ,h~ 1~Ir~r 10 a <ouri~r. G ... l>o.r( 1943'), pI. LXXVlIl.l. I Habakkuk bringing food Da nid and Hc«kiah', rcp<ntanc< app<1r in Gregoty'. fun~ ... l ora,ion 10 hi, f>lh~r (PC W,ol,B, ' 014'\), illu" ... ,<:d on f. S7v: he cite. ho.h Daniel in . hc lioni dcn and the H~br~w. in th~ furnace i n hi, fune .. l or:... io n to B",illhc Groal (PC J6'596C), illu" ... tcd on f. 104'; and he ,de," to Ihc conr.: ... ion of M.n1SSC. in hi. ""mon to Ihe .u-<ollccror Julian (PC Jj:!051B), illu,"ated on f. 1J7'.

,0

Vision and m~~ning in ninth-century Byz':lfltium

the Homilies, always supplementary to them, and of arranging those figures and objects in relationship to one another. This formal complexity makes it difficult to supply any coherent descriprion, let alone analysis, of th e miniatures taken as a whole, but the established date and Conslall!inopolitan origin ofParis.gr.5Io have more or less compelled its inclusion in studies of Byzantine pictorial style. In 1839, Gustav Waagen produced the first detailed formal analysis of the manuscript. '63 He divided the miniatures into two groups, one influenced by classical forms, the othe r less fluent but sometimes more accurate in irs details. Waagen amibuted the differences to the individual styles of two painters. In his description of the painted manuscripts in the Bibliocheque Nationale published nearly fifty years later. Hen ri Bordier sim ply summarized Waagen's remarks, as did others in different contexts. 1M In 1891, however, Nikodim Kondakoff reacted strongly against Waagen, and argued thaI the Homilies miniatures were stagnant; he suggested that th ey were painted by min ia turists incapable of new creations, and explained any 'antique' qualiti es the miniaturistS managed to achieve as details grafted on to old traditional forms. 16s Kondakoff continued to divide the Gregory miniatures into twO groups, but while Waagen segregated the classicizing images from th e unclassical ones, Kondakoff drew the line between sac red images and 'vulgar' picturesque images: he perpetuated th e two-tiered opposi tional classification, but shifted Ihe taxonomic basis from classicism 10 subject matter. In 1911, John Herbert merged KondakofFs an d Waagen's approaches: in his assessment, the bes t of the miniatures adopted Waagen's classical style; the worst exhibited an archaic style - Herbert's English transformarion of KondakofFs 'vulga r' genre - 'lacking all ~nsc of dignity'.'66 H erbert added to these, however, yet a th ird scyle, rh e 'decorative', to which he assign ~d th e imperial portraits. In France nine years later, Gabri el M illet mad e the first altem pt to d~scribe th e chara cteristic features of th ~ miniatures as a whole, which he defined as si mplified compositions, admitting few acc~ssory derails, wi th large-headed figures all on a single plane. 167 The twenties ended, however, with Charl~s Rufus Morey revening to the bifurcated classification scheme, though the two strains now bore the appellations 'Alexandrian' and 'Asiatic' . 1611 In J93~, Kurt Weinmann produced an asscssmem of Ihc earlier sources and la ter

Vogt (r908), 411 n Ot~ L; and .:ompu~ Schou.. (,869), 4L-14). Sc hn~' .. accente<! Waagen', appreciation ror the E..,~ id pag~ by including it .. h i. on ly ilJumaJion . ,hu. ini,;.,ing an emph..,i, on f. 4J8v that h.. con,inued un.b.,ed: K(: e.g.1ikhncn (1933), 89, who ,ingloo out the page .nd 0PJ'O"'d its 'pseudo-illu,ion i, m' to the '..,lidly mooi",,!" ch.ractet of most of the remaining mi ni.ture>. !OJ Kond~koff II (,89 1), 5ko. Paradoxically, the .~rI;<r m.nuscript> that Kondakoff held up •• ... rling example< of 011 ,h. quali'ia he fclt r .rj.,gqIO lacked (for exampk, ,he Vienna Cenaisl are pr.d.cly thos<: with which holow ('96!), '74-276, la'er adduced os dose pa.. llcl. wi,h ,he P.r;. G,.gury. ".. Hcrhcrt ('?TI) . 40-41 . " I Mille, ('920) . '41-14). 'os Morey ('919), 9<>--97.

I., W.~g~n (,SJ9) , ~o:t-!, s.
I~ Bordi~r (1~8 s), 64:

,6

The

m;n;a{ur~" ;nt~ rn31

evidence

followers of Paris.gr.ilO that considered neither bifu rcation nor quality, but dealt morpho logically with specific formal features of the miniatures. 1M In his 1936 review ofWeirzmann's work, however, Ernst Kj rzinger revived the interest in 'hellenistic' elements, and noted that the Homilies was not 'a fitst-class specimen of this tradition'; he concluded that it was 'doubtful whether the Paris Gregory rep resents Byzantine nimh-century art in irs best form' .170 Hugo Buchthal, in 1938, conce ntrated on the transitio nal nature ofParis.gr.5Io; in [962 , Anatole Fmlow focused on the classicizing demems. but linked the 'rohust humanism' and 'second hellenism' to Aristotelian theories of mimesis that, he argued, resurfaced during Iconoclasm. 171 Recent scholars hip has looked at Paris.gr.iIO within the con text of the nimh century, and has tended to homogeni1.c its style: characteristic formal features have been identified in order more easily to compare and contrast the miniatures with other ninth-century paintings. Gary Vikan, for example, noted in 1973 that 'even the least accomplished miniaTUres of the Gregory codex show illusionistic tonal drapery modeling', and went on to comrast Paris.gr.sIO with a group of manuscriptS characteri7.cd by drapery conceived in a more linear fashion., n In COntrast, Robin Cormack defined the Gregory miniatures as portraying 'stifflinear figures', and characterized the pictures as 'bold, linear, and flat '. In In the 1980s, the Gregory miniatures continued to be rdied on for comparative purposes, and treated in a fairly monolithic fashion, but a new fearure - the gestures of the figures - received emphasis. In addition, Annabel Wharton (the n publishing as Epstein) poinrcd 10 the lack of interest in spatial depth, and the contrast berween moddled flesh and 'gcomerricil.ed' drapery;1i4 while Anthony Curler noted the promincnce of 'isocephalic' groups, and suggested that Paris.gr.sIO represented 'what might be (;t iled the DemonstraTivc Style of [he late ninth century, in which motion and gesture serve to present complex narratives or single figures in an eminently legible, didactic manner'.17~ Thar some of th~ interpretations summarir.ed contradiCl each other illuminates the subjectiv(- nature of formal analysis; as important, their diversity suggests the inherent prohlems of defining the style of Paris.gr.slO. The heterogeneous style of the manuscript does not lend itself easily TO generalization, whil ~ attempts to isolate hands, or typologically 10 classifY the individual miniatures, often tacitly assum ~ that personal expression was valuable to rhe Byzantines, which is not neces,.. W~i ..' mann (r9JS I. l-~. 11" R~vi.w ofW.irzm.nn (r9}1) in Joum~16fH~ff,nic Sludi~ 56 (936). , r8-119. ", BuchrhaJ (r9381. 7); Frolow (196:), 176-177, was inAucnc.d by Lemerle (1943). 96. 98. ", Vi"n (r973), r6, 14. cr. Weirzrnann ('979') , ,86, who . uggc>tcd , h.. the Gregory mi,,;.rureo nhibired gr~'ler ·.. i£t<><ral;C r.. lra inr" rhan those of ,he ."",,,,, Pa",I/,Ll. ", Cmm ack (r977b). 'll: Cormack. 'Byunrine An, ~4 r-14U', in J. SlTarer. cd .. Die/j""",] lIf/l" !djMw Ag~ l (r98 JI. ~40. ". Ep>!ein (1986) . 40. 17\ Curlc<and Oikonomid .. (t988) , 8\.

97

Vision and me:ming in nimh·cemury Byzamium

sarily a productive assumpdon. r have attempTed (0 circumnaviga te these problems by using a somewhat different approach, and will consider the style of Pa ris. gr.~JO from th e outside in: from th e relationship between th e miniatures and th e other text decoration, 10 the pages as a whole. and finally to patterns that criss-cross the vanous mlllJatutes. Com parison of the miniaturcs with the decora tion in the manuscr ipt - headpieces and painted. initials - reveals a sha rp division of labour. A5 we saw in the InTroductio n, the scribe(sl did none of the pai nting; a g roup ofilluminatofS, composed. of at least three people, created the initials and headpieces; and another different group paimed th e minia tures. Modern Aak ing allows us to see clearly that this group began by blocking out the scenes and then painting the frame: the borders stop to accommodate large dements of the composition that overlap the frame, which must have been planned fro m the OUtset; the miniaturists, however, evidently expanded many of their compositions as they worked, and smaller protrusions were paimed ove r th e al ready gilded fram es. It is possible that the illuminators we re called in to decorate the mo st elaborate of [he T fram es en (ha T are paimed rather (han gilded (ff. Av, 30V, 71V, 78t, 104r, 149r, 285 r, 30Ir, 351r, 438v; figs. I, 13, 15, 17, 20, 29, 30, 36, 44), most of which portray Gregory or fourth -century figures associate<.! with him. T here is, howeve r, no evidence th at rhe miniaturists themselves subd iv ide<.! thei r task along specialized lines. Each miniature is internally coherent, and nothing suggests that backgrounds, faces, and drapery were the responsibility of differem painters; nor is there evide nce that particular types of subject matter were selected by or assigm:d to particular artisans,

CompOiition as d

b~a"r ofm~aning

A5 the tepeated figural groupings and significa nt vertical alignments off. I37r intimated, the suuc[ure of the page is a crucial component of Paris.gr.5IO. T he siZe, loca tion , and disposition of figures and objects were habitually manipulated in order TO make visual points. The care raken over [he composition of (he page as a whole is one of the most striking characteristi cs of the Paris Homilies, and rloveals the coo rdina tion of process, form , and content. 176 Folio 3f (6) (fig. 6) A5 Paris.gr.510 is currently bound, f. 3r is the first narrative miniature of rhe manuscri pt . Painted on a hal f- leafinsertcd into the first regular gathering, and with a blan k verso, the miniature of the annunciation and visitation above a seque nce of Jonah
,,' We might see a fai nl anl icip.tion of {hi , emph .. i. in , he maTg;n al p'.lr.... where figur •• are of,en :lrr1l\g<tl in oppo.i,ional pai ,,: Corrigan (1992), JJ 1- " J.

"

·rn~ miniatl1r~: im~rnal ""id~nc~

scenes177 is nonetheless certainly in its intended location. The homily it accompanies, 'In defmce of his flight to Pontos', delivered at Gregory's reap pearance before his congregation alter a Icrnporaryescape to POntOS, rcfers both to the incarnation of Christ and to Jonah, whose flight from Joppa and subsequent rerurn ro Nineveh inspired Gtegory 10 accept his responsibility to the church and come home: 178 the relevant passagesare marked by decorated in itials. Nei ther the Marian .scenes no r the Jonah narrative appears, however, among the TWelve miniatures to this sermon in the Milan Gregory, where only a portrait of the prophet carrying a scroll ill ustrates the paragraphs on Jonah. I ]') As Ocr Nersessian observed, the decision to respond visually to these particular passages in Paris.gr. SIO was apparen rly motivated bya desi re 10 illustraTe Gregory's overriding cherne ofhesi ration or denial followed by acceptance. Gregory provided the Jonah analogy, but did not mention Mary's hesitation befo re Gabriel. This was, however, a fam iliar theme in ninth-cenTury sermons: PhOlios, fOf example, has Ma ry respond" am troub led ... rhe messenger's rank and manner, and his see ml y aspect indicate that the message comes from God. His wo rds, however, which give the impression of being those of a suilOr, prompt me 10 refuse assent.'I80 After a lengthy examination of this problem, in the courSl: of which Gabriel tells Ma ry that Elizaberh has 'conceived a son in her old ~ge: and rhis is the sixth month with her, who was called barren: fo r with God nothing shall be impossible', lsl Photios finally allows Mary w consem, saying 'Be iT umo me according to thy word.'1 82 Folio 3r thus pictures scenes analogous 10 or drawn directly from the ideas expresscdin thesnmon, selected IOconfor m with its essential theffieas it Was under51"00d in the ninth century. Even within the Jonah scqu~n ce, howev~r, no n~ of th~ ~pi ~odes shown is explicid y described in the sermon. 183 The Jonah narrati ve is apparendy rhe densest e~rl y Christi~n or Byzantine exampl~ enaorj l8-i its circular composition is unprecedented and excep t ion al, 1 8~
Mili". (1897), 7<r81; Omonr (19)9), 13, pi XX; Weittn.. nn (19'9). 18 S: Bu~hthal ([938). 40--4" Nordslrom (195\1\7). SOS; Der N~r .."i.n (196,), >1'; N"ki" (1979) . 64- 6j, 69 · A later hand h"" 'tan· ",ribed [he inscrip'io,," in d., margin•. 171 SC 41. 84->4' (NPNF. >04- 117). For Ch ri,t, .. ~ "'p. par>graph. '4 and 36: for Jonah, pa,.· &,aph' 106 10 109: SC '47 . 120-IIl. [14- 136. " 4-130 (ef. p"'g"ph. 7, IS, 38. 98). L Gub., (1943'). ph. 11_ Yd. rhe 1 , of which reproJuc"" Jon.h; [he [exl accompanying 1'1. V.I 7"I .. . houkl re.d PG Jj:4,0--, j; mi ni.. urc. u n Pl'. H. 4J, and S7 hove bc"n .. ci~. The limrgi""-] .di[;on omi" th i..c.mon. ,.. Homily j.J: ..d. Laourd.. (19S9). Ss: .ta n,. M.ngo ([9\8) . li S. LII Homily S.I' cd. Laoo,d .. (1919) . 60; ".n •. M.ngo (1918). no. '" Hom ily \.6 : N. u ourd.. (1959). 60: IT.n •. ,I .hngo (19\8). 110. ' OJ On rhe iconography of rho . nnunci.,iol1 .n d rhe vi, i,,,;ol1. $C' d" p,er 8. Il< For , h••",ensiv< bibliogrophy on Jon.h iconography. S« N.. ki" (1979) . "'I'. 71-]1 not •• >-1'. '" V.gu •• m.«denu m.)" ~rh.ps be $Cen in ,h~ ..di.lly pl aced m..d,lIion, cnc..ing Jon.h scene< on ,h. ccil ing< of. few catacomb, which ,h. Homil i., p. in l., S«m' u nl ikely [0 h.v. kn own, or in ce".in mini .m,... of [he Vienna Gen ..i" ,uch ... [he pictu re of R.bea: •• nd Eli,.er ,hat prog'esses .Iong. h.lf·ov.] groundl;n. (conven iem ly rcproJuc«.l in W.itzm.nn [1977), 1'1. 4). W.it,m.n n ('919) .~cul ",ro Iha, f. 3' '.p",,,,nts a uniqu~ ph.... in ,he developmenl froOl column or >!rip pict"'" 1() fllll· p'g' mini.lUr.. : [doubl , hi •.
In

Visioll and

m~allillg

ill ninth-century B)7.an(ium

and is not repeated in the manuscript. The sequence begins in the upper left corner with Jonah lcavingJoppa, shown as a walJed city, for the shore, where he intends to board a ship .<.ailing for 1arsis. l86 Sailors. approximately half the size of Jonah but still toO large for the city gateS of)oppa, struggle to unfurl the sails of the embarking ship Uonah !:!-3). A boat in full sail, slightly above the boat in !">OTt at Joppa, is manned by four sailors who appear to watch in some dismay as Jonah dives overboard toward the Rickering tail of a sea-monster Uonah 1:1'j). The arched body of the monster disappears into the frame; its torso must Ix: imagined to complete the curve to reappear in the lower right corner, disgorging a fully dothed Jonah with his arms raised Uonah 2:11). The lower left quadrant pictures Nineveh (flO[AIC] NINEY!): citizens peer from windows within the walls as their king bares his chest in grief and repentance at the words of Jonah. who stands between him and the shore (Jonah p-61. Between Nineveh and Joppa, the slt""Cping figure of Jonah, compressed into a near-sitting position, rests his head on his left wrist (Jonah 4:'j-6?) ; his position recalls the sleeping Constantine on f. 440r (fig. 45), rotated so that Jonah's axis is al most vertical. T hough these scenes all individuall y appeared earlier, rhe details do nOl coincide. \~7 Jonah is lUually bearded; he is a beardless yo uth on f. 3r. Jonah and the sailors are normally nude; all arc clothed in the Homilies. The impact of Jewish texts has been seen in early Christian cycles; [here is none he~. Nor does the sequence correspond with the ninth-century miniatures in the Sacra Panlllda, the Vatican 'Christian Topography', or the marginal psahers. \88 On rhe OIher hand, later miniatu~s illustrating Jonah's Ode in the Paris and Vatopedi Psaltets arc clearly related to Paris.gr.'jlo. \89The mid-tenth-century Paris Psalter (fig. 7l) shows a Jonah preaching to the Ninevites who is almost identical to the Homilies Jonah embarking; the city itself, with its inhabitants peering from behind the walls, ~calJs the Nineveh of f. 3r. The miniatures share the configuration of jonah emerging from the sea-mOnSter, the boat from which the sailors hurl Jonah, and the clothed prophet. The twelfth-century Vatopedi Psalur (fig. 74) follows f. 3t in its depiction of the kin g of Nineveh, though, a5 the later miniaturist ignored the chcst-baring of the Gregory image, the killg's hands hover ineffectually. In a second Jonah image, the Vatoped' miniarurist included four figures in the boat from which Jo nah is thrown overboard (fig. 73) , as in Paris.gr.'j1O but not the Paris Psalter; here too Jonah reclines beneath the gOllrd. The Jo nah
JON AC I1oEyrON EIC TAl'CJC ('Jon~h go.. to Torsi, ). .., 5« further Narki.oo (1979). '" 1',.i,.gr.91j. fr. Ijr. 19V (Weit>.mann ['~79 '[ . fig.. 316-,'7): V... gr.699. f. 69' (S<omajolo [19081 , 1'1. j1): Moscow. Hi".Mu.<.gr.129. f. 117' (~~pkin. ['9771); Moum A,hos, r.n<okmor 6t, f. lt7V (Oufrenn~ [\966], 1'1. Jl: PdchnidC$ "ill 1 ['979[, fig. 1,6). ''' I'..i'.gr.I19, f. 4}'V .nd Moun, Atho" Vatopcdi 760. If.•82•.•831: Buch,ha! (J9J8) , fig'. 11. So. Rt; Cutle r ('984) fig •. 1\6. J89. )90: Christou (fill 4 (1981). 201 - 20 ' .
I~ T n.\Crihcd

' 00

Th~ mini~!lIres: intunal .vidence

'"

Vi,ion and

m~aning

in ninth-century Byuntium

Fig. 73 Muunt Alhos. VafOjVdi 760. f 282V: ,rmN from tN tift a/Jonah

'0'

Th~ mjnjall1f~S: inr~rnal

evidence

Fig. 74 Muu", Alm." \'alopdi 76u, f 2Sjr: leniN from Ih~ lift ofJu""h

.oj

Vision ""d mnning in ninth.qnUl ry Byuntium

s.:;enes in the three manusai pts are dosely related, and quite distinct from earlier examp les. Each psalter sequen.:;e finds paralle!so n f. 3f that do not recur in the other, but we <:annot assume that the psalter miniaturists independently and exdusive!y .:;onsuited the H omilies wmposition, for the psalters share details not found on f. 3r, notably the location of the prea.:;hingJonah and rhe indusio n of two sea-monsters, and neither replkates the drw lar wffiposition. It seems most plausible that all three miniaturists presented versions of some now-losTsequence, though the miniaturist of the Paris Psalter seems to have studied [}r as wdl. l!)(l Similarities between [ }r and the psalters imply that the scenes of Jonah thrown overboard, his propulsion from the monster, his preaching to th e Ninevites and hi s repose under the gourd appeared together in some form fami liar to all three mini JWrlSts. IfJonah's flight from Joppa was induded, it has left no Hace in the psalters: the Homilies miniaturist (or the designer of the page) o bviously und erstood the importance of the episode to Gregory's analogy and, what ever the vi sual inspiration. induded it. Aside from the tucking of the redin ingJonah behind and above the walls of Nineveh (a detail that re<;urs in the Varopedi Psalter, whi.:;h apparently prese rves the le-JSt edited version of th e composition familiar to th e three miniaturists), the formal of the putative source seems also to have been radically modified on [ Jr: the circul ar com position, as noted earl ie r, is unique. One effect of this change may be see n in the omission of the sea-mo nster about to swallow Jonah: while precedents for such telescoping of the narrative exist, the indusion of two monstets in both psalters suggests that tWO appeared in th e version that all three miniaturists independently knew. Mo re curions is the displacement of Jonah preaching to the Ninevites from the left of the city to the right. The miniaturist off 3r did nOI reverse Jonah's body- he turns, as he does in both psalters, to address the Nin evites on the right- bu t as the Ninevites are on the left in the reviscd com position thai appea rs on f. 3[, the painter portrayed Jonah looking back over hi s shou lder at the .:;ity and his audi ence. The composition of f. 3r emphasizes and ce ntr;J,li7-Cs rhe two episodes most crucial to the rheme of Gregory's homily: Jo nah's Right from Joppa and his return to Nineveh, antitypes adducrd by Gregory for his own flight and return. Jo nah does not rise alone along the central axis of the miniatur~ : the Virgin annunciate stands direc tly above Jonah as he flees Joppa. The miniaturist has aligned the three figures most rdevant to th e main oppos itio ns devdopoo in the sermon - hesitation and con s~nt, flight and r~ turn - to high light their imporlance as analogies to G regory's
,,., Though th~ V.to~i sequence i. ico nog .... phically dOKr 10 P.,is.gqlO. fo rmal d.tail. in th. p..I,rr """I>oora .. loli Kal.vrcmu'. ob.ervatio n i" illum. tor .lUdi.d, and ootrowed motif. flOm, the Pari. Gregory itself: Th. Pari. ~.her', p,... nle<l . 1 ,h. Eigh'h Annual BY"'ntin. Studies Conf."nc. (Chicago, 1982); h.. Study of the m. nu«ript i • • waited .

,I."

The mi nia[ul"n: imernai evidence In Ihe Jonah sequence, r~ r smaller figures enact the monster and sleep episodes, which, ahhough Ihey had been the moS! frequcmly rep rescnled scenes in the past and wc:re apparently included in a readily available source, were tess imporlant in this framework. T he eireular composition ~ nabled the illustr.llor to centralize and focus on Ihe twO scenes rnose imponant in the comexl of the Homilies while retaining the expected narrative episodes; and it was the desire to single OUI Jonah·s Right and re[Urn fo r special emphasis tha t evidemly occasioned Jonah's placemem 10 Ihe right of Nino:vch and led 10 his peculiar twisting form. I would argue, tOO, ,hat the desirc to align the Ihrce crucial scenes vcnicallyon f. j r inspi red ,he development of the circular Jonah composition. Folio 414v (4·[) (fig. 4[) In three registers, f. ,P4V illumll1es the fall of Jericho, the defC3t of Ihe Amalekites, and Gregory writing. 1~1 The miniatu re relai ns its original location: Ihe preceding homily tnds on its recto and, though [he scenes are no t reIXated in the Milan Homilies, I~J the illust r.llOr nonetheless drew dirt1:dy on the accompanying !eXt. T his sermon, 'On the consecration lof Eulalios a.~ bishop] of Douris', exalts the faith of the prieslhood. 19i ln a series of passages, each marked with an enlarged gold initial or wit h obowi, Gregory argued th aI though [he struggle may be difficult, faith overcomes all adversaries: 'Armed wilh the shidd offaith, we shall que nch the fi re of the wicked.' 1~5 The fall of Jericho and the defeat of the Amaldcires represem the powt r of faith over 'the wicked', and Gregory refers to each mort spt1:ific:.Jly: Through Ihe calm stretching OUI of his hands he defeats the Amalekites. Whal many thousands of hands could nOI do, is done 10 the city through t he pr. . yc rs of the r:.Iised hands of the priests. Without struggle or attack, he demolishes fon ified walls.'l% Gregory carefully selected his examples of Old lcst . . menr figures who were vic torious through the inte rventio n of God: he cited Moses (who dcfc31cd the Amal ~ kil cs), Joshua (who captured Jericho) and David, all of whom were habitually interpreted . . s antit ypes of C hri st.I~' The episodes adduced by Gregory and pictured on f. 414V reinforced the chri5tological interpretation: the battle ror Jericho prefigured the spiritual Struggle of Christians, and Ihecity·s faU represented Ihe final victory of Chri!!; the victory over the Amalekites sign ified C hrist's victory over S. . tan.
silu~lion. ",

"I

I" Jo....... u an

an,i~

of Ckri, . (cf.

M~uhf""

1::3\1"""41) p..,...ida.

anOl~t po'~n !ial

kvd of

mun;", 10 rk i, aJillnm~nl_ 10/ Om,>", (1919). 29-30. pI. LV: \1('c illmann (1947). '97' 0." NCIYMian (' 96').•14. 'U. ,,, 1-1 ••• two pr<:"king oeen« 'uffic~: Cfabaf ( ' 94 3~). 1'1. LXXVI!. I_ I. , .. f'G 3j:8j l-8j6. ," Ibid ., 8J6C; P"u.gl jlO. f. 416 •. ,,. JbKl .. SjJ S , Ih. lm two oen!<ne..,. •• f.. 10 rhe f. 1I uf J. r;.;ho: occ ibid ., 814 not. 14. 10' $(e e.lI. O.niClou ([9J6). 9J-96 . [Ol-IOj. ' .. Se. O.ni<'lou (19JO), [i l- '48 . '09. 146- 'J6.

00,

Vision and

m~aning

in

nimh - ,~mury

Byzantium

°

The fall of Jericho has been placed at the top of f. 4l4V, above and before the viCTOry ovu the Amalekites thaI preceded it both ch ronologically and in the narradve of Gregory's sermon. 19"9 This arrangement undersco res Ihe sce ne's significance as a visualization of the imperi~l ideology of victory; but the important ~sp«t here is th at the st ructure of the page itselfis used 10 make the point. Though in a slightly different way from Ihe Jonah cycle, placement o n the page nonetheless con veys meaning on f. .P4V [00. The fa ll of Jericho provides one of th e rare sym m etrical (or vi nu~lly ~ymmerri­ cal) narrative compositions ofParis.gr.51O. in the compa ny ofIsaiah's vision (f. 67v; fig. II), the transfiguration (f. 7S t; fig. 14.)' the mul tipl icalion of loaves and fishes (f. 165r; fig. 21), Pentecost (f. 301T; fig. jO), th e ecumenical Council of 3S1 (f. 355r; fig. ,6) , the communion of the apostles (f. 416v; fig. 4!), and the Hebrews in the furnace (f. 4}5V; fig. 43). No nc of these .>eenes is exactly mirrored, side to side, but ~11 have a strong middle axis with rough ly equal flanks, and the overriding impressio n in each case is of a focused and ce ntrali~d composition. Wh at they all sha re , toO, is ~ scene in which it was importa nt to signal th e presence of the divine. On f. 424v, the sym metrical com posi tion indicates rhat God is on the side of Joshua and has given him a divinel y approved victory: the image here is one of the few Byt.amine examples to show the city falling without human interve ntion.2°O As in the Jonah sequence, composit io n reinforces mean ing. The author portrait of Gregory in the third register was not derived from the descriptive passages of th e homily texc. Its inclusion was probably m eant to suggesr Gregory as the embodimem of rhe fuilh of the pries thood. In a sense, the portrait cominues the chri srological theme of th e upper registers, since the prieM is C hrist's re presentativ~ on earth. Even were Gregory not the author of the sermon, the portra it would be particularly fitting in this COnteXT, for his medieval epithet 'the theologian' - shared o nl y with John the evangdist - singled him O UT as the paradigmatic example of a priest able to transmit his undemanding of th e fa ith with clarity.201 This is precisely what we see him doing: identified by inscription as A[ rJ OC] rP H r OPIOC 0EOAO r OC (,St Gregory rhe theologian'), he sits in a high-backed chair ours ide a church and writes in a book suppon:ed on a lectern; behind him, a pedestal holds his inkpot. Curiously, though nearly every se rmon in the Milan H om il ies is accompanied byar leas t one mini ature of Gregory displaying his words on an unfurled scroll, (he M ilan mini aturist never showed Gregory writing. Such portraits appea r, howeve r, in a num ber of co pies of the liturgical

°

,'" O n the iconogr>phy, >co ch'p,e, ,,; on ,h<rda,ionship bc,wcm fr. nbv .nJ 4l4V, ,re c hap'~' 8. ' '''' Sc.: ~h.p'e .. 4 . nd ~ . "" Buchdul ('96)). 81--90 ,ugge,rrd thaI ,he . harcd <pith« ~"wu"" for tho ,im i l~fity bc{W.~n !h~ pom. ;1 'YP' ofGrcgory in Pui'.g'.)'0 and comrmpo,ary po,,,,,i,, ofJoh n. Sec ~I>o W.lfe, (!97<1. w . nOle 70. and Wah., ('978), '4>- >4).

,,'

The miniatures, imernal evidence

Homilies,.!Oz and o ne is also fOUlld in the Sacrd Pilralkia (fig. 60). In their basic configunlliuns, these aUlhor portraits all follow convemions goi ng back to amiquif}'. and numerous ninth-ce:mury examples still survive:.l(I, Only the: expan~ive: 5C'tting o n f. 414v is unusual. This follows formulae found el5C'Whe:re in the manuscrip t: the: two cypress tr~s o n the: Ie:ft recu r, for example. on f. 4}iV(fig . 43) behind Manasses and on f. 438v (fig. 44) behind Ezekiel; the church conforms with Imny others in the miniatures and, in iulocation 1 Ihe righ r of Gregory. adheres to the 0 pattern Clitablished by Basil wriring beside a church on f. I04r (fig. Il). Whether this ehurch is mealll 10 represent Eublios' new sear at Douris or Gregory's owo church must remain a moot poin!. What i.~ most striking aboUl the structu re is its 5i1.1:: 204 it takes up the whole right-hand side of the register, pushing Gregory off centre to the left. After the symmetrical composition of the lOp register, Ihis asymmelry nrikes the eye. 'Ibe prominence of rh e: chu rch, and ilS dispbcement of Gregory off to the lefl of the central axis, skew the internal compositional balance of the regisler and add nOlhing 10 it<; iconographic coherence. The si~e and 1000lion of the church seem. however. to have been motivated by the design of thc page as a wholc. Gregory could nO! occupy the cen tre of the regisler. for all of the main protago n iSIS- Joshua in the top register. Moses in Ihe middle, and here: Gregory - occupy the Jefl half of Ihe page. The ill ustrator h:.ts arrange:d th e: Iypes of Christ in desce:nding hie:r:uehical (rather than chronological) order, along a gentle d iagonal from Joshua, amitypc: par txufltllu, ro Mo!tO, slightly mo re IOward Ihe ce:m rc: and oflC$SC'r lypologiC1.1 value hefe Ihan Joshua, 10 Gregory. who reprcscms Ihe priestly and mundane repre5C'nt:.ttive: of C hrisI on e mh t:uher Ihan a true: an titype. As in rhe presentation on f. Ij7r (fig. 1 Ihe bottom registcr Sttms 10 have bc:cn internally unlx\tanced in order 8). 10 make::.t visual point verlically.

CrOj,l-CUT7(IItJ

bmwm

lIIilljtltU~

The commenI3rY-lhrough-compositiolllhat is so important in Paris.gqlo (as we shall see. the: examp lc~ JUSt ~dduccd are: the: lip of thl: iceberg) and lhe diver~e: formats u5«i for its miniatures - from futl-page to five registe:rs 10 grids - impose:d formal require: me:nts tha t varied from page 10 page:. Nonelheless. the minia tures exhibil a broad cohere:n~ in thcir sf}'Ie:. and I should like: 10 continue: rh is chapter's
.:t, G.bv~ri. (1969). I'}-~J. fig>. 61 . 711. '17. 98. tj6. 1710 In. 4>.8. '11'1. 'In. 470. 'I" .:t, F,i~nd (1'117). "1- 1 '1': ~rllm. n (19n). '14- 49 . Fa< ninlh-<~ntury tx.mpla

Ihan C rrgory. '" f. 1041(lbsill.n<! ,he .ow,,,, P4",1I,Lt: W.i"m.nn (1'17'1')' fill" 1~6. j10. n'. ,... Anoth.1 I"ge ,h""h . ,hi. tim ••" vdupi"8 Glqlory•• ppears in on. of th. li,u'SiC':lI m."u· s<:'i~u: '" G. lav.,i. ('969). 11- 11. I 1 Ih.n" Ann. m.,;. 'X'.yl C." for h~r p"rcep,iv. Com m.nt. on .n •• rlie. d",f, ,hi. "clion.

. of aUtlM>D oil""

'0'

Vision and mnning in ninth-<:entllry BjlZantillm

progre:ssivdy narrowing focus by looking at the features that link the miniatures before wnsidering those that divide them. In the miniatures of Paris.gr.slO, backgrounds rardy impinge on the action. They range from unmodulated expanses of deep blue 10 landscapes 10 ornate arch itecture, but invariably function as backdrops or frames for the all -important figures, who almost alwa:r-; act OUt their rolcs in the immediate foreground. The figures vary in proportion (wme have large heads and squat bodies, some have small heads and long legs), but they arc almOST all active participants in whatever drama they enact, and there is very little repetition of any figure type on a single page: when such repetition occurs, as we saw in the di.lcussion of f. l37r, the replication ca rries meaning and is worthy of note. The enlivenment of the figures seems to have heen important: complicated poses were fav':lUred by the Gregory miniaturisu, as was the intermingling of figures see n in profile, from the rea r, turning. and, less often (and sometimes awkwardly), en fou. 206 Accoutrementssuch as th .. saw used to martyr Isaiah (f. J47V; fig. 3S), tbe well with a pulley-driven bucket at which Christ meets the Samaritan woman (f. 21~V; fig. 25), and Cyprian's occult paraphernalia (f. 332V; fig. 3) - though neve r fronted, receive detailed anention. So do changes in Status: when Cyprian and Basil (f. 104r; fig. 17) appear as philowphers they are bare-chested and togate; when they appear as rdigious. they wear dIe aposlOlic chiton and himation or ecclesiastical garb. The concern ro provide each figure with appropriate dress coincides with a vigorous approach to drapery, which emphasizes line rather than tonal moddling. [0 general, th .. miniaturists describe drapery in three or four rdated rones, witb the base garment colour shadowed with lines of a slightly darker hue and highlighted witb sbades of a sligbtly lighter hue. Sometimes, though . the cowrt/ CMljunCfdsystem - which juxtaposes differe nt hues - appears: on f. 43v (fig. 9) , for .::xample, ochr.:: and white modd Gregory's ice-blue garment, while the purple robes of Christ ami the Virgin normally show either red or midnight-blue shadows. 107 Though loose drapery such as the cloth between Abraham's legs on f. t74v (fig. 23) and between the: archangel's on f. 438v (fig. 44) frequently appo:ars as a mass of swirls, th e articulation of drapery on a body is usually angular. with body parts segmented and conmained by the: cloth/OS Highlights and .hadows arc often abrupt: there is little sense of modulated rounded forms; instead, parts are broken up into ever smaller geometrical patterns. T he overall impression of the figures, however, is not harsh, and this is in pan due 10 the cafe: with which most of the faces were painted; the fare ineptly painted face, such as Solomon's on .!;ISV (fig. .t5) or those of the two apostles on 310V (fig. 31), stands Ol)t and jars. JUSt as contemporary Byzantine mosaidSls used smaller lesserae for faces in order to achieve more subtle modula~

r.

r.

'06 Comp'''' IG.bvr""OIl (r989), ,80.
= l'~"'e Coni""" m.y be more evident [0 us [h. n [0 [he Byzan[ines; ... Jam .. (1991).

'''' Again. compare Kal. vrczou (r989), 180 .

.08

The mi ni1l ura: inrern.u n idcna: rions than was possible with Ihe larger cubes found in Olher parIS of a mosaic,2O'l $0 tOO Ihe faces in Paris.gr.Slo arc mo re smoolhly moddled, and paimed with smaller brushs rrokcs, than the drapery. Animarion is achieved almosl entirely through the eyes. Some figum; look at us, some interaC with eaeh other, but only rarely do we t encounter a blank stare; all of rhe techniques used to paint eyes ensure a li vely ga:u. The miniaturists sharply contrast the whites and the pupils, emphasize the upper lid, and either smudge the area berween the eye and nose or do not ler the upper and lower eyelids meer as they approach the [1ose: both ahernatives ach ieve the s:.tme result of enlivening the eye. [n shan. the miniaturists join together in their presenration of aerive and differentiated figu['('5, who are themselves invt:Sled with internal [(' nsion through the Cl)ntra5t between the csscnti:.tll y line:.tr d rapery :.tnd the modelled f:.tccs. Notwithstanding Ihis body of shued fo rmal cha racrerinics. rhe minialU['('5 exhibil considerable va riery. No emphasis seems, however. 10 ha\'C been placed on rhe individual 'signature' of a miniaturist: the Mordlian method, which suggeslS thar a painter's identiry is revealed by study of small and seemingly insignific:.tnt derails such as rhe structure of an ear or of a hand - and which was used suec;:essful!y by thor Sev~e nko in his analysis of the Menologion of Basil II , painled a century later lQ - hits a brick wall when confronted by Paris.gr.po. T his is perhaps nnt surprising in a century dom inated by a Thought process that subordinated the skill of individual painters to divine inspiration, and from which the single named artisan known 10 us, I anTOs-the-painter, w;u recorded primarily as asymbol of iconophile m;istance. l11 The manner of paiming eyes demonsrr;ues some of the problems. The mOSt b;ui, va riam is the p~nce or absence of a lower lid; when present. its defining line may be either straight (and thus leave a gap in the contour of Ihe e)'C, especially o n the side loward Ihe nose) or curved to join the upper lid. In either configut:ltion, lower lids may be depieled with a blac;:k line (e.g. f. 4 3V; fig. 9) or wirh a red-brown one (e.g. f. 1 04r; fig. 17). Upper lids. meanwhile, ei ther e~tend outward beyond the eye TOward the CH (e.g. II. 78r and 143V; fi gs. 15, (9) or STOp at the edge of Ihe white. Such derai ls, however, do nOI allow us to isolate different hands: though a preference for a particular rype of C}'C may go along wilh a set of OIher characterisric features. mOSI miniatures mix the variants. Nor do particular eyeeonfiguralions d islinguish different types of figures or d ifferent head posilions. The only consiSIC partern is generated by the size of the figures. SmalJ figu res. nt such ;u Ihose which coaer the Joseph uory on f. 69v (fig. 11) or Ihe boarmen with Jo nah on [3r (fig. 6), vi rtually always hne a stron g, dark, and :.tlmost straight line for the upper lid. and omil the lower lid enri rely. Large figures, on the other h:l.Ild. display all eye types. seemingly almOSI al ra ndom. In this insrance, at least, .scale has more bearing on formal derails That any miniaturist's ' hand'.
lO!

On which""" No.dbogcn (196j) .

" I Su OI)H 1. 1197-1198.

""

Vision and meaning in

ninth·c~n!Ury

BY'.. ndum

Another indication that the analysis of small details does not tdl us very much about the process of painting Paris.gr.slO is provided by the depiction of haloes. Here the bas.ic range of possibilities was. more limited, and, with one exception (f. 239r; fig. 27), nimbu5Cs an: painted in one of two ways in Paris.gr.po: in roughly halfof the miniawres they are surrounded by a white lin~, and in the other half they are no(. Folio 143V (fig. 19), however, provides both versiollS: the Old T~stament figures of the upper register carry haloes without a white ouriine, while Christ, picwred three times in th e lower two registers, su ppOrtS a nimbus framed in white. This suggesrs an ;lnempt to differentiate Christ from Jeremiah, the archangel Michael, and Nathan on f. 143V, and indicates that formal details may .~erve iconographical functions. But, in the case of the framed or unframed nimbus, even this type of distinction does not always hold true. Folio 174V (fig. 23), for example, has many other formal features in common with f. 143V, but here, while all of the figures enact Old Testament narradvcs, all also wear the nimbuses oudined in white associated with Chris t on f. [43V. Further, on f. [96v (fig. 24), Christ - the only nimbate figure on the page - three times supports a halo without a white border, while ff. 3r (fig. 6) and 21SV (fig. 25) combine Old and New Testament figures all of whom bear the same type of nimbus. We are not, in other words, dealing with a group of painters each of whom felt the need [0 work Out an individualilCd personal style [hat encompassed small details. This apparent lack of sdf-consciousness coincides with the larger panern evident in the manuscript as a whole, for despite the numbet of features commoo 10 all of the miniatures, and despite the variations in a particular motif that crisscross rhrough these miniatures without any apparent discrimination, no one has ever claimed rhat the miniatures of Paris.gr.51o present an entirely homogeneous formal ensemble. The miniaturists may not have felt compelled to creale their own persooali7-cd styles, but neither are we dealing with a unified collecti,'e: there is no 'workshop style'. Th~re is much variation within the broadly defined common framework. The heterogencous nature of the miniatures is brought forth clearly when we look at how cons(ellad<.>n~ of features were combined. As we have seen, the decision to incorporate miniatures was apparently made only a(ter the first seven quires of ten had been written. The formal diversity of the early miniatures suggests that a gro up of paimers was assembled at this point. and it seems rea.'iOnable to assume Iha! wharever distribution system was selected was initiated during the assignment of tht early miniatures. The miniaturists would, in this hypothetical reconstruction of evelllS, ha";'e worked on the sheets to be inserted at the beginning as the scribe and illuminators eonrinued with the text, and then picked up later miniamres as they finished their earlier painrings and as the text became prepared for them . J have sdected the well-prtserved miniatures at the beginning of the manuscript for paradigm~tic analysis here because it seems most likel y that any system-

'"

atic apportioning of the miniatures to individual painters would no! yel have broken down. The first miniature in the manuscript proper, f. 3r (fig. 6), does indeed share various architectural. physiognomic, and drapety details with other miniatures in l'aris.gr.51O. The manner of constructing rooftops, doors, porticoes and furniture: the squared heads with heavy jaws, prominent ears, and slightly sad features suggested by the sl~nt of the eres and the shadows under them; the large expanses of unarticulated and body-hugging drapery bordered by thick fold lines th~t emphasize the groin at the expense of the waist and are set offbr agitated folds berween the legs: the sling-like drapery that constricts some of the arms; and, finally, the threetone sys tem used for drapery recur on fr. 78r, S7v, 170r, 3[6r (figs. l5~16. 21., 32) and, in somewhat modified form, on ff. 67v, 69v, 137r, JOU, and 310V (figs. J1~12, ,8, 30-31). The second miniature, on f. JOV, is TOO A~ked to sustain detailed formal analysis, but the third, on f. FV (fig. 8). is reasonably well preserved. Here the apostles seem to Aoat in front of a green strip of ground and a monochromatic blue landscape or architectural backdrop. Their heads, with t)'es that glance to the side under heavy upper li ds, are too large for tht-ir bodies. The eyelids. limbs, fingers, and toes are consiSTI:ntly outlined un one side only. Drapery, mostly conceived in twO lOnes, hugs the figures' bodies. A head in profile appears in the ~eventh quadrant. These features recur on ff. 69v and 165r (figs. 11, H), while ff. 67", 104r, '371, 226v, and Jon (figs. II, '7, 18, 26, 30) display related formal motifs. In the fuurth miniature, on f. 4JV (fig. 9), the miniaturist arranged the figures on a rwo-tone strip of ground against an unmodulated blue backdrop. Excepting th e idiosyncratic portrai t of Kaisarios in the lOp register, rubbing or flaking has obliterated most of the face~. The dr~pery. however, is srriking. Dark garments, such as the red tunics worn by the foremost two pallbearers in the middle register. are barely modelled. Instead, simple dark lines define conlOurs. lighr drapery, on the other hand, shatters into harsh geomelfical segments differentiated by thre<' or four tones, the darkest and lightest of which contras t sharply. This same drapery system, and many of the specific fold motifs, recurs on If 7St, ISsr, 355r, and 426v (figs. 14, 19, 36, 42), and, somewhat modified, on ff. FOV, 316r, and 340r (figs. 31-J2, 34). The problem is clear: ff. 67v. 69v, 137 r, 301t, 31OV, 316r all appeared twice in the foregoing analysis, and from within the group already adduced we could include funher aPllaremdiscrepancies. The flat-headed women off. 3r (fig. 6), for example, rc<:uron f. 137t (fig. 18), hut the drapery patterns used in thl."" rwo miniatures are only generically rdatl.""d. Details aS50ciatcd with one clu.~tcr of images recur in another one, and this ill1erpenetration of motifs appears thlOugholil the m~nuscript: one miniatlile can be con nected with another, llZ yet no clear formal patterns emerge.
'" Relevan' examplos willi", no,d in .ub><'lu<tu ch"p"rs ; .. ~ •. g. ,h. disc"ssio", of If. n6v .. nd 4I4V, and of If. )IV .nd '74V. in ch . pter S.

'"

Vi,ion ~nd m~=ing in

ninth-c~nlury

Byzantium

Though it would be useful to be able to determine how many painters wen: assembled to work on Paris.gr.\JO. it is simply not possible to group the miniatures by ' hands' in any convincing fashion without access 10 the manuscript. It may be more practical to define the two extremes. the two most distinct approaches e~hibited by the miniatures, while emphasizing that the majority of the images in Paris. gr. 51 0 fall between them. The first of these 'eXtremes' su rfaces i n, for example, the martyrdom of tho: apostles on f. }2V (fig. 8), the Joseph sequence nn f. 69v (lig. 12), and the legend ofConstaminc and Helena on f. Hor (lig. 45). Folios 32V and 69v share a number of details, and though several of these similarities resulTcd from the small scale of the ligures included in both, they were nonethdess apparently painted by the same miniaturist; this painter may also have executed f. 440r, where the ligures arc larger. Whether or nOt this was so, the three display a cluster of similarities that m:ur throughout the manuscript in various configurations. All share a two-tone green ground beneath a blue backdrop;lLI background features are confined [0 elements essential to comprehend the narrative-slIch as the Milvian bridge on f. Hor ll • - or 10 a monochromatic landscape as on f. }2V. m Figures arc stocky. and have large heads. There is a distinct preference for either frontal gazes or pure: profile, though, as often in Paris.gr.s[o, complex poses arc attempted. Neither the su bject matter - in these examples we see an Old Testament, an apostolic, and a historical sequence - nor the iconographical sources of the: miniatures arc related: we arc dealing neither with a formal 'mode' dewloped for a particular type of subject nor with images that faithfully copy any kind of related models. Instead, we see in these miniatures a version of the sryle found in the Sacra Paralld<1 (figs. 58-60, 64, 88, 90, 91, 94, TO'j, T06, 113, 114, 123, IS!, 153, 160, 172).116 Though we mu~!look past !he technical differenc~s TO SCI' them -!he gold leaf uscd throughout the Sacra Para/uk made shadi ng virtually impossible - there is a remarkable number of similarities between rhe Sacra P(lmluk and this group of miniatures in Paris.gr.jlo: heads arc large, and while gestures are expressive, the bodies themselves are stiff"; drapery is simplified and segmented to define body pans: faces show eyes made vivid by emphasizing the upper lid with a dark slash (in the S4cra ParalMa lower lids are rare); mouths are formed of a single, and often swallow-shapc:d, line placed high above a prominent chin that is accented by a deep clefl. T he Gregory miniaturistS painted Their scenes, and thereby minimiz.ed the
m Th~ "o·o-,on. g..en ground aho ' P!""" on If. jr. JOV. 4JV. Jrov. and J40C (lig>. 6-7. 9. 3'. 14). ," Compare the el aborat< !.ndscapt .. "ing fur ,he bridge on f. 4"9" (fig. 40). m O,ho, monochrom .. ic (us ually blue on blue) background. 'PP"'"' Oil If. jLV, 7'V. 78r. 239'. 426v, . nd 4JjV ( ~g'. 10, 'J, rl, 27. 42-·H ). "·0" rhi, .Iylo. rome,ime, called the double-fold "ylo. "'" W~i'2m. nn (1981). ' 90-19;1: (,978) , 74-80; ('979a), 17- 18. Scr al>o Brenk (1971). 408-411. who no,", [he widespread diffusion of ,hi. lin ... h.ndling. and Bergman (1974). 16,}-17[. who nOle; ,h. 'double-moke mOlif" in ninth ..crnlU' y Rome .nd in cont inu.tion into dove",h-crntury Am.lli.

Th~

miniatur.,.:

illt~rnal eviJenc~

linearity tMt the Sacra Paraflad paint~rs emphasized by relying on contour dmwing fined in with gold leaf; but there are nonetheless fundamental similarities in the handling offigures in both manuscripts. At the other extreme, the Homilies miniatutisn re:vealle:ss inte:rest in dramatic expression enacted in front of a neutral stage than in the interaction of figures. While the miniatures in this group are not in any obvious way united by discrete ' hands', the diffetences thardistinguish them are better read as indications of variations on a common theme rhan as distinct formal statements. Folios 30V and Jf6r {figs. 7, p.}, for example. were almost certainly painted by different miniaturists: the proportions of the figures are not the same. and the painter of the crucifixion page displays a propensiry for fussy drapery that anticipates the so-called 'dynamic style' by three: hundred years. Yet the common denominators outweigh these differences. Figures arc placed bcfore asettingand interacr with each other; drapery is modelled in a three - or four-tone system (it is in this group that all examples of c"lura C"njullctd moddling appear). and is articulated by very angular fold li nes that produce ge:ome:triC;lI shapes, many of which the two painters share: both, for example, combine a triangular shadow under rhe knee with twO diagonal slashes across the: thigh. Material dings to th e: figures' bodies, especially to their thighs. and irs folds contain and constrain them: arms are held dnse to the body in sling-like: folds; legs are restrained by a deep upturned hem. The miniaturists following this approach also employ the arrow highlight: a peculiar manner of empha~izing a fold by outlining it, in a lighter colour, on twO sides with converging lines that meer to form a poinl. As was true of the miniaturi5ls using the first approach. those following this avenue find cohorts in contemporary manusctipts, and especially in the late ninthcentury Vatican 'Christian Topography' (Vat.gr.699: figs. 75-77, 138, 150, 156). The portrait of Peter in the Vatican manuscript (fig. 75), for example, shows a triangular knee shadow surmounted by two diagonal folds outlined wirh arrow highlights exactly as in Paris.gr.Jlo, while the angel feeding Isaiah his burning coal (fig. 76) displays the fussy dtapery swirls between his legs so familiar in Ihe Gregory miniatures; on this sam~ page in the 'Christian "'opography', Christ's ro~ reveals c"lura c"njullctd modelling, and elsewhere in the manuscript sling-like: drapery constrains arms and uplurned hems re:strain legs as in rh e Gregory miniatures (fig. 77) . We also find many of these features, though in forms modified by thdr medium, in the contemporary monumental imagery of Constantinople. At Hagia Sophia. mosaics from the early 870S in the room over rhe vcstibule _ evidently the large sekre:ton of the adjoining patriarchal apartments _ show facial types quite similar to those in Paris.gr.51O, though here the drapery is more linear and the mosaicis{ l~f! larger areas unaniculated than is usual in the Homilies. lt ? In the chapel in ! h~

UJ

Vision and mcaning in ninth·cclllury By:untiurn

~O

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southwest bumess of Hagia Sophia, which was apparently dcmratoo shortly after the large sc krelOn, the drapery displays mOTe segmcntarion,1I8 but it is in the mosaics of the north tympanum that we find the closest formal corrdates 10 the Paris G~gory (fig. 78).m Head types find virtually identical cournerpans in Paris,gr.51O, down 10 such details as eyelids prolonged beyond the outer side of the eyeball, and upper and lower lids that do 1'101 {Ouch wh en they come togeth er
toward the bridge of rhe nose; here too the d rapery shatters into geometric shapes

with strong light oudines. When first published, the mosaics of the north tympanum were dated to tht" last two dt"~ades of th e ninth century; more re<end y, th ey
lit

M.ngo . nd H.wkin. ('97!), 3-41, e.p. 36-37.

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ha\'e been assignro 10 the late 870S or early 880s - precisely (he )"cars when the Homilies W1IS in production. no Pa ris.gr.S lo reveals rwo approaches (0 painting Ihat inu:racfed fluid ly; Ihe exTremes Ihat I have desc ribed. were hardly mutually e"el us ive", they simply illuminale th e range offormal e"p ression found in the manuKripr. Neither approach w~s

'"

Vision and m.:.ning in nimh-c~mury Byuntium

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Fig. 17 Vat.gr_099.f 83": cmwmion ofSaul

limitcd to the miniatures of Paris.gr.5iO nor even to manuscripts, but instead both form parr of {he broader pictu re of ninth-century imagery. The loose and flickering brushstrokes that somctimes surface (th e so-called 'illusionistic' dements) date back a lo ng way and had most recently appeared across a sea: chronologically [hei r closest pm:ursors are to be found in some of the work done in Rome between 705 and 707 for Pope John VII at Sta Maria Anriqua. Bur the Roman frescoes do not show the hard linear highlights or the segmented and angular drapery folds that dis tinguish even the mOS t 'painterly' of the Homilies, 'Ch ristian Topography', and Sacra PaTaflrla miniatures. Later eight h-century frescoes at Sta Maria Antiqua are more linea r lhan lhose paimed in 705-707, but even they do nOI display the almost

,,6

Th~ miniatUf~S: irll~rnal

evidence

Fig. 78 /mmbul. HIJgi" !Mph;,,: nortl! tympanum mow;'. Ignlll;OS Throphoros

quality of Ih~ Gregory minialures. nor do they share any uf t he furmal vocabulary used in the drapery; for this, the closest Italian parallel I have been able lU find is provided by thewall paintings at 5S. Martiri in Cividale. roughlycontem porary with Paris.gr.5tO (ca. 900).!li The sc hcmariution apparent in th e Homilies images, which rcsuk~ in a predictable and regularilcd approach to drape ry, appears in eastern Mediterranean works already in the eighth century: along with ourner-

fraclUr~d

"7

Vision and

m~aning

in ninth-<;enrury BY",,",ium

ous other features of Paris. gr. 510, it is for example found in the Vatican PlOlem}' of 753/4.u~ During the ninth century. the most emphMic tendency IOward schematired pattern produced rhe 'double-fold style' of the Sarra Para!uk, in more modified form, it still proved influential enough ro affect the most 'illusioniuic' of paInters. Despite the fact thai lWO approaches can be isolated in Paris.gr.slO, it mmt be reiterated that the manuscript cannot simply be divided into the rwo 'sryles'. Too many miniatures show both; 100 many are set, somewhat ecleaically. berween the rwo extremes. The two approaches 1 have set OUI are better seen as ideal types than as Ihc distinctive signatures ot single, or groups of, miniaturists; it is not even to be exdudn:! that one miniaturist could, tor whatever reason, usc both approaches. To understand the production process of the Homilies, it is perhaps more useful to return 10 composition. The coordination berween scribes and miniaturists evidelH in the bmmata initials and marginal markings, the commentary role of many scenes, and tbe use of composition to convey carefully wrougbt meaning contrasts sharply wilh the almost haphal.ard combination of formal details in Paris.gr.5Io. The nructure of the manuscript seems at odds with its execution, and this suggests that just as te~l, initials, and miniatures werc the provinces of different groups, 223 so too the design and layout of the m anuscript as a whole was determined by a specialisl who conveyed requirements to various teams of scribes, illuminalOrs, and miniaturists. The study of Byzantine manuscript production is in its infancy, and whether or not such a degree of sub-contracting was ever common is unclear. What is evident. however, is that Paris.gr.5Io relied on meticulously directed teamwork, and it seems reasonable to suppose that the designer of the miniatures took on that job.
'OJ .see the rn(rOOU<1ion.

u8

3
The biographical miniatures: toward image as exegesis

The episodes from the lives of Gregory of Nazianzus, his family, 51 Basil and S1 Cyprian illustrated in Paris.gr.;iO were, wilh some notable exceptions, motivated directly by Gregory's sermons; in this r(speC(, they resemble the miniatures in other preserved copies of Gregory's Homilies more closely than do most piclUres in Paris.gr.jIo. BU11hc group is nOI monolithic, and within it we.:an chart changes in the: ways images were used as the production of Ihe manuscript progrcS5Cd: more dearly than any other category of pictures, the biographical miniatures reveal the growth of a system of visual commentary in Paris.gr,jlo.

GREGORY OF NAZ1ANZUS ANO HtS FIIMILY

Folio 4}V (9) (fig. 9)

The dlrce registers of f. 43V portray Gregory with his fami ly, the funeral of Gregory's brother Kaisarios, and the death of his sister Go rgonia.' Painted on an inserted leaf that separates Gregory's funeral oration to his brother (homily 7) from his funeral oration 10 his sister (homily 8), 2 the miniature provides an appropriate bridge befWe~n the two eulogies and almost certainly retains irs original location,3 The top register portrays Gregury flanked by his parents Nonna and the cider Gregury, in the place of honour on his right, and by his siblings Kaisarios and Gorgoni a. All arc identified by in ~criptions.-I Although the only other illustrated
, Omom (1929), Ij, pI. XXIII; lx, N~r .."ian (1911). HI; Der Ner=>i.n (196.). 117; Bu,h,h.1 (196,). 8~-86; W.lw (1976. ). 120, I :4; Wc;,,,m.nn (1979'). 2j\-.,6; BJul>.ker (l996b). 98-99. J SC ~OI . 180-' 4) (Ho mily 7; BHG ! 86; NPNF. 2>:9--.,8), :¢-l99 (Homily 8; BJlG704' NPNf; IJ8- l 41 ). On ,h~ o..,ion <0 Gorgon; • . .1 ... C.m.lOll (1989) , 19 7-198. ' Fo' ...gumem •• gainst rh. rh •• i. th., the m;n;'tur~ ha, bttn moved. se. the di>cuss i"n of f. J1V (which p"f.ct, ,h. fun.w OUt ion '" K.i"" ;,,,) in ch'p,er 6. 4 Nonn", in<c.ip,;ol1 h... n.ked "ff; the oth... ,~.d: 0 AI"!OC rPHrO[>IOC 0 n[AnHI' TOY €)EOAOrOY. 0 AriOC I'PH r Ol'lOC 0 8EOA01 'OC. 0 AriOC KAICAPIOC. an d HArIA I"()P I·ONIA.

=

"9

Vision and meaning in ninth-cc ntury Byzamium

copy of the funeral orations, in the Milan Gregory, lacks a comparable group,~ the Paris miniaturist has responded to Gregory's frequent mentions of his family in both funeral orations. The family portrait on f. 43V could in fact easily have been compiled ad hoc, for the painter has replica ted details that appear elsewhere in the manuscript and [he facial types of the ma!.:: figures adhere to contemporary formulae. The gesture of the two women, for example, is repeated by a man on f. J04r (fig. 17), while Gorgonia wears the red and ochre in which she also appears on f. 452r (fig. 46), where Kaisarios recurs as well with the same facial type. On f. 43V, KaiS<lrios - a member of the imperial court until he quined his post under Julian theApostate- wears .secular official COStume that consists of a white mantle embellished with a large gold rectangle over a green tunic; when he appears in the Milan Gregory, he wears a simple belted tunic, bill both the Milan and the Paris miniaturistS portrayed him with dark hair and a short dark beard. Gregory and his father both wear bishop's veStmentS,6 carry jewelled books in theif left hands and gesture toward these with their right, have pointed grey beards, and grey hair thaI dips down over their foreheads: throughout l'aris.gr.5Io, the twO arc, in faCt, physiognomically indistinguishable.7 The Sncra ParalMa depicts Gregory of Nazianzus in the same way (figs. 5&, 60), and sometimes in exanly the same pose.~ BOIh manuscripts differ from la ter middle: Byzantine ponraits of Gregory, but resemble an eighth-century re:prescntation at Sta Maria Amiqua and drawings of a ninth -ce ntury mosaic at H agia Sophia.~ The: second registe:r shows the funeral of Kaisarios (0 A!rJOCj KAICAPIOC ENTAlpIAZOMENOC), with four youths carrying his body - still clad in the white: mamIe, which now covers his hands - on a bed toward a church. Gregory, swinging a censer, lcad~ the proccssion; his remaining family follows, their hands rai scd to the:ir faces in grief. 10 It is possible that a similar image: has been excised from the Milan Gregory;ll hut in allY event the composition on f. 43V presents an adaptation of standard fune:rary iconography. I ! In theuppeTtwO registers, the miniaturist arranged thcfigurcson a two-toncstrip of ground against a blue backdrop; this format is retained for the death ofGorgonia, which is nonetheless pre:sented ru; a domestic scene:. Gorgonia lies on her deathbed,
Grab" (194)'), pI. V.4 (Gregory and Koi.nio. g.... Nonn.): VIi.> (I<..isario, romr"" [0 hi. p>.rcn" during .he reign of Juli.n), Vll.l (I<..i",.io.-. urvive, ,h. Nicac ••",hqu.ke): VIlI., (G"gory tb.nk.! God at the .nd of I<.oi, ... i",' funenl ora,ion), Vllb (a parri.lly oxci,ed mini.,ur. in which only G,cgo.y. dclive.ing Co~oni,,', orotion, . u.vi"",); VIIl .J (Solomon .peoo in praise of women); IX,t (Gorgoni. on her deothl:oc,t al,o p.rr i.lly excised) . Th. Ii", mini.,,,re '0 Homily 7 (p. 71) h... been ,emoved but . ... the tcxll>cgin. on p. 70. i, unlikely to h.ve been. prd'uory f.mily "",,..it. • Fo. ,h. garmen" worn by ,he [\00'0 Gregorics <hrougho", P.ri,.gr.jlO, see Thierry ('966), )08- :\1S. , Stt Buch,ho.l (1963). 84-86. , Wcimn.nn (1979'), c,gs. 648...070, e,p. 6jl, 614, 6j6 . Th. po><: r«u" in Gregory'. port",i, in Venice. Marciana gr.7~, f. IV. also .",ib",ed to ,h. n in,h c. n,ury: Fur!.n (1978). 6-7, fig. L • Buch,h.l (196)), 84- 86: Wei",m>n n (1979' ), ',j-lj6: M;u>go (J~6>), jl, fiS" 57. 59· '" Stt M'guj", ('977), '41-14'. " &. note Sabove. 'l Stt W.lter ('976.). 11;- 114.
!

".110:>.•

murmuring I"" 1".. word, (a p.. lm YO ••c) to ,he ol!ici.,ingp,"'" here Klen,i!i<d .. G "'t"'Y ofN)'UO_ Ij Gregory tell. u. th>.t Curson ii, fomi Iy .urro.mdc.! her . ..1.. l>y <.lying. ..,<.1 .ing\<> ou' he. hu.h.nd . nd children fOr .p«:il1c men,io,,_ C..,,,,inu;',S ,he <m ph •• i, '-'" Gregory', o,.-n imrn«li>te f..mily <videm in ,he '''I' r<go" ..., however, Go,soni" i, om i....! in t,,,,,,rufher p,. ,.:"" . nd mrviving bro<her,.11 of whom .. ond '0 ,he k/t, in fron, of .buildins preoum,bly meant tu .-.:p.<><:nt tt>< houle in which , he did. Nonn., .. ill d.d in g=n and pink, ""rries tI", h"rden uf ,he grid": , he I<>n, ove' ,he bed and rai "" her c<>v.m1 hond. to her f;u:<: the two Gregoria, £other.nd ",n, ,,.nd _ only >.I igluly ,,,dine.! _ behind het, c..ndla in dc<o",ed bu,n to tI,. tigh', befo.e .".""urewith a «nt •• 1dorn< ,h., m.y repr...,n, ,h. church in which Gresory deliveml ,he rune ..1 o ••• iun. The IC<". adap ... Common Byzantine formula to ,he ""lu i",n,.n" of Gorsooi" cirrum_ nd a i".. II<I c<>nmuction oPf'<oml in ,h. MiL.n G«gO')' befo", mud. of ,he mini.rure ..." noised (fig, .9). " ruide ftom tb. ",,"<"-ill of Cu'll"ni., who Ii .. wi ,h he< head .0 ,he Id", in ,h <Mil." fr>gmen., ,('" comp<»i ,iun duplic.t .. ,h .. on f. ~JV. with the I«tof three: figure> 'he kfr ofGo'goni" h..J, and ,he kS"'[' ~I>',n: before the mb" ruaure of a building!O ,he righ" Ho"'''''cr ten"",,', ,h. >h..-eJ Jc;isn .. b .. hin" 'h" the "",i, mini .. u. i", may ocCl.io~ ally h"" h«n infiu<nce.! by an illu>tn,od Homili .. th .. , recollod ,he Mil.n manu,..;rip •. "

'""'=

'0

Folio

IIV

hoi (fig. to)

Fuli<> '" ili um" .. G"'t"ry', fin! or .. ion 'On (homily 6). which celeb ... od ,he """n(ili.,"'n of ,t>e mun."i< commun irr of N..,i.nzu, in j6~_ " 11><- ","'0 uPI"" regi"e" ron,.in a Ion~ Cen«i, 5C<Jueoc< 'hat pmvid<> .n n<gotical <omment on the oc",,<>n; 11.1""", """,iving ,~. I. ... " ,he fi"t >O:: ne in the low", reg. i" ... ill"ltwn the di,«tly. " In , he "",ond ",eno <of ,he ,~,.., (;. ego'r doli," .... '0" poe",,", 1«Onll",ni<xl b)· hi' f.. l.et, The ",ir. ni mb<d . nd I.oldi ng gold .nd j"wdleJ book. in ' heir cowmlldi band ..... nd in c"""·'o·KI ..";,,,,1 f'<"<> b<hind aR .1 ... d",poed in pink .nd , ,,,mount..! by 0 b.~><hin , To ,he righ' , four I"i" of mon embrace in mponl< '0 Grego. )', emre.ry to ,he monlu '" hug anJ ki,. one an",h«, .nd illu .. ",. G. egory', oboe,"";on 'u hi, f..,f>e, ,h .. 'All you. children h>V'erom< to)"lu; ,hey ,u,round ,h ••1",.""

p<"'"

'a'

Th< Mi!..n Homi!i« ilt""' r:iI'« 'hi> pnug< wi,h. pon",;, of ,h. "", Grego,i ... hu, ,he i""g' doa ""' .... m '0 be .d.,«l '0 ,I. .. on f, jlV: no . 1"", 0 . mo~k.. ' 1'1":;" ,he g<>m ...... ncl ,...,,,,.,,,, diff", tho /ism'" hond..r< not """,m;l, f<>ung<' Gr<g<>I)' !wId. . ..",n ",.Ilt, ,hon • icw<lIod hook, . od hi, f.t,hn h"W, n",hing," n" f. I" '. tho phY'i"K""mi. tyr<' di.pl.r«l by G,cgo,~ .nd hi. t.,he, conform with ,hoo< used for ,h.;, po.u.itS ,hf'O<lghou, 1'.ri'.IV.1''', .".1 the fUlnitu,," lind. 1"',.1 ... ""IP'" wi,h tho f. mily pun ..;, on f. 4\>, tilt m ini.tUli" 1.1 could wdl I...,. compil...J ,hi. im.g< d~.

,h .

"<1m,,,,,,,

Folio 67" ( tt )(fi~, tt) Thr upper regi"" of f 6.,. d.pi«, I""i.h', vi,ion; " tho luwr •• how, Gr<g<>ty'. <o""" ,.tion a. hi>hOf' of So,i ..... " Aj>prop,i.,c1y, mini., ,,", introducn Gn"!;",)"', ninth homil)', 'To hi, f.t,n«. in tho p..... oc. of Ruil, ,m hi, ,,>t'>e<r;ti,m .. bi'h'-'l' "f So.im' ."" In tho <Cnlf< of tho regi"". Grrg<try . .. nd. with ,l ightly bownl Ilt.d Ilt,...«n rwo hi.J,,'I" who hoi,! ,,, open bouk '''' '' hi. h<><I; in fro nt of G,rg<t.)· ond ""r>"'...J from him hy.n .1 ... d"ped in m;l, • ,hin! hi'hop _ bly S, &,il " - ",,,,,hts G.osory', rotCh.,,! in bl""ing, A gold boJd .. hin .isa brhind ,h< figuf<., and "g~', Mmi.,;:i",u!.. ",uem", p..... um.hl ~ . igu in... n ' I'''' ,ndo... ,I", S""'P: on 'hi' .r< four gold Gmdk.. icb. two on c;,het .ide, TW1) g'oup' of mon ".nd '0 ,he .,f" ,1.<»< d",e., .0 ,he J ..con. dr<O.S<J in a-r.m·colou«d robe., .... ;ng ren .... onJ "'''1' c.ndb: ,he mcmbr .. of ,nc "",,,old group .Iso a..')" ",,,,dl«, bu. >l. d~ jn brown, .pp>rrntir '0 " gnol ,hci. ,um. '" monk<. On ,n. .igh, i•• 1\=0 h." iliC1 wi. h. mruin<d door .od m;l·,il<d roof•. M"" d...;I, <o t"'pond wi.h 'h< on!.oJo,I;,urgy for ,h. con><t:."i"" of a bi.<hop ... l'OCO.d<d in ,Ilt <uchologion, which .pecin<> ,h..., nffiei"i"g b;,h,,!» . nd d=tibo ,hom hold;ng tilt <>p<n g<»pelbook ""or 'hc he..! of ,he now hi.hop .. ,hC)' "",d in ,h< .. nem.')",I ' Wltik G,rgo'y', oon",,,, .. ion 'pp;lrrnd y rrcun in tilt Mil. n G<q;<>'Y (,hough ,Ilt", i> """hing '0 connm, ,h .. ,he . i,. ,. bring pet!o.m<d, &sil flanked by G.egory fils . od ,/'ffl"<cn.in1r .;oj... hi> hond ."",,,d ,he f<>uogrr G<q;<>'Y in lib..

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.f.

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of 110m"", .........

ing lfig, \oj)'" and aPl""''' in 0c>"",1 I.,,, ... rnplcs, " .h,o coo"".:"i"" ,,1><1., • go<p<lbook fir>d. ""I)" on. 1'".1101, . nd .ha. 1 0. in 1''''''8•. \10 i"d( ((. ~p': fig_ •• 4/i) " Ho~, G~ry', ron""mion i, .1f« ,«1 onl)' b)' ,ho ,wu Mok.holding bi,hop< and t he bl ... ing ... unu.u. II)", om iued.'" Tho dilforcncc> be<w«n .h. "'" mini.w"," arc n(~ , britKJ by ,h.i. occomp>n)'ing tn ... nor ~.• ny w.i".n KCOU nt G"<g<Iry'. Ii(e kn()Wn ." mo. l're:m rn.hly.•1>< mini.om,"" ",.ied ,h., <>Calion. ,..b on Gregory ..... om.ined <om!"»i,;" .... i,h.r dis, ingui,h hi, horo"o . ""id monOtony.

or

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Folio 7" (I)) (fig. 1)1

Th. wI' r<"gi".r off. 7" dj.pl.)~. «ri", or m'onomou. po" .. i" ....1><. Iii« f, 4)V (fig. 9), hut in .hi, ",«.h., 6~u ... >c",ml"nyin~ G'ego.)' - !l"'1 ,ho C;",,,, "nJ G«w>'Y o(Ny." _ . rc no' mom be" ofh i. (.m iI)' .nd .rc "'I" ...ed from e:teh OIher by ""Iumn>: J<.>I, on hi' dungh •• p '1'1""'" below, " Tho mini .." .. « •• im it< o.igi. n. 1oo. ioo: .1>< prccrding .,,,mon .-ondudos on .h. ='0, .nd G~'Y" oI"",n.h hom ily, whieh f<>1"-s on If. 7" - 74', i'''rim.! of" ill""r,,i'm. Gregory <kliv<<<tI
'To G«W>'YofNf''''' b.otl><.ofR... iI ,ho G reat, ,..ho miV<>! .l1er hi, COM<""'",'" oI>""ly h. ~me hi,hop of S." im. in )7' ;" Gf<'JI'>!Y of NY" '" ."iyol pmmp.ed .h. '«mon, , od G~')·ofN"i.",.", con"," ,,,,,.,. on hi, gr<>< I,,.,. "" him, C:;'.gory ",.• ..J. hi. f,imJ'ooniy H w '" be ,h.. h. wiV'«! ''''' . hdp wit h ,b. dc.;i,ion ." 1<:COp' .h. epi""'p, 1 ,."" I>< he wo.d. of Job hi, f,iend Raid.<!, who . .. iV«! a>mfon Job .. h. "', ,ovcrul wi,h >ores. on ,he dungh.-.p Uob 15- .6). The only m"si ...1 .""ID;."ach<J '0 ,h. !>omil)" "" off ,h... Icv:om quo",i"n (rom Joo,·11 which dc.rly i"' p irul ,he inug< in .h., \mo.'" ''1:i" •• ,i,k m<>ti""ed ,he po"",i" .bove:. clourcJ. f.,h .... in. got.! . nd jewelled .read •. Al,hQugh . • • C h.n.. Ru/U. Mo .. r poi n,ed oU', ,hey .... mbl e figum; . m nge<l "" • mlun.o .. ""--orh•. glU, ,h •• rchi'«<u~.1 "ocobul"y employed i. no, SO ,",i.n'. o... il. ,udJ .. ,h. columm w;,h .hi« band, of ""i.hle Rming, ,h. q" ..;. ion ic "'pi"l ... nd ,b. jow. cl led framing 1tt\I, in ,I>< pic,u .. <>f Gregory and a..il mini!t .. ing 10 , h., .ick on r. ' ~9' (fig_10), wn i!c ,h. '!'lociI'd in ,"",<leo ofbl... wi,h white de .. i1 •. j •

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f. ~)S. (fi~. H ). Mmy of ,b. mo, if. .njoyed wid< e"''''ncr _ ,ho ""I"mn form, ['" =mpl •. '1'1""" in Rom.n m"",)' of the >«Ofld hzlf of t!.c nimh cen' u,y" S. Clem.nte . od., ,he ",-call.d «mpk ofh)M"'" Vi,a;,» _ ",d ,h.
["""d on

1"'"",i[ [yp<' of Ih<

,n"", church {.. hel>, .11 id.o,ilied by ime.ip[ion, oonform

.. i. h <ontempo"'ry I'rK'lK,. " Even [nO .,..,i<gzt..! h.ockd",p, with ,h. """ " ,] C'T',}' ofNyuo .goo;lI>I • mJ !""lnd ond , ~fi.nking figutC>ofB...iland GrT'ry of N" imm . b:u:kcd wi,h g"",n. lind. ,n,low<, d ..... h.t< in P,,;'.gr.IIO: Ih. m.flrn,l""" "f 'he MAkro.-c.on f. HO. (fig. H). for =mpl<, "" ...... gooin .. , g,id of alt<.n"ing 1.10< ,od .ed "lll'''''Tbc<kv<n ln I>omily formed pm ofoh< tiru.gOa I ,.. dins> fi::,[ Gr<guryofNy."'. .. d.y (to )onu.,y) . • nd w:u incorporz,cJ in ,ho li,o'pal edition. of the sr""" ,h. fti.nd.hip br:no.=n ,h. IW<I Grq;OIi", by I 10m iii", wi,h iil""""iom picturing [h.m ,alking, .rnb=ing. 01 p"'ying 'og",he" " Non. 01 the li. urgical rn.nIDC.ip<> " ..ch ... ny biblical ""n.., ~'<l, .nd "olyollc¢don B..;il juLn ,h. ""0 Grq;ori<s ( to form I"''' of, hino,i .. ed ini,ial «n"ed on G.cgOfY of N"i.mu. )." Th. Mil.n Gr<g<>ry (lig. \t), Oil ,ho urh •• hand, rncmblcs I'•• i'_ gq,o in it< ind ll''''n of a "ipic pon .. i, of [h. ""'" Gr<gun.. with s"a, will, «n,,,,.rod .. i,h lIz.il pofl r. )..J" )"lung.. ,h.n hit brother Gr<guryofNy", in 'M the .~th",. " Ro,h oin,h' e<mury minjam"", m.y n.", b«,. ;"tltpcrod.ntly in'pi,..! by tn. ,;,k "ftt..".. tioo. but tt..y or< joined in Ihei, >.imil., in ... p.et. · [;onofil.

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fu!;" 7~r (. \) (liS' 1\1

Th. mini'IUt<, wi,h in om.,. ribboned f",m<, i. in ".mpicl. h'''''on)· w;,h tho .ccompznring ''''''. which hegins On ,h. "',,.... of the fuli", ... Grq;orydd i,..,rcd 'On ,t.. rl.gut' "fh, il . nd hi. f.. her'•• iknee' (Homily 16) in wi"", h.il· "Olm ruined It.. h.",.". of N.ti.n",,!' Gr<g'N):' f.. t..,. who .. b;'Mp .Muld I." .. <pokeo. w.. '" ",.. <whelmed by [he n.g«!y 1>. could n.... respond ,,, tb. ,h".......! ei,ik'" wh" flocked '0 [h. church. A> hi. f.. hor', . ...."'n' , Grego.)· [~<lcfof'< dcliv<mi,n" ... ,mo.,. " oJ ""'0",11«1 pcnil<OC<' znd przY'" [0 >1,,1>< fOf the 'im ,I... h. d p",,'Ok..! God', w' Zlh and , he "o.m_ In rh< ,op "gi" ••. ,g.illlt. blll< .ky. bz.i), uf .." i.. h. il dc. c.md from. grey.blu<

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·' SO O,bo.... {, .. ,b •• '71" R",~, .... {'' 'J!. 116-1", .. ·~ .... I,.I.). >0, ""'" I" W,,""" .. {,,, .. ,. " . ' , ,,. So< ~ ., d•• mi"~,,,", of 9atil.n v."K<. M'Ki"". IV.". f. '" F.,Ia. I,,,"). II. « . I) . - ~ i "" , IV· ""'; . f. 'H. t• ......",~ « n'",,), ;toOl .. 16 . 0<1 W""",.nn ...d c. . ~ ...;, ",.,.,).

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rI. Xtv.• . Tht '"pi< 1''''''''' app<>H" ,,,,, ..... of,,,,, .., ....." ,,,,, '1...;.... i""V_ .n'oo ..... i'" ,,,,, ",""~,,, «I;, ...... "mo"" ,.. two C ..... ,;.., • • ,h;", ."n"",,,, p"" .. ,.. M _ .nd ............... ,;.,-t ;n ("~'W"I'" """"" fWop.oph: ;/,iJ .. rot-. X" I.' ..... XI V.I . ~ {In."" " . ",, ". rI. XXIX. Dn N'" .; •• h ... I. ' .. ' B.d,,'.... (oot,),.~ {"m ) . "' _' ''. .. I'G " ,. " ...... \NfNf·. !<7- " . ),C. n..r!<<;<JJ. ti • .

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·r< onto. I. nd..:. p< pl.ntrd with ,,11 •• t (... " tl", '-;g~t). vi"", (" n t~. 1.,(. ). ,nd .10,,,1>, (.I""S the hm;.on li,,<\ .10 .. ,-;« nom, ",-;p of S""n grou"d. A <k>c.iptiv< .ioul" •. ', he pl.l$"c of h. il' (H 11 .\ Hl"H THe XA,lAZHC). 'PP<'" 0" ,hc gold bm. brrw... n .hoc .tgi " , ... Signik .m .. on, of the few Brun.inc imogc> '0 depic• • n••u •• 1Ji .."".'" ,hc "",n, follow, Gt<"gOfy', J ...:rip1ion. in,.",(u"ed hy • gold ini, i.1 .nd .-.p...,...,.J in ,hoc ,'oi« ofG<>J, 'I brough, .he hoil upon you, " I uproot«l you. viMY"'!> ond .hrobbe.i ... ",.I crop•. b" , I (.il«l1O .10."" Y''''' wickedn ...:" Th.~. "'1\;"" ,),""'., G'ego<)'.<><I hi. f..thcr (iden.ified by a nagmen . ..y iru<. ip,ion) .... <><Iing in (,ont uf.n ...Jicul •. r ing. cc"",1 g"'up .<tI\,po>r<l or .. ",.I<:<•• n.!. """"nd group, on .be .igh., o(fem.b," As .hown Iry' hi. h.nd go"ure and . hoc inlC. ip,ion ',he 'hrologim 'p<>h (0 tl EO,\O r OC <l. HM Il'OI'ON ) Gregory iJ deliv<ring ,il.< ..,m,on; Io i, f.. h.... ,iknce i. indica,ed Iry· . he conceal · men. of bo,h arm. "'i,hin hi. cloak, The gn.ure of ,he ce n,,,1 m.le encap."I ..", ,he ciri",m' <km • ....J for .n offiei. 1 response to, ,he ",lam;,y. whil. ,h. gu .u", of m.ok by m.ny of .he group demo"", ,,,,, .he communal reacti"" to tI,e

,,,,,row
"Ofm.

In it> 'p«ifici,y. f. 7ij . to<" w<ll bcy<>n<i ,he ill""r•• ion, '0 Homily .6 in orl." mon u""ip" of G"'ll"ry', Ho rniliQ. Tbough ,he iocipi. im~.o .hi. >em",n in ,he Milan manuK,ip' "'" b«n cxei>«l,') of ' he ,;" <upo.. of tI", )ill"g .... 1 Homil ... ,10 .. ill"",:" •• he scrm<>n o nl y on< picrUIa .~e h.il." The fourteenth.«mu.}" P"i',g',j4l (hg, 79) .ho,,~ Grego.y preaching from a KroH (.,. 10.. no.m.II)· Joe> in ,h. Mil.n G.tgOf)') wltil •• ~ .IC confi"", .he hail.bove tnc head, of .he S ., ianm, ci';",n" .I>c compo.i. ion bea" liltle ."",mblon"" '0 f, 7~"" 'On '~e plogut of ~, il' i, nO! • biographical sc.mon, ItO. did irs m.in .heme p.<!Cn. iok..... foreign '0 nimh-="'ury Co",un,inopoli,,,,, .10 .. i.. me",ing could only be " ",.bted ... m..tim ",,10... ,b.n <ummcnted ul,,'n; G rego.y·, ,hosi, n.mr.ol di... « rs ....... G....J'. l'<:<f1<'nsc 10 commun.1 , in, ..... comp .. ible wi,h niIHh.""mu ry .nough •.• nd ",ferenee to God', us", of n.. u",1",lomi,i .. '0 pun i. " .innen rem. ined. romm'", response 10 Ji""« ..... Indeed. i, i, li kely ,10 .. ,he se' mon ,,,'ICk , ",,,, n,n. chon!, fo<. of n.. . ural di.., .." (prim.rily eanh· qu. k<» hi' the capi ..1 du.ing .he reign, of Mien.cl ill • ....J 11.0,;( I." The ..,,10-

,n..

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.. Sa Bru ...... , • ..J ' ..d .... ~ ..! I, ..,!. " ... ,,,. " Fu!io l,,,, I'G" .... ...... " " Omo., ('9,,), ,I , folk-..! by to.I..~ m"'.~'"tr ;.ko, ;fK,.! ,t.. ~"' """ It....

''''-I'''.' ...

• o.lp pOo'u.n of "" prnpho' J<>d ,nd , f'K"" ;'" "', .. 0<1 ..... to. (."" "",..., 0( ,t.. "~co, "' .... " <.;..10., 1, • • ;.1 pl., ~"'J. XVl. , . .. ("41 ...... ;, 10,.,). ,.. " 11>0.1 ...., .. s,.., (",,,...,.,.., PIoOOoo, Homily (..I . u.,.,.100 Io.,. l. , I, ~h"," h"Ol. ,.,)• ....J ~t..",., tk libid .. ,4) tI>o, ·""'lo;nc """iJ ...... "". fun .... f~... ,t,., ... ';, ... _ _ .~ .... ,,, ..,.,,,,,..1 ,..... "".,~ ~....,.".... """ ...".,'u.,..... ";,~",,,~",' . n....p.1o~ foe..." .... bq"W>, \'~" j, ""I , " ,..,'~ proOOn ..... r f""h<""mpk> of tho "",'~i 0"1 "'" of " ,,",01 d;"'t< ...

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ill 81>9 wu .uffid."oIy mem",,,hl. '"~ he il\"'''I", ... ,ed i"to ,h . <),ek "fli,,,,giClI mmm.mor.. io~,," .nd, :n c,rq:ory h.d done hefo", ~im, ,I>< '"""_p.,ri."," rh,~;'" ....,I","d«1 ,,, i, wi,h . "",m,," (n"w I".,) ,~" .Im,,,, """.i"l y "'1"'.,«1 Grq:Of)" pointl," Grrgory', 'p<'Ci!ic , ub;c.:" 'he pbm4>'ro)"ing "Ofm, .100 pre. um.blr ,poke to n;nth.century Byzanti ne>, The iJo. of the coro'ruct<tl lond"'"pe, "'1"="'00 by g;>n!.n •• nd .vet\ fidd" had g"''' .ymbolic i"' I",",nce in Byumium, both ... rom.",ic c""cu ion of God', .«-"iOll (,hi. prim.,,;ly f<:>r ,h. ~rbon POP"!.' ion I. nd ... mean, of demon"",; ng hum. n con",,1<>'>'" ,h. u"fuiy W<)rld of n""",'· T~. d.",ucrion of ."I,i,.. , ...1veg<:",iot\ brough, in,o '1" ..,iol\ God', in'en,ion. a~d God', ""pon.. ro tl>< agric ... ltur.tl'!l who a"emp,ed ' 0 r«1<' ",e " p.",Ji",1 ,"W ",J.",d I,,\J""I>< ' u"." ....." n~"e fm,d"""",.1 kv.I, i, •• lIed into GU<1tion IlUmm au,hority <>vcr n"u"" n.. h. ilstorm o~ f, 7gr, .nd the.~ n,uJ r«p'm'" "f (;r"l\0'Y', flock '" ir, illu"",ed .n i.,u. ,h .. "'.. h••", 1nd I"'" . " ni. 1 '0 ,h. I\yu.n.in<>, . nd rem. ined .. impom.n, in .h. nimh .. in ,h. fourth cen ,ury,11
Folio 87" (, 6)
(~g, ,6)

q~.k.

Folio ~7" p",f.en (;«"11",)" eight«n'h ""rmon . J eliv<rcJ in IH on the de.,h ofhi, f"h.," Om;u;ng .n)·",,,,,.,,,;on. 1fun.,,1 """"', m;n"m,;" i""".J filIeJ ,~. P' g<: wi.h ..cD<> of Ch,i,,', mini"'r and <pi<O<l", from lil'c of Grrg<>ry'. f.. her.,.,,.~. OI'I""m<>Stofi" ,h .... ~i ...... .J,,,.... l:hri .. ""!1i,,S ,h. '1" ,,,1.. And",w, J.mes .nd John f,om .heir bo>" (M.tth .... ~"g..11): Ch,; .. co",·..,ing wi.h z..:hiu, w~o 1"" ..... ')'C1mor< '''''', Wo'" .n,,,,ing).rich,, {t uk< '901 - 1)' . nd .he coiling of ~·!.tth<w (M.tthew 9:9, M.tk ':J ~ , Luk< P 7-1S ), n.. middle r<gi"" c" n,inu,", wi,h l:hriu "Iking." ,h. rich Y"~ng ""''' (M,,,h,,,,, r9"6--11. M1M: 10017- 14) . nd Chr;n c<>"vcning N •• h",.d (John Q 7--48)."' Th. """... , reg_ iot .. <hmnicb tlK ..,,,,,,,,ion of Gregory', f..he, " Jcscribcd, in .he fu""",) "~";<>n; .nbrgcd ini.i.l, in ,h. tc" highligh' ,w.,of ,h. I''-'"'~''' ill",,~.tcJ .

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The "'P-"Cf "1'<'" w.,I. 'the , i,"on "f Jr •• m, ,~ .. (jnd of«" .... ,"'"' ul"''' ,,,,,,I worthy of ... Gfcgory ,oil. u. ,h .. hi. fa,h., cnnvcrt«l to Ch.i ...... lty .ft•• ,,,.h . d.com. in which he he.rd the word, 'I wa. gl"! whe" .h<y $Oid w me. 1« ll, u, go inw the ho,"'" "f the I..... d' (r..lm m o when i>c .woke, he "'p<>led the won!, '0 his wi!'c. The miniature . hOW$ G«'gOry', f:.tI>c • ......king from ,he Jr= _ it> divine impi"''''n indico.«I by. h. nd "f(rt,d emerging from an.r< "fhe.. e.. in ron",,,,ri. ",",1<1. "fblue - and !Wi.. i"g n:tI • ...d '" speak '0 Nonn •. he ... in red , Th. ime.il',io .. wri"en on the fume ("he £"1.,, of ,he ,hrologi. n I. Gregory of N.,i",m ,1 ,",ying '0 hi. wif<. I W", glAd when t!.cy .. id.o me') "'pplies ..... di. _ <I" logue, , !>ough ,he vi""",. i.! lef, '0 cOOll'kt«hoc poalm V <," Th< building behind G«'K"'r', f"het m.y "1"<><'" the house in ,,'hiet. .... a",,*e, "', ., ,lte ""hrc ",.11. .nd .«1 fil. "",f.pl'<" on • cimKh in [h. following occne, ',he !>ou« of. he Lord' ,I... figured in lhe d ... m. 'IX'e nex'", ', hoc wonder' ..... n G«'K"ry pmfcll hi. ",,«humen, ."d was kne.. ""h" [tun ... ...ding during hi ..... >cridenull)' ord.ined. p'''" .'' The oflic;'ring poi"'[' Kcomp.>ni«i 1»" ),omhful . ,,; ... nt, .und. brlo .. . chuK" wi[h hi •• igll, hand .. i.e<! in blening' hi. kfi i. open in , ges''''' of ''''p,ise •• G'egor)' senior "umble> 'ow• ..! him , .. m• .. «nJ.d. Fi n.lly, G«'gOry'. f.. her _ "0'" nimbed _ r=i,..." bap,i.m from [he >arne p''''' (his omol'h"oon ,ucked hi, left arm '" k«p i, 00' of ,I.e .... ,.. ). who ".nd, Of[ da[k g'<C1l ""l'" and lowcn hi. 'igh' arm to t""",h [he elder G regory'. hcod .. it emcrgn from.n "d .. crucifU[m fUnt that hi. IOn tell. us ......""iKlcJ hy A hcsofl;g~, .od glory, h.... tq>f... n,ed ... p"",ise ci,,,,,b, hond of whi« th .. .. ...., .v~l.n,l)' ,Irowo w'th • • um!'>>>'· I" ~I""'''' the I"''''' ""..'" ,he 8"'["'. of ,u,!"i.. wi,h hi. kfi hmd : nccdl ... m ")"' ,hi. gesm ... doc. no< f'CCUf in OIh« h>f>' . i'mal Ittn., in rari',y,llo (e.g, f ,,>liv, fig . • • ), SUI'<<n.,u,. I- 01' ., I..., unu,u.1 , - det.H ,h", mark .11 th .... episodes, in (onfirm .. ion "f Gregory', ...... m.'" th .. hi. r he ...... '",..JI«I [0 hi ..... lfb)"Gnd', •• Unlike the SCCIlCS ofG<q;<>'y'. r.. hcr'. lir•. ,hose of ,he uppe' '"IIi ......... only "ng.",i.lly ..1 «1 '0 (j'cgory', fu"ero.l "",ion. S<ill, .. Si,.,p" O<f r.; ........ n .. ob.crvro. ,he th<me of con"""ion uni, ... much of th.!'>ge ," . nd th ..." .xi .. ioo i, \""le"""'rcJ by ,he ,wo ,;,,,1; in .., i.... d on ,h. gold of ,I.e f.. m" [he I"""". one,,, we >aw, invou. Pulm ,''', whil. ,he top om: rum 'the a iling of the . po>da· (H KAHCIC T!!N AIKKTIOII ONj). 'n..- ,heme "f 'po>tolio; conv ... ion wos ;n

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0,\ f ' i 9 ', w< >« Bas il ..... hing th. fcct of on. m.n. givingJ.Qup [0 ,h. n<>, .• nd "''''ing mr" ' I)' g""'p_ Onl)' ,he I." viglt"'''' w1tich R",i l («<l ing. m.n OOV<',«I wi,h "',.. (p..,um.bly. 1<1"" )' .. f... dir«:dy.o ho.<pi"l; the r<>' co"'" Ji,« dy ("'''' G"W'<r', pmq;y,i<:, Fuli<> 'i?r provide< [h. only pr<><:<V«l ill"''''tion'" ,hi, I"'''''g<, .nd [h. onl,' 'm.go of 1I,u'1'. no.pi,.I, The .n.i .. 'op reSi" .. , p r "'" t(, h... been <,". . «I "" hoc in ordc, bo[h to "'ppi<m<n[ [h. [heme of ,he or>. ion, cornl"'''io(\, .nJ ", illu",.« wh., w<n: I:o:IOcvcd ". 0. ,h. hino,icai cit<um,u rn:" t h.. prompt«l Crc-gruy', ""rmon, relying on G«g<>l)", ~.wi,,\ ... ,ceo" ,It "f]i, ,ii', c h. rily,..

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the lowc,.hOWl h i< W:l"'rture flOrn Con," n[inop/e n[er f>< "'j<c[a! lh< p. "i"ch11 1<0< in Jh " The miniam'" ,upplem<n" G'<g<>ry'. ' F"<w<o1I o .. ,Oon· (Homily ~ ,) '0 the [jO bimop< P"'l<nt I! tM Ecumenical ('.ouncil of ,.a l ." which hocgin. o n i" vcr"', In the fin.1 """ p".sraph., C ,¥ry bid, f'l<'W<lI t<> . long li>1 of prople. induding , in 1 "' " t<n<:< ",,,I.,,J wirn an ."urged i"iti.!. ""1"'""_n,., Kene in lhe Upp<' ~"er p ictUre< tM octu. 1 fu.-cwdl. after tho ",,[mon. w!>cn C,¥ry ~nr r<> [h. 1"1.<:< 10 T h"oJ.-..i,,' I",rmi .. i(m to b ,'. ,he ciry; h. "k.. hi, fi",,1 le.ycof the b i<hop<. just bcIO", .. iling fOf 1'.:.,imm •. bdow."' Though in.pim! hy the 'F'I<'W<II ""'ti"n', ooth ""i...,.j.. «cu,m! . ft" (j'<gO'l dcii,...rcJ 'he "',mon . • 00 h< d.scr ibed ,he ."di.",.. with ThcOOOIios in .n . utot.iognphical potn' ...!>cr th.n in [hi. « . mon," T h. inform .. ion .... " h"",TVC'. ",.dily .... ilabl •. fOf the mcning i,; oJ", recorda! in the "'''' by Cr<g<>ry the p,..try~er thl! 'pp<.r> I! ,h •• nd of P..is,g',110," Both 'I' i...,.j .. ..... '" >U Ilicitt\1l~ fa miii.. '" be iIKO'PO"t<J in I.... iliustc.,.,J Hom ili .. nunuKr i!"'. [hough no, in [h. fo,m [h .. [hey 11k< on f.1J9" " Although mru, of [he hiog .. phiul mini .. u", in r,,; •. g',I'" aPl"''' in ,he qu. rt .. of tbe m. nu"'.;pt, the int<n",lr p<=n.l lOne of t!>c ·Fa, .....-..ll ontion' <vi· d.ndr iMpircd . murn ,0 [n .. g.nt< mid"'a)' ,hrough ,h. book, ,h. "PI"" Kent, too, h.arrno nized ... i. h I" .. nimh-century ime",' in the ",I.. iomhip !>c<w«n emI"'ro, . tId pmi.":h.,, cxp~ by rhotios," "11.. ul'P<' I<:<n. is "" agai,.., .n archi[<Ctu..1 h.ackd,op p.in[oo in hlu .... ~· blue [hat . " end. acr"" [h. "1list... nd "'p,cocnu . !>c imp.. i>.! p. I.«. G, egory, fuUt>w<:tl by t w<) hi'hO\», f.... , fron ..1 Throd<><>m Jist;ns,,;,hoo ~. • I"'.rI<J h..lo ,h .. 1""1"'[0.1," 0 motif mo", common in ,"1)· Byun.illC an . nd may '''lI8'''t on .1Iempt to pnwide hi"",i<ol Th< empc"" """'"pic> th<ccn, ,,, of ,he composi,ion, on ,he ' igh'. on <1.00""< gold ,hroll< i. H1nhd br ' ...0

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h<,.!rgu ..d, . AI"" I'mm ,he I"'"kd h.lo, i. I"'",,)"«l .. d..whc", in mmmcrip' (f. .11\1: fig, J6) ••od . he ~lIed ,hro= !=>Cnt!. "'fiuion on 1 ')'1'" >Cen in o,l>cr min;',urn .s "",II," TI>c .hrun. >i" bc""•• h • j<wclkd cibo.· ium. ,uN'<'"ed hy g<m""'><tu"ed rolu,",,, wi,h ""pi "I, ill ,he ;h'I'" "f ""Sl... ,n., ,ml"'.i.1 .nd .",mologiol .igllilion« of ",hOeh ,,~ long .go no.ed hy K..I l..,h"" IIII,'" An arm..: ofhlu. S'" nwkcd wi,h d ..k<. blue occuri« m"". of 10"'<f ..:gi>t«: i•• n'<If harbour of Om''''n';n""i. from ,he upl"'r left, .nd ;, <I., nneiled b<,w«n 17""" ,!.urn .IMg .1., lOp.nJ kt; ,ide of .h. f.. m., M in .I>c inug< of dCI"mo" fmlll hi, "mity If. 41''' 6g. 4'1). wh ... ,hc >c ••1", "Ita up ",.II m'« h.lf of .h. rompooirion, ,f>< Com .. n,inopoli .. n d""k '1'1""''' On the right 'ide of ,he p>g<: " ..",I '" .h. opi,,1 hy ><". i•• Iw.)~ pr=n.ed ... Ien· r.-..riv.r ;Om" ,,},. Hc"" ,he ,ho",li", cu~ roulld ro m= "'<to.y, who f..,....·dl'<>. <oml'><t group ofbi<h"l>' . nd I.it), >qu~ b<tw<"cn him .nd 'he ,igh, f.. mc . R<nilld him, ,h,,,,, ",ilo,", "'''' ,he 00 .. Oil ",h",h h. ,",'ill d,!",,, ; "". "<I" .. no« to hdp G..:gory cmNfk. on< >I"di", ,he rudd« .• nd rhe ,h ir<! i, ~inni"~ unfurl'h< .. i!.

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Folio ~'4V (~1) (fig, 4Il The I<>we>t rcgi!t,r off, 4'-'1V i, devoted '''.n im.g< ofG«W'<)' w.i.ing ,h..... "",ed ill ch. p'" " i'"<gI".1 P'" o. ,n., com!""i,ion ,,,,,,"illg of P'g<'" wl>ok.

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Folio ~,i' (~6) (fig..¢) The fi".1 tII;n'''u," in r ";"iI""O pr=n .. «enn frum GrC);l>r)-'.life in .h"" regi.""" j, P"'~ rhc "'-'a hy ""1l"rphc ['""hylO<. which !><gi,lS "" i" ",.., .. nd ,cr_
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min"" in ,he miJJk...f • •<n'ene-<" ,he enJ of qui« jS, ,h, p,..,..,,,,,1 in ,he m.nu"" ipt." In 'he '01' «'gi>ter G~', in <pi>eop.1 "l\"li., 'urn. hi, f,,,,ily., he " <p> .t..,,,J . ,hip in<t;>ti"g"i,h,hlc f,,)m ,ho", un ff. Jr >tl<l 'W' (rig•. b. '7)" ",j im hdp. him <mh.uk. while . nother '<1ehe. om to unfurl ,he .. iI, 11>< famil)', .n n;mbro, ".M on , ~n .llOrdin. d", u"dubt .. "'rti.. ny tow.N ,h. fOl' f,..m. , K.i>:>r;o, h•• ch.ngM in,,,. pink m."d<ov<' . hlu. robe: ,h..." a.. dr<>O<d id.n · ,ially '0 th.i, ponn)"d. on r .)V (fig. '1), TWQ-,hird. of ,h. w.)' .. to .. ,he «'gin.., ,h. rippling W"e< >hif" '0 rolli"g ,",',1'0 ,0 ,i£tul, eh,mg. of ..,.n •. Hm" in [h. right .h.M corner, G«'gory .i" in • boa, wi,h , .. ilo,. who >«om' [0 ""-It ,h. di,· uno:: : ,h. boa, h.., 'W'r<',,,I~' ius' ",.. n«II.,,<I, ,I\d. lisu .. '" ruhhc<l ,h.. ",,'<" i" g<nde, i> indetermi nabl. g'''['> ,he prow. Thi' "'ll><nC<' doe> no, ill " ",·.. ,. "'y ,,"''''ge i" ,ne>cco ml"mying oild. i....!.,.,J. " .nyone oufficiemly im<remd in G regory to pion . deluxe: ",Ium< .ueh .. P",i',gr,\'O wt>Yld h.v< known from re.ding hi, """rk, i, i, buth hi"o.ically ",J S""Y"Phia.lly inace"", •. N"i,n,-", ... inlmd ('--1l'f"'dncian [{"!'n,.M.he "l\ly jou,ney> ,ho[ C;«g<>ry m><l. by "'. o<c~,rrd <i,he, before hi. ",din,,,ion in ,6,1, or .n« ,!.r doo. h, ofK:oiuri ... (in ,) 69). G0'f;0ni. (in the .. rly J7"') .,><1 hi. f"her (in J7i)." The reg;"" i, ""t,.,hc1... ,1m.,., ~,,.il\ly "".0< '" <vok< Gregory'. journ"l' in )79 .0 Con".minopl<. [he mo>[ impon:.n[ 1I\d di".nl ofh ;' bishopric>, .nd ,he only ",)(" '«)\li,i'\g' SC> "')I.g<. R\" i. i, p~",cd ... mrt._ photical journey. [00: b .. ving lho donge" of ",vol ~ .nd "'. ,.-.",1 ""-' run.idrrcd e<p«i.lly h.".rdou. by ,he Brumi".,. ~ Gregory bv,," ,n.., .ubilit)' "f hi. f. mily, md 'heKby demo", . ..,,, hi. mo,,1 !lreng,h and hi' intrll=u.1 (.nJ ph)'>icatJ rouragr," Th. middlo '<gi"" pict~,,, G"l!0'Y" cons<cw ion, pr,h.p' {.ina: f. "]V lfig, If l, hi. rons«wion .. b;,hop of s."im. in 3711 hi> ><ronJ, .. hi,h"p of

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Con, .. n. i"""l. in J8 .."1" < two COMC<r:iltiorui d ille, not only in the number of attending bi,hop>, b ut .1<0 in the ".nC<> of the figure> .nd in the .r<hite<", ..1>Ct. ,i"S' . On f. 6;"'. ,10< ,it< pi""" hcfo'., ciOO'ium I'!,ct<! """ t(I ,he church; on f. 4P', G~ry and.he bi.!wp. m .nd within a bern. (indic:uod by blue '<rnplon Kr«ru1 A.nking. low gold doo.) .hat <xtend.. outward from the apocd ch urch hchind it. white a blu. rolumn, b," c",",.nd ,~od with rd drapcry, o«upi .. ,he m. inins ,>II the tight , TWO) g""'r< of men - 0'" ,,,on. ,,ic and 0"" cbic.l _ wi,n .., d~ con ......;"n on f. 67>" '''''' group _ rl>< m<mben of which at< ton'lOrd and , h.,dO", p .... urn.bl)· mon.stic. though tht')' do no< wo. ,h. b,oW1l robe. no.m. 1 in r., io ,gr.\10 _ .ppc... on f. 41H. Wc h . . . .Ir<ady o«n th.t on f. 6;"' the officiating b"lIop. c/fect G~.y·, oono«,,,,,,n IIoth by hand • • nd by 000/.:, whil. on f. 412< ,I>< ronSK",,;"n by boGk :tIon. ' pp'''''_ t"Whil" i, i. po»ibl. th. t ff, 67>' .nd -1 \1< «Ae<t di!fc",nt ,·i.u. 1""utee> rathc< thon (or • • well .. ) pKru,i"s diW.... n' ron"",r.,"'n, '" .... p"nd ing d.,ire fo' ...,i.,y, "'.• di""nl >p«:U1" ion ,10 .. ,h. col umn ,m ,10" righ, of ,I>. 4." coml""i, ion w•• i"",,,..! to Cltl"nd .10. im.g• •o fiJI . wid .. . pa<c th.n it occupi..! in hyl"'"" th .. ic.o l •• rli .. mOOd:'" ",·i.hin the CO<tt< .. of p",i •. gr.I ' O ,I>. """i", to align G«gory'. p"""Y"b v.nially p...mdc •• mo •• rompelling ju" ilic:u ion fur it<

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long grrying "'"d'" I do nO! how of . ny p... lleb from. coml"",bly e.rI)' re.iod, bu, it dO<"> 5«m ,h., ,he ,hree ageo of, in ,hi< co"', m. n.re he.e gmupcd wi,h d.,.,h . lbc K<um"l .. ion of deuil.on f .j1., np«i.lly in 'he ,op . od bm,om !,<!!i<''''', p"-'vioo , ""i..,,,,,,IiMng in,«p","';,," " ( (;',,!!,-,f)'> life. Th. w.y ,I>< 1"11" ;" COm· po...! fQlI""" 'I"'''em well ",ublilhed in I'.,;',g',j ' ''' but i, <qu.lly lugiog.. phic The po",.i""fG~fy.r< .11 ..-",.. li""l, wi,h ,h. e,..,,,,,,,,,,«1 Gf<g<>'Y plxed in ,f>< middl<"f ,he ""ond ~,«, ,ho de.d G«'g<>'Y "",,,hcd om I><no ..h ,hi • ..-"'_ mooy in ,h. bottom ,Oof, . nd ,h. tw<> im.gd of ,h. '",,,,lling G«'g<>ry pl..:ed .bo'" ,k d<>,J "",n', f"", .",1 hooJ . Other fig",.,. (,,' ''''~''l o."""n", ,I", \of, .nd ti~h' «Igco of ,Ix folio, In ,h. "-'I' ~,,<t, 'h"" .re.... re 611cd wit h 6gum bKlding G!,<!!o,~ f.«w<ll .nd w<lcnming hi m, in ,ho middle ~,,<t, wi,h ."end ing elc,~ . nd tk column wrrnountcd by . eros<, in the I~, ~"e" wi,h ,he . edieu!' .nd • p... icip,lm in Grego'~', fun.r.I. Th. p.-.Jilec,;"n of ,h. G!'<!!"'r min i"u,;", for .. i.1 j">('p.-.si,ion, "",n" "n..- .g.oin '0 h,..., «>"d i, .... n«l ,he .. ,mpo.i,;.,o, "f ,h. individu.1 'egO""" i, . 1>0 " .iM ' k guo< OIl ",h.. , he dc.ign •• of ' he 1"11" <on'id_ .ml to be . h< "'n'i' .... n.1 "",m<nt> ofG«'K'-'"'Y', lif.,

Folio '<>if «7) (6g, '71 Th. milli .. ",. I'r<r.... G~'r" fouy·,h i,,J ..,m,,". ,he 'ft"",..1Or.. io" '" I\"il 'he G.-c-., ', which wn proh.bl)' deli-.ml in )8, on ,he >«ond mni",,,,,'Y of ,he .. in", de.,h. I. i, . moog tl>< I""g<>' OfG',,!!,-,fY', SC.mon' _ "",,..,,J only to ' he homily again" Juli.n _ .nd ",'", on< of ,h< m.,.. infiuon,i>I, ."",nJ 888, ro' =mple, leo VI modelled hi, eulogyof ,he I'.mrefOl 8 .. il I O i" ' .. ft G!'<!!Ofy p ..... " ". ,J . .. il.J .u,J , !fec,i"n". "f Ro"I', ' if<. 1'<.... '" in memo'Y of ,hei. n udent d.y> tosc,her in A,h.HI. G~'Y 'p,inldcd ,h. o ... ion libe,.lly with . 11".ion, t(, d ... i". 1my,h~ogy. Th""" 'OS<th-cf wi,h ,h. m)~holot;. i<>l «tt«ft<<< in thett ",he. oomilin. impi«d a ,i"h_"'OIul}' . utoo, now k...".,.n •• ['«udo-No",,,,. ,., wfi«.n <>pl.n.,0'Y romm. n.. 'Y th., Ryun,in. manu· ",rip" "''''<timn illu",,«'01 In P••i, .gr. jlO, m.. gin.1 numbe .. ,I. .. cOf'npond . nd wi,h "". i"n, of ,hi. <om m.m0'Y 'pre" "" If, 'Of". '''7', ,o8v, tI)._ v. 'Ij"-, we m.y pfob. bly ..,u me ,h .. ,he i\<udo_Nonnos <ommen,,'Y o.igin.llr /01_

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• rommemo",mon ofl\.o'il', pfOlifi< . "tho"hip. Behind lI.o<il, • pink b"ili"" lad. '" t!>Ocrn[n.1 «<nc, which Jcpi<" the dfO;t "fll.o"I'''''lwdo.< SCMuon the Ari,n Ernrer<>' V,len" .. <ks<:rilxJ i" ,he fi!;~'-s«ond I»" ~r.ph of " ... 'h"... r.1 0"".,,," ' -' 11,,;1, in full =bi.",,,,1 «pli', ".nJ, bcfo, •• gold.ro! ;cwclkJ <ioo.ium , 1Ccoml"nicd hl' • ccfIK,.,winging d.""",,: hc i. "1Ik·i.,,ng in ,h. d,u«), d", b;.:k> hi"" The emr<,m. in ,he I'OIrpie ""n,1o embdli,hcd ",[10 SulJ f.milu, ffOm mh« imreri.1 "I'"""",,[io",, " " =<con,< by giddin<>< .. h, .. 'pp",..:hcd ,he .It.r, he twi>" " if "'!;I;<tin~ in[o. t.l1 - ,he I.o<onie i"""ip[ion, OYA,\HC II £pnpl::lI ()~!ENOC . I,.... d)' ",,,01.«,,, ·V.I,n, ,,,',m round' .nd Gtq;Of)'''Y' fha, he "'o"IJ h.Y< (.lIen h.J not '" 'ttend,"t. 10,,,, 'cp"""ntro ... )'o ",h in , hlue tunic. '''pporccd him . V.len. ,hen N.ni,hcd I\.o.il. hOI, I!>O nigh, bcl'ot< hi. a'Ie ..... [0 begin, ,he emrer<>r..... n G.I" .. , (ell ilI . nd B,,;I """'-",,,.1 to.> t1« ,..!.cc '" P"'Y (Uf .." =,,<')'. Tk "ehu• •oh.iJ."J ,," 1\0.1,1', ",i\",1; hut \',I.n, ,1,0 ""1'''''.,! ,Il. p"')'C" o( [he Amn., 're<fidy , h.. mult.,! in ,he hoy'. dath. lnl! cntit< q>i<oJe, wh,d, ,h. ,.'" Iligloligh" wi,h '"'' g<>ld ,ni,i,I, 10<1. ',,,,.-.lu,ing ,h. n,,,.,,i,,,: ,ho: Ofho:, m"king ,he I""'ge ",h'r<:in G"'8"'Y 01'1.,,,, [h .. G.b",,· &"h " " " c-autcd by V.len' <'«Out'" to A,i.n r"')""l. ' '' ;, ,«1",,«1 in II .. mini"ure [" G,I"i ... in purple ",d gold, Il'ing Jc,J on ,gold .nJ gem.en ..",,«I1xJ tI", h.. been ,wk".nJly ;""""oJ ., ." .ngle t."""",,, ,he pf'<C«!;ng "w,! r"u, .... inS .,,.n<:o: [he kgcnd r<:.oJ. ·,h. de.,h of ,he >on of V.len' (0 \' IIO IC TOY O YAAI! T E6 NHKflC). Fi ... lly, V.I<fl>, ",,,oJ on • gold I)'rc-b. dcd [hru ... Jcco",,«1 ,,·jth p.. r! ... ign»n ord., of ~.ik-, " , ''l'""",,[e.h.. 10"S ><mll ,I.", ""f",I, down ["",.• «1 ,he ground, • ..J ll ..iI l! p~, h ed in,,, ,he bonk,of ,be mini'fUr<: by. )'outh. ful <o.mi .., Thc I..-ge pink .nJ Kold "ru<ture behind I\.o,il m.y repKO<n' .he

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!>oen I",., ,he Kmn.n" fOllow . common Brun,ine p.ttem d ..,ilied ~. W.her ., ,ho, ',~, ".pu n~' iu n .. j" ,ho, '" ,n;; in, _ '" The min'uufC on f '0-4' C(>1ln«" as cko",lr wi,h G~ty'. '0[" . ny in ,ho, m.nu><"ip', .nJ moro Jir«tlJ' .h.n mo ... 1« ",Ii.na On t"e "omil)·. empt, ..iC>II)· underlined br ,he ubi~u ;fQu , gold in;[;.I, ,h .. lign.1 nc.. ly .1I ~cs iliu ...,.. od. com,,,, .. ,h' rply wi,h ",he. a.,il C)Tb o((I",il'. lift: .urf.u with "'me f''''lll<"n0' io> n,,,,h. ,.",h..,. .. ""y "",num.n,,1 J~" .. inn. hu, the I'M' gn.mmn at ,hoc "'-<:AIled Temple off..,,,un. Vorili. in Rome. at New Toka!. .• nJ at R" Ik, '" O""",i '" <:"1'1",1,,,,.. ",Iy nn t he • p<><' )'Ph.1 I i f<: of 1I •.•iI ,<t ri\>,,,cJ ,n P1cudo-Amphiloch,,,. .nd offi:. no 1"'...11& [0 f. '0-4','" Tile s""" P~",1kW inch...!e> the epi'od ...f R",iI pn><=,ng ,h.... ;<10, .... h", h.... t"" . .", Kurr Weil2m.nn 0""''''''"'', ,he ;m.ge i, unfd"ed [0 .10 .. in P.,i"g'_ 110'" Even ", he. m.nu><. ip"of ,he Homilie< di!!l: •. Tho, />.Iil, n Gr<:g<>!)" indudc. twO imOSt:' rd .. cJ

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Rtl;" JjlV 1' ....,," • pie,,,,;,1 ni,'t"'phy of $, C~pt; ." "f ,0.",;",,1. ... pr<f_ '" Gr<tO'"y', 'T" Cyr,i.,," '" C"'W'Y d iJ nm know Crp.;,n _ ind«<l. IK intc" mingle> ,hooct;.it;'" of C)·pI;'n of Antioch and C)'pri.n of C",h.gc'" _ b<lt ,be homilycn""p",loted ",eh. ";,,inS ..... o.i"" n' ,,,, ,, ),,,1,,,,, ,10" it ,,"" ;nduJcJ in ,1.< lifUrgi..--,1 «Ii,;"n" ,pf'-'rcntly fm rculingon the ... in" f"," d.), (1 Oc.obcr). In G"'W'Y" ",,,ion of Cypri.n·, lif., the .. int I><g.In OS • p"",.i,ion« of the oo<ult ..", Wh." he f. 1 in I"", wi.h , hUII.if,,1 Chri"i,,, "i'lli", C)'p'"" ""1 on 1 1,,,( demon> to .id in f>< • .lCJu«ion , Th. (u nn.med) "ifJ;in invoked ,h. pmt«.ion of
[h. V;rg,n M"y, ,h. demon ,h,... ned, '''' ."d [h. f.OI"f< co,,"'" Cypri.n [" bum hi. oo<ul. ,nd COnv.rt to C hristi.ni,y, Hi •• n.h"""m inci t«l [h. d;'plc"",,,, of [f>< 1;rnp<lOt lkei",. ",10" h.d Cypr;'n', lOng"" cut 0'" .nd aikd him, Th . ..;nt continued to pro.d )~izc (i n "'[iting), and DKim ul';m .. dy o,J.r<J j,i, .."",,,i.,,, hy beh~i "g. Thi, oeeoun, m",iv>1ed [I., min, .." ", <>n f. Jj2>', ,Io""glo de,,;h from ",10« "'ur<:n were ;nco'ror.ued .. ",dl. '''' Th. upp<' regi>!« ,h,w.-, tn. Cb ,;>!i", vi ,gin . d,=«I in <><~ '" and pink. nimbed, ~r"! i<k" ,ifi",I~' i"sc,ip.ion '" J""in, ,' '' befo",.n alt"d",p<d in ~ .nd pm<ec,«I by. gold h.:tld""hin: hcr h.nd, . nd gn.c to • gold m«l.llion com. ining a by>! of Ch[i« whik • win~«I de""",. cuJ ;n , ",;ndo. h, "'''''''' ,(."med '" Crp';''''," Crr';'" (KYI'i I'IAKOCI, dod • • • p.gon p/l ilo"",f><. in • blu. tog> tlo .. k,,"" It.lf of Iti' ci>«, .. poo.cd. ,its .m;d" h .. ,><Cult 1"~'pk.",Ii.t. wh~h i"d"dc Bold cult "II",," (,h. 'WO"" [be bo,in may rq>ta.<n. ""m"nculi) . nd, bit.. globe h.:tnded ;n gold. A JOinl~"'c"", .,;"ing h. ",11«1 "" .... 11. ,i" ;n [h. tow" .;gl.. (O"'e~. M< of .h. mim!<. ("'og","nd

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.. . ",..,1 g"'l' p,,,,iro <"ding in •• ing!< coIumn_ ," 1 Th. I".... , «gi.«t p,«<n" Cyp,ian·,Iif. aft .. 10;, «>n'"r<ion ", Chti"ianity. To ,,~'''I ,I'e ch'''I;<:. he " ";",hc.I.,,d hi. h,,, ,n,! f.o,,,j h,,",, 11'''''' !!""y. 1" ,ne ,,~, ,hi,d of ,h. rqtO"'" <CJ>" .. ed from ,he =, of ,h. r<"gi".r by. dill".• ~" . aun. is'~'~ ~. Gf<l,"'<)'; • pr;"" h..p""" (;YI";'" hy i",n",,,,,,,,, ;n. b..Jy (Of u..-p blue ....... " ooid. ,h.m.• rcJ Ii,. mnm ...... erp,i.,,-. m.gic «roll •. " . Mind ,h. fi~ut<"S. "" 'upof • hi~ g«<n 10,11. ,it>. ,..hit< ",",ilion ch utch. AO<rofld lUI>< ,ha' ,lel"'" from (j,'t."'-Y"' ".. ~"i ... """"pi<:! ,he W, ("'tgn>"nd, in ,h. P""'''~ of • nl>n who we-." •• m.1l whil< li lb in hi. h.ir .od i. <;"1.1)' d.....ro in g<>kl .nd rcJ, ,h ...".n' .nd noo .... in' boils in. bl .... a uldron , urrounded by R.mes. '... Again .• I.~ builJirlg '1'1'<".r< in ,he b..:kglUurld, ,hi. ,im •• blu •. 'pp..-.n,ly >«01 , .. ,IIO"U'" wi,h an ;r.hed Joo,w'y_ Th. ",I. ro<, .oo"",,,ion ""'". dirccrly insri~ by Gn:-g<>'y'. I"n<"g)"lK rondud .. SC<ju.n<:< in ,h. I<f, bxkground: .n "",,",u_ ,i,,,,,,, in mil i",)' dm.< behead. ' he .. in' ....100 kn.d. wi,h bound h.nd, on a hill_ ,iJ" bcfo« • p.>k blu< huilding embclli>hed wi,h ",lief «ulplUl<. = .gains< , ""i<s"ted blu. b.ckground th .. inclod«. kaA ... 'f<"<.'" While -1" e yp,i •• · Jc.c,mi"aJ ,he . uhjec, "..,n... f. JJ'";' cI ...,ly "m baS<:d <"dmi",l)" on ,hi. ,tlt: Gn:-g<>ry "",,,r .... m.. jw;,in •. dcsctibn wom.n .. p"')'i,,~ to tI,~ Virgin ~ h.r ,h." (;hti", and f. it. '" di"", ...i,h.r C)'p",,,', b'p'i , m 0' ~i, ",nu,", in ,he could,."n_ Only ,he Ii", of ,h«< deni" recur> in mhe, illu.mued oopies of ,he Homilies_10 ,toe Mil," G'<"g"')'. a wo" .." d'"..."j .. a 1Iy>.>mjnc emp' ..... holdi"S' c rown of m."yrdom. i, i" .., ibed jUi!io", ,,. on< ropr of ,he li,urgical ! lomil'" «pC'" . he iJ,",;r""",i",,_ id«"ifi"""(O,, of )""io, wo>, h..'~r, "",n k"",.. ", in ,he typjkon of Gre .. ChUlch, C)"l'';'" . nd ,he yi'gi" JUSl;n. (n. med) m..re. fc .., thy: ~.di .., ThroJore "fSt""d",n ;nvuW ,h.;r , id for pro'«tion of ... ffcring ic,,"o .... i\cs. ,-" Orherwioe. ""i,he, ,ft< Mil, ,, "'" ,he t;'urgictl Homi!i.. demonSlm.. • ny .ffinity wj,h I'.ri •. gr.\,o. The I.tt., group i"dud .. Ii,,, n.mu;"" .pi_ ..,J", from C)"l'ti.n". lif. _ Cypti.n', .".mp,ed .<educti"" of . Ch,i"ia n y;.pn by jny... i"~ de"""", ,he ",,;n, bd",,,-,: 1>«:i",. Cyr,i." wti,;nl'> hi, m'''yrJum, .nJ

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,h. "in! f'<",humou.I)' ........;oling h;m",l! ,,, ~ wOm. n ;n • d.nm _ but .11 fon"... Grego.y, ,." drudy . nd ",m<1 ;m« e..du.;",I)'.'''' None rrquirn . !.OCOM ,,,,,... al ,0"",., "0"< durli.,.,., <i,b.. of ,h, episo.,J., pico "",J 0" f. ))1' ,h". a nnu, ,h.",· ",Iv" depend on Grego.~·. '1" Cyp. i,,,·. :-'0. do ,I>< 0=0<> ,harc.i by ,I>< li,u,sial Mi.ions.r><! "",i"y.\,O _ .h. mo.tpdom .nd Cyprim in"'king demon. '0 .Od in hi, sod "",ion ofj u"in. _ d<""", " ..,. ,n y .ffi nil}". In .hon , ,h •• x<,. · homil«ic «enn come '0 f. JJ1V from 1 """'« nO! "S<J by o.Itcr Hom;li« illum:"" ... Thi' "'".« w ••. "" Omon. r«<.>gni:ted, .:tlm<». « •. roilll)' ,h • •h, ...,'Olum. "'.... acc.,un, "rcyp';'"'' lif....,itlen by. c<n.i n EuJoI.i, Aug""" p". "hly ,h< wif, "f T h.. ,J",i". 11."· TI>< I~ "n\ "', ~mg<' , urvi...,. ;nrac<, hU1 i, i, 1[1<,",.1 ;n ,h. n;n,h «n ,u,)· h)' Pho,;o" ""M w., ,u fficiently in,.,· ".cd in i, '0 provide a lens,h)' tumm..y ;n hi, iJib/i.,,,,,,",, '" l'lt",i",' de .. ikd Jeso:t1p1i ...... of the tnt 'ugg<sts tit .. it wo' nO! well ~"QWn e,,," in 'he ni nth cen. " <y. for he ra,ely men ,ion. ""n,'en. ion.1 work. no, co: ren,ivd y dosc ,ibn f.m il· .uJ""i,·, poem, .. we kn..... ,hem i.. on ... Ik th,t .. i, m,y, 'he ,eI"".n' de"iis of F f,om 1'1>0';0" d""" .. il perf«tly " ';,h ,he e""'Mmi""ic f".>fur" of f. JJ"'. i\o:Q,J ing to rhoti!», the ~'>I vulum< or EuJoitii , trilogy <on«me.! 'he many' Justin •. Cyp, i,..,'. '''''''pt to """ )' ,he ";rWn by di'p>fch ;"g demon', ,he '·m~ui.h. ing of ,be demon. 1»' ,he <ign of ,be C""'. md , mo" imporra",. ,he burning of C~prlan', l>ooluon mag;c md hi. b. p,i. m . 1 . pp.. rc.i io ", fi .., volume and a... duly d....;OO! in ,h. Bihli"")f~'. Th....ond ,·o lun ... Ph",i .... """' i" .... , ,ecounr.J ,h< )'OU,hf,,1 Cyprl.n', P'ow", in m.gic.M ,n., " ' n", ,~.I .,. ron_ ""fie.! Christi. n, . nd ,he ' hird !Old of ,n., rnanyroom. ofJ,,«i .... md Crp rl.n . In ,hi, """"""" wa. Ii ... th rown i,,,,, , brom., n"kl ron lille.! wi.h ...... ,,J S"""" ."J "" ,"'., , Ii«: hi. forn .., f,i.nd A,h.n"i", .";,,e.! tn ,he ,ono..,. A,h.".";,,.' impiety W"; pun i"),e.! : h< I"u ne.! in ,I>< A.",. . ... hik Cypri. n mir..:u· I"",.)y <=Ipcd ,h. Milins CluIJ". " "n""me.! . H"ing ,ho. f.tle.! '0 de« , ,n< .. in •. Diock,i.n (nm. " in Cregory'.... mon , Dr.::iu.1 orde.ro Cyp,i.n·. bel><.d · i"g, Ph, ~ i,,,,' ,,,mm.,y ,of Fo,l" k I~ ",,,, <Iou, "". ""I y i,I"n' ir..:. thc ,,,,hi)· d r<>«J m.n , .. nding ""'ide err';. n', ". "IJ ,,,n ... A,It.n.,i"" hu, .1", inCO'l"'",,,.11 epi>od" piClu.ro on f. jj 1V _ b",1t ,ho>< "m;ne.! from Grq;o. y·, p.nq;y,i, .nd ,h".. d<>eribeJ in il. Whik i, i. in u in.iall)· unlikely ,h .. Eudoki., ,'i'aofCYl',i. n was ill"Slr... e.!, we c.ntIQ, <o,,,,I""I'\"ly di"",,,", ,h. P<"'ibili,)' ,h .. >1\ ill""",e.! copy of ,h., """ ,·h"'nHoen<",! ,h" P".;, m;n'''o,' '' . h i,. how""", (., mo,. rim. ,ibk the poem it!elf pr<>mp'e.! 'he im'!;< OIl f. J)l>, . ,u!;l:«.ion furtifKd. 1»'

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,he aM.:~« of a com?,.. bl< >«!UC~« in .ny "'h<r ~'<;In'i<>< r<!'rnoo",ion of Cypri... ', !if., In i" ;ncor!",r>!ion of <1';.00<> nO.( m<mion«l by Gl'<lI"ry, 'h< lill: "fCyprian i, q" itc "nli~e ,he h,gi<>gr>phi",1 Jevo<<<l '0 Il>'il "n f. 104r (~g, ' 7). ,hough, ,i mi!." I"",<, n "Ppun o n on< of tl>< f"g<' dn.ilin~ ,he hi"ory "fJuli~ ,h. Apo>"'< (f, 409" fig, ~o), '" In ,hat c.t ... oddi,;"n,) "",nco con .. ftom. ",iddy .<I", •• d ,h!OuSnou( .h. 1I)'U",jn. wo<lJ, f. JJ", on ,h. ",I><r I"nd, p(<)Video the uniq"" .i!...!iu,ion of Eodokia', ""r5O . bou. err,;'n. Th ;., rar<1y 0"",«1 "",n. wa< of >U{'h in'<rn"o I't>o,i"" .hat i, i, one of only twu poem> <ven '" I>< rn<n,ion...! in ,he BiMi6,brh. Po><iblr bi, f""in,.ioo ,.," ;n",ir«! by 'h< ..,....;;.,i"n of CYl',i.n .nd JlU<ina wi,h .u/f<ring ioo""phil .. K<:ord«l by Throclo ... of S.oudion, bu, what<>er ,puked Pho,io' rn,h " ,i"m. i. >«m. li kely ,bat ,be Crp,i." cyd< w.,; muJili..J .r.J <>p;n.kd "n<k, hi' di"",,;"n '" indud< d.",il, mmi.",«l by Eu<loki'" vir~.

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The biOV'l'hi<>1 >con", in I""i<.~r· f'o , ... by J.f. " ,,;"n prin,",ily ill""""i,-. ,b", n<l\«i<>I: in ooncq>f. ,;..y <=mhl. "'(l" n. ini .." .... in (l,h .. Ho",iliel manu.",ip'" Bu •• 1>< bi<>gr>p/lical ><Cnc> a ... a«wIly h like ;11""""iom in o,het m>n"",ip'" onJ mo ... like ",h<r i,',.~<> in r.ri,·~,·S'o. ,h.n ono m igh, .o,;':ip;'<, n ..r< .... «".in i), """",;'m.1 oon""". ;oo< w;,h ",1><, iliu" .... «1 Hom ili", _ .....,... no.. bly wi,h ,he triple I"", .. i, of B.uil. Cr<g<>ry. • nd Grq;Ol)' of N,.... ill ,I>< Ma.n G ... gory. ,h""gh p",I.,p' ,h. d. ..1t ofGorg<'lIi, md """'-<>C'-"'<l im'g<> of ,he fun<"l of Koiuri"" and G«'g<Iry'•••"mon on .IK h,ih'",," in . hat mon,,_ ><rip. """< . I.... "no< ,eI ....J - b". ""or mo ... "",n.. lir.J n" colln'<'p;ru in o,n¢, G,l'$or)' """,,.c,;p,,. CV<n wl><n ,h .... m. p; ... gc r"";,... illu." .. ion, In ,he .nd. m... , of ,h< bi"llr~hical im.ga "",d .Ione: m'or 5«m '0 haY< b«II c... at«l 'p""ifi",II)' for ,I>< man""'tip<: ,oJ lI<>rlr al! fir.J """"",. Ip;t,.lId, wi,h in. "" her , 1t.II o u"i&, l'ari'.8'.1'0, 0..:, holf of ,h. p.~« 'hat indud< bi"llr'pnical ;mag<> 'PP"" in ,h. fi", qua" •• of ,he ",-,,,use,ip' (If. 43", I'v, 67v, 7' Y 78" 87v, lo~r). '1"1>< g.n« be..--.o•• , d« ..... in&lr favour«! .. won. on f'ar;"g>",SIO ptogrn>cJ, and bi"ll'ophial ""'<><> hecomc m" ... i,.-,i.,u..J : wh'l. iI<V<" of ,h. fi n, ..... tv. ,.., mini.m", i""lud. h;og" pnical ><cno (mini .. urn ortl. I), 11-17). ,I>< "'moining ,ix P;g<> wi. h bi.,. g>"apl.ical ima~<rl'''' '!,r<Old ",or ,ho ful1 '''''illg """"Y' "i ''' mio;.,u .... (If. '4~'. 'J~" .81'. jJ>v. 4'4v. 4jlr: mi n;'!U= 20, ' 7. '1, jJ, 4', 46). Ai, . h. numl>< • • <><1 de",i,}, ofbi"ll"phic.J <cenes dimini.J.c.. ' he ,d"N>o,hip be t ..... 0 ,h. bi"ll"'ph-

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icol im'g<ry, [h. [<X" .nd, wh<n 'h,,>, _1'»<"" o'hot >«n<S 'm ,he I" SC .1", g....;u . • lIph in., Six of [h. [hi" ... n hiogf>l'hk.1 mini.,uro r<>!!iet ,heml<lvc:< b;.,gnph)'.nd ...., no' combined wi[h biblicol o. hi,,,,.ic.1 ><.n<s_Th. ,h .... of ,h= .r< ,ied dOldy '0 G'"!;I>I)'oJ<Sc.ip,ion •. f"Olio 4)" (fig. ~) imrodt>«> G,,"£o.)', f.",ily ,,1<1, inoe<ted hc[w<= nlne ..1 ",.. ion, fo[ hi> 'ibling>. pic'Ur<1 Gorgon ",', de .. h .nd Ka"'ri",,' bmi." f. 7Sr (fig, (5) p<>nn)'l.il< h.. it"ofnl ,h., on-..,ionro GlC1\ory', I<rmon .nd .h""" him delivering it: f '04' (fig_' 7) ill"",,, .. ,h. life of S, B" il wi[1I '1'i"",1« ,J..."ibcJ in 'ho ' w>mpmring <ulog)'_ All of [h"", 'rt><" wi, hi" ,ho den .. du"ot of biOV.ph ical»olSC'" 'he begin ning of [he mmus.cril''' ,h. 6n.1 ,hI« f~lI·p.SC biognphi« ,,. ks< d'l"'nJ.", on ><Ii<ICon. «." ""100 1J9' (fig, 17) pic",,,,, cpi><.><k. ,h .. "",[[[!cd .f,« 'he >ccomp.tnying .«mon wu Jdi""ml .nd .h.. . ,. no' da.c.ibcJ in II.., ,.<1; f. 'J'v (flg_ HI i"d..J", .Om'" . h., COn' ''' di<l (;''11'''1'', ei",.,f CYl'ri.n .nd J«i,-. in>!.w from. ""pa..« """O<In, of ,hc ".in' ·, life , f"lio ~ !'. (fig. 46) mi. .. cpi,..-,J", ",e"on,ed in ,h. lifo oI"GlC1\o'r wi,h ,hrologi.n·, ,inu<> and wi, h deui), des igned m u ni· Ken"" in""n,ed '0 d i.pl.t), "",... Ii", hi. ar<.ioncc, ,he p>g< "' , whole i. ku info,,,,.,i," . bolL' 'p<Cifi.c ioci· in (;fOgUlY', lif< ,h.n .bou, how [ho n imh ccnmry vi.u.li."d ,he '-'''>«1'' "f <onai ty. The fi", [h[« mini.,~ ... ili ..Slr... Gr<g"fY" wonk ,he n~al 'h"", , upplo"",,,, ,hem Of. in tho cos.< of f jj2V. provide ,n .he"',,'" il\torpl.." .. io~. Th. r<m. in ing biog .. poiaJ "",no< or >«i""oc<s fu,m I"m of Ioug« composi. ,ion •. Whon joined on a »olg<. [hc hiog"rh",,1 .. "I hiMic-.1 Ken", fOfm in «m.lly ooiI .",n' mini"ma: 'he two g<nln h:ovc b<cn nude ", wo,k 'yn,hio,ic-.II)', bu, ,hi. proc"".oo <h,ng'" <Ne< [h . cou"",.,( , ho ",""u>crip<. On ' he fin' p>g< [0 mi. gomc (f. j1V; fig, 10). [ho imag< of (;''11'''1'' deli,,,j"E 10;, "'f"",n p.ovi<k • • 'YJ"'logie>1 condwion '0 ,I.. bibl",,! « . "., ,h., pr«:«lo if, '" H""..... r. h=,e« 'he doci,i"" ", illu".-. .. J,>.i'_ j ' O "'" evidently m.Jo , n« ,hi,oemwn hul b<cn gr_ f. jlV ." d oopicJ b)· ,h. "".ib<>. 'he prrti>< chronologiClI [d"'on.hir o[h« hiog.-.phic1I,nini"",,,, ,h .. mi, SCm« i, u,,<:c .... in' I[ i. i~ <e",i" '''''p<C'' mOf< ,imil.. '0 f. 87" ,h. " ,0 ,h. i"'orv<ning If, 67" . nd ,"" f"lio 67' (fig. ,, ) <om· bin", (;',"£o'1"'s com«", ion 1! bi'hop of S.. imo wi[h Is.iah·, vi,ion. ,,· hich .uppi ico a hi hlic>1I"nlld '0 ,he r.. l; "g> of hai ,., ion .. nd o<<<p,."ee [ I u [ GKgOfJ' ,01 I, u' h. unJerwcn, .. he p<>ndc!cd , he <alai ... i",) ~ o lfe!cd ,,, h im, On f 7" (fig. I,), Joh . nd hi, f,iend. p""'id • • "",ho. bib lk.1 1" ~..Jign' f". GIC1\"'Y', f«l ins> abo .. , G"1l"fJ' ofN,..., .nd lI .. il. picm ......1 wi,h him . bov<- Job. Both If, 67" ."d 7" ,h", u>< bibliaJ ocrn<> ' 0 undef>COf< [he mcaning of [he hiog.-.phic.1 ",,<s . • nd in <><h cos.< .he Old T.... men' p.rAd igm pictu !cd w., provided ~,(~KgOfJ' himl<lf. By f. 87" (fig, (6) [il< f<1 .. ion"'ip brow .." hiogr.op lty .nd ,ho biblo h., hoccome 'Mr< oomph. Whilo ,ho «cn<> ofCh.i, • • min;,' ry continue 10 .. info",.

nn.,

'0

,II.

,h.

de,,,.

be,,...."

"'.1« ""1"" ,.

'"

'he meming of ' he biogr:ilphical ..:cno. of the ron"<' ... ion of Gr<g<>I):' t"hel, th<y ...,,~ ",kct«l by ,1>< de.<igner "f 1';t'•. g,.j'O w"I..-.,,, ,h. 1""'''I'''''g of G'ego,},', """,>on, _00 go beyond .imple l"'ulkJi,m to become , commenu I)' on [he liva of "'<g"ry', 1'. ..."" ..1<1 on Ch""i,n id .... ,1><"" ",.. hh. Th< ..,,,,,,n i, G'ego,y'. fune,,1 "'''''on '" h" f.. ,he,. bUl diI<'C[ iliu"",ion of ,he de .. h _nd bu,i.1 "'... >voided he,. (.. it .... , not on f. 4Jv) in f..·o u [ of '" e"1;<""') m'"i.t~,. in >cwtd wi,h m.oy I" .. I"'g'" of 1':>.,i, .g'.I'o. ~Qlio '49' (fig . .0) r<wmk. ,hi. 'YP" of jllle[· .",;"n, bUl with .. diffe,.n«, 8.,,1'. charity [ow.,d [he po<>< ... im.liy i>uded througll th< p>,.ble of , he rich m.n .nd I... , ru' - but het< ,h. bibl,,,.1 p, ,,,('le >PP<>" in ,he ..,m"", whil< ,he h;.-,g,'l'hic.1 ""n< .~ppl<m<m. i" .nd ""m",tu· .Iiza thc ddiv«)' of , he lC<mon i"elf. Folio , gl< (lig_ 19) in .. m Gregol)' into . prophetic "i,ion: lhe bibli",l . nd the biogr.ph""I~,. fu>«l to promo«, p. rti.-u· bel)' nin,h·confU']' inl<'P«",ion "f"i,ion, of divi~i')-'.l!y f. 4' 4", ,h. bi<>gr>phic:tl !iCC"" h•• becomc compkrn<nu l)' to biblical n.. ",ti .... : he,. .goin [h< bibli ..1 ""'".., pict"ml COme from th, ",,[mOn wl,ile til< p"rtr. it of Gr<gol)' "'ri' in~ J"", ""', hu[, ,hougll we m.)'],., m<1'" '0 in«,p"'< ,h< in>1g< " G'egor)' w,i[ing ,he [d.vm, Q",ion, [hi, mi. i, not "'p,<>K<I .od [he ICCnc i, g<n«ic : it> prim_I)' fun,. ,ion i. e,;cg<tic:ol n,h« th..n <Ufl ,,,,,tu. liling, It i > ,.. , inJ ''''''''''' "f ,ft.: '"'I''''''' "at ><."rJe.j ,he b,og"l' h ,,,,,I ,k,. "" ,..,1 Y ie ,h. m.. nu""ip[ [Iu, ,he bibl""I.,,.n,,, ,,;,h which ,hey were ioincd "'p"u~d«l , ],., ';gni!i". n<c of ,he biog"'ph,c:ol on,,", ,.th« ,h.n 'he [<Vet.,,, ,hi, ,.I .. iu~,hip iM fw 1'",.-.iI. umi' [be I." ',,"0 in ... ne<, of mi...l g<n'" (ff. , SIr, 4Q'-). Th ..... y ie which [bc hiblicol complemcn,cd ,h. biog<>phi<o1. h"",C'>'C<, 'hang«l f[om 1"'",1. kl, .lte.dy oJJoceJ by Grq;ory to mof'< independent exege,ic >C<!uenc" '" 'he m""us:c" I" SI""". T he gen<~.1 ,hif, ,ow;"d oom",.",,,y m;ni" ,ul'C< _ . d"",lol'" mc"[ from illu"",,,,n, [n.... uppkment (bm temain [Kd to) ,he 'at, [0 v;'wl ~ g<>i. - broad I)' documen" _n inc,." 'ngly ..,.lied uS< of 'm~gery in !':ori,.gr, jl O' i, at", "'ues" ,~" ,he J •• igner ~nJ ,he p.. il\,'''' ...,.. leaming "n ,h. ~h.

,,'

4
BdSil J and viSllnl ptl11tgyric

The mini""." of 1':o,;,_S'.\IO ""pond '" [hc ",,"uoer,p", om!"',;,1 """ picn" <II<

Fmp<mr B...ill (R67- 886). "'i,n ",,..,,,,i<oofim'g<><h,, «i"ro,,,,,, ,he icW'imocyof [he now M,crdon ;:in dr".,'Y ,od d """ fl, "ori" grn" n«,jo", bel"",," ,he .. n ~"''''r ."d 0,,,,,,,,,;,,, ,ncCr.,.. ,. nod "i,1I ",,>,n« II... "l""'« &..i l,,·;tn Old l ...... mcn' fig" .... ",,,n .. 1"'"'1'11. S,"",m. D, ,- .• "d ),,,11,, •. Tn"", . re f.mili., them ..... nd ;d
the ul< of im.g<> to

pc,p,,, ....,' them

h.d • long 1I;',<>ry in Il)"l.ln,ium. ,,,. v;'m.1

,-"",1,,,1. ry W<J ." exp => 'he i m r< Ii, I m<SMg<>. how...,.. r, i< >om« imn u nu, ,,,I.

Foli<> Av (. ) (~g. II
As we 11..,< sccn . ,he fro nrj.piroo mini .... r« in ['"i •. gr. j l0"l"'"«1 ,,-;[11 ,n ;""),,,,0/"

Ch,;>!_ followcJ by . b;f..,j i"m ,h .. "ri~n.Hy r=mblcJ, rom m,morllt ;'" dip<y<h wi.h ,><.. iore.o."" 'nching impc,i.1 ponr>;" . The in,rnJ"",,,,), mini.,,,,,, " " f. Av Ie" t he tOflC fO, ,h< "'q~<RC<,' T hough pmi.lly r<Wmhd in 'nk _ (>OS',bly in lk f""" .. mh « OW!)'. ",·h,n, '~. n>iil<wi<>" o(,h< poem on f. B, ........ ,itt<n at ,k 'Of' "f ,h< p.g'" - ..,,,'" of ,he " ' ;);io,II";'" rem.;n •. ,oJ ,h. , hl<ton of 'h< nin,h..:. n'u,), mini. ",« can "ill b< d«ipkrrd; Ch,",. "",red on > jcwdlcJ ,hmo. whi<:h m. y or;g;n.II)· h.ve f<s<mhlcJ ,h" oa;uri¢<l hy HeI.". on f. #0' (~g. i ll. bk>k> wid, hi. righ' h.nd .od hold.;n h" kf,.n op<n booko" wno"" ,no """niog W<)ro, of Joh" '~ ' l7.re ""iN" Ifi, ""« 1>><1 on •. 'h< 1»1;< h.. I.... ' its ronjuS',< ]<>f, .nd i. ,i"pro in wi,h i" "uh I»"ed '" f. C ' r.ri.,gr,!"> i. ,he oIJ .., .Xl.", m."u",.;p' '" "I"''' d o"",,])' w;,h , m;ni."", of

i""

ofd.<foll""i"llJ"' ..... ""'~.....,. "1'1" . .... '" "' ......... ( ' ... 1 ,,,_,,,. . • , I)". :-< ........ " (","'). ,"", - " " " ,t.", "" I<.f ............ m ..~", »<,n"l" «'f"""<n .... 'M \e,"' ..... b....N' .

' Soruk< (0", 1. 6" M ill" (l.,~\. E h",,,h 1,.<61. '" 0...,., 1,.,.1. ' .. ... ,W , I'" ~ (''';'\. ,~, 1"10 I~,.". "",. ,. "+ C..dn('11! ', '" '1'. Pm

"'P-'.w'

II«<k,"rnv ".110/,1.••,.

s... ."'....i"".M.

'"

Vi~iun ~1\{1

me;ming in nil1lh -cemury Hp.l ll!ium

C hrist . I Thl' promi nem 10clIion of an ico n ic imagcof thee nthrotll'd C hrist may he understood o n one level as a ... islI;11 conhrm ario n of rhe va lidi!}' o f sacred images :lIld rhl' Iq;it imacy of represeming Christ. S Certain ly, the re~u rge n ce of imagc5 of C hri5t duri ng ,he .~ccond Ilalf of th e nindl c{""m u r), i.~ wdl auested : t he seab of Michal'! III introduced [he bust of C hris I, :IIU.I the type continued und er Basi l I: bmh busts and standing figures of C hrist also appeared on tlw p;uriarcha! seals o f Ign:uios ()l 47- RS8, 867-877).6 An i[l1:Ige of Christ W:lS placl'd above th e Ch:llke Gate in 843. and in )164 PhOlios nOIl:d :1 ·nlJ.ll-lik~" ChriSt in The dom.' o r the n:ce nt ly co mpleted Churc h of th e Virgin or tbe Pharos.· Images of tlw enthroned C hrist also prolifer:l.lcd : [hc imp:lCt of a mosaic \'ersion se t !x'twcen 8s6 and 866 :Ibo\'(" thl' throne in the C hrysotrik linos (a room [esen'cd lor im porr:ulI Sial(' cercmon ies in [hc hea n of Ihe iml><:ri:lll iving quartcTS of the pat~c('j re\'e rber~ led in royal co mmissions for s(:\"eral ge ner,lIions. fi Basi l I replaced [he bust of C hr ist, reintroduced on coins by Theodo ra an d eontinul-tl by hcr son M ichael Ill. wi lh an im:lge of ChrisT enthroned (Ilg. 80); all p res umably ind icate a sel f-conscious r{""lIIrn to pre- iconoc1a~t n u m isma t ic iconogr:lph y (specifical I y 10 (h l' coi ns ofJlist i11 i:l n II ) Ih:1I ma y ha ve bcen ;lSsociated with Const:HH inc: J legend. pe rsislent throughout tltl' nin(h ce nrury :Ind :tpp:m'ntl y .~ [ar[(."d by t he pal riarch Nikephoros. cI;limed rh e survival of Conslantin ian coins he:lri ng {he effi gy uf C hrisl ." Thc dcpi ction of the
'Th.. Khludov I\"h~, ( ~~I-g47J indu,k. a ",~dJlli"n h"" "(Chri,, .I",,·~ m l'.ef~l o,y ",i"i.uorr of [)~,",J. but '"'' ~ full-I .. ng,h PO" .... ;1 ,10.1 0 \£0"" ni'I. Mu •. I;" 1:9. f. I": !;ccpkin. t (9771); ,i.! y )""3<~ r .. l,r •.• nd on th .. "..,.1. Ih .. Lui" C,.,J...nk 1 .«lion,,1' of j"ST-7H \ "rI!, /IN. n"m·.~c'l.l.ll. l l0 J. f. Jr: M "Ihr. ic h and G~.. hd.. ("rbl. 1'1. I) 1(K".. r, A,,,,,tuil of Ch,i" .. mnng Ih~ Pler"I"')" pi"".",. h,u IkI' " n Ih" 0t",,, i" g folio. The """uil of Chml in [h .. l;.rrell c""I",ls O',;nc..",,,. Unl v.! il> .. cod.G" KII 6. f. 10': Vik . n [19-11. P-~I, .noJ \'I;'e,wn;o"n It9111. 1'1. LXII I.Iig. 17~ ). ,,·In ch rnl)' he- .ligh!ly ..... Ii... [h.. n 1'.1;'.1;'.110. h., httn i"",,,«1 i"'l> .. IJI ... book And j1> u.ig;,ul WIlt ... , I~ lIl1k ",,""n. , !wo.. ch'p, e. I. to 7... ,'0, ~"d Veglc.,. (197:). II",. I6-U. j\I. pl. 18: Z~(<.l.II~ H., ). no. 6. 1'1. I. • Frol" ... (1961). l07-Iw: for I'h ... d",. H"mil y 10.6: rd. La ... ",d., ( "'I~). l OZ: "a"•. 11,IJn~" (I ~\8 ), 18 7. ' ,' "rlm/"K g'(u", 1.10(,: ,ran,. M.II'f:" (197!). 18~ . 0 " Iilc 1"""IU;~1 i""p.' ': I. we C"'"l.lC~ .,"0.1 III

,r

]-I",·k

, lI.. il". coi",,: C"ifNI>1 111 .1 (1?7\). 1.16. IH- 116 J"d III .! (19-1). 47(, . 4~o-~S I. 1'1. XXX: C",ler 11'}7!). e'f" 7-9. ThroJn,i"ml Mk hJrl". ",i"" eri ..",," iiI. I (197)1. 1-16. 11\ (,.llle (6). 414-4\1· 418. pI. XXVII I. nm; . !.I-~ . I '1;(11<1 : (;""ill~rJ (1969), 10; ( ; ... ha. (1,/17). 110.

i". (19771, 14 \-144 .

,.,

BJsil I and vi.,,,al palwgyrir

Fig. S, IHmdJ/.t. Hllgill Sop/,itl: room linf I/'~ '·rslil",/c. "10M;,. oj'CbriH ~11I"ro"ed

ent hroned C hrist persisted ar the minl.~ and rec urs in two mosaics :It H ag ia Sophia which arc closely fdated to the H omilies Christ. [n the earlier mosaic (fig. 81). ass igned to the g70s and associalCd wit h Phntios hy Robin Cormack and Ernest H3wkins, Christ forms pan of a Deesis in t he north ty mpanum of the room over t he vestibull,: lu (he la!'er mosaic (fig. 82) shows Christ before a prost rate emperor apparently Basi!! or Leo V!- ill the narthex. II '!'he three represenl;ltions of Christ a re vi rt ually identica l saw for the di.~rosition of the book held by Christ, which is dosed in the Deesis mosaic. but open :1l1d inscribed in dlC nanhex mosaic and on f.
H' Curmack a"d Hawki n. (1977). e$p _4!- ! -H, pis. 10- J I. A"",hn {(>n!~m pomry ~., "'pie "PrearS i n [h~ ",i nialu/L' on,",i,}" , "i,ion in t h~ 'Ch ri>li'!l Topog"phy' (fig. 76); Iwre. hm':e",·r. I ho I hronc i. hackkss ami ,he h"ok d",ed. S.,.. aim ,h~ "hi u,lov I'",, ], ~r (/l.lnscuw. Hi,'!. M",.);r., !9. f 90r: 5t~pkin. [J977 IL 3 die (c~. 9001] ('onl Pres"" Ih:H shuw., Chris! ..,...d on" lyre-bock"" [hro"r. h", will\ .Il "ppa r~nlly d"",d book no 'cv [19~ 7 [. ('5-~O); J"J • fI"'Jgmen""y ('c~cn . p",h"bly o( I ht b,~ n in [h ce rHu rf. ~I V;,_ (O'llken .nd OMerholll iI9H.) I. IJ1I---14l. fig. 6. 1'1. XXXIlIr: I th.nk Kober! ,· Ousterh"", for p!Ovidill g III" wil]' • w lou r r~rrodu([ion J. II For a cr;,i ca l Su III mary ofth,· Ii rn,,,,,e. ,ee Cnrmack (l gR, ). I IS - Z4' ; M'" al,u Cormack (19Mh). 6!,---6l!. where [he mmaic i, i" le'I"c!<',j a, C h riM forgiving Leo VI .

' 49

Vision ~I1J meaning in nimh.cellwry I\p Jlllium

Fif,. 82 hUIll/ml. /i'lgi" Stiph,,,, lIar/ht,x 1II0SJlk. Clm s/l'lltlmmrd btfOrr &m ll or Lto VI Av, The n:mile)( te~t is the st:md ard ' Peace WHU you: I .11ll dll' lighl of lhe world.' ' I'hl' text inscrihl'd in Paris,gr,Slo reads 'My pe;iC~ I gi\'" unlO you; nOI ,IS Ihe worlJ gi\'clh. give I untO ro u' (JOIH} l.p.]a), I~ John q: l] is 311 un usual tl')(1 for Chrisl 10 holJ. blll il conveyed IWO :tppropri:m' mcss:lges!O nindl-cemury COrlsuminopolirans, For w hile the p:lssage inscribl'd on C h rist's book W3S not norm:lll}' associ:ucd with images. it appeared on wcdding rings. an d j( was I he closing gospel readin g for Ihe binhd.I)' cclebral ion ~ of th l' Cif)' 011 II Ma),, 11 On wedding rings. as Gar)' Vikan has shown. it ~)' nlbolizcd marital harmun ), and procre:llion through Christ. I ' an ap propria le preface 10 the dr nastic portraits thaI follow. The birthJay cclebr:ltiOl1S of the capil:11 wcre appropriatc. 100. 10 signal: Ihl' refC'fence inrroduces the Constantinian rncssagl's conve),,-d br Ihe fronlispiece st"quence 3S a whole,

I, "lu.l, ofd'e fi,.! h~)f "f lhi ~ l'a ....ge;1 Slillltgihk I,)n t~ A" (I' )PI-INjIlN I TIIN

EMIlIN

YM IN J) : for the rrSl . J rdr on 0""'111 ( 19 L9). 11. I' As cued in ,hr ' r pikon of,hc .. ...-Jl Church (~ (h~p, ~, ~ no!e 1011: "b,("OS I (1961). l8g. Thr 1'~-s;Ig~ ~I ><:H-,""r) J! Il'~sl 'm(~ on ;"'''''ph;l" !h~,OIic: M~".; XIII. 1~6F.:: Inon" s..h~. ( '986~) . '0 4. I' Vih" (1990) . <')1" ,61.

.,0

From ,1.< ,im< "fi" inccp,;"n unJer Co""""ine , he G,<~" , he c~pi,.I'. binI. · d..y >p«",d, h,,1 rombin«! ",li~iOUl ";t< .nd imp<.i.1 ~""'",ni.l . " In ,1.< ni",h ~nru.)'. ,k dry', hinhd.y """,;on«! on, of ,he only ,1.,« ' ........ ni.r ("'.n>«nl~.n ""remoni",) cckb ..,ed in Con". n,in"l'k. I • • nd 11.< cdd.......,n. focused on ,I." r",,,,,t,,;,,,, "f • Ch'isti,,, Cipi ..], ,he ""I<b"";",, "f tl1< f"un<k., Con". n,;ne. • nd 'he p<<v<",.,ion of ;mp<";. ] >!<w.rd"';!'. The «d •• ;. ,,""1 pro<<<>ion d"",;bcd in ,1.< ,)'pikon 01,1." Gre>! Church m"..ro from ,1.< , h,jfch '" ,I." [0".", . "d ,h." b.ck ,he church . "owing"" ,"uu fO p.. )' fo, impe,i. ] cominui.,. . nd di,ine I'"".."i"" . "" "n< uf 'hoc 'lOP" i" oil< f"mm, , d<"",," inlOned: 'DeIi,·ct. Uml, ou'my. . a",sc",:: .lw. )'I ,he impe,i,1 !.CCp,rc, hy gnn'ing IhfOugh ,he Thro'ok.... ,he '<pulsion of b",h"i. ", . nd di."ncc from dmge".' :" While ,he depictiun of Ch,.;" r.. he. thon the Thco,uk" • • pp.rcntl)· rnpond, '0 'he nimh · CCflOU'y belief Ch.i .. g"",Jed (A""' ''';''''I'I. ,I"n~ "'i,h ,It, ci ,)·' 'r.d ;,i"".1 hi, pmmi .. of pe'"'" f. A\' """ ...."'i,,«1 wi,h '««"'''''r Ii,." c>!ried ",;,1. i, . !I ",iom ,1.< .neien' .nd con,inuing ""Iu,,,of ,he imperi.1 eopi..l ."d it< ,ulm. The in,<.wo",,", ."i. of ",f<"'nco, """ked h)' J.J", '+17 ron" Iu.. i«m«l . p.n icu l. rl)' '1" comhin .. ion '0 . noeh '0 &..ill. on 'mpemrwho hul no, ""I)' u.ull.ro ,1.< ,h'on< _ .. ><I "''''' ,hu •• n,;"", ,,, i«m II, hl«,J ill,,, ,he ... ,ml"", How of imp<,ial .occ.....ion impli«l b)' ,he Img~ag< . nd rimal of /lrun,;un, but h.d .100 wOn , ignifieo ," ,i<",.i" ,,, b,ing " "'PO""YpeiCC '" ,h. cmpirc. " Whil. ,he ",kc,ion of Jolin ' 4:>7 dors no, 'fl"'Ci~c>lIy invoke Con",nrin" plo~ in ,1.< binhd.y <deb",ion., &..il'..... ,o ....1on of ,he church ofS< Mok1o., li nk,d in ,he nin'h ccn'~rr '" Con.tan,i".. and 'he round .. io", of Cun".n,in"pl<.'" ,ug(;<'" , I. .....oci .. ion ...-i,h ,he Ii m Ch ri"i.n <mpero, .1.., fo,-mnl p>n of II>.< iI', .gend>: 'he api",r. \jOlh .nn;v~ .....y ..... «I~b ... nl ;n ISo m' r in rm have . 11",,-cd /I.,il 10 foeu, p.ni,ul .. , .. «n,ion on Con",",in,,!,I., found .. i"" ,,1<1 "n Cu"",",;"" . nJ ,,, ' pprop';"< bo,h by . """i.. ion, /I", whether ,>< "0' ' hi ' connce,ion w:u <mbl. zoned on ,he conociou,"", of ,he ,ity', inh. h;I1"", i, i, fur· ,her.d by ,h. fro n, i'piece ""1"'''« in P:.ri,.gr.I'o ...-It"" ' he po" .... i, of Ch';', "ref""" ,he iml,.ri.I I",,,", i,, of 1I.,il."d ,1.< Em]> .... [..<loki> K.nked by ""'" ofhcr "'"' who w<'" in lin< nf ,,,,,,,,,,,i,,,,. In dr«1, W< i« Ch,;., bkui"g d", city, &..il, ~nJ &..ir. dyn~"i< 'ucCC<;Q<>, Ch.i" '''U«1 ' he "~r< of P:.ri •. gr.I' O ,I... ,he "'pi,,1 "'Sf' in good h.nd" ,,,d ,I." iu ,"'""Ie hcri .. g< "'ill be " ..... ,,·e d .oJ f""h~rcd by ,he new ~t..(<<Ioni.n bou ....

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VISion and meaning in nimh-cenru ry Byzantium

Th( text inscribW on Christ's book projects :J S(ri(s ofint(rlockro m(anings: it connects bdi(fs aoout marital harmony and procr(ation - which, in an im~ria l COnl(Xt, may I>e- equatro with dynast ic aspiratio ns- with id(aS aoout th( Christian capital and its found( rComt:lntin(.l! This ch:lin ofint( rn:ll r( f( r( nc($ d((~ns the meaning of the image it-se lf. and of the frontispiece sequence that follows it. Folio Av seems to duplicate both the form of the C hrysotriklinos mosaic and ilS association of the temporal with th( heavenly ruler.l! Though in the ceremonial space of the throne room the visual demonstration that the em~ror rules through and with Christ relies on the vertical alignment of the emperor's throne l>e-neath C hr ist ( n{hfonro, while on the fI.:lt pages of the m:ln uscript the associ:uion is $C<Iuenti:ll and linear, the miniature of C hrist enth roned, li ke the mosaic 10 which il appucndy refers (and probably drawing upon that associatio n), introduces the ruling emperor :lnd guides the viewer's response to him. Even witho ullhe ICJ( t inscribW on C hrist's book, continuity, trad ition, and th( relationship between emperor and C hrist reinforcro by imperial ceremony stands l>e-hind the im:lge on f. Av. The lext brings the sequence down to earth, for it gro unds Byzantine imperial ideology in a specific rit ual. Though a lale entrant to th( governing class, Basil has been affili:lled with Constantinopl( by th( birthd:lY card held by C hrist. All Byzantine em perors ruled through and with C hrist; the swarm of meanings clustering around John 14:17 singlro Basil and his family out :lS legitimate successors to ConSl:lllline. The fro ntispiece: $((juence inserted:ln upstart intO the continuous river of trad ition tha i Byumine rituals and ceremonies insisted upon, JJ bill il also indicaled Ihal he was special. Folio Av minglro religious :lnd im perial chem(S to l>e-nefit one p:Jrticul:i r (m peror :lnd Ihe fledgling M:lcroonian d)'nasty he did nOt know would succc:c'd. Folios Bv and C r (j, 4) (figs. j, 4) Folios Bv and C r, which once encased the im~rial portrails thai nowenvdo p chern on ff. Br and Cv, arc virtually idemical. ~4 BOlh show a jewelled cross with fl ar ing ends terminating in teardrop scrifsj 2S gold cords and gems hang from the cross bar, JUSt as they did on contemporary and earlier Byuntine processional C rOSSe5;U half,.foundllio n of th~ city W:;lS cmphuiud fro m ,he Kvcmh «nUlrY. iU no,«I by a.~ron (1990), 117-118, .nd c'uncron ( I')!IU). II5« Connodt and H.wkinl (' 9n). /.4). II S« C.m~ron ('987), op. fll-,)hnd . for 8ao.i l, ')s. N Mil k . (1910), eIp. '0,.- 10 1; £bNwl. (1916). O mon. (1919), It- IJ. pt.. XV II_ XVIII ; Morcy (19 )9). ~I ; C",b,.r (19J6), )~-J9; ToJbot Ric, ( ' !1S0), 71; Frvlow (1916). Iff ; 0... Ntncui.n h96:). ' 98, u o: G",b,.. ('')69). II I-II) no.e I I; Killinge. ('974). ' 7; Velm.,.. (1974). 1~1-I4 1; 5p.athoraki, (1974), 101-101; Sp..,haf2ki, ('976) . ji'6 99; K:Il.vrnou_Mu..il1<:' (1978), IO-I~' 5p.a. h.raki. (1~9), 19'--9); T C'I"""'.nil:ov ('99». '0)-' 0,.. 1':1... of It.. followin& diJ.c .... ion originolly appurM in Bruhaker (, ,,..). ' J9-141· II Go:mmcd (fOlkS "ppcar regularly from a. leo.$1 Ih •• ixth cenlur)" ste. 0.1:., london. Bl Add" 4191. f. Is rv: Jul ... Leroy ('96. ). " 4, ,, 6. 1'1. J.I. Stt no.e)8 below. and . for • • umm.ry of em .. <keor •• ion in I\.n ....u t..,wec" the (oy u h .nd ninlh « ntu,i ••. Cormack (, 968 ), . 9- S4. U Stt. c.g .. Wei" m.nn and Scvtcn ko (1 96,), )8j; Jule. Leroy (1 964). 114. 1'1. J,l .

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Th~ C~ ,i>!ian-n... of Con".n,in~·.

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Hagia Eirene in Constantinople and the Koimesis Church at Nicaea, while c rosses replaced figural decoration in [he sekrefOn at Hagia Sophia (fig. 83) in the capital. 40 At least some of lhese - like the frolllispiece crosses of Paris.gr.510 - had multiple agendas, and fused references fO Constantine's cross and the Hue cross of the crucifixion within a single image. When, for example, the crosses inserted in H agia Sophia (fig. 83) replaced medallion portraits of saims, the encasing medallion was retained and filled in with concenuic spheres of variously shaded ligh t blue,41 a configuration thar signalled a vision of divinity;~ Z we may presume that the iconoclast insertions invoked Constantine's vision of the c ross along with the cross of Christ's crucifixion. The ideological importance of the cross, with its complex map of meanings, is clear from its immediate absorption by thl."" new orthodoxy afler
.. Scr Cormack (19770.). Jj-44. • J J.. mt. ([991). '"'po 81. "Corm.ck and Hawkin5 (1977). !04-2O\. !'!-H2 .

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ble for ,b. ",in"ooL .",ion of ,he fe." of Elij.b in Com ..m,inopk. and d"". ibcd .be m"..k p<ntr:oit of S.... il in th ... ne' U1!Y of the Church of 5t Elij.h ," fJij>h', .1"".!Cd " ..u. in dlC I.... nimh «mUlY i. fu"he. co.robon,ed by ,be app.,.. nee of ' In I'ui", of £Iij.h" w,;" en by I'hmi",,' all)' l'brophm .. of c."",!'<>," In rari •. gr.j[o ... the f"mins VCr$< . . pbin •. fJij.h p",mi ... lI.,il ,·i",,,,y. Thi, i. eonfi,med in the mini>!ure. where ,be "md"d th .. Elij.h I<..,d, to I\.o,il i. Con".n.i",,', I.b.,um. In the >... ion of ,hi, ""n,. ,k,,,hed hen."h ,he em>< (In f. IIv (fig. JJ, £Iij.h WU alfC";y p<<><nl, bu, he dH:l nm hond ,he lililru m '0 fu.il, ,he de .. il . dded to ,hc nn.1 prod"", 'hu • •• kes (In • ",,..in ,ig>linc>n<c, In bo.h ,·crsiom.lJij.h 'opreoen" ,he divine fo"", ,hot ..",,«I "".il', ",10: ,he .hef'>· ,ion in ,n.. fin'! "'py. ~,. <ecm. '0 .. In> I\.o,il'. aMOci .. ion wi,h Co",untinc." Co",.mt inc'.lob.arum ""'" • <,,",'cn.ion.1 imperi.1 .. tribute on coin., but by .h"",ing GOO', rel" ... nt;"", fJij.h "",u.lly p"""", ing i, [0 B...,I _ .. if .micip,.. ing ,nc PlOp n..,'. " .. enocn, ", B.. il', mmhe, ,h>!'God will h.nd """ .n.. <eel'''' of ,he Rornon empifC to yoot beloved <Of] S .... iI' in the Vi,,, &#il,,' _ thc m in i.m,i" "'. ,hc '''011' of di"inc app""..1 Of! Ela.!il ... dir= "',,,',."", ,,, Com..mt ine , A I',... g. from ,h. Vit... &,ilii ' 01;1\"''' ,ho, ,hi. li t>C>~ m.y h.~ """n ev<" more OI'cnly I'"""",ed. The i. a panegy,ic, w,ittcn in thc tenth cent"!)' prob.bly .. the "'un. io" of Ela.!'I', g'''''''''''' ,h. f,ntl""" Con, .. n,;". Vii . So"", of ,h. con"in, 'I'!"'".«I io ",me<> ronrempo"'Y wi,h Ela.!il, and ""mc oe<u .. in no o,hcr pra.crv<d ""ufCc. The following belun!? to the 1 1<1 a.t<gUI)·, .. .<1<1 m. y , ~ •• cfu", be m'If< ...... ling ,h. «mh oemu!}' .h,n ,hc oin <l,. Ik ,n .. ., i, m.y, ,he Vi,~Jc.cri "'" Ela.!il"V"0dmothC! ... ·noblc . <I<I ""'mly "",moo wno Jwei< in Mri.norlc .od h.d 1«1. en"", 1 of w;d".,hood "nce ,h. d."h of ,1< n", hu.i»od (rel"''''' nor qui .. un<di.ble, eircul"ed ,ho, oh. " ...d n", li =os< had . o Con". n,i"" thc C. ",.)' , In the oa' ><o'enec. 11..;1', moth .. 'prouJly cl"med d««n, from Con".",in< ,h. Gre" Ion .heonc .id. l . ndon ,heoth... id. bo. "ed ,h •• plendid .nca.!}' of Alc .. nd.,'." 11)' ,h. ten,h centu!}', S.,;I', link. with Con<t.m;nc h.J n..,.."j from ,h. cotl«t',,,.1 ,h. ,""u.1. Th. im.~ on [Cv an,icip" '" ,hi. I.. p offai ,h. nUl i, ellCll"ul ..", 'he .. me m.... g•. In 10 doing. tbe mini .. ure rei. elOLt .. ,Ite mconing of 'hc opening portr.it ofChri", G,h,;.I, '00, ..,.rn.1O hal" hun f.:l\'ourcd by ,h. eml"'''''' '['bough ,ltere i. ",me doubt on ,he poin'. B.,il . pp.rently dedica,«I ,he N.. EU k; .. <0 him , .Iong w;,n

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,ne bfidge;'~ raint. <Lt,\; 1.1 ... unJul .. ing lin .. ,h.. ' 1'1"'"" '" ,;0< from ,h. b'idge ,ugg<>< ,h.. ,h. mini..m ;" m.y o";gio..!ly NVC inw"lcJ ,.,..,«nd 'he .ive, in •., the ~kground '" on f.• 09'. Th"..,... wi,h pnrl ..,if•. oj .. 'g.<in". p,l. gr«n om .nd bo ... ,h. f.mou, in ..,il"ion EN TOYrn NI KA." Th< 1"""'<1 ~"<rrontain. twO lan<>. On 'M left, Helen ••i" on. ;c.... d lcJ ly",.No\; ,hron •. Sh. i, clld ... lIy.... n'i" •• mp""" .nd « .. io. ,h. coiffu.. ;", .<woven wi,h pn'l, ",",.... h a <ampl .. <rown [opjd "",h 1 pn<l eros' ohe wun on f. ,!iI' (lig. >9)' on r 4-4Of. h.owcvt:., , purpl<do. k with gold and iewdW boIden hide. hCf unde'1\.umenn. Hole ... ,e"'. blucO!b ""moynwl by. <ro .. on he' I,p. SC.w.... group of men who ",nJ in ,,,," flo, left corner. Though b.oJI~ IUkcJ. [he f<,remost of ,hoc men [ow. .d ,,·hom ,he !l""'UI'C> 'W.n to weal <k,icolg.. b .nd m.y be iJentificJ .. M,lc.tio •. bi'hop of Jaoglem . l.elpcJ Helen, d"e,,,,ine which of ,he ,h,ee <ro<s<> <he uM.nh.d b<IOflgcJ '" C h,.;,,- " Only II,kn. , how..... " i. idomificd by iru.c,ip"ion: II ...n ... EAENH. To the righ[ of ,hc cmpres., men conying ;.w.,IW b.o,on. , .. oJ g.... rd, thC}' dOKly rncm· bk ,I>< S" , ...J, ",.nding Thcud",,,,, on r. lJ?' (fig, 17). In fin. l OCCM, ,he ...,kling Helen. g"'''''' ww.rd. pit;' m.n ideo,i<.ol wi,h 'he one idemificd os )'1.10..,,,,, in 'ho I'r<ec<ling ""'n<C meel, oIoog<idc md ... <h .. 'ow",l ,he ",ithin it. wh ile. g<>ticu!;"ing !\"'Up of <>n\oo\;. .. , h«, him on, The occne i, ;d. ", i~ed hy in>c,ip,ion .. [h. '§nding of ,he ,,.,... c"",' (I:YPECIC. TOY TlMIQYCTAYPOY) .• oJ the .. me kgooJ ;, "'l""ated On 'he o ute, m.orgi n of the 1"'11" in whO! appc_" '" I.e ninth oUn' ,,!)" .I. nting o,>ci.1. Dcipito hi. CUflccp",.1 import.nce. Const.ntin< d""" noot .ppc.. ~I_h.~ in 1'>''''.V_ 510_ Helon,. on ,ho m b., bnd. """''' on f. 1~ 5' (fig_ 191 wi,h P.... k".. in ,he vi,ion ofH.ob.okkuk. Thore. although he, ph)'l'iogIlomic typc rem.i", 'he S>m<. hcr <o<lum< i. mo.r< <i.oo",,, On f, 181'. hc, J.,,,,,doS<ly , ... mbk. ,h.it WOrn by ,h. Etllp ....... f..udol<;, Olt f. Br_ Folio< !S5f .oJ 4-40f ., how diffefe", tyl'" of"",,, ..; ,ho fOfmo, p rncm, . n ironi • • nd fmm11 I""",.i[, ,he lau.e portra,.. Helem • • a I"'rticipont in . ,imal "",roti....,. Th • • ffili.tionof hcr 10=.1 ro,tr. i,on f. !S\, wi,h "fEI.d..,ki. "" f. /l, "'.... p, .. ,,,,,,hly in,e",i,,",I, .".1 ""<>'" ,o ...,lidify ,he link.< he["""n B..,il ..,.1 hi, f.mil)', .nd ('.on •.,n,in, .nd hi,." On f. «<". ,h. min",", · in ""'m. more wnoerned ",i,h ronncaing H den • • nd I><' ...... n >on: th~ <Lt,~ 1"',!,lo g.<'m<nl. uimm.cd wi,h icwdkd m il" of gold, ,h., .n. "".or> p,,,,,ide. a .... ri. nt on Com,.ntin,', clothing in the "'1\i"., .ho~,.nd Hd.n" I"""'ion "n ,ho p'gc comp lorn<n!S ,he p"'i[ioning of he, loOn_ Th •• mhronro Hokn.

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di"",tly b<1ow .h. "iumpl"n' [ho[ [h. IWO m<>![ _rdy iml"',;. 1 1""'''';<;< 0 0 '~P'g<'''' . xi.lly .Iign«i: .nd, i" ",d« ", jun. ro'" [ho .I""ping Con,un,iru: ;n til.. '01' '<);1,1<, wi,h ,h. m""n[«I Co",,,,,[;,,, ."d ,1.0 omh.o,,«1 H.k" •. [ho d, •• m ho. bttn pud,«I to d... 1di: half of [h. pag<. tho~' '<qui.ing [ho mini.mr'" to fill [h. ';ghr with , ... <><Iing ..,ldi.D, A. ,ho:.c m.nip"I •• ,ion. migh' . uggnt. f, «0. i. an "J 1-. ","1';1...... ,,, '''' co"vi",,;ng v;,,,.) 1",,1101. to . ny of [h. 00:" .. pic",roJ •• .nd, •• w< h,,'C "",n, m",,' of ,ho mini,tul'< ",Ii.. on 51""k <l«ail. found dscwhc", in the m.n,,<cript ,' .> The [n..., episod", picturoJ on f, ~ ~O[ _ ' " inatt",.. bly io[."",o",,, ill B),untin. [hough[. B)' thc ,i"h .."mry. Co,,,,.,,,;n., mnve"io" and Hoion" diro:lV<ry <>i ,h. ,rue C"'" were , for "umplc. plxed bKk to b..ck in ""'!lila [8.,.J ,~ of Rom • ...,.' hymn 'On the .do.. tion of 'he cro." ," By the «>.nth. whcn [he v.,i .... " I~v .. of Om.un,;". "",m '0 h.wc bttn d<veloped. [he ninory of ('.on.umine alm""t in .... ri.bly indud«l . n ,,"ount "fHden • • nd her di><ovny of ,I.e !rue coo .. ," [m.g<>. ["." [hoLlgh mo"ly p,<s<rv«l from. I.... 1"'';<><1, ....,'m· all)·.now.ho mmh.r .<><1 ",n :u a I"ir," 8)' . round til.. yo.. 800. ,IK ron"dl.,"'n of Corn .. ntin., hi. vi,ion, hi, .x , ·. ,to nd [he ,01;« of ,h. <Ill< e"", di""",· .roJ ~. Hekn, h,d mol, ...) ;mo 0'" ron«p<, • ronccp[ <:luei, 1to iml"'';al >mho. · tty• • nd .. pec .. 11 y [0 th. [';umph of, he eh,i" i.n Byuminc ""c, So ltrong w:u ,I.e .."",i.. ion bc:lW«n thesc <pi"",";rnd By'Untiun,', ,,If·;n1>&. ,ho, Gf'Cek .u,h"" klm«;mes """,«I ['o[h 0...,,,,,,,i,,o. vi,ion ."d hi, drum .....y from Rome. and ,010",,,«1 ,hem 1Ilp<'<ioc .i ... in Com,.n[inopk." I ~<> <>iCon, .. nti., .nJ Hele'" ,1", rem. i,,«1 0' were m.d. during [he )'C ... of lco"ocl .. m, .crord;ng [0 [he Pa""r",,;~ thei, pon .. i", u, uany A.nkin~ til.. ero", 'l'p<>.roJ [h,oughout Com .. nt;n"!>I •. " Bu[ ;e<>"od.., "'''''p'' '0 ' pprop,i'l< Com .. "tin. w.re «>unt.,«1 ;mrned..... ,. h)' .he;, "prone""." The KhluJo. ""'Ite, (fig. ~I) prov;J""." e•• mpl. from .h<y<-'" i m rnedi.,cI~ foll""'ing !conod"m, hore Con"antinc. in<cribct[ as > ",in,. disp>tch.. h" « ... ",i.. wi,h. c ..... ·he:oded I.no:,'"' Th. mini"ur~ ><'''''''1 '''';'''' r",lm I~ , b, 'Th"" ho" gi~n , .ign [0 them [h" f... [h",,'. The WOld ',ign' - [d.,...,d .. '[he imprin' of ,h. life· giv,ng croo, in ,h. ""holi. at [h. bootom of the pag< - " i~"ml tn., ;""g •. " ;ow;) we "" Con".n[;n. ";umph.",,. de.f'''''ing ,he ',ign' 'g.>'"" heKOY, I. w•• no' tho 1""'1,<1 min " mru, ... ho m.de ,h. conn",~i"n """"""n the I""'lm ' ..,,'" ,"J [h. ,·;«<><y"f ""I.,,.s.,.~. .......,, I.<.-oY' 'ThU" h." gi,'<n 1 ,j&" ro , l.em ,ho[ f.,. [h...,' " .••

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Fig. Br M01COW, Huton,a! M,,~um, rod.U9,f rBw Canstmlt;r/,

,66

B..,il13nd vi.u:J l"'ncgyric

ci ted in the polemics against heresy that proliferated in the eighth and ninth centuries, the preserved examples of which are fairly indiscriminately targeted against Jews, Muslims, and iconoclasts.92 In the polemics, the psalm verse: forms pan of an arsenal of documentation rn e3nt to prove the authority of the cross and the authority ofimages. It is only, however, in the psalter image that Constantine reprc:sc:nts the: orthodox position. Here, in a miniature: created almost immediately after the end of Iconoclasm, Constantine has been removed from iconoclast control, and used to exemplifY orthodox victory. In the Khludov Psalter, the triumphant Constantine champions the nc:worthodoxy.~l During the reign of Basil I, more: static portraits of Corutantine (fig. 86) and, probably, Helena were incorporated into the mosaic decoration ofHagia Sophia. The surviving fragments, dated to around the year 870, seem to have bc:c:n pan of a fairly pointed visual statement directed against the old iconoclasts. 94 Certainly Constantine: was shown in the company of other champions of the: faith, some of whom - such as th e: former patriarchs G ermanos and Nikephoros - were famous for th eic opposition to Iconoclasm. Like the cross, Constanrine had bc:.:n re:turned to the fold: he now served the: iconophile orthodox. The Khludov Psalter miniature: and the: Hagia Sophia mosaic provide a context of sorts for the sequence in Paris.gr.po. But, in contrast to these twO works, on f. ,,",or Constantine is not explicitly set up as a champion of orthodoxy, triumphant against heresy. Instead, the Homilies miniature: presents a visual narrative that emphasizes themes interwoven in earlier texts about Constanrine and Helena. As with th e crosses on ff. Bv and Cr, visual polemics have bc:.:n abandoned on f. 440f: ronher than promoting a particular cause, the miniature internalizes the ideological importance of Constantine and Helena to the Byuntine imperial system. Folio 4-1-0f provides a narrative: version of the message conveyed by the crosses of the froncispiece sequence; the relationship between Constantine's cross of triumph and the true CfOSS is here: made: manifest. This relationship was demonstrably important to the imperial house under Basil 1. But f. ,,",or has sometimes been singled out in altempts to link Basil I with Constantine for reasons that do not sustain detailed scrutiny. Its presumed importance has been based on two assumptions: first, that the miniature is unrelated to [he [en it accompanies, and hence can only be interpreted as imperial Hattery: and second, that it was [he penultimate miniature: in the manuscript, followed only by Gregory's vim, and hence provided a snong visual conclusion. The first assumption is incorrect; the seco nd is problematic.
" 'I'h. '''rophie< of Damuc,,'. which ci[e< [hi, v~r ... w'" d;rec.~d specifically agailU' the Jews; ill rdev""cc to the Khl"d.,.. h.., hccn demon ....'.....J by Corrig;on ( [~91). [his image at 71 and 17g not< 14. 'J On tho o.. hodo. redam3,;on ofCOn,,"",;n •• ..., . Iso ,he writings ofPhot;", di",,,,sed in M.ngo (1975). 4[. ... Cormack and Hawk;n. (1977), »o-lj[, 13)-'-46.

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~lld meaning in ninth-centu ry IIp.antium

- .•
Fig. 86 IUtmblll. Hi/gid SoplJ/',,: roc'" or,(r I/~ vrstiblllt. /IIomi,. of Co"m"lIi,,~

The mHl t<l ture on 440r imroduces an extraneOllS ten. the ' Metaphrasc of Ecclesiastes' atlribmed 10 Grego ry Thaumarurgos.?1 On first glance. the ' Metap h rase' slIsmins no relationsh ip TO Ihe Const:1ntine and Helena sequence spread over its fronti spiece, and yet Ihe picture is su rely in its in ten dcd posit ion, for the text bcgins on il"s \'er50. Si ra rpie Ocr Ncrscssian argucd that the selection of Constanti ne's vision and the invcntion of the cros.~ relates to the programme o f the manusc ript as a whole, rathe r than to the 'Mctaphrasc in' particular, and fun ctioned as a compliment to Basil I. She linked f. 440r with the prefatory crosses, and suggested thai thcse miniatures formed a unified opening and (more or less) cl o~ure TO the manuscripr.% This last t hes is is appealing, bUl unprova ble, for the end of Paris.gf.S1O has perished and we have no way of d eterm ining the original extem of the rnanuscrip!. 97 More import:mdy, t he scenes grou ped together on f. 440r were 110t included merely 10 promote imperial interests: they also illustrate their accompanying text, though by analogy rat her than by providing a literal picture of t he repo rt. Thc
PC 1O:987-t OI~ (tl";ln ~. A/II,-Nirfll( CI";>1;" ,, Libra'} 10 I£Jinburgh. 187J), 7- 29) . .,., Ocr Ncr.~ssian (J')6!). 197-198. 07 Se~ In, roJ""i"n.
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nm .. ,OO by ·Selomon· in ,~e fi", pe"on .ing~I> •. ~!U wi,~ • brief d=,ip,io~ of.~ pt."U!", ,~. pro .. soniSf enjoyOO bc/"Of< d"".ing hi"""lf to God. ·Upon . w. k.ni"g .nd """""<ring my .ig~". how""". Selomon ""pl,in. ,~ .. he g, ..h .. from I".",ui, of "'''-''''' pl.,.ur< [0 po"ui[.,f {-;.,.l., w' '''''rn. ,!-.c of which M "'plo", .. length. The d«;"ion '0 ill""",« .hi. t.., with im. ge> ofCom' m,ine". df.. m • ..J vi,ion k<m, to h..... bttn m.... iv.,OO b~' .h. ch ...,et.. of the 'Met.ph ...",. proug<>ni " •• n id.,1 rul., ".". who >Ow [h. IigtH, .nd .W1>kc '0 for..kc tn. prof.ne f.... the GoJ·fc.,ing lifo. Co"n.nti[",'. «",,,,,. ,ion ,uprl"". ""'"""'''''' 1",,11,1 10 [his [wlSligu .. ,ion.• nd Con<tm,ine . 1>o proviJOO the moot ,ignih""nt Christ;,,, ... mpte of, ,ul.. who '.wol.:c· (I' .."lIy... I"'M<>yN i" ,h. "'i' f. 44"') [0" life beli .......!. in the nio[n « O[U,)'. '0 be [ne«>ft.. one of unblemi,hOO orthodoxy .nd [ig!.trou,,[ ..... • • s... the fat, Ih.. the CoMe'"'''''' MW"'"tt lI ... il . nd ("""",um in. , upp<l'«l [0 he <1<""'''''''''00 by r +40r h.. ", bttn OY<,· .... cd don nOl m<on [n .. thC)' do no, <X;.". Ccr .. inly • conn«:.ion bctw«o a .. il. Co"stan,ine . • nd the of "jetoty fits ""n«mpo"")" impct;,1 ;urology _ "'" h,,·< .Ire.dy [his <<<mplili<d in d" ffOn,;"p""e ><quen« _ . nd ,h"'n 10m pr"um,bly h.d .n iml"" o" . he "k<,ion of >O<n<> for (, ~ i.,r. Iltrt i,;., " '0"" ",.. ing [h., ,hc imper ••1 prosrom n>< «m .. in• •mplie., !'>,h<! dun bl... m. '.on". n,i", .ppe. n b<anlcd .... ",.I both M .nd Hci<", "",.r imr<,i.1 """umo, hu, CO"",,,[,n< h>.l no, .. ,um<d fu..iI', fc..m m; . , ~ know ,hcm from ,he <GI'" "",",im of the fron,i'pi«e pon"' t. the r.luro Vel><Zioc•• kct (tig. 8~). Or eoi". (fig, 87); nO[ dO<> HeI.n. her<~" elmh .. id.",i· ... 1", Eudoki"" ,hough .h. Jo•• in nor 1"''''''' on f. .8~r (fig. ' 9). ·11>< "><xi .. i"n of com.mponry wi[h p' " rulen h.d fIO(),<' lC><hed the ' .. ge ob.crnble in .he ICnth cen'ury. when both Co,,". n, ine the Grc... nd King Abgaros of Ed .... 'PI", .."tly ",q~ir<d ''''' f.ci.1 ryp< of B.a,i)", gnnd;o" . Co"" ... ",ine VII Porphyrogcnnc,,,,,. '''The imperi. 1.lOo<i..;on • .,( the episodc-s pinuml on f, +40t ,« no, .. thd .., . k .,ly «pres..,! in [h. Homil"" mi"iam«, .. ,!-.cy ,.."e . l>.o .. • boor ,he ... me [ime b[ought out in the typikon ofH. gi. Sephi, in the P"y"" for ,h. r of Con",n,in. ,,,d HeI.n. on " "t.y: ·H.ving >«n in [h •• ky [he im",!!e .... of )'Our ccoo> .. nd h.. ing «<eivcd. like Paul .• ""II n<>t hum,n . )'QU[ .pos,k .mong empe",n, ktd. placed It.. iml",i,1 ci<y in )"U' h,nd" gu .. rd i, .Iw.y> io 1">«. by 'M pr' yo" of 'M ·t'hrolOk<» .• nd h.v< pi".'on u., .,., If Co", ... ",in. pl",,<d the impe.i,1 city in the I~,,,f, h. nd" ,,,,I C,><l gu.,dcd i, .Iw. y> in 1">«, 'he or<n ing mini'N"'" of P"i'.gr. \'" ask ~, . 1;0 [0 heli<v<: thot Goo nominated B.a,il, . nd hi. he.". as _n by .uce....'" '0 Con".ntine.
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Fig. 87 NoltlimUJ, m'nrf (DIIIII""rIOiI Od!• ...IV /) Q 868(?); B,u il { f

Basi!. COlISt(lIlIillr. (Illd Ib(' idm ofdyl/aSly
The COllS!an!inian 1ll00ifs are pan of a larger fabri c: the idea o f dynastic continuity. The e mpha5is o n imperial ponrailUre is in this respeCt nO!cwonhy. and was nOl resrricted 10 Paris,gr.5 to: the inclusion of a standin g portrait of Ba~il. for example. parallds the fcin!foduC! ion . after a Iwo~hund rcd-yca r hiatus, of a stand ing figure of the ('Illperor on coinage (fig. 87}. I02 At the sa me time, imagery produced for Basil consist(' ntly reiterated !he themes of family (a nd mmilial sai n ts such ~s Elijah) and lIictory: the juxtaposition of crosses wilh family port rai ts in Paris.gr.'j!o and the Ka inourgion seems designed to cOlll1ey the .~amc messag.·: triumph. Ihe Cons!aminiall herilage, and tilt' new Maccdonian house were mean! to be irrel'Ocably linked in the t:ycs alld mind of the ble nin!h.cclHury viewer. Tht.' Kainourgion mosaic and Ihe frontispiece sequc nce in l'a ris.gqlO accenru;1ted. and atte mpted to lcgitimize, !he dynastic aspirations of Basil I. but Basil did nOI inVClll Ihe idea of dynasriccontinuity.'OJ nor was he the firsl em peror to give il visual exp ression. Rather. he continued Ihe consciolls (and temporarily successful ) e!Tons of iconoclast emperors to sustain .~ t ablc heredimfY dYlllst'ics. e!Tons thai wcre also reinforced by the use of imagery. 11>1 A clear example of this is provided by coinage. lkrore the eighth cemury. emperors had sometimes sharrd the obve rse wilh a portrail of Iheir heir-apparent. III 7 20. however. Leo III (7 t7-741) issued l new type of gold solidu.~ wilh his own portrail on the obverse and a portra it on the reverse of his young son (crowned before he turned two). replaci ng Ihe cross of his rarlier coinage; the practice of depiering Ihe junior emperor on rh e reverse of coins, which increas('d I he lIisual autonomy a nd authority of the imlge. was followed by
'"' G rinw n Ill. l (197;). 47(>-477· "" Bu, see Sch,eincr (1 ), 18) - 184. 186- 187. whu bdk,'~s 11m ,he ide. uf a d yn:l>ly wid, fOOI5 in 991 I h~ Jin an I pa~1 w. ~ ,kvdupcd b)' I'hodos ~",l Leu Vl for Basil. ,~, Sec Herrin (1977) . 15- W: l ;,J b .. r (19'i 7). 1!1-116. On the of numisma1i c I),p<"_ to PW"'''1C dynollk su ccession hy ,he [conoelaS! rmpc""s and Basil I, ~c also Beliingcl ('956 ). 7) . 79: and , on Ih~ usc of names by Ihe Same " ml'~t<>rs 10 :lchit'vc ,h e , .. me end •• I'dtlagran (1984), 17-18.

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' 70

.uh>c<juem KOClOd.... emp<",n.'"' While 'he mini"uri", f<1I><lMibk fu, th< fron,i,pi<u po<'''''' m'r h.Y< , .. ru.I"cJ .loog.... nJ'ng num;'m",e roneei, ;n,., [emp<". ,he dyn. "ie Pm;KCul"['.m, of former empe""" .. I" " ,uggn[ [hOI p. in,«I offici. 1imp<ri.1 po""i" m. )· h.Y< . n,i<il"',«1 r.ri'.~'.I'O mOK Jir«tly. l""""ph il< ",f« ,,, ;':'''''0<1." 'mp<".1 'm'Se.,.. h." wi,h.M S"'" >p«,lie,[), fo. , .. mple. ,he pro"m.s, (".<)uoc,1 of 787 m.de. 1'"ofimp<,i.1!Cene. .11"","", br 'he i«>noel .." (rortroit< '" ,ueh .r< nm mentioned) bu, f,il«l ro ",,,,,,j,,,, ",hod.." (0' """'«) ,ud. ",on". .« ... lly "",,,«I: '''' Nil<.or"""" .cc:u'"'" [he ieor.od", Emp<ro, Con,,,n,ine V ofb<ing . n<">' Ncbuch.d ncz", b«.u\< he rcpl><eJ ''''''SO" of O,ri" ... i,I, i'''I"",.II'"",.i". h,,, N:l"ph",os ... "" ,t> he .pe.king of Impert.1 d""", po""i" in mos.>ic w<re, hov.'CVct, cen. ,nly produc«l during 'he ""'ro .... "'n ofim"l\f'l "mk, Ei«ne 110<>-8(1)... "''' Irno::ow ('om, ,,,1th-a,,,u,y J...:,il"i"" "f ,he- 0",,,,1> "f ,II< Vi'1:i'" of ,he s.~.«<. t.. ..>J tn'" of >«,,1., .1..-. ,~'''''n " ..1,hJrj"g k.,nocb,mo ,ho: M~ of ,h" ;"-onod. " Mo,u,,,.,.. fo, enmplc,'& .. '0' (non .imp<,i. l) b,iJ.ll"'nf'1i,. ''' The P'''P'''''' tiot> of o,he, .,-, ,lie< i'" \". "I I""",i, 'n>« i. '''Rl'''' cJ hy • I'.....I!" f "'''' ,he Vi,~ &iilii ti", pK.o, ••1 i«luen", in [he K.i""u,sion [h .. po<' , .. ynl D.,il". nploiu: ' in ' he «iling'bov< .." depict«l the H"""lcan labou"...r ,I." "mp<t"ro I. .. <If""" on h<h.lf of h .. ,ubj«<>, I. .. ",'nion. in ",:..lil<.o "ru~b, •• d [nC ,·i"<>,",, g.. m«lto nim by G",f. n • • heroic non1ti,·c ,h. , "'mH" full_ pm:c-tk .. " ..... 11 .,. 'hc .."".. <of ,he En'I"ru' M"",<:o". tk-cJ, l"in,.,J in ,heK.,i."", I"'nico .. IIh"h"",,,, ,,, 587.' '' I.. • "y e""nt. I"''''''tu~ no, e"in· gui.hod during lconocl"", : just .. [he dyn.,,'" "mph. ,i, of ,h.c fron,i'pico< 1"'" tnif< ,<li.,J on • COflC<P' ,h ......, (.. fnom n<W, i, m')'1>< th .. til< Jp, ... ic I"'rt' .. ' "," gent" ,,'mil\uoJ iconocl." p"'OIn, .. "dL

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m<>$.lge. ~nd .. _ ,t.< "i~mp/l of , ""'" who ruk th rough C~ ,i". poin" h~m' mem! ""me in ' he fi", pour';, 'hrt>ugh 'he pm.:nu,Km. "fGabrid ~nd E1ijili. r . ri,.gqlo i. no' the only pl.e.< "'" c-.n >« ,he f<'Wooong of ,I>< Con'''n,i ni• ., l<gi, imi,,. fu<il . nd n.... d)'n,,'Y' 11.,.1', ~,., • ..,n , bo.... n long hofurr Mich..,III !", de .. h. w;u calkd Con.un. i"". T hi.;' wu.lIy uken .o indica[e [h .. he h>d b..:n '"' n,m«l ""foT< lI...iI'. n<v.>,ion to ,he ,hron<; i, k'<m. a' loa .. pbu.i!>le, """''''''''' , ha[ lI...il, like [h. Em!",ro, L<o V hd'OT< hin', ",n.m«! h•• ..,., Con ... n. i"" on hi' roron . ,ion "" co",mp<rot, to, The eponymous bond bo:twa:n 1I".il". "'" ,nd the c.,li.. SR"" cm!",ro, ...... in .n)' <¥<On', emph"iud,~..J.ho )"'ung 0110 w o< rof<fm! 1<," 'n<w (".on"'""nO: ' 'J J ... h ,n ~7'jI, 4il hod him hu,i..! in ,he m. usoleum 01 Com'.ntine ,he Gre ... where "" inlp<,",1 b",i.l, f.aJ uhn ploce ,inc< the d<ath of "",. " .. iu. in \]8.'" B.. il ,",<om!.he ,dj,,,,,n, Church of ,h. Holy .0.1",,",1... . 1.., conn""..! ,",'j,h Con"",,,;n., .. wdl •• [he Church of St Mokio>: '" ,n hi. " . ge .riumph •. he <n.e •..! [he cit)' behind Con". n.i" •• gold elOM (.. hi. im.g< dUC's in 1':0';"'8'. \ 10 ), " . Hi. dfun • ••':le ,..... rded .nJ ,«ol\niud in hi. own lift'im' hy ,ho pope. wlm duly >dJrn;cd Ba.il as ',10. n<vo' Con«." .in•. '" .nd I.." by hit b;"g.-. ph.r who .. we h..'C k'<n f.b ri, <>,«1. g<, ..,I"gy ,h .. 1''''1'''''..! to ;how 11,0,;(', Jir«. I" .... g< f.... m Con"'n,in'

h .,

.10.

.11., 10"

.nd Akxmd<1".

Th. "i,wlliniu be ..... n ~il . nd Com .. n.in •• he G,<>,~ ... 'U!I',i.ing ""Iy in th.i, ntcnt onJ in th.it .mph""i. on .h. fUund..,ioA 01 Con ... n,inopk. !n oddi, ,ion '0 promo,ing th.legi.im"")' of ,h. "p'w, [m!",ro, ~jll. d,. numbe, 01 .IIUI;"'" '0 Il....il .. Co","",in., , nt< .nd legitim.« 'lKca><>' demon ...-:un [h•• ,h••ymboli. [mpun."« of Cun,.. n.in • •• on OJ..I imp<.i.1 mood. nunum! ,hroughou, ,he <igh'h c~nmry, '" h.>d by !\OW o...n fu lly ,hoorkd wi,hin llyun,jn. tmp<,i.1 iJrology, In woY', hoth ,he ,lIili •• ion of 8.,;1 .nd (" ... n,in~ ,ltd , h~ ~ml,ru,." on dyn,,,)' ,{,u,liud in ,h. mini.m, .. [h.. ..... ~.~ .<m ju.. ron.idem! repT< .. n, the culmi"""'n of proce.... ini.i ....! .. 10.., . «n,ury .nd. h.lf ... liCt.

"'m.

' ''C ....... ,' ..»,,,..,,,. s., ,,.,MocJ..oI''''' ,'..,,. ". '" s.. ..., '" ""'= "0,,", .\poo<oI<.... , loop<", , ..... ~. I'o,..k..""", '" ,,", "" • .don oW;. .. ..-..I '" , ;.,.." _,;'" ""J hy ""~. "' ..... ..1; On I" '71 , .... < . . '" s.. Md;"m~k I,..." 't<-"" 1I>IOOn "...,). 01.. , hy ,,", ,",nob ,~"'"" c.:."" .. ,;,..', , ,, .. w .. " " ' ; . ,'" '-'....... rob«, """ • ....to, ........ of;'. ;m,.rn.a

,'" "".,J.",..... on '<' I ,oJ ' '" ~. bilol"-'s>->ph,.

'" s.. 1'0<..".•• (....l...... ) ,.Ii"""",,, of Lro V.. . ,... ... 1'><...... .Ion ... Rio, '" ""~. mr ;, ....... 'n" ...,. n" ,.,.;1'....o4<n, ........ ", ""n,'" ,,-;,h C,...",.,''''' " '" Ii_ . ....;." ' ';' ~'., ~ rom""-" N ,. ,,", 'J' ... " .... ond.,.... ... ;. "'" _;""J . ';,h h" ".ndf• ...." ... K.o ~io 'l br= t,...)••,....6,., H...... to...,1. ,.., to,", '1",,",, ~ om;"N from
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......·w, ..... ,......k h '" i.on,"" Thom"", I,,.,, j , ,..- .." , '" f".- """ s,<pIo<n' ...... n«. M.no; XVI .• , .,1.0<1 K.vM., "..,), , ..,d . Pl "." ..... ." s.."", ~"hJOn .. .." ,

B.uil ~""fo~ph

Folio 69V (u) (lig, .. ) Folio 6<}v pr=n" > detailed hi.un}" of . he Old T","ment figu. e l_ph, , .. . he peculi""i., of which .re ""iden' from "",n", inmrpo",ed . The firs, four rq;i •. ",n; ;ndoo. t<n "ron, all d ..... n from Gen"';')7, In ,t>< filS! ocgi>te. ).cob, """'m· panied by hi, young<>' child Benjamin, ""nJ. ,""'ph to hi, broth«, (vy, Ij-I ~); , 111 )"""Ph (IUC H'!» jO\l m eys in "".rch of hi, """hm (vy. ' 7- 'S): .nd )""'ph', b,oth· e", .... ble, _loin, "'Oling . nd "IO! hi. humili .. ion (vy, ,il-10),'" In ,he >«000 , l"""ph', bru,her. l<>w<ct him int" > ,i"ern (" ' i)" " hloody hi, , ...... k (X nON m C H<I» wi,h kid', blood (v. 3d, 11\.1, in > "ene inscribed ',he ",r""" of ).cob' (IAKflB I1E:o-J HIlN ). , how 'heir f.. hor 'he blood)· lI",men' ( ...... , Jl-Jj). tn the third «gL"", )_ph', hrorh.... ",mo," him from rhe c,,,em (v. 28), '" . t><n, .g. in .. ,mle, 'h<JI plO! '0 ",II )<»cph '0 p."ing merchan" iikn,ificJ ., 'Ishm.eli,,,,,' (v, 1, ), '" In til< fOurth, _ fin'! "he ",Ie "fl""!'''', ," .nd 'jO "'!,h IcJ ,0 ~m[' hy [he m,,,lu,,,, (ho,h v. 28 )'" While [h. H fi:,U[ rq;;<t ... jllu<tf:Ue • n..", fin«n 'I' "'..... (Gene>i. P " J- '~) with [en ""n<>, . t>< finh • .-..I final ~t<[ I'.... n" a mort: <ompr....cd ""Il>Cntt: '!'u,iph., buy> )oxl'l,' (Ge nd;' JTJI .nd )9:1) ;'" )""'I,h R ..,. 1'00 il'h." wife (Gon".;, 39''')'''' I'h1f2()h ;m'.,." )""'ph (Gen.,.i, i"il- i ')" " aoo l_ph (lflCH <l» :tppc>,,;n triumph, ".ndinK in > chariot (C<n<>" i ' :i l ). The h;"orr of )"""ph 11-:.n,L.lcd into im~<> oncn in Byuntium, but f, 69,· omi.. m. ny of the mo>l f. mili " ,pi",,J,,, - 'I<ith« J''''''l'h', - bil;,y ", i,,",,p'" . ,j",.m. "or hi. rcu" .... " wid. hi< fuh", . nd b""hcf>, for , .. mplc, . rc inch><lcd _'0 f<>cU! on one p>rtirula . .. p«t ",f)_pit', lif", ,he oO.t;ICb he m.de ,ouve,· <-Orne ;n o.der to ,,,,c'1;e triumph,n" ~n,llr, iot 01" I.., r",ol >cen«. 1'01;",;.;,> " ,It·

,h .

w.,

w"

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""n". t'" (}fJ I_ph', bctr.y:ol by hi, brot!>er> .od hi' foKed exile. with, brid" . ,ide on tho t'<"..:hery ofl\otiph.,·, wife. "!"hoc mini.,,,re prd""", Grego'y', «mh homily. him,df. hi, f" h., . • od 1b,,1 JO and i, """. inl)· in it< ""f<"(t Ion,ion. fOr th,' c'<"" ,fte, ni' flight ."J retum' '' ,he 'lu i« "" ,><I i"",btJ ."d ,hoc of ,he p,<C<J iog >e'",u" un ,t> .«"t .... n ,e <ono"""oo """'~n ,h. hi"o ry nf I""",h . nd G nogury'. , ... ,n homOly Iu •• ho" ,,,cr. ,..i",d problcm •. Ih r I">,,,,,,,im found no link b<:tw«n and image. ",J on thi , mo!t .ub<..j"en' CommentotorHonC", _ b<.n '''gg<>.<"11 rh .. ,100 I_ph q-dc m,gJ\! be ",.,1 .. "'ppi)'ing aO Old l ....mco' .mi,),... '0 G,",~ory., ,h. idc-,I bi,hop. '" If ><>. ,he ",I«,ion of secnes i, rurio",.r><! the j''' ''I'" ,,,,un of im.1~, .. ><1 ,,.,., !trained: .. "",gil the homily is . utoh'''K''plr ical in rhe hroad ""'"'' rh., Gr<.-g<>'Y ,!",.koofh',own " ",.,iol\ . n,l hi, f,d inp. i, d..... 0\0, ",,""rn Grq,ory', ",i.ude rowanJ ,he pr;",!.ood '" ,,,,,,,,d being. bi>hOV. Wltik ",.., oni " "' ;. ,n "f ,he "'"""" ,or Ud" ,h" ,he ",i ni" " '" ill"" r" '" i, hy. '" I, 'IIY. Dcr Ne<!CUi,o" >< ruplco . '" und ..... nrLbk. for, he piau rc '1'1""'''' I)' <:om me"" .. much on ,he rel>t .. .",lrip hetw«n I<»<ph .n J B.,ill .. on Gregori' lromil)" C"1l"')' dclive,...,J ,he >t'"!o" 'n )71 to'" fonh hi, re»<>n. for ...:cq" in~ tire h,,hoprrc ofS. , im" ch,d 'mong ,hem hi. ,!f«,ion for lb,iI ofCxs:>rn .'" Much of.be omio" con«rn. delini,ion. of friend,,), ip. ,nJ the rnp"n>ibilit;" = "i l«l I.,. brotherly """, '" C""K"ry dcocribcs the pct;l. of ,uch ret.uionmip< in tho !<Wnd p""'8"l'h wi..,,,,. for ,he .,k< of depot ,heto,ic. he ,,,,,Joron> f,icod,,),ip. <>nly '0 condone i, in ,he .n,j,hc<icd ,hird 1.«1ion: 'J >aid: No ",ore .tr,11 J believe in f"<od'hip .• r><! wil y ,hoLlld I pi"", my "pee'"'''''' in ,,.,,,n' For """ry m.n pmd«eitfull)'.• nd cv<. )' bro,h ... bring< down ",he ... , , , Now I h..." ch,ng«l my I~"" i,.rr. ' ' .. II I, .... ,,'1Vt th ;, I'''''"'l« " nut ';~n.llr:J '" ,I.., ta'. the >en' ime"" of tire p.... g... ph p>r. lld ,he J""pn >Crjucn", pn:><n,r:J on f. !\<Jv. wh,ch P"""rb . elmic eumrle "f brotherly d«<:i • ."d rrt in 'he eoo co"ooo,..,o Gtcgo<y', cond",ion rh .. ,h< >d,·.oe,s.. .)fftior><!,h ip ... <=l iro !""iI•. The im!",";,1 co.nnou,ion,,,f ,he 1i".1 twO iCC"". h~., <Cern dco ignr:J '0 do more ,h. n provide. titting fi, .. le to .he rom"",n",y on G regory'. «rmon ....1>li,hcJ hy,he 1,r-<UJjng ...,0<S. Th. nu, ,01><. im,S" 0&,.... ,h. <OI II",ned PIu""h I<min~ fo",."J '" f",ten ,he purple mhe of Sr•.mtioe em!",,,,,, ,",'cr IO<CJ'h', "'"",~I .... j" ocwrJ -" [.1<:, N.."", •• n vb,;,:"r:J - with fir",,,i,,. ,1<>Ctir<iu,," of

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i .. ,. ""'. " ......... ,. • ~ I. hi> " -" 1,,,.. _ h ..... ,.""S"'J'<llkd ", .. ', "".oJJ_p" ............ , do< l",aIIri" ""'" ~ oph : K. """" 'I"'w'f'lo jbl. Th.. ~ &_ ~ .... ,..,... I." (; -.-..JJ",,.( i. , ........ ,1 .. " .... '" "'" ''''*l'''''u...J .. 1. '-9>-, " ... v ... ,.... ''"«'''''1''''''''' ......... '"""" ,,,," • Jo-roI> <r<k w .. On ,h" .......... ... ..""" Mw .... (,oM'. ~;;c _ , H"Ii., 1 , '" u,. -o. _'.

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B..sil I and visual p~n~gyric

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Fig. 88 l'aris.gr.9lJ. f llT: jos(ph and PharaQh

imperial promotions.I}~ This detail, which grounds the image in Byzantim: imperial a:r~mony, appears in no other Byzantine versions of the scene, l.J6 though the Sacra Para/kin represents the scen~ as th~ coronation of a co-emperor (fig. 88).07 While demonstrating that parallels between Joseph and contemporary rulers were current in ninth-a:ntury Constantinople, the differena:s between the Sacra ParaJ/r/a and Paris.gr.po suggesr that the means of visualizing the concept remained ad hoc; the designer off. 69v chose 10 interpret the 'fine linen robe' of the Genesis account as the Byzantine imperial purple_ The final sa:ne is usually omitted from Byzantine Joseph cycles; the only sub'" up<c;..!l)' ,h~ promotion of ~ ,~",r; Conmn,ine PorphYiOgennetoo;, Dr um11aniis 1.43 (11); ed. Vogi I (,?67a). 28 . t},; E.g .• he Vienna Gene,il $how. P1.~r""h g... uring loward JOleph (Vienn ., NOIion.lbib. cod . •1...,l.gr.3', f. I8r: G~flting~r [I9}1[, pier. 36); the umsnminopolit.n Ocweuch, (e.g. ,he twelflh""mUf), Smyrna. Evangelical School A.I: Hcssd ing [1'}09]. fig. 130) .nd we!lern relalive. of Ihe Conon Gen .. i, (= W~i,zm.nn .nd K.,.Jcr [19861, n}) port .... )' Pharaoh givingJo.eph 0 ring. ,,/ Paris.gr.9'}, f. 11r: Wcirun . nn (19790). 46-47, fig. 46. For • • im il.r im.ge at Sopoiani, sec Ljubin kovit ('96S). IU_226 and, on Byun'in~ COiOnotion', W.hr (197\) , 4\\.

,,,

um,;.1 c>occp.ionl n. ,he middle Byuminc ac.. «ucru, wn cl< [he mini.mri, .. stuck", ,he biblia.l w:count .nd PO" ")...! joKph, in ;mrc ....1 rtyli., .!one in • •imrk hig.> ""'" !'mm . he .iJ._ 1.~ The ,om!""i"on on r 69'- i•. howeY.r, more d05<lr ,01 .. «1 ' 0 B)"Un';1l< impe. '.! pon ... ;!> .b." ." nnn';,.., Gen.." ill w " ,,· tion •. Aft« ,he p<cccding «<ne, it ;. ,,' he: ap«t«l ,h .. j<»<ph "',mld wear

bY! h... h••1,., hold. the urb . nd. "!'p....'ntiy uniqL1<I,'. ('.()n .... ",in" I.!>:trumo'" rhc I"'" ... i... dmdy . Uied wi,h ,II.. of Ruil on f. C,-, '.. To ",;oforce l-rh'. I"'ullel. ,..i,h Byn"ti= cmpc<or>. he " .M.
,lone .nd f",,,, ~1 in >qu.urig> .• mo,if wfll kn_n frum impc,i.1 ",fiJi.'" .fu><pIJ is R,,,hd by hoJygwrd., of , on.1I fig",,, kneel. ixf"", him, ,h.,.. .!e.

Ill''''''''''' impe,i, l

r~I; •.

."<1. p ."
,I..

rnent<, , .,." we« borrowed from Brunt;"" impc.i.! portrait!, '" Within the mll m "f J""'l'h K.>nog"'l'hy. ,he c~.... t enmp.,.i,.. " ,..i,h ,he -'«I>< it i. n.... ape, i.lly ,imil., _ ;, provided h,' ' po<hto.i, ofJ"'"!'!. indll<kd in ."o<h., aIou, >«Iu.ncc. th.. on ...... Ifth · 0' [hift <><n, h« nt ur)' ivory co",'" now., Sen. (fig, 891 • • "",n. which. pc,h.po .ignificontly. h.. b<cn linlud ",ith imperial

.n "

'''''m'

WIlil •• few otn..r cycl .. 0. i... l.reJ images of j""'ph cunllC<' hi m with ,i>< S)'Llntine emperor. in no i, the imperi.1 accent", in l':"".gr_ jlO_ Th. <i" ...i"" i. ,,-h«h« tn.. im peri. 1 det. iI. "'.f< irtCU'P"llIteJ only to .. Iut. ,i>< imperiol ' ''[lli of ,h. m.nuo<rip'·' reeipion!. 0' wh",h« w<.", rn .. n[, by <.. . n· .ion. ro .i<w ,h •• n,if< ><quor>c< 1m f, 69 • .,.n on.I"K!' ofS..il'.lifc. Whil. n" text known 10 me d" .... ,n "I<"'~ .."ie< of (>11:>11<1. herw..." [hoe 1<... of Jos<-ph .nJ 11..,1. ,...".,«.1 ""n«hd... f.,·" u, ",eh , cun n«r ion, j""'l'h "'.. ,i"",'eJ .. a" id"..1 ruler by rhi\., .• nd., , moo<1 .dminj"r>r"r hy num«"u ••arly utin f.t h.", '" A, hoth Dcr N~i.n ",d M"prrt RMidl. <>b.c ....·eJ.' .. ,h .... """""""'n, " ..... ,~ •• , <urtent in Gr .. k lite .., ur< .. ,I.e I"'" ing of j .... ph .nJ Ch ri,,_ Tni, t><~ of "n ph." ", "'" n«cu>rilr <""i.l. fUr JO><'f'h', . bili,i., .. a rul« .r< clurl)' .. pre»«! in Grnc>i,_ >;('. con """"', .nywoy.

1''''''[''11''.'''

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r"",,,,,

,~ f-t. ,ho ..... ~ SooT"" (l,.""",~ If. W': Itn•.-I"., I,.,.,.I, lie.,,,,, Tho """' ..... .... .1PI"''' '" <h< v"" •• ,;.....~: to.- ill .. " ii"",,,"" i. m<m ..... ..- , ... ,;.. ..... C........ .... ,f]., ... W,i""""n .od """', b....). ",. ,,. So .... G.. ,h",,· W",,, to...,). ".

", s.. So". (0,,,1, ,,0-,,,, Roor I,,,,). ".-",. Tk< ""'mula '""1' .I""''''ir d<,~~ f_ <;01I.';",., im",,,,. ". w.",h ... 1:0'.... 1, .),), I, _" ...... <om""", w . . ' " hI li d' "n.mr"'.' , ... ,;.,.,.... ..... "'" .....~ ..... ""'"' fomd .. , '" "".r C-.... ,i""f"'li,... (,"'" .. 'W''''''''' .,. , ... Not. of ........... "I' . ....... , ... '>wOO"""" ... v"";.-, (, ... ): AI. C.......... Io,n)·
'~s..C.,.t..d'916I. 4

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w.o, ....... I 10."" . .... '4,. Vikao 10."':1. "", «'"~ ,k< 5< •• Mid

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Basill .IlJ vi.".1 p.ncgyric

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Fig. 89 Snn. O ubrdraf ht'll-'ury: i/Jory (flsJ:rI, tlpOibrosis o j ourb f

rely exclusively on surviving tens (0 tell us the rull ~wry or rypological awareness: the visual association or Joseph wilh Byzamine rulers is clearly expressed in both Ihe Hom il ies and dlC Sacra Hlral/elll (fig. 88) and the concept or Joseph as ideal ruler wa.~ ramiliar to at least some later viewers as well. The thirteenth-century Joseph sequence at Sopoeani has, fot example. been interpreted as a parallel to Stephen Nemanja's lire. and the ivory casket at Sens ~ probably Italian but demonstrating strong Byzantine connections ~ pairs images or Joseph and David, Ihe

' 77

Byuntil>< id",,1 of. rul« ,... 1" "i,,,h-«,,,,,'Y Con",."[,,,,,,,I. "-''''' .1>0 «'" ,v,il,hl. ,h,. ""d< , he c>.., I'Il ilo', Lk ].»rpb6, [ho m~;or <om_ men, ..y ." on umeute -",,,,,ph', qu.lil>a. io", •• ideal tlIkr, i> Of>< of '''''' If"";"'; 1",,001 '" <0<kJr 'OJ in Photi,,' lI,b!;",kh ,.. If, h"w",""r, ,he co" n"",;"n oo-.,n emp<fOr . nd Old T",,.m.nl pmi ..,h ,,~ mom, ". heamli nal '0 p...lId cumpl<>of g"''' ",ION, i, _ m' oJJ ,h .. . pi....,jeo J ... il ing Jo«pl'" .bili,;" w". tIot "/'Well on f. 69v, Adminoolly, [he "".... of )''''I'h', hot",~,.1 ~ hi. h""h ... """ n«<m[y '0 illu"'.1< (by .".Iogy) GfCP"Y" homily, OO[ [hi •• im could haY< b«n .. hiOV'Cd with 1';" S"'''« b"",i,y : !\tri,_IV_ "O I"""""'" d.. "",., ....",i'" hot,..)"'1 ""'I"encr in E\yunline ... , lbc ",inLatu['" >«m, [0 h..'e dwel, intemwn. lIy On J_ph', p<I>On. 1 hcfo", he .",i t,..j 1"""<1; ,he p>g< m:aU, > .,,,,,i ,,, .. ,, .,,,,,,,..,,1 «1 j" R .. om'''''' "'nh_""ntury h,'mn 'On Jo><ph': 'W1u, "'" ,,1'00... i, ,he", for ,he m.n "ilo "ruggln h...\. if "'" to Win • em"'n ~'compl<1e vi<""J~" " Wh" C'o'er 'he truth "fhi. background. &t..<1', '""''' , ',, forc-igJ .. r who w.. p"'" ,1cs'inoJ '0 " ,Ie ily",,,,io",, .od <w<rc-. 'n< IOllg oJJ, <0 do ><>, i. ,he ur>derl)'ing [h .. ",n. te hi. lif. , ". A> iIlown on f, 69>', J'-"'<ph . 1 .... [hem< of ,he 'Ulvi"ing I,""",.",j II . ,,! ,g,in" >«millgl)' in,mmo.",,.hlc oJJ. for ,he imp<,ial .itle in > di". m Imd; hi. life wa.! wdl.u i,ooI '0 p[ovide, p...lld for &>i1"... ~ "'_ or .wn 1",,,Of ,h. n .. ,,,, "'\1>1 id..1rul<n of iJyun,ine m . nd 1i1C.. '~re, D ..id .nd Solomon. wi[h whom B"il .... . 11<1 ",u.. oJ, '" The Joseph in ,h. !\tri< GtcgOlY <on he under<tood .. r<pT<'S<n';ng ' gener.1 ,hem. of ide>l rukr; hu" heyond 'hi1 , ,he 1«n« >«m '" h"" hc<n sel<c'oJ to p<[>onah", .h. n,j"i.,u .. , .nd impl y, 'p<"<ific link hetw<:<"11 I\;o.il ,,,d J'_I'/'_ The vi,o~1 .1I ~,io", wo!l.:«1 ou' (IT( f, 69. p>~. lld ' he (I"mi",n, [h."" of [he "",[(en 1CCQum . of & .il'. life b~ p<>n ... yingJ<»<rl> , like B""iI, .. . roreignerwho f05<' from agr>,;.n >lock to he m.de ro--rub . fter """,i""roble pc"on.1 "'''!;Sic. '\' )"",,,h, o"lik l\;o,ill, n"""r mloJ .Ione; )'< [ h. i. shown " ,;,h".", hi, ",.,ul<! <>n f 69v, where Ph. noh "",Ye<.n c<><n_ 'i~lIy m<ni>l function: I '~'P«' that ,h i. i. bn.. usc 1\0;;1 mlllJe..-.J hi' 'Ph."" h'.".1 Jo><pl(', ' Mi.:h,d II r ...e<,,,rdjngJy Uowll pbrod_ '" B~, whed[« ,,, nOO I .m CO'f«' on ,hi. p>flicul.. d."il, f. 69>' p",.ide> on im"lle , h.. funCl io" "J ••• "" m'

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&sil ~"" Sa",,,,~ f o\;",.7" I n ) (fig. )II Folio H 7\"contoin' fi,.., «enn I'TOm ,he lif. ofS.m!On in ,I>< ,op . nd middle "1\". ,• ." Gid<.,n p .. )ing join, ,hc m. rrpd"", of J,.i. h in ,hc ho«om . i«. ," '\1Ic S. m",n ...,,,,,nce besin. wi,h ,he .I.ying of ,h. lhou .. nd Phili"ine> ijud".. 'l"I- ,6\ ; s.m<o" (CAM '¥llN I - . nimbi"". btonll .... )'Ou,h wi,h l<>ng,l>r\ h,i.""'• .,. "'on ~Iuc tunic enli,'cn..! wi,h • gold b.nd uoo«. m:i ..,h. which Au"c" bdtioo him., he ",il« high ,h. j.",honc in hi. len haoo wt.ik gmping ,I>< n.i, of • f.lkn I'ttili"i,,.. h. i, ,n J ..",«h. ,~,,, ., n<, l'h ili"i". h., . Iready f,lk" in ,h. f<,cq;round .•..d • group Hoe> ""."nd ,hc 'igh', ' .. Al,hough II>< fl«ing Phili"innovcrl.p if ' bi, ....1I.nd rock)' moun ..,n .i",.lIy eo,""n' tl>< -..e. iun ro ,h. 1.1', ,ide of "'8'«'" On ,he o,h« ,ide of ,he "",unuin, Sam"", ,<cu.,. f...mro by . >«ond outcrop on .he f.. tight , Hm, he , .. nJ. c..lmly. d'inking ,I>< ",,,e' th .. ( ~ ,.J . >LId ", flo", f..,", ,~j."""'ne ... , ign of d"i"" ,:','our; in m;pomc. I>< ... ioe> bi> ' igh' h. nd ,.,....,d h..,'cn (judge> 'j:JS_,~). Thel<'g<nd «od. 'Som"," d,in\;' fron, ,he I' ''''''''''' (CAM '¥O :-': I1lNON 10K THe C1 AI'ONOC) '1"1>< ~ "'SiSl.r 0r<n, wi,h 1:I<libh cutting Sam,.,", h.i, Uudg<> '''",). of Delil.h. he, unC<)Vem:i he.d india'ing he< " .. u.... ,,'Om.n ou",ide ,he km.le dc..:orum u.u.II)· observnl by ,hc min",",i"" .i" on 1 £1«0 ,lor< in from of.n e.<t<n>i..- h........ p, .... m.bly tu ;nJia. .. ,h.t ,hc "',un t<>ok pl>« irtJ ........... He. fxc hi hocn .1""", ",uUy .hraded. perh.po , 'i<tim "fin«m;"n.1 <houge. Deli!.h wo" • Je.,p bluedrcu Je.,u .....! in gold Ofl ,,'~ i<~ $,m<on «<l in.. in d<ep •• , h. _ .. >d ,,(>I ,h. ro.n Jeo<:,ibed in ,he .<;op,u'gi"' ,.., _ uim, hi, h. ;, wi,h, 10'8" I"i, of $Ci..., ... , as Jeo<:,ibcd by .he i"""ipt;"n ·Delil.h >he." Sa""",o'. h.od· (.1A... I,\A<": ;;: YI'I/DYCA TON (".AM '¥n ~) . $,m",". "",,,' wi,h "cry .h"" lui, indeed .nd wi,n hi ... m. bouoo behioo him . 'uppe'" in ,he cen",: of ,ne «'gi" ...

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walking toward ,he righl. Behind him, Delilah , here with a brown mantle eovl."rin g he r hair and f.J.llin g over her hlue dress. lays a hand on his should l." r. A Philisrin l." accompanies he r, and four mol'(' confron t Samson on the righ t. One of ,hem raiscs his hand in a gesture of speech: anothe r gouges OUI Samson's cyes wilh a large pin Uud ges 16:11 ).m Thc final scene em blematically illumalcs Judges 16:16-30. Samson. now withom his red sash bUI with ncwly grown long hai r. stands frontally be(\n'cn (\\'0 pillars, resting a hand on each. T hc pillarssuppon an arch. on which rem rh e house full of Philistines. ponraycd as a dimil1U1ive conglomcration of buildings. As indicaTed by the inscription accomp:lI1ying ,he scene - 'Samson brings down the house' (0 CAM 1.J.tnN plriTnN THN 0IK1AN ) - but IIOt shown in the miniature, the Lord granted his suicidal wish 10 d estroy the Philist ines by pulling out the foundation s of the building undl."r which he stood . 'and the dl'ad whom Samson slew in his de:llh were more Ih:1I1 those whom he slew in his life' (v. jO). The five scenes from Samson's life included on f. H7V were included in orhl."r, more ex tensivl.". Byza nrin l." narra tive c}'cll."S, notabl y those on a flfth- or sixthcentury mosaic fl oor ill Mopsucstia and in rhree of thc middle Byzantine OCl a { e u chs:"~ four also appear in rhe $acra Partll/t'/" (flgs. 9C>--91). ,ho ugh 1101 as parr of a single scquence.I~~ The thirtccnth-century OClafeuch (Mount Athas. Vatopedi 601) is a copy of ,hc twelf,h-ccntury Val.gr.746;lbO OIhl." twise the sequences Sel'n1 to be largely inJ('pendeIH of each oth er,161 NOI surpri singly, ,he Samson scellcs on f. H 7V find only loose affiliations within rhis group. and then with the ninth-ccnnt ry images in t he $arm Ptm1!f~/". The Stlem /{md/tfff (fi g. 90) provides a parallel ro Ihe first scene all f. H7V: S3msol1 is nimblt'ss. wears boo ts 3nd a short tunic wi th a sash that hlows behind
l'" lmcribni. on Ih~gold fT~m<', ',h~ ro"'ign~ .. blind S~m"'n' (01 A \ \ O<" Y.\ OI TY" '.\ONON. TEe '1'01N I CAM""U Nl: .«< nOI~ I16 al,,:)\'~. I" Fu. I\ t op",~"i~. Kininge. (1 97,). wi.h urli .. r hibliogr:lphy. Th~ S~"'''''n ~'lu~ncn in [h( IWO ~,rl iN OClalellch Imnllsnipl! - V" .gr.747. II'. 147"-15I r (d~"N\lh cenl ury) ~ lI\l V".gr. 741>, fro 4~M\'-4 9IV (Iwelflh C (llll"Y) - h.v~ ne"~' l~n full), p"bl;'h~d Ihough ~ few inugel ~ p~ ..ed in lowden (l99 l), ligs. 71- 78: for Ihe ,hinunlh-ccntory cop)' (Mount A,hOi. V~loprdj 601, fr. i Jlv- H jT). >« Hub.-, (l97J). fip. lii- II9: Ch ' i~lo" rI al (991). fig>. 169-.8!. The Tt'm~ini"g (k1~lc"chs (S myrn~. E"~ngdinl School A.I and l.unlHlI. 'lo l,hp' S:"~yl MUI.n;' gr.8) nevcr included tho' S~ "'>("t S<c'lucncc. I" Pari.,g"lP). 11'. 10SV. ,6,v. 146v: W';lzm~nn (19791). 6K-70. figl. 96. 99-100. 101. Three Sam,"' n ,SCcnc. (none rd,,·.", 10 Ihi~ di ><:u!'I<ion) also .PP<'u in Ihe Vi ~ L;llin~ nl>comh (c~, JSo): F~ttll~ (1960). 1 •. XXX. I. CV. ClX. )1 I... I..owdtn (1\18:): 1h~ ug"m~nt...~ "'P"a,ro in lo ... d~n (199"). I_I Th~ '\'I0r>u<$ti~ mOS>.ic is in ...ch a f~~nlarr condil ion Ih~1 iconogr..ph in l com p.It;...... is ;"'p"nihl~. bUI fi.llowi!1g Kiningd. ;d~ntifica,ion of tI,( so:enes i, i, t"i,l~nt ,h~, [he ",,,,,,ie ~nd I.'n Ill" nu~nj P" arc mJl ,d.loo: n~; Ihn Me Ihe Oer.ucllch IC'lucnc<'S c!) nn ~led with the S..",on SCcn ~S in I he S.lrfil 1',m"/~/., (Wci lzman n 11979~ 1. 67-70), NOl is Vat,g"'.7 n:btcd '0 Ihe latCf Ckt~teoch.: it cont"ins , ix SCC'nc) om itt ...1from Vatoproi 601 and Vat .gr.7i6 and lack. foonern cpilOdc. pictured in IhC><' m~nuscripl> ....·hile ,he fifl~n .\Cents . hued by all thr« OCl~'cu{hs p.O('rv~ on ly the mOSI gcncnl.imilari,in.

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him. grasps the knecl ing Philistine with his left hand and raises the jawbone in his right in both pictures. l61 The two miniatures are, however, far from identical. Throughout th e Sacra Parai/(/a. Samson wears a beard, and here he loob up at the jawbone rather than down a1 the Philistine; also unlike Paris.gr.sIO, dead Philistines litter the ground behind Samson in the Sacra Para/kia, and none Aees the scene of carnage. The next three scenes on f. 347V find no dose Byzantine parallels: only Paris.gr.Slo, for exa mple, shows Samson standing a5 the Philistines blind him. and only Paris.gr.jlo omits th e Philistine included in the Septuagint account of the hair-cu ning episode. [n rhis, PariS.gqlO echoes Josephu.s, who described Delilah cuning Samson's hair: and the omission of the Philistine may not have been qui teso unusual as it now appears: it is repeated in at least one later manuscript. the Arsenal Bible. a mid -thi rreenth-cenrurybook illuminated in the crusader states at Acre bya painter who may also have worked in Constantinople. 16J The final scene again resembles the Sacra Pami/(/a (fig. 91). and also rhe eleventh-cenrury Octauuch VaLgr. 747 (fig. 92), in showingSamson between columns that SUppOf( the house of rh e Philistines. Both th e Sacra Paml/da and Vat.gr.747, however, show a slightly later moment of the episode, when Samson wraps his arms around the columns, and in the &,cm Para/kla pieces of the building and corpses already surround Samson. The novel formulation of this scene on f. 347V has two results: by halting th e action at the moment be:fore: Samson brings down di e house of the: Philistines, rhe illustrator borh implicitly stresses Samson's prayer to God and allows Samson to continue as a living hero. The emphasis on Samson's prayer for strength ties the sce ne to its coun te rpan in rhe top register - Samson's earlier request for water, which God fulfilled by making water iss ue from the jawbone l64 - and both of these scenes, in turn , relate to Gideon's prayer in the third register, an affiliation corroborated by th ~ physical similarities shared by Samson ana Gideon. Th~ dct:ision to portray Samson as yet umhreatenoo by his imminent dea th may also have been conditioned by factors beyond the internal coherence of the sequence. Though Samson's usual biblical antitype was Chris\' we have already seen G regory linking him with bishop Athanasios, who~ praise thi s mini ature may once have accompanied. 16 ' Samson Wa5 also compan~a with Herakles and Constantine, 166 and his ph ysical strength and ultimate triumph ove r lhe Philistin es made him a suitable canaidate for certain imperial programmes of deco ration a5 wcll: tor example. Samson joins Ach illes and Joshua (among others) in the deeo raI.., Weinm.nn ('979'), ~ g, 96; S<:e :>.1 the ,olief :>.t Aght.mu: Ocr Ncr",,,i.n and Vaht:>.mi.n $0 ('974), 82-83 (no. 0 - 1), Sam""n'utance ant icip>lcs that in Vat.gr. 747, but th~rr h. docs not gr:ob the h.irof. f.llen Phili,t;nc. I., J,wi,h IIntiqJ<iti" V, 3t 1- 3'3 (.d. Loeb. '40-'4 ' ); Buch,h.1(1957). pI. 68, Fold. (1976). 1). 67. ",' So too Bm,h.u",n ('980). 19S. The Septu. gi n, aCCOunt implicitly links th~ .pisod.s; in bo,h ·S.m ... n wept before th. Lord', "I SC 170. '7', 164; ICc chapter 2. ,.. Sec W. A. Bub., •.," ·Simson·. in Lei" (' 97')' )1- p.

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16/11.'

/110m prilJillg: Stili/SOli dmfOJ1 lbf bOllif oflbe /'bilislinn; Elijah

plllyi"g

,SJ

Vision

~nd

meaning in ninlh-c.,mury Byz.anlium


(ion of (he palac., described in Digl'1lfl Akriftl. 167 In ,he Vitll 8l1Si/ii, Samson is also co nn ected with Basil: (hc author records Michael Ill's remark 'all he [Basill has is lIatour, as did Samso n of old', 1M Basil's k'gendary physical Strength may hallc suggested ,he comparison ; it in turn suggests a consideration of the Sa mson scenes on f. H 7V as potcntial ntellphors ofB:lsil's life. The visual history of Samson has been carefully slrucll1 red: il opens with a scene celebrating Samson's early fears ofstrengt h. fo llowed by one demonstr'lI ing that he was f2vo ured by God in his ),outh: next come the trials. by scissors and by nail. as Samson loses his hair and his sight : and. fin:lll y. in a scene which manages to imply Samson's victory withollt actllllly picturing his lccompln)'i ng dealh. he triumphs. [t is perhlps not 100 farfelched 10 see in Ihis sclection of scenes allusions to Basil's famed strength l Sa youth. the prophecies held to demonstrate that cven then Blsil was favoured by God, the setbacks he encountered on route' 10 !lIe' dHone. and his u It imate success.
,.' lJi~rlltf tli:ritn VJJ.
,(.II

«I. J. M ~"rog""bto (O.furd, I')S6 ).

I'il" Basiliil" «I. Bckk.,r (18 J8), 1H, SC"<" n."" -4 7 all......,.

'"

&I.,ill and visua l

p~negyric

Fig. 9J ROlliI'. I'ala= V(1J(V"; hoory (",,,kef. roro"ario" of David; Dm,id mltl Golillll!

Basil fllld Dllvid

David was o ne o f the ideal- ruler types o f the O ld Tesramen t most frC<Juenrly associa ted with the re ign ing emperor in B}'1.anrium, and Byzam ine w riters dul y likened Bas il. also, 10 Dav id .I(,~ How th is equa t ion was gi ven visu al fo rm has been slUdied , a nd attentio n has foc used es pecially on an ivory box in the Palazzo Ven ezia in Rome tha t d epicts an imperial couple o n its lid (fi g. 84), surround ed by scenes from the life of D avid (fi gs. 93 , 95).1 70 The empero r a nd e mpress are u n fo rtuna te ly not nam ed in the inscri p tio n o n the box, bur h ave been convincing ly ident ified as Bas il and Eudo kia. l7I Like the history of Josep h in P~ris . g r.)to, t he scenes from the life of
16. Mor::o.voik (1960). 69: aho ~. g. Tobias ('969). 12. n.l. MO'1 rxampks, e.g. PG lOt; \81 - \84. rom~

from Pholi", who was ~Iso prob~bly respons ible fot an ,m;.P,ulici,n ro<'m dro;ca,ed ro Ba,il wherein ,he compa risons wilh D~vid arc e'p«ially prOllOuncro: ,ec ODB I (1991 ), t6,; M,rkopo ulos (1991) ; and chapter j. 170 C Uller and Oikonomidcs ('988): Maguire (1988), 89-9.1: Kalav",lOu (1989). 391- .196. m Guillou ('<J79): Maguire (1988). 89-91; and esp. KalanclOu (1989) . .191-.196. Cutl .. and Oikonomid ... (1988) argne for Let> VI; d. Cude t (19<J~), 101.

,"

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com •..1 brothe., N.. h.n.d .•und. wi,h hi, b>ek '0 ,he "iowe", hi, f>« ,~",.,j i" p",~k On tI ... ",I ... , end of ,Ix I'"" of. bu,ldi ng;' . ',ibk. The d i... [inc[,,'< fo. m of [hi, .. ruC[Ul'<. with only one column .i,ible , famf.KCS 0" f. JJ'V (61;, ,)1 and ><e m' to fo.m ",rt of 'he ... nd.n! 'I'<h'tC"Ctu[.1 ...,>c~ul .. )" of 'he Gr<SOry mini"y,,,,,, ,he emph" ' . "11 'he ."lun" •. which .i" ...II. plinth . ",1 'PI"" " ..!" we fro", ,he of ,he b"i l.ling '-""<"II " i, ...."" , .. ,h. cmni"", ~ nor, ho,"""",,[. ""''''. Unlike 'he Gcndi ..cc ..... . I>o,·e it, ,h • • noin'mg i, no< mcn,ion«l in [he . W>m· !"nrins" """"" but . like 'he iJcntiC".lIy eJ.J I<... e . nd j .."" ... f . he upper ~"ef>.. I) •• id w., .icwM " • 'YP< 0'- C h,i" 11)' 1I)~.mine commen' ....... anJ Oel Ncn".. i.n pl .... ,ib l)· . ... ~ted th .. the design" off 1«[«1 [h • • nolnting of I).. id .. <Ix eulmin>ling ",ene '" pt'{Wiol c ~'" .no,h.. . ntit~,p<"( Ch.i, " ' In, I«d ' < of J<pie<ing j..:ob ",oi"tin~ tI .. pill ... whieh ... Gtq;o.), .. )~. " igni~ ,he rod '''o"" ed f", ........ k - 1,1 .. mini.""i," I h.. p. ;n,ed ,h. ,""in'mc"' of I),.iol, .. hieh h., <he ",me n'<".ning.· ·.., E,'<n so. ,he do;ci,ion [0 respond '0 G'q:or~', men,ion of j.cob ." oi,,'in~ ,h. pill.' (. I' .... ~e .;gnolled with. painted ,Il< .uh., i""'",, (""I",rcJ tloc ini,i.I). h... , with • difl"e«nI ICC"". '''~'<">" I"',m of ,he page in 10m" "".~' ,h" ,he j.orob lCet>< could no<: Dc[ Nef'>CS!IO" .f};\....J tn., 1 )"'iJ', .""i",iIlS 1'''''''JcJ e"' '''I'I. (Or ,mpe, .. 1 iconog .. phy iru.cned f(,. ,be I>cr.dit ofB .. i! J. AltI'''''SI. Ch,i""ph« W.I,., f.... "d "0 ele-. •• i,,,, 1 , ,,m,,,,,i .. ,,, I>ctw<"<n O,,..,d', .n"'ming . nJ imp<[ul uoction bcfor< ,ne dn'<nth a m ury.L" li,er:t ry ,.,,,,,o;c, i,,,,, .. i,,_ [)",';.J .",[ ,h, r<;~\i nS eml"" '" .... lfo li".,J Of' 1I)7~"''''' ,,,'" f",Ol ,Ix middle of ,he li f[!. """tu.t'. '" . nd by [ne cign[h [Ix ,nnin,ing .. h"",sIt, into 'he "I"" """ Th. lI.roc.ini E"t!..J"!,,,~ (c • . 79\) de .. i!! . C(" on" "'" «r<. mO)ny in wh'd, . during tne pr,).. ' 0'"'' ,h. "hI.m),>. ,h. P""i.t<h "')~: '0 Lon! 0 .... (; .-..1, ,he Kingnfkin£' ""I I.o,d oflnrd< , ",n;';h ,h ..... ,gh So""..1,Ix I""ph .. did" ehoose o.,;.! .h)" ...unt '0 be king""'[ t h)' propl< In 1, ••01 , do [hou !\OW .1 ", nc.. ,h. , urriiC'" i.", of I"" " .. ) __ . vtM ",h.-...f. , .. :on .. in, hin, wi ,h "iL"" A. it h.ppen •. a.,il i, Of>< of ,he emperon fo. whom [h • • noin,ing of O.vid >«m, to h."" h..l p.n.ml .. ",,,,n>l'« .•• ' Dc. N<f'>CS!i. " hOI . 1",..I y """'IV'i..,d ,Ix ,ign in""n", ,,( 'he m<>S.lie '''''ted by 1I.,il in 'he Kain<>"rWon, in ,.." ieh, KCo"'ing to ,he I",~ &.ilii. lI.o,il', 10m held Kroll> in.«ib«l 'w" . r< ,lunkfu l ro [It«, 0 Won! of GoJ, fo, h.ving .. ,sct! Out f.,hcr fro m o.,;.Jie 1"" ''''Y'oJ hoving .""i nted him wi,h ,he ... n«ion <>f ,h~ Holy G n,..,'_ R_ E. B.igh,m." "",«I ,Iu[ on< of [he .. '" ·"

,q;i"'"

to,,,

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'7'" ..

tI,,, ,,""

tI,,,

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•Cb"",idH ,,,,_.,.

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s..-

ro,.,....,.... m. ,.. Vi .. "",,,,,.,-..l ""'kohl,.,.) ..
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"Won .oo m<On,ns ,n n'mh-«mu.,. !ly,.""um

Brun,in< rokr.ntt> ", >n<>in.ing apI""" in >1."., from Pt.",i", ,,, >nuin,«/ .nd hI<,..,J king' 8",iI,'" .oJ I':Iul M.gd.oli<><> h•• C1lkd m<mion '0 &sir, r«jUW 10 Pho,,,,, ('" in (",m.. ion on Do..;.!', . n"'nt ins. On ,h. I>o,i, of which h. '<gucU tI ... 'i ...... un l""'il"1 in;,;..;.., ,h.. ,h. [N., Ekkl..i.] acquired ,h'M'" f,,,,,, which S.mlte! h.:od .M' ,,,.d l)"id'. ,.. Th•• noin,ing of I),vid . eoolveo ,h. typ<>logi« inomdk>C<d by ,ho uppe' ,wo rc-gi"<rS in. mon,.., ellc,,!.,..! '" mi, ,h • • mpe'Uf, .nd ~ .... iJ.ntlr i""",,«/ in o.der to <ompkmtn, 8".il'•• n,hmiasm for ,h. ,hem •. Thi •• "/1' "'" di. ino .....,..J. Jw... , ho co",n..ion of Rl.il "in"df. 00 f Cv.legi.imized hi> . Ioim [0 [h. [hrofl<, .., '00 'he . noiming of Basil, like til" of h i. pm:ursor DAvid. r.i5<'l! h im from 'povcr!)" '" di"indy .. n<tiuncJ mle, Th. impo<<>ncc of ,ho ",oin.ing in ,h. 1>".[ port of ,he nin'h <cn'".)· ><em, ,I", ,n n• .., .!f"",cJ ,h. i<,_og... phy of ,h. Ken'. T'" mOOifi",.iollS impoocd Ji<! no<, ho,..""er, [Quch [he co« !\,ouping of D.vid . nd .'i>rnucl i"df. which r<plic.,.. • f..mili .. cornl""'i,;., ...1 typc found in ,II< Mil", Gr<"gOry (ng. j') .nJ t he.1:..mr Pa,-,,11rW (nK- ~~l.' '' Th. s,,<Ta 1'~",Ib'" CV<'n i""lada ,h. bfO'h .... crowJ..! behind Dovi<!, bu, ,he .,p,n.i", <:umpo.i, ion found itt l'>,i •. gt."o O<1lr on [he r.luID Ven .. i, ivory box (fig. ?,) .nd in , ho I"., mini"u .... of ,ho I':ori. r.. 1t« (nS' 96) . nJ ,h. leu Bibl. (fig. 97), ,ao Thou&" D.viJ bends ,ligl,,!y mort ",w.n! s"mud in ,he- 1"-'1.. , ."J bib!< mini.r",,,,,, [h. ,noin,ing group i. ",I>cr_ w;'" v;"""lIy iden'icaI i~ . 11 th[«, f"lth.r. J<»< .1.""" ,h...m. phy>i<»;numic [ype, ,ho hm[h.fi .11 w... •!.on mn ic<, .nd... Hugo Buch, h.1 obs<,.-cd, [he,ine,iY< "n<-"",I umned ""ilJ ing un ,h. for ,i&h_of >«"<>< in ="rs in [he left h>ekgrouM "f both I" .. ""ion •. ,.. Th. conderu«! 'f""" o f ,h. psal«' ",.I bibl< <:urn!""i[i"",, which.", even mor< do.ely r.b,..J .><h oth.r ,han ,hc:-' ... '" P.<i•. gr, 1'0. l<>u l« in .tn ~d .... ping d,,".r ofbro,h." ,hat non.,he1<>-, , ... in< ,he ~g,,' • ...,,, fmm .~ '." wi,h p,,)~le h.,d of f, 'i~V, Notwi,h".OOing di!f<r<ncn mel. ... ,h. ind".ion o( on • ..,hi,«:", ..1 NeLl",!" a _ bMh.r, ."d ,he ,,.,,,,,ninc.It',,n uf de-n,.,IC)-· {I'.....,'''') i" ,I>< 1.,.-, ",ini,,,,,.., ,i,,1. [he 1':I.i, l'Silt<r. l<o Bibl<, .00 I'..i, Grc-gOf}' ",R= •• ingle , ... di,i"" I.,e. r<pc",,1 in ,1.< ci.V<11th -«n,ury V"i""n Book of Kin);" '''' Th. 1'.1.,..., V.n.-.i.

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.r Milon. Amb. • • I,o ...I,. I' ,M ,Guh" h • • J.tI. pi, XUII." , P";,,p, •• ~
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Ibsil I and visual panegyric

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.6g. 94 fa,it.t" 9l J, f 8or; Silm,,~1 prllJing; Sa"",a with II Iniftr; Il"ointing of Dm'id: At'''I/'
du~it'n

s,,,,/1

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Vi,inll ,,,,d lll<':lIling in

Ililllh .c~nlllry

Brlarniulll

Fig. 9~ H",,,r, Hd,,= Ihuzi,,.. 11'(11] O/it'(I. U,N'ld fill' 1/),' hrm Jrom S,llIli IIIl1i,-; Illioimi".'?, I!/ D,"'Id; f).",,'j 1'/")'>brji,rr :"",1

ivory belongs wi t h this group as well: de_~pir(' some changes lhal may be in pan at! rihuted to I he difference ill medi um, Ihe ivory nonethdt'ss s hare~ with the minialUrcs a bro.ld horizomal composirioll that allow$, as in the Pa r i~ Psalter ;md Ihe Leo Bible. all six brothers to be included: here 100 we find the saJlle arrangt'nlelll of O'lVid. S:ullud, and till' upturned horn of :moiming.)q) Whareve r Ih .. prt"cise irH("rConnections hetwe(' n lhe$(' fOllr versions of the anointing. lhey form a co her,'" The .''')lk ",,1""'0 >1,' ".!;,,~ "n th" ti)lht wJS. hown-n. "I'llorcnt I)' urigi nony accompan ied hy ~ second one, ,h ~ bose of whi ch i, "i,ible berwee n D""id Jnd SJ tllnd: I dunk ),,1"1 H ,Hl"'" ('" th;, "["ernt;",, ,

'9'

Basil I and visuall'anq;yric

Fig. 96 {"Iris.gr. f )9. f

) 11:

iI1lOintillg of /J(II·id

enl and diMincl ivc group. In The formu la that they sharI.' is not found in thr midn inth-cent ury marginal psaltcrs ; l ~.\ thr expansive composition may have been developed around the time of [he l'alaz7.0 Venezia box and l'aris.gr.51O. inspired by Basil l 's interest in [he ana; nti ng.
,., S« Ihe discussion or lh e Jonah c)"clcs in l~ e l~ree manu sc ripl . in d uprer l. As indicated in nOle 190 above. lhe lalrr V~r ican Book of Kings ol so hdong' with this gmup. '~J Muscow. cod. gr. 1l9. 1f. 79 r. ~9 r (S<'epkina h 97711 .nd MOUn! AdIOS. Panrokraror 61. f. 1:5' (D urrenn e [1966]. pI. 19) include only D"v;d and Samuel. who holds rhe horn upturned an d gazes
toward he.ven.

'9 ,

Visiun and rn<'~ning in Ilinth -cc mury BYla miullI

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, ,

'9'

Folio 14J" (, ~) (fig, '91 On f. '*).. .. we .. w in chapter 1. the penitence of D.vid an<! the aJi>«nt "'ene of Jeremiah', relcasc (rom the pit .i<~,jiuJ the the me offorgivcnc<5 dc-...:lopcd in the accoml'.nying .."m"n; while G"'toty did no< mcn,ion ,hc I><ni«",,. 'l><c i~c>lIy, he aUud<d '0 David', grief an<! reI" se from ..,rrow by God', p..don in ><'>'e",1 pD' "'g<> th.t at< 'ignaJlcJ in 'he text, n .. in"'tiption', """.".lIy "i.id for r.n,.gr, 5tO. 'p<1I om l).vid·,amf""ion of . in and N .. ,h.n·, .. "ur .. nccofGod ', fursi,'cn",,; .nd, while the p<n i.en« imag< it.d fh .. b""J rofOll. rin in Brun. iu m. the "'ene •h.. it n",m .. lly Wllml" "in. N" h.. "', «ooking "fl)""id, h., hc<n om i,,<d. The .inglo. minded foeu, on God', pmlO1l i. ««<moly unUlu.l. '.. . t>d i, i, powble ,I." <II< image ..... '"""'. to imply. b)· ex«n,ion, divine fu.givcn"" for B.,il', .i n•. no,.bly the m"rde, of Mi<had m, I"' If ><>. N..i ....,'. rule » intc,mcdi.,y - tl .. I'tol'h« 'hlUUgh whom G.-..l '1"" 1<.< _ fcll ,o 1'1.01"", .. ,hc F;"'t"P"dcmotU"" ... , ,he p.. «i . ..eh would have fd, , he I"'t to be entirely awropri"e. '" The image may aloo «>po" d to B.t..il', ow", fotn,,,I.ti,,n "fD" 'id', I",ni tcn« ... he mo<lc-I fo. itlll",,;.1 h"",ili,y.• poi '" ,hat ,hc e",l"'ro, d"",I"I>«I in hi, ><Id,,,,, .0 ,I." G,unci! of
869 ,'"

B.t;j/ ~"d /DIm."

Folio u6v (16) (fig, 16) The upp<f ' eg;',e. "f f, 116,' .how> M""" !"iking w .. or fru m a rock; ,he I""..:r .h""", jo,hul "opping ,he MIn and moon. and Josh,,", coII(runtcJ by ,I>< angd ,,'00 i. ',he cap.. in of ,he 1.0" of ,he Locd' (jo.hu. l"41, ''' The fim of ,he jooh ... ><eo .. "''''''' the nimbI"" hero "'idi ng tow.,d the kit hefo..c . green mounuin that provid .. . <ornpo<i,io.,,1 penda", '0 ,I." rink p",k fronl which M"... d .."", "'a!« in the Wf' l<')I;i"e,. '" J<>shui' ,;ght arm i, ,..i",,1 to gr.. p . he top uf ~i, I."",. and hi, I"f, folloW! ~i, S""''' he !Urn. luck ."",ar.J ,he ,un.n<! ,he mnon, oo..h <" m m· p=ct! by an a", ofh",·en. "'l'r<><:ntcJ .. coneen"ic b.nd. of blue at the 'op of th" "",ne. J<»hui . cui ,,,,, i. gold ....lw ,re hi,leggi l\gs .11<1 ,h. bo"" 1n ofhiJ holm .. ; it> "'p. al1<l ,I." !Uni, und", hi •• <mom. arc hlue; ,he f..b,ic hand p'Olfuding from hene.,h hi, min gua<d, i, grecn, A mJ mantle. ,icJ .roul1<l hi. <>«k. blow> o ut behind him and accent"",,,,, hi. turning mov<ment. Two fall.n Am",it .. lie hene .. h h;, feel; ,he ""It of ,hem Ike on oo""bKk ,.,.,..r.J ,he len. In h;, I.. k of a nimoo.. . • he Grrgory j",h"" folluw. carli. , p~e"" .uch a. the m..... ie at S.a M ..i. Maggio« and rho Rabbula ("""pel" ,h""" omi' ,h. Am",i, ..

"""""'<t.

" , 'itt,,,",""'. , ~ .... on d•• raw", V...... =k«, Map"." ...I ......... m ....... ,.. St.f'f'. ,,1.-"9 .b.r... '" M . n~ XVI . ... II"'" ~ (,.100). !" . ... Mm.. (,.",1 , 4" 0.-.. 10,_", 4 . pl. XI, Moo.y (0,,,). '." \O;".;' ..... n" (0 . . , 1. "'r. f>H s.n...w. (''',j, IInobol.., I,.,.M>1. ''''''''''+' ' .. ~, ft.k<! 0.",,", ,-'<I " ... ok<; ....... tlH<x nK 101 ' I'OK (NI"VIHI·

""""<'

'"

emirely .nd I..:k tne.re end"'ing tne .un .nd moon.""' M"'t J.tef e..mpb. on fne <>tnef nmd. ind...!e tne Amofita .nJ the ,,~. but ,how J(O>h"" nimbcJ. '" No d" pli"""" josll"•• ".""•. In ,he >«<lnd ",.n., jo.lo .... _.ring the"m< ,,,,tume.,,d lIill nimbi .... heel. .nJ look, "p" .n .ngel w!to .und •. biLl< "",rd in h.oJ. On •• m.1I rocky"u«rop ,II., """.J. fmm ,he moo",.i" of ,no fi", $C''''''. ·1·h. '''g<I, IiI:< .lml>u •. ~ .. mil· iUf)' COOtumc. witn • gold 'ui~...... nJ gold leggins" it> undettunic ."d the m,,,,,,1 n.n .. tI, i" l<uinS'.rc ",d .• oJ ilS m,n,k pu,p!<. A rN ,oJ 1>1"•• hidd. pmunuhly lmh"', , lie> in ,he f"'<groUnd. WIl ile ",die, , .. ,,"'''' of j",l>u•• nd the .ngel port"y -""h"" in civil;'n J"",.= J.le, By""ntine e.. mpk< fOllow f, in p'dcnting him .. , mili"rr figore but, un like P:"i •.~,.t' o, pi<:ture j",h ... t"'K:c-. Ii "" ... nding (often bofurc ,he ci,y nf ).ri<h<>l.•"d ,hen p'.... hcfo .. ,h •• ngd, .1", "nl ih f. u6,·, in ,he J.«f im.get j",h ... ".".11)' looki., ,he grout>d <><n« ,h.n .. ,he .ngd, and h. i, no,m.lIy nimbcJ."" In p.rt bromIC it pre""n" , SCene ",nJ<nsN ' o ti •• Iim i.oJ ' Pl«, ,h. "", i"n "n.he .". w.tll .. ';;"vu)in (lig. 98) (,om ,he ,hiro ~um<t of ,he ten,h century m:.JI. f. ,,6v mu>t closet), 'hough Joshu. '1'1""" !Wi"" he look> up .• nd jorich" do<s n", '1'1"'''. Th. C..1pp.oJ",i,n ><en. h.. b<cn li"koJ ".. itn • vie,,,,",,,, lTI ilit.!J' C>ml'> ign.·.... . "d thi. mili ..,y fI.t"""" ""icil'''oJ em f, ,,6-, n ", mini>!"", ill""",.. G"'C"ry', .hi,'1'..... " I<,mon,"" hi , ''''''hiognph",,1 poem d",aihc.j ,ne ,ircum".occs .... In Novemn.f of JIk> G'egory ra:J.imoJ ,he Chrch o( the Holy Apo>tI« (rom lhe A,;'no: unde, orde" from the Eml"'ro. n .....;J."i..... ...-.Idi,,, .00/,: ~ion of ,he ck"",h ,nd gu,,&.:! ,he p"""""ion of .he ""hoJo., ",hieh p<o.:coJoJ ut>dc, "Ofm)" ,ki.. whil, ,he di'pLu:cd Ari.n. , i,,,,,p,ctin~ 'he ...... h,' .. . 'ign of di,ine di'pl"",.rc. rejoicoJ, A, the mom'''t G'<go'p " ivoJ at ,h< 1'loI~ Apo<da. h"""""". ,h.,un brol:< through ,hedoud"o S...,." 1~,p" I " Kd.i'n, Th, <pi" ......... imm«1i .. dy pn .. l"in>oJ. mi""k,.nd ,he p<>pUJ.cc d,n",wloJ ,h.. G'egO<)' bo muk !.i.hop o( Con ... n'inopk WIlen ,he dem.nd. bca.m< 'inged with , "'kn«. Gtcgo'y Jcli... rcJ the ""tIDon. AftCf rep"'..·;,,~ ,he <Mv.f. boh , .. i."" G regory wond<r<d why ,h" popul"". f"""d him '" =<p.iO(l.I; ' I h,vt: no, .mi"COl • ne,.. foun.wlon fO, )'Ou, •• hi""", did on .he journey oot of Egypt, ' 11¥" The >en .. "", ;. m.rkoJ by • d=r~t.d ini,i. 1 k,t<" .nd
CO< he, "." .... "

,,6.

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'" F 5· .. Sr. M.,,, "' ___ ' KuJ'l' ! ...... , 61 , ' 1). T""nod .... "" . .......!, ....... bKh ... K" ..... ( ..... I,j . •0"

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..... "'"Ul" ,~ c...xIo<IIi ,,-,- (<9If!' Ie< . 1., tt>.
~

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• , . For.", MmoIop>n 01 ..... , ft, V"." ...... f '" M. ~ Os- ",. '"" ..... .,. (~,I, "~. " S. ..... ",1< ...1 anoiG- • (.",.J ,~, 's- .. ' "I, , • .,.. , . . , t";rJt., (... , .. ..... _ . .... !w . 'J " """ )' .... 'oC '-<'. Tht Mi~. ""PY Jo<. ""', .......... , ill ... , .. , "" rpOOJ<, '-iOJ ;",,,ad "'" r"'.ct., "II "" ..... , .0 • i. 01 .h. 1",,;.,,10 ""0 '''''' (;,_ 1<, . ;0). pi.. U, J. U in ..... d.o<~.r p""" hi"lt " ..... ~ ,.,. "P" · ~...JI . On ,,,, " - ' ' ' ' '' ' ... , ..... " I.

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v., (""

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'.

Ihsill and visual panegyric

Fig. 98 (.;WU,iIl: rail UlIlIf, joslllull/IId llir Imgr/; lIor/1i liP$(, NikrplJoros PlJOkm. TIJropIJIIIIO. GUlar Bard"

."

Vision and

Illc:~ning

in

llinth.c~n!Ury

B}'lJrttiUIll

directly inspired Ihe scene in Ihe rop register off. 226v. Gregory, followed by ninthcentury audlOrs, undemood this biblical episode as a type of Chris I: Pholios, for example, drew general p~ral1cls between Moses and Jes us, and t:quated the rock with Chrisr.!tIH The chrisrological typology continues in Ihe second registt:r: 8yzamine exegesis c ited Joshua as a rype of Christ more frequendy than any other person; he was, in ;[ddition. often contrasted wilh Moses as on f. 116v.!fI') The image ofJoshua sropping Ihe sun and moon may also have been imended as a veilcd referencc \0 Ihe miraculous appearance of the sun juSt before Ihe scrmon·s delivery. I n the sermon, Gregory mentions the Gab:ton itt:s. who, though Gregory docs not say so ht:rt:, subm itted to Joshua wilhout a b,mle. ZtO The tWO Joshua sct:nes selected for illuslration in the second regisler Wl'TC, however. probably chosen primarily ro provide a visual interpretalion ofGregory"s long exhortation to emperors, 3 passage ofsufficient importance (a nd familiarity) to be quoted in the Silcra PllrtI/lr/rr. ! ll Emperors. respect your purple - for Ihe word (0 logos) bys out the laws even for Ic!;i.llators. You knowwhJt high mission has been conferred on you and what the grand my5lery thaI concerns you is; Ihl' whole world is in your hand; ,Ill 1I1significant diadem and J pit:ce uf cloth control it. The things above arc God's alone; those below are also yuurs .... T he king·s hean is in God'~ h~nd'. as it says in the scripture and as you know. For your pawn comes from that, "nd nO[ from gold or armies.': 11 I'hoti", is pri mar;ly i'l!~"",ed in ,he crossing of !h~ R.,..r s(~. hut also oh",,,·e, ,hat ·the nUl· r<1("k is Chti,,'. AmpllillJ("hil1. queslion 26S: ed. Wcmrink VL, ('987). 56: PG lo!:wS8A-B: on ,he Amp{,ilD,{,il1 ",e chapter 5. I:or com mem.ry. Danielou (1960 j. 19 ,- lOt. ~I)'j I:or commentary. Dan i~lou (t<)60). u<)- :.u. ,,~ SC J ,g. l \6. See Jo,hu. <): t - ~ 7. 1lI f'G 91"289C.D; see Murcschini ;n SC ,,8. 164 commentary. 1'~rjq;r.92J accompanied ,he l"ls'~ge wilh a medallion pormit of Gregory (f. <)6v): Wcitznll" t' (1979'). 2 J4· ill SC J18. 164; quotation from I'roverh, 11:!. In Paris.gr.sw ,he passage is >I,"IJcd with gold initials. ThaI this pJ,sage would have found favour wilh the patriarch PhOli", is dear from hi,
£iJilgogr: sec note S'J .hove.
~'"

,,6

G~'l' "'CS>« the .ubjug>'io~ of ,fK.mr<"" toGoJ; ,h. mini""", pr=n" > co>mrnon,,'l' o>n G"'S"'l'" word. ,hot ,hif" ,h •• mph"i, I<)m ..... h. L !\c"h }.-..hu, .topp i ng,~ "'n an..! moon .,.,J J<»I>u. wi,h ,he angd link di"in"!,!,,,,,,1 ,~J mili"".. , uc«<s, hUl ,h. lim giva comrol,o )<»hu., , nd onl)' 'he o«o"d J'r<nd< <n,ird)' GO G<><I, meJi"",1 ,h""'Sh ,he '''goL The ~i,,« p=en" • di.logue OO"..,.n J",h" •• nd ,he divino. Puhap' for ,hi, re...,n . ' he comb;n" io n of """n<> i, unuma" cmainly i, apre ..... ' ,h.m. ' ic ,.,bet ,h.n • ch",,,,,,ogic>' link. Com"..,;"'n of 'he biblic>1 rel'<'''' of e,d. <v<'" m,k<> ,h.i, diff<renc .. cI"" •. 'n.., of ]o.h". ""rrin! ,ho .un ,nJ moon (jo<hu. ]O:lt-I. ) '-'>Crt! q uit< cI.. rly ,ru., ',here w;o. no d.y like bcfure i, 0' .fr., i" ,h. Lord hc>,ko...,J un'o ,n.voic. of. mm: fu, ,he L>rd fouSh, for Jo . .. d '. A»u",,,c< , h., ,h. Lord w,"" on ,he Ii,.,.!i, .. ' ,Kl." . 1 ,no ,h.m< of ,he >CeOnJ <pi....!. Uo.<hu. \: I)--J\), which ", chronologie';I)' p««d .. 'he h.l,ing or ,h. ><on .nd m,x,"'. lIut hor. ,h. h, un", of ""',..,, h.. u.ifr«l, •• i, d .., fmm ,h. i""", il"ioo, '0 ,ho .c.n<. Jir<C" )' from ,ho biblic.:ol KCOUnt, )mb ......I<.. 'ut ,hoy fu, ,I> , , " (," 00' .d",... ,O<." (HMET[Ej rO[C Ell H '1'11(:-' 1YIl IEINAN ['IlIIlN ): ,he . ngd respond. '!,m ,h. COI,.. i" "f ,h. h"", of ,he L>rd' (Enll l APXI[ClTPATH f O[Cl K[YPIO [YJ. Thougl> not '" idemine<! on f. »6., 'he copuin uf 'he hult uf ,h. 1,... .-.;1 "/3', fm<>' ,he founb c.ntu. )' <m. b>.bi,ually idcntili.J .. ,~ • • ",bnge! MOeh. d, wnom Brz.an'in~ .mperor< i,,,,,, .. ingly CLHeJ upon for.id in bUlk ,hem.elY<>. Wheth •• 0' nU' we "" ",¢.n, ,0 ",,.j m:ru.ngd .. ).l icb.d her<, ,n< 'copu;n of 'he bo" uf ,he Lord' ;. ponuyd .. , <>ully in eh"g<: ,."Im" ,igu',,'" f"""<'" II< ru.1" ,he "' ~ a~J moon COn".. " ""-"'sly wi,h hi. kn«ling po.i,i"" wh.~ co~from«l wi,b ,h. fmn u l and imp ... ive angol. Theron"'," i><lW«:n J",h" • • nJ ,hoe- .ngcl in ,hi. ~,,­ ""ive ~ " ""'&ht "'" j" ",,,,,<mpo"'y ,ex" •• wdl, Ph",;'" ci,e<! ,he .piood< '" .n ... mpkof .h< diffor<nc< betw«n 'gre .. me"' "f ,he Old T.. divinifj-' in.n ..reml" " , .xpl'in how ,h. F.d"" >lod H oi)' Spi. i, _,< bo,h .i mil.. ..,d

"t"""'"'

'h"

,h"

,.k<"

,h.

,;"""",.nd

d;l(,,«n,."·'
Folio "6vwn'",,,, :o .ce"" in which )<>.hu. comrn. "J. ,,,.. Lord wi,h a """ne in which ,he Lord romm.nJ, J",h" •. Th. _"'" 'otetn« ",,,,.1,,, m unuou.lly <quiubk ....1..""" of P""-" I-.:-tw«n God .nJ. I.-.d ... ! . ",ume ,h .. Ro.il,...., m•• n, '0 be irnplic .. cd in , b" .i<wJ ""'''pho', 111. ,-.;"ir of ,h ••ymb ." ic rel.tiom" ip 1'00mrcd "" f, .,6., "cw'y f", (;.,d', . h....,n r«'pk. w• • cerui nly.n Lm!""",,,, ,h< me ofB"i!', "';S'" n."ir. , uc«<>ful mili ...y cam!",i!,,' ""'''' ~ <.. ilr prum..,«1 in hi. lif.. ,hey we", of cou.,.. .ingle<! "m for 1'''''' in ni. fu n.r.1 "'..... " .• nd 1<f1 their .ump on ,b. ''ita &,ilii .. "",\I ,'" Th. uS< of imag<> "f )",hu. tu 00"""",",. imr<,i.1 mil irafj-' "iumph. i. no, ""dla" ..,«1 un,il ,he «nth hur '0 ,he;, Byun'inc audience , h. underlying mC»a1l" "fbu,h of ,h.

i,,,,,,

c.",,,,,...'"

("}l1. <61-'/<' ' ''-... .

'''_'<7' Vi", 11..01,; 16-... _ ,I"'"" "" n .,.,.t-.. 1. o" ,,' ~ ,•....., '*' ~ 'OOCon.... ('91•
' .. T...... 10, ,.1, -,o-w Md:"-m'" ('.,ab).

n, P(;1O"'9<'~ .

•. ,,_ ;'O:..J. I\tll=

joUl .... ,"oes piem,ed 00 f n6,' " ... . m,dy

,h., '-' C.od fought fo, ,he !,'>cIi,es. 10

tl.e lotd n",,' fought fu, ,hem .• od the Lord fought fu, ,hem umle, ,he bmrxr of B;o,jll , ~o' victory.lcp<nded on ('.oJ. f.mu, _ ',n< L.,..d h<,,"'ncJ onro ,n< "<>ie<' of }o>hu. - 00.1 we or<, J ,hmk. meant to uode"~md th .. J<><hu.1', ",icc h., 1>«0 "",1.im",1 in ,he nin,h """"'ry by ,he Fnlp<m' Il",ill , Folio 4 i 4' ( .. , ) (fig. .. oJ The f.1I of )<'ficoo. ' he third .nd I.. t of ,ne )<><1"... '"!><s, occupies the upp<rmr»t of ,he tn,C<" tq;;"m "" f. " ' ''v.'" The f.lli"~ eitr occupies the ceotr< "f the ~ •. 1<<0 buA'_c"I"",oJ ,""",. .nJ Io«,io'" oi ....1 ""Il'I>« >lorr,..! ,h< """,rol COl'< of 1 ,moll (;fry_hlue buildingo ",i,h roJ mob, Fou, ngurn , .. od on ei.h« ,ide of ,h. , i,),_ Th,,>< on ,he "~h' .« ><,IJ ief> hlowi,,!; lo"~ "'"',,.' "uOII"'''; on .he k{,. thn-< rrump<t_blowing wldi." ;"iR Jwh .... id.mifi.ble by hi> mor< d.bo,,,. "" rulne , ]<><I"" ;, "i",bcJ .• nd in thi, . • , well .. '" dc",I,ofhi, ",ili.. ry "ti«.he .lilt'"" fmn' hi, ....Ii.. Jl'O"~.y>h ,," f. 126v,' ,hif, ,h .. 'U~. ,h .. ,he jo,huo $cen<> in r.ri•. gr."" ei,h« ""ry differen, ryp<' of memin~ or r<J>«o<m rvro di,_ ,inc, ",.I"~",, , The OM 'I.... mcm " ..,,,i,,,, of ,he foil of j<rieh o u"h,IJ, ,,,'cr n"", "f,."h", 6_ For .cv<n rLp. on'en pries" ",i,h "umpc", men be.,ing ,he 11k of .he .;ov<".n, . ",Idier<, ond the prople <i",led j<richo: on tne sev<nth d,_v. 'the priest. sounded ",iti. ,he "U"'I""" the pcor\< "'O~t«l, .nd <I" ,,-.Ii, of1<', ;40 fell f" wi, On f 4'-4'• ."Id",,, ",h.. ,h.n pr""''' blow , he ,rump<IS: ,he milJI1'Y h.. "'I'IJCC<I ,he h"j), ... n ;n" t "f ,I i,,; n< """ "",i",,_ h;. in, e'1'''''"''' on "f, he ,k" ",cti"" T "fj<'KOO lind. nn B)'Ll",ine 1"",lId" ,he()c",,,,,,h. and ,he J,..huo Roll (hg_ 99). f", ",. ml'i<. fo1k>w the Scl"u,~,,' j" indlOdi"s tl", 1"",,· bl..,...inS P'Oest, bu •• e«opting V'f.!V_747, .11 .1", .how. pifeh.c.J bon k fOf ,he ei,>" in "0000, ,be ",1_ die .. u'urp God', p""'Cr. '" The Cregory mini.,ure i> p",h. p> diller in .pi';. to the OlIo..,i, ., St. Mori, M');gior<; ,!>oul\h ,he on ......",.. ",,,i,,«1 '....h"" ."d the (fUrn_ p<I" ,h" 1"",,1 .h""", .. 'ymm""",.1 com !""i. i"" .• od ,I.. eiry. H.nl=! by empry_ h.nded .... " io ... f.lI, ",;,hom human eon'><1.''' On f 4'~" hOW<",'Cf. u"like ,h. hfrh-«n,,,,y n,,,,,,,i, 0' '''t' ",h.. 1',,,..,,,,,1 """io" of ,n< . pisod •. ,h. ,,,i!;"I")-' ,od irs leader en,« God', "ill. but without .rm;;'" di.ine .gr:ncy " .... k, through ,he tr\lmp<I-bl_inS ""Idie" .. th<, ,h.n bein! dq.rndcnt on mu"d,ne wc-'pon>. Thi> .pp.«mly uni,!tIC m.nnc, of "'I'<=n,ing ,Ito f,lI of j<fieho ' J.!<)Ci.,,,, ,h. id.. of

'I,m,,,

J<oI<., """I,,,, ",.,j,nh •• ,) , " ...."J, ......... ,."'I.!l..",-.". , .. K...... I00661, ,-.., ",. 'n ~";' , p. ,,Q. ,t.... ,~, t<.. "~ ... ~y 'mt..!. "" ,I>< ~ 'y'"_ "",,,,,,l 00"'1""" """ ,........ nuocnr< _ , mDm<OH of di",", , ...... 1"''''''''''' a..p.n ,. ". , ... ,t,., ;.. ".,... ;..... ~." .... or ,t,., ,'011 of ",.,10,," ,t,., , .. ," """'''y, .... ~'" 10... J•

,,. "'" , .. ,h<, Jnau."", of "'" m'n~'."" .,"'....... ' """ ,I>< """"V"I'h, 01 ,h< ""..,. ..... ,h< Am'~Iu, ... ,,' M..,.ll,,,,l . • , : " '';,,,",.. (''''J, lip, ' • . ' .... " , yl'''''''' fitr, 1)6. ~"'''''.H6 1d:o ,h< fol' of "'~"'" ~"'P.H' ,,.,,,, .... ho"I<, 0. ,I>< "1.o"",,,"ip ......... n ,I>< O' .. ,....... ...J ....

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divindy pm!.t.rmincJ vicrory with "ronK miltt .. ), lead .... hip th .. wori<. with God, roth.r th.n promoting viet"'}, "",I ... (;",1', pmoe.:rion or Ie.dership, f. 4L1V <mph •• i= m;lir.ry ,,;umph ''''''''# God , Though rhi. is oot pl'«;ldy tIK , .. itud< fu<<<m! by m"'t Brunti"" .mp<"'!> - ."d. indeed, d;If.... ",r".....h" fmm the by rho Joshu. """CS on f H6v _ if coml'krnentl the m .. ning of rlt< £ron' ;,piKe >«ju.nce .nd m;p,t pUulibl)' be in«,preted., . ref,,_ .nCe to B.. il', .uc=>ful.«oc;.,io" with (;oJ, Folio u6v m.y, h""""""" h»', mOf< ro do wid, I'h01;"" c<>"eel"i"" ",- ,n. ",I"ion,hip be.w«" (,..,J .M en'p<ro. ,han 1I.... il', _ h", rh" i"h. ",hj"", of ,be """ICh.!"",

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In the v;,u.lall'l\""Y d,,,,,,t,,,,t" "'I''''._sr.lro, .. hid, ",,,,.,imcs "'" .." biN;".1 "or~ in,o ""''''pho ... o( ""ntempor.ry Ii(•• B...il has been m.d. to .mbody ,h. p<,ket mcdi .. ing I.od" who rub both with and d""nglo G'M 'I11(1' •• r< .1", I. ",h.. h.,i, ,,,u<fur.1 ,imil"it;" <n" run rhrough the Ii"" of ,h. Old Tn .. m.n, figm ... :woci.ted with B...il .. th.y.r< p<,:,''''ted;n 1"',i'·V·l rn . On. ,J,.,'iou. them.;, the "",b.od.' ,h" ,h. h.ro Ius r".ndur.on rho w.y <0 ul"m ... victory= • •dv< ... i~· (.. in . h. Joseph >«juen« on (, 6<)v, 0, Sam""n on f, }47"). I..... " ,,,,,,I beginning< loti '0 urom 'u<<<<s: o.,·iJ. • ,h.pherd, bc-<:..,te king u l\.:I,il, , ru .. 1 Armmi.". did; Bu'1. as ..",ng" San""", .nd lik him f.mum!wh,k. ru",1 youth hJ-' ( ioJ. <q~.lly d"rincJ 1<" uro.n .ch"I'<Omem; .nd)_ph', ph)~i",1 jooumcy (rom h,. (.,h,,·, ho"", !O,h. p"rum., .nd lin. lly '0 the Epl't'''' <> pit.l, ;, ""1,1" . •iD:<! for IDOr< th." i, """n.1 in <,.d.,. of Joseph. h(" like Som",n, Uavid .• M Jos<ph, 11",1 WU' provinci.1 oU!lid ... c....,romi'mtly, .nd .g;tin like D"vi,I • .,.! Jos<ph, lluil ruk, who rose from "unide rhe ".dition.1 power "",,:ture- !O becom. tit< o"hoooor rub of on ..... t>limed and great empire. It i.< ",ident from the ju"i~""io,,' th., now ob.cu,. l\.:I.il', dC\·.,i,," '0 ,he ,hrorl< ,h,,, Gues,ioll' ." ,rounded h,. ,i.., n, 1"""'" .nd ,h. im.ge> in P"i.<.gr.l ro .h.... """ hi, conn""r;"n. wi,h gre->! rulen; of ,he p><t (o.m pan of. concen«l ". mpais"!O p...... id. &.il wi,h . n illum'ou.line'g<, both 1i1< .. lIy .nd mcnphOfi<-.lly, As is ,.<11 );,,<>wn, both Nike';u , he r'phug"ni,n .r.d I'><odoSymeon ~bgi"'", "",oored PI""",; rccoocili.,ion with &,il in an to hi.< f.b,ic""'n of •• puriou. g.n •.Jogy, m.de t... 'look ancient'. th.t purponed !O ,r.te. the <"' I><ro,'. I'''<>g. n..ck to ,he A, ....d,; '''' ,ne I.", Vi'~ &nilii. .. " .. !u.vc """. odded AJcx.nd .. , he Gr.., . nd Con ... ntine ,,, R.. '.m ily ,,,,,_,,, r The mi"i· .,u'es in Pui, _ gt'_jlO rh .. pa",lld 1Ia>,I wi,1I Old T.... ment ligu",.lit int'" l.rger pattern .• ppm:ody "tchcs,,,,,ed in >orne w'1 by ph""o<. of ,."" . rod in"s<> designed '" I'l\i,i",.. e rhe <mp<"" by m. .. phori<:>.l1)· providing him with . n illum;ou. pa",

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1':"i'.8'.\'0 h••• Iw,,.. through I"!le< .n. ly[ial ,uuem"" [0 .. n,.in .n ",,-'m.ly, Y., it i•• n int<nl1l1y .:ofment p",Ju<t. The mini ..",., th.. w< h.v< <"-'-mined [h", f.. h.ve p'<o<n,"" wdl.[lIo"glll'o,,[ conl!""i. io" ., and h.ve provided a Kt ofi nter·,extu. l.nd intcr·"i ....1CI"" referen""" th,' . IT " tim<> ' ..~r· ingly «)mpl". The: k<>~"..,. h"I<I< ,he mini.,,, .... in ,hi, eh,p,,,, ,,,s.,her i•• w:ru.< of how to di.pl.y [he Emperor R...ill in ,he bes, pouible ligh[, .nd [0 ,h .. end un".wl imperi. 1 antitypa .re KcOfdcd .pparently . typiad promincn"". whik "odit>On.l impcri.1 p"..lkl. r<Cei,,, "ran~ ...uf>. It i. hard '0 believe , hat ~ ue'" e,,,,,"fmill ... ,i,,,, ofhihlic.ol.nd iml><ri.I.t1-d pcr••m,1 ref """, w., • ... eoineiden ..1produ .. of , he: conlempora')' [hough, nctW<>fk. Th. mini .. m... in l'.,i,.S'.\IOdo no' .dd ...... commun.1 audience; ' hC)' urge' • ",,,,i,, .OOien.., .. > 'J'<'<iri c ,ime . "d in > pr«i", pia«. '11•• ", i. no doubt ,h .. 'he ,,,,,,,i.l . udience foo- the m.n u."ip' w1l R..s.il: the fronti.pi=: mini ' llIrd make thi. "'pliei, .• nd tho foeu. of the mini"', .... If... we h.ve: discu...J in th;, <h.ptlT ;, .",indy . xplic::lhle """n if h. ~r< ,he: 0,,1)' PC""" wIIo ""., -",w ,hem . 8cyon,d ,h. v;'ual pimq:yric •. mhe:. fn'''," of the: mini .."fCt ;tl", iCCm [0 rnpolid [0 hi. pc,..,n.1 intern ... I.. "",oJ •• .li« , B"il origin.lly Clme inro coon circle, a•• groom. H. WiU "Iw,,.., ",,,(>\\·,, ...1 110""""'" .nd ,,·hile ,h•• mph..i, on hi' "'l"~ "Lan .kill, m. y play in,,, [h. imporunceof [he mounl"" h UIlI in iI)'U",inc imper. i. 1 i~'.''''' i, «"",in> true ,h .. the prola,,,•• i,,,, of ho ..... in 1',.. is.S'.! .o is ... m"thblo::. I" .&J i,in" ,n ,he lI"me",'" depiCfio'" of 1>0,.... m."y or which .ppc.. ,,, b< ~J h<K "p'mion. "f ron'"ntio".1 battle .... n«.'" we ...... in , h.p[" 1 ,h... n Uflpar::llldoJ ho""m." w:u in .." oJ imn [h. p.r::Ible of lhe: C.ooJ Sam.. i,.n "" f. '~)' (fig. 19), in ch.pter ,. we found the: -"'me '0 b< of ,It.: p,rabkofj)iveo.nd 1-'7~r", "n f. ' 49' (fig. ,0). 11", I do ~m ,kink ,h .. lI., il had ,he [oot. .. hi, di.pow [0 dnign !'ori'.gr.\. o him.df. '" lbc Ofl ly peno" who w:u Cip'bicof coordi<U.ting ,he i"te.·text",,1 .Iid i" te.·,,;, ...1ref.«nc« woven i" ,,, the: Humil ... mini11u,,", .• nd of di"",.ing th i' d.1" to", .. d. quite p.ni""l .. end. was !'h",i"" , he: p."i.",h of un.i""pl. at 'he time !'ori•. S'.j[" ,.,... mode. He, '''''. h.d ,he: . ""-,,,10<> mmi ..;..." .. del,,'e prod"", . • nJ • ",.,,,n ,,, du ... , It " [0 ","",i", ,b.. w< ",.II now rum .

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!'b0[;'" w .. I"'<ri. r<h ofCon . .. n.;oopl. twicc. fir« from 8j8 unti l , f.only an« the dnth "f Mich.d II! in g67, ,..hco &.,;1 r «pI",,,J him with Ig"";"" .nd then again - with B•• il'••1'1',....1- from 8n ",,,jlll.. il'. de .. h in 886. whcn Leo VI romQvoJ him .' Though many qu«,ion. about hi. backgrounJ lemain. Cyril Mango ha. ",tabl i.hed rho,;." "'<me fro m.o <m;ncnt f.mil)' ch"oct •• i=ll»' i" i""nophile .. odenci.,., hi. m",h<f [i rene w .. r",.. tal by m. "i.gc In ,h. tQrmcr

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Em" ..... T h«><l",.., unJer,..h<»< ><gis Iro"",I"m <n<k<l in 84)"od h...... I<I .. ed 0" hi, r"h,,', ,ide 10 ,h. form" I",ri".h 1.....i'" (78~-806J. who p~;<kd """ the <ouncil th. t !<'l. om! ,h. "'". .... ;•.0 of im.ge'> in 7117.' Pho.;". him...lf ...... n ;mporunt civil functio.",)', and hdJ th • ...!fie< ofl',"w,*m,, (hc.d of ,h. im."ri.1 ""."cor)') h<fo ... hi. rapid dev.. ion w ,hc p'!fim:h.r< in 8\8.

Ano, aDm,i" of donigr:u ion b)' ",... ,orn (mt»tly ca.holic) au,ho" _ r", whom, l...gdy brom« of hi. oppo>i,ioll to ,ho jmrod""ion of ,I>< /iii",!"' eLm« in .h< Nio:,,< Cr«J,' pj,mi<» . n,hoJiod wru., "'.'" "",n by ,hom., ,he <'>';1, oftheo"h.,.. d,,~ G....,k .." _ ,h< modern imclkcm.1 app,«i .. ion of Pho,io, i• .Jmo" ""or· whcl mingly politi>" P.ul umork wrote , h.. i'h".i<» m,," I>< '",,,n.od .mollg ,he gr<'"'''' Ifigo''''1 ;n .h. hi"",yofBY>1mium ... who 1"'.ru.I" mo., ,rul y '"1'.... ,," Byuntin. civiliLition': Dimitri Obol.",ky caU<tl him tho ·gr< ...,;t ,hrologi.n .nd phil_p/l., of hi, .g". • nd ·on. of ,ho g"""'" Byumjn. ",hot.." of .1I ,j"",': fo<
, M"'I" h." b) u ,!..Ion, ,," Lon .. _n"~ 1'1-........ ,!.. ...d"{ ,.".. ... <......, "'" M~ 'r,+, I ' ''' ''''P ' ~'' ,. H,'1I'."" .... ('i/;,_'.... ,~ .. J<.... hoop ..... , . ... , ~..,Ioot<' ",it, """",,,", .nd ~ •• ,...., "",,,{ J"" .nd ...... ,i~" ""i _ ...... "" ..... m:.;-, ,,.. l><", ..-""" ;, , .." ..... by, •.~ _ IV_"Y.w I ,~, ~_ 11 ff""i .. ,to. "",J"..! ........ , ~ ., ""' ... """' ... ,. Eolii .... "'rrk"""'"j b,· ..... row ",,,In ~-IoKh.", ro,,,,..,;",,,,,,lk,,,d ,. (.. ,.), "''h ,t< I>"'j~;"' . ""'" ,,<E.,. ifhopo,;;>ph" , hoopoph~. I)M <>f ,to. .OK' in~ ........ _.,,<>fPh,~ '" 'I'P' • ...J 0 l< ..... ~ . , '. " . oddKioool lHNioa''f'Io,'''!>om ...."'p"'• ...J io ,to.""';''''> t"'sl" .... 10"" , ..,.. "' , M< .. tu".j. I. ... ", _ • .~ H"_ 10"'1. "'o-'Q' _ '"rP~ '"mm ..... """"' .... I;". , p<>hl" ...... .1<11,01 ,,;,h ""'" >P«'''' "f"'" ofl'!.orioo' , . ...., will _ " .. ,,~."' '. ,t.. .......;"" .. _ ' M..... ,'mhl, ~ ... .d... i __ ,""....,... 1''''', "7-<", ,_"'_ "'"'"'''''''''''" ('017), "'Q, foIIo." th, f>mi1r"" ....... iohod ... M. """ ' o..wID<h "" t1w d"""""'.<>fr. "', bd--.

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:-';'b"<1 W;I"ln, Ph",i,,,, Wib ·,h. m"M impo,un, ligu", ,n hi",,'Y <tf ct. ... a l "L><l"", ,n Byumiu", "Th",h"", hulk of Ph",,,,,' p,,,,,,,val work ("""",h of <:<>II .... dcmo"S!r:u<> th .... 1<... !<)mc pte.mod<rn, ,,,ed hi, w'itings highly, 100) .""u,," fu, 1'''' of .hi, <".hu.i •• m, but, perh .... .. imp..",o".I)" fo.: ,he om<"t 'I'P""';"""" <tf hi> .hili,,,,,,, I'ho<ios "'as 1 hi''''''.n, ,I"."gh f.. from 'd.",,,,,I l'h""", f<'ronded from 0 p<»nio" bounded by the si,'e" belief, ofhi, ch"'nolog_ icol .nd "",,;..1 n,che - hi' .ppro..!. tu tI .. wQ~d on,i.;p"eJ m,~krn inte""" .nd ««81 hi"on.", h."" f<1«ed .ymp"h.<ic:olly. h i•. hm...." ... "f«n diffic"I, 'co de«,""" .. to ,,'h>.t .. ,tent l1<ot",,' ... ,iti"gs « ho mOf< go",,,,,1 ,,;nlh.a"Nry <li« .«ilUd", "', C<)",·ersdy. "'1"<><'" hi, 1'<""".1 ''''I'''''S< from within ,h" f""""""k, lcpl hi,,,,ri'n! '"!If<< ,h.. hi, £;~ <l<:p_"'oJ ,.J~.lIy from pt"!"Vious I.... eoJ ... in it< fo,mul .. i... n of th .. ,d., io n"'ip bot,..«n Goo, ,he <mp<m' .nd ,I>< I""urch,' .nd Ph",i",' 1',,,, ..,,1,, 'PI'ffi1Cn '" hi"o<y ."d ,hrol~, r;:m .1.., ..,m«i""" I>< i><>l"eJ. Ilm wh«l><, "'" n=! hi, w<)fk • .. g.. ncne 0' idio'yne"",e, Photi'" «>v<m:I. huge "nil" of m.... riol: ,I>< W>J' I>< F ",., tl,. topia d"t h. ",""",,,,,f..." .Ikrw< ," <pceul" .. " " j,,,",", ,.·.. II·i"(,,,""'" ... nin,h.."nm,y ,'OW« CO<Ild d«iph« ,I>< ~tui"n"'ir he-rw."n 1 m'"i.m", . nd i" o"':o"'p ... yi ng "'mon. Hi, vulum;n.m, ,,',itiug< i"du<l< . ... ,i<1 "f book rq><>n> ,~ .....·",,11..! <I>< H,hiJ.,kU. , ),'11" numh<, of ... ,mon, of ",hich <igh,,,,,n , ~ ",i"" • ""in of qL1<Stiom ond .n...... " .booJ, moor di!k«m .ubj<cu coll<co..! .. ,I>< A",pI'il«/',~ . • Itook·l.oSd, dUe ..... o" "f ,h. Holy Spin' (,h< MJ""t"ti.il. d", £;;"P!',. huMr..!, "n««,., . nd . r>ng< "f ",I><, """S m<>s, of which .ur,,'''' ""Iy ,n f~~m .. n", Ph","", provide> ,I>< "!OIt ex ... n,i"" w,i" .. " Jox-u"",,,,.,iOf1 from ,h .. .«e.-mJ 1"lf <tf ,he nin,h ""''''''<y. ,t>d 1! I.,,, on, ,umpl<- from ,.eh orh" w.)!ko has .I«oclr t....:n ci,oJ ", ,,·iln ... , " .. rha.I fo,mul"i'm' eum: nt ,..he" the mio;"turn "fl'.,i"St-l ' " _« p. int..!, The /Jrbli~""l, " ,he moJ",,, n.m. ' ,, ;gned '0 • collo;:,;"n "f 1<VCr>1 hut>dred ,,,mm";'" ,nd m".< 'Of Ie>. c,;t"",1 ~,< ..... "f book, ~ e>eh now comm""ly rcfem:J .0 as .code:. _ ,h., J>h",io, h.J "od! In in o,igin.land ..,mcv.'h>., .hone, ~"m .• h< BihiJ.""~r"-,,,c"mp<>6<d fu, Pho.i",i broth ... T.m;""l'rot..blpround ~~ !' ;' w .... h""""",, '1'1"'"",,1)' ul,.L,«l 'I",ru!ially by Ph",i", .•"J ,h • ..!"i"" ,h .. now ",rvi"", inco'!"',.t .. cOIn", ,h., Yo.. f< wriu en I., .. in ,he nimh anm,y,

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...... I .... ,~ <001 •• ho<lo mr b<bo..J T.,..... uk«I "" ,0 nW< .. ,~ .. '"' mop" ",;n • ",""or '1'-'-;"_.",'"'.... s..l~..,.,.I, " ....1. ".' •..t ........ "."" M-~;. ",""...,.,... ,." A....... m.p., h.... !ottn ,n""""-! ,n ,,", p"101~ .. "" '" ,,", """"....

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I'".;. " h". ' Th. fI,b/j",l,rt, ..... wiJdy 4"..,.«1 br I.." 1I).... ,\1.00 ... bu. i, unlikdy '" h."" had . 1>'ll" aud"ncc br ~ So; i. " '" no< origin.lIy ron.rived fo.- publi. di«rib",ion . • nd m.y no< iu.vt b<cn prep..ed (Q' public I<"k.,., un.il .n« Pho.", •• nforced «,i«m<n' in 886.' The Bib/j.,I,,*, i. non., hd ... " .. f,,1 bo,h for it> ind ia,i"n of "II" ,.." we ... , ... il<tbk ill Con ... n,i""pl< in ,h. nin,h «mu'Y. md fu r i" indica,;"n of how Pho,;"" rood 'h""" te.t>. W. may u« Phot;"'· «.cling li>< a!. ~uicl< t<, ..h.. the infurm«l.nd diligent Co" ,u",i""I)OIi"" <Ii« ...,..td<r cou ld h,,'< k""",n ,..hen I'>n..sr.po .... ' produced .• nd fur it> indICation ofh.,.. one p. nirul., reader int.,pr<[«i [he .v.il · W. an no •. ho·.... ,,"urn' <1,., th. !l.bii",lwlu I''''''i'''' ~ .... IOI;u. able of l>ool< .... ily ,,·,iI.hl., or "'i,leiy i,mili ... in (' "".",in"pl •. I'ho.;." hin, .. lf .... d .. im«l ,h .. m.ny ,,( <I"" hoolu h. Ii""" """ n(K rc-odily '" lund, he "'rot< nm .. on ,h. hook, ,h .. hi. brother mish' no, k""",. Apl"t<mly unum .. l d. "ih not"" in ,h. Bjblr.~ we", no. un i....... lly famili ... n.... ".t< !'!to.io" in'.rp«u,ion' of ,he rlu, he h.d r.. d """"'''''ily "i';"p,o.d. n... Amphj"""'" con,i", of ....y •. 'PI"t<ntiy ..,.iu.n before I'hot io>' ><cond ,,"Ur< .. p.n;.reh. f" m...1.. ""1"'''''' ,0 '1" ..,ioll.!"'O<'1 by A"'phil""h;"" met· ropoliun of K)"likos." Th. 'opics covered .. n~. from minute di"!ui';,;',.,. on tI.. pro1'<";'" of • m.gn .. '" h,,,,,,1 """,iJ .... ,ion. of "rio... . heol"llia.1 '1UO"""II" " Like Photi",' o[h .. 1<lI.", 'he fapon ... collte["" in ,he Amphil«h.... mix ref.rence> .h.. !'!to.;'" a p«t> Iti, .uJ" '0 "n<k,,"nJ ~If<".clr ,,· i.1t expo.i,ion' of 1 ... · « hown iJe .., ",,,,.of ",·hieh ... n, ro "'p"",enr Pho,io' 1'<",,,,,1", min"",,, •. " Of .1I Pho,;", p",><rvcd .. ri,ings. hi, ."",,,ns p .... id. ,he OO[ in';sh" in,o public exp"",ion' "f ni n,h-anturr 'hinking'" .nd, in Ofte furm or ."",h<l, 'hey W< I< h...d It)· • f., wiJ .. ,uJi«1O: h.d """"", ,,, ,he /ljb/",tio<itf Qr A",phil«hi~. TheY ' f< u.. ful ioo;c"o" of ...11" ..... cceptahle p",i.I<h.1 rh.mri<:

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ofln ..... "'''''''"'' """ .... "" "I"',..d .. ~""'."" in .... A~"",,,,~ ,..... "",,,, ",,,, """lk<I " ............ ., fo.. J""-"'"oi ,,,. ! .......... .... 61. ' ..... "'. , , fo.. ,n mmpk of .... b"", "" .". Rm ..... "" ,ho "'1'1'" " .Ii ••" .... in .... dioawioo oi f ,;.ov;' ""'I"" •.·rb. A ..,,"·~""'" of "'"~ ,.., ..Ir,.t.« ~ ..... J'I.ot .... """~,J .,..".n,I, """,..I i.""I'"""""" ... ,,,. d,,,......... 01 f "" i. ,b.!""",,, . 00 off. ". Lo,,, .n ,... d.,I"".

'Tw~ i'WI. ,..... ,.... o.l., ,ho """'.","" ~~ ..f lo" , """"-! .......... 'V'" .,," M,.", (,..,,1, ' hI"n.! M... I,,,,,,), "" '.,..~. . .... , «VUion, ,.,.) oddi,,,,,,, """, • ..,.j ,10" J'I.ot"" ....... in'.... ...! ,. f"tn.m..l ~""'" O . h.,,010 (,,.u). _ "'"' '" f>dump (,.,.,I ...p. 'N' . • ~ ,.., "f"""n •• ,.., ......... "" ,~ ~ ... ...,d . .... 1.0", ' n.. "'no . I)JI .. 10,.,1 . .. [.,. ,.., ~ , ot;d"" """"""'",,, ,,,",, I.........,· .4.0',,,,,," If......... (_f"""...! """pin, ...., in l~'i"i . "" nth ,,,,,,;.s.. I. .... ,. ,ho in".,,,,,,,,,,,, of ,ho ,,"' ....",," of Ch"~ .. f. ,6" . _ .. ~iD w .. Lohl< ;" (;"",,, I" ,ho ,"",h """W}" , ... ,hop''' ,), , ..... ".".ti..l " .. "j C"", ... " IN"" 'n ,.., m,.,","" "" f H' ...... of ",.. w",.., ,.,"'''' '" 1'1."",. ("'" <h.p',," ,I : - ' .1 ., Ph ...·, [" ~ ..

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;n ,h¢ n;n,h "¢n""~ ,nd nr,¢n ""m '" ¢..,mphfy con,¢mpowy ;n'¢tp'¢ta,;on" mony of ,hem ",Iev>m '0 ,he m i~i .. ~="fPari,.gr.jlo, " The writi~go lef, by Ph",i ... olm"" incvitably ;ntcrxt ",ith 'M mi~i .. urc< of r . ,i,.&>'.\IO: ,hoough wu,",h.nd im.g<> "ommQn""tc Jilfer<ntly. th< production of Pon..gq,o . nd of p~,;.,,' diJ.oou"a "",rlof" chronologically, .nd both Pt.",;.,., .nd tlK propl< mpon.ibk for tb< m.n"",ript """",«I "'" only fro m with in tho ... me ,y,,<m hur .1", fro m w;,h;" ,he ",Ill< ,moll cdl ",i,h;n ,!u" .y"om, To "'sue th .. PhOli ... ,,~ pcr<Ofl .. ly in'oIvctl with tIK P.,,, Homili<;, .. opJ>O'<'ll to .t...ing .., id.mic.tl n,iI"". i, mo", prob~m"i", Somni",.., ho", ....,... l'h", ios deal. wi,h i .."n f.m;li .. fro m ",hCf I'f'<OCrvro ''''00.., .nd we can >« how hi, ,!.ought differ«!, WMn Phor;"'· .pp.r<ndy wi",)·""""i, i~terprrta'iom . ppc .. in th< ",ini>tum in P.r' •. gr, ItO. I ,~,P«t the pm"tclI', d.,te. in,¢,wntion , N¢.,ly ,lIl1y,,,,,,, in. romm.n ... tn.., ",J .11 of ,h.ose ,",i,inS wi,h in , h¢ centu'Y of 1'••;' ,g•. \IO, inlCfp""ro N""h', .. k .. . prcfig~r"iOfl nf "'p<;,m , pl>o<i"" did too, b~t h< . 1", r<pc ...Jly ... prc>O<d. f.. ks, rommon r<..ling of the cpi...de _ fur him, rho . rl: ....., • rypc "f ,IK Virgin, No.h w.. , ')'pc of Christ, ,nd ,I>. w....., of the deluge fq>mcnt«l human .in _ . nd this interpreta, ion dcfinro .nd cemcntro tI,< ,,,,, neaion bctw«" Gt<g<>ry', ""ronnn .nd the mi ni.,"r< romhilli ns N""h', .. ~ wirh ,I>. ,owe, of Babel 0" f)""'" " ']1.. comhin.,..,,, .nd ""nlig"u r"'n of rho ador"i"n of.~ I.I"I!i. the m.sucrc of tire innoccnu, tM mOltyrdom oiZadlol"" ~nJ th< pf<S<n .. ,iun in tf>< tempo, on f. ')7t follow ~rwl <l,bor"e ,hi, P"'<tTt. m...acred iflf","" .fld «t!lflect«l ,h. 1'00,;", emlllt"".J the .acrin,;.1 ro~ of "lferlng' of til< M. g; with »<ri~c .. in ,Ire rempk. tlrefeby p""';ding' <yp<>I<>gical link f><t"·... ,, the .,jout;"n, ,,,. m.....,.... ",d the p ..... nt,t;O", '1''''' m;ni.mri.,,', emplr ••i, on rhe high I"i<>tho<><l and tM temple in }<1U"'km .Iso poin" '0 the p",i,,,,:h, ,,-!W uK<!,~ high p,i.. thooJ.,. hi"o,;.,.,I ..empl" ,n hi' "'g<tmcnu rh.., ",",ubr . mJw:"i,ics 1ho~ld no' inlCfVCnc;n rdig;"~, .lfoi", .., d b<r.-.y«I.n un ~, ...1 f• .cin.tiOf! ... irh the SrructUr< of 'M temple. P The>< ,wo ""r>CCr.I! arc d,lttrcn,. hut both «< I.. i."ic .w,," .nd 1><""n.1 p"""",up.,,inn, m",f."" in mhe. min;""lC' <>f~"i.,gr' llo, T hi, !,""ern mllSc", a p",i"chol ond.n individ· u. 1in,..,lvcmenr in 'M m.nu.cript . • nd ,h" ""mbi"'ti"n implicare> Phoria>. The <mph ... , on the high p,i.,." on f. ')7' vi,".liy rolludt. with quit< ' I>« ific .rgumen" . oom ,he rcl .. ionohip between ccdai»ticol . nd >ccub, .mhruity: to <kvdop the:« .rgumefl tl.l'trntios m.nipol.t.J.n older ,<~t hy Joocpno •. l'trotios did no< in""nr ,he id.. of m.nip~I.'i~g e.,licf rex" '" hi, own en"-' _ . h... cOllecir was .nt ici p,,«l ~'c>rlier ",tho .. . nd contin<>«llong.fter rhoti", " - nor i, Ir< tire fi..,.- PC""" 10 he . """,i.,e<! wi, h. poIi,;c.1 usc "fimage> , Bur'~ w. y ,h" rhe

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argumen, i. ,,=, ur«! boll. in P. ri •. ~q,o .~ d in ,he wri,ing' of Photio, is ¥<Ory 'imibr.• 00 ;, u"lik..... n..r .,," .. mpor... y pm ... " "f ' /,&um<nt; ,h. mi"im..... of p.,i•. g,.\,o.M [nO writing> of['l,,,,iO\ "'I'.....,n, ,Ile "'nl< .... ofide••. <V.~ [n""gIl ,Ion< n.¥<O b« ~ d.... dopod in two di,,;ncr mcdi •. Th .. poo,io. w .. !Omehow i"..,.,lval wi, h 1'>.,is.g'-5' " i, >uggc>,al by'''' "'"CO,,'" of , ... ,·i, ...1 ..sumen,. whKh "",,,,lid • • he ",uelUre of hi, ,..rillen ''I\""",n1; by ,he nO lUre of [ne [opK.I m..... g... whicll"fica • .,.,,,,,,,m, "f the p.ltri.rct"tO";.oK! by higll!y p,'''''"'! i""'r· [ion •• ueh .. [10.[ pr...,n[a! by [h. <wo inug .. "f [h... rnp!e """i, lIy . lig""d on f. .. 'pro r-oli" ' )7rdoa ~O[ p"",n t the only cum pie of [h. imp..,t ofl'hoti",,' p<""na] in .. mt. or the only compl. of h i, il\1<mt in the .",hit="", uf the 1101)' l.. tK!; • • imil .. ['Ittern m.y be,...n "" f. >Asr, w ..... Hd. " . 1",ld •• "",..iu" of Chris,', 10mb [n .. vi,u.II)' «pliC""'" ph",io" long .nJ uni~"," d"""ip,ion ofi, .

="

Folio .BI ' ('9) (fig. '91 I'olio l.8Sr ill om.... 'On f.. " ... with H.b>.kk"k', vi,i"". ,"" ...tal b,' the fi", ['1"gnph of the ><rmon; ,he min iature .ho,,~ the Old 1«.. m.nt prop/le • • nd Grcgo.y tog<' ru:[ pfO<n,i"g , .... i,iun '" ,h. vi",'«. " G«'gWy and ~bbok~uk "and in tho.igll, fOrq;rour><!; [hC)' arc b..lmeM on the left by "''' ,""omen, iJen,ifiM .. Pa, ..kn-•• nd Hel.n. (H AriA IIAPACKE\l'! KAI EAEN H) , Th. ,""u mrn do no.. !.ow.,..". ,,","Kip'" in [n. "i,i"", unlik< Gn-go..,. . nd H.l>:tkkuk. ,!.cy .und in front.1 immobility. Pu",k"". ,he I'monific.. . ion of (".ood FriJ.y, w.o>t, • • impk brown gum.nt and bold, ,h. i",,,ument< of C hri,,', p.> .. ion: ,he bncc. 'I'o ng<. 'I.il •.• "<1 C\l1' "f vin<s'r wi,h which h<- w., t",m.ntM on ,h< <""". I!den. we,,, ful! iml"',ia! rcg.>1;' .nd hold • • • nul! modd "r Ch,i,,', ,omh. d<pictM a, a j.gged rock pitfccd by. door.r><! .u,m<>umM by . n oute"'!> [n.t ' l'I'ro,;m><... cr\lcih"rn, ,h'p<. :!J Both "'oon." ... "imbed i" guW, Th. Mibn C . cgory indud ... a medol!ion poltT.i, of H.l>:tldcuk .ffiOflg it< fOu, ",."gi",1 il]u ..",i"", ,n ,he homil)'. >od ""'~r.] ,,f the Ii".,]!",,] cJi,i,," , p""m. H IDald:uk showing C,<gO<Y ,he .ngd ofhi. vi,ion (fig. ' (0) " N" ",h<-, Homi)i", m>nu>c,ipl. hO"T"<r. inro!pO""'" , ... figu= of Pa, .. k""..,d H d<n. , Hckn. I. .. no .. pliei, ront"", i"" with (;"'lI"ry', ICrmon, . Itbougl. .. ,h<- di>cov-crer of the "u~ Cr0s.5 ,h ...... implici,ly ."""i.. ~J "'i'" ,h. crucifi,ion, ... J on f. >III' .I" !.old. Ch,i ,, ', lomb, P.[ .. kc..'c. hc« m, king hc, fi n< """,r<I<d "i.", 1' PI""'I0"«, " i. ro"r.tyd ... r.tthct g<n«ie fem. le, di"ingui.hoJ p,im.rily by he, .."i...,..., Th tough h« """",i.. ion wi,h G<>OO F,iday. ,he rei .... them .. ic::ollr '" G'q;o<i' "p<";"g I'-'r.gr>ph. ",h ieh ""I.b""", F• • t<, wi,h <1. < p.~... g< 'Ch,;" i, ri><" from the de.d, ri .. )'C ""ith him, Ch,i .. is ft«<l from the tomb, be ~ f..ccd of [he hond of ,in." The ,omb h. 1d by H.kn. "'... preswn.bly i'''I,ir«! hy ,hi, "''''~ I'-'''''SC; "'C

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n Ii. Knobm .•.•. 'I'u"k ...... lCl, ( ~ ... I .

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The pllriarch I'holio,; and vb uJ.1 exegesis arc also !Old by Epiph:lIl ios Ihe Monk (ca. no-!too) that three of the rdies of the p:lssion Ihat Parlske\'e holds (Ihe vinegar cup, t he lance and Ihe spongel were krpl in C hrist's tomb.!> C hrist's 10mb is normally represellled in the guise of the Church of the Holy Sepu k hrt'. ~4 1 formula ignored on f. 2Ssr. The rock-hewn form piclUred here illSlead fo llows the prescript ions recorded b), Pholios: Tile $;lI'ing lomb of Ihe Lonl is all of onl' howshol away from the ancien! Jerusalem. Indl'Cd, blessed Helena, when ~ hc visited Jerusalem ~ nd e!carl..! thai holy pbee of t he pill'li of ruhhi.\h ;Llld filth tI'l're. extended the bu i lding.~ :lnd the city wall .. . [n faCl. this tomb. though il is a nalura[ rock. h~ s been formed inlU ,llOmb by m:lsons. The ruck has hcen hol100\"l·d out from casl 10 west, forming a narrow C h:Ullber ... Whal one misht l~,11 the entrance-or mouth of Ihe tomb, when:' the workman b,:gan to C in . has its ol',.. nin£ flCi n£ Ui eaS[ ... What we arc nowde.scribing we Icarrl<'(t from Ihose who have lak('n the trouble 10 n:siJe in Ihal b1~d pIaCl" ~' Photios probably rccci\'cd his inform:ll ion cithl'r from em igres from Palestine attested in Constanrinople throughout the nimh century,1(, or from Ihe Jerusalem delegates who :lIIcnded t hl' Council of879-1180 ca rrying let rers (addressed bOlh 10 him and to Basil I) ~ s king for funds ro help reslOn.' their churches. r While I'holios was presumably not the only person ro have T('n'ived Ihis inform:nion. he was cer· tlinl y in a privileged position lodo so: in any lovent, he provides the most extl.'nsive written description of the romb eX[3nt.!8 As we have SCl.'n, PhOl ios' inrel"l,.'St in the O monumentS of the Holy bnd estendt·d T the temple of Jeruule m ~s well as ro C hrist's 10mb; in bolh C:lses, Photios recorded his f.lscinalion in reXls and,/ believe, in the im:lges of Paris.gr.Slo. Folio 174V (2.J) (fi g. 1)) Painted on the verso of thl.'lasi leaf of lill' precc<ling oration, (. 174Vcerrainly rnainmillS ils originalloc:llion: il introduces 'On theology' (Hom ily 28),!') tlw second of
II Eri!)h~nio~ rhe Mnnk, "Th~ ~Io]y City and [h~ ! roly PI ~cn' I.r6--11.,: Wilki"wn (1977), 117. Odlt"r~ """rr held in [hr C hu " h I)f the Virgin Ill' Ihe l'h ~ro. in Com lamim)l']", , ninth·c~ntury cunmuctiun uf M ichad III : Jan in (19691. 1 Jj. " 5« q;. Grabar ('965). 69- 70: Conig~" (1991). 11- 15, 66- 6 8. 96. , \ Ampltilt>d,ip. 'InCSlintl )[6: N . Weoterink VI.I (19R7). I l l- I Lj. 11.6--L6. H - t f . )0-3!. j9-f.o; Ir~n ~. W ilkin..,n (1977). 146. Thr [eX t dun nOl .PIlC"u in I'G. il h, ho,,·n..-r I...... n IWl)c rihM. oflen labdleJ ~li q uestion 1 in ~ numhcr of publ icllion~ dc~li ng ,,·it!. [he Ch,is,i~n si[n ofJenll... Ic" •. 07, )to s.,., n()W Conigan (' 991). lJ. 96-97. l' M~ ...i XVII. +l1 -H4 , 461, 4S~ ; 1>bg.blino (1987). 14-11. ~. For OIhe. d...<:r ip[ion~. ~~ Wilki"...,n ([977). F . . li~l. John ofD~m~K".1 rdtrrtJ (0 (h~ 'Iomb I h" .. WlS hewn oul of rock by JO!<"l'h·. bm Ih i. ,akes u, lil1 If f"rtl.c, Ihll 1 he aceou", in MJIl h,w's Gu:spcl: 'Api"M I ho,", who allOck d;vi li e i lII~bd 1.13 (. 11.16); r.1. KOller (1971). II J: rr.n l. Ander..,n (1980). J" d. Co rrig.n (1992), 167 nOlt 67. !'O SC 1jO. 1 0<1-[75. OUt 5i(!tof[h~ lex l allheend of Ihe J(' rmoll i. los(.llong "i,h I h~ mi,,;aluu (or I he bj"CC fur on .. ) 10 , he following um ion. Though Gall ay and Jou,jon (SC 250. 19- 10) .n ,ibmN (he g;.p 10 sctib;ol n ror, '1";'" Lj (If. [S7- 19J) lack. a leaf prn:i... ly hr.e: iitt Append ix C.

G"'S",y', Ii"" "",Ii·b",,,,,, ,1-..0"'1;.",,1 <w.,iom, r. ,h.1" I><ou>< 'On .I>rology' i, ,h. onl)' on< of t ho.< omOo", ,h .. d.. l, .«Iu.iv.ly wi. h God ,I>< F"h«. • 11 ,hI« ""'n<> from the Old T..",rn:nt: tl>< n .. t "'"'0 illu,,, ... <p ioode, from rh. book ofG.n",i, _ rl>< _"~<:t of 1"""" .nd j.oob', "'u!;!;l< with.1>< .ngd _ whil. the 'hird oon,.im ,h .....ointing of o.vid. \0 In • p",.lgo int",Ju<<<l by an .nlug«! gold in;[ial, ,h. ;e,mon <vol«. Ooo[h G<n<>i, 'ri,."j""

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AnJ """h.no , 5""" I", .... "'h h, "~, , wU iu"ifir-d by f,i,h , arod olfmd. """g< .",in., ,t.. 'YI'. " f ,10, ~r..' y" I>< ..... no.- \..,.] .. GOO. but otf<rcJ him food .. m.n, He "'.. 'PI"~ b<au>< ..., "'m.>hipp«l" f.. "" 10, <omp",h.ndcd. Arod j.<Ob d[~.m<J of, Iof,y ladJ ... nJ ... i, of .ngri., . oJ i" , m)""Y ,n.,'"'cJ, pill ", p" .... p' [<) 'igo;fy [I>< r<>d ,h .. ..... ,noimcJ fo, 0<1, ..J:. , , , .. >oJ ... ""tlcJ ,.i,h(~>oJ in hum." ~"m . __1",1.."" ,hi, "ft", ,.. ,I>< ,nmp',i..," of hum,n .i"", ... i,h GOO'" .nJ ..., ... '" un h~ body''''' m.rk. of ,10, ..-,=Iin~, 'ort'ing f,"'h ,..., ,kf<.. of,,,,,«1

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F,'.n ,I>< v;,,,,,II)' I"",,,i. Mil.n G~ory p,<>c,va "n echo of Ah,.lw,,·, 'gr< .. ,-""incc . M )1<oo'"on[<>[ wi,h 'G.-..J in hum.n forn"; ,hQugt. • med.lliQn b uS! of Abrah.m «plK<' the .. crifi« of I...c fouM in p:',i,.gqro,.n inoc,il'ri ... " 1"<-;erv«l bo;M , 1.'1;< <",i,i"rI ;ndi .... '" th .. the Mibn mmu",,;!" ,I", "n« inchuled ,he ..".,."fj""(", "'u~. with tho .ngol." G[ego')'", [~""ing o f [he Ah .. h.m <pi..-..!.... p",~g"';">on of ,he <,,,,i!i.ion f"lI"wed I'.ul', int<rp« ... ion in Ir i, IWet> to tl>< llob ...... (""7- l t) . nd Rom.". (~" », .nd ",m, ;" ed " .. d..J in Br.. n'i ...... <1;..... Th. cxp. ndcd n, ..."ive on f, '74 v, wh ich ,n""", Air ,.h,m lOki ng I•• ",,,flo;' ,..,v.n" whi I. I"""" <"" i... the wood fo, 'he ...,ilX;'l n re up . 1>< moun[.in in addirion '" [h. ""u.1 ""'''cuf """if.«, v;><I.lIy "«"g,l\en. th i' in'erp , .... ion, fo, luu co'rying [he ~ rcw<><><l w.. ..",n as . pr<fi gu r>[ ion of eh ri" '" 'rying ,h. ctu>. to Culgo,h.,'-' But if G[ego,)', commem.ry on [h. ",,'ilX, "f I","", .",;e;I"'t<> )"er Byun,in. <o",,,,nt;on , hi' "<cu",,, on J. oob d"", not, The d ifference hcrw<en G"'S"ry', i",erp"",,,i,," .nd ,h., foJlowed by ,'''''' od«, oomm<nu,ur> con ..., on:n by rom_ poring Gn,!!o'r', ,,,,d ing wi,h ,h .. <Of john ofD.m.", ... in 'h« igh'h ccn",ry. -"'hn f"II,>W<:J ,10<" .. ,>Jan! <quot",n <Of th•• n8d wi,h God, bu. ronc<;,-ro th«pi>odc in '<lIm of . M.. im 'ypoJosy' Jamb ,"uggl«l wi,h God, 00 ,he Virgin 1><0"".1>< l.Jd" hy which C...,d . .. CIr,i>!, "' m. to .. nh; I>b ry un i. «I [ha, which h.d t..."

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u. pl. xv." 0"" .. , (,.,.,), ' J, , ~, XXXVll, ~w....- ( ,~,,) , ..' _doal h.}i), ,...... , w"",""" "•.,), 'H-''', '." [l« N"..."" ".",, "" _ . "" W,i,,, " ~J. "".
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.."......<1. " Grq;ory', chri"ologiul ..8«. i,,0 i. qui .. dilT...", f.om John', ma.ioIogial .. oding: and i[ i. [h. lanor which .nal"ula,..! ,h...,nd"d Brun,in, vi""", [he 'Yl'i kOfl "f ,he (;"'" Chun;h, fu. c.. mpk, "mif! ,.,r<",nc. [0 J.o«>b·, ... uggic with .he .ogd, while ind..ding four ",.dinp.,f ,he p.....ge on hi. d<nm,
"""h of wh"", f.l!. on • <kdicat"" to the Vi<gin." Ph"'i .... on ,n..oth<f h.nd. folio .."'" G.<gory', Ieod, He "'l'pli«l. "1""'" conllnenwy on exh <Y<!1l[,.00 proviJc.d ach ristologi<ol .... hcr thon • MOli.n in'efp••to[ion in hOlh c u e>. !n '1ucotion >\9 of the A"'thjl«bi~. Photi", wrt>le th .. J..oowrad"" ""ith the <>n!y.~­ t.n ."n, th .. i" }eo.... ,. .nd in,!",,,,,," .)6. Ph"ti ..... lik. (;rq;u' y, i<lcntifi", J.cob', .[}Oin. ing wi.h [he ' "",k [h .. i. gIoriou, C hri", uniting """ prop!"" " Wb.cthcr 0. 1>0' !'h.otio>· chri"o!ogic-.! ;nl<.prcutwn of tn.. J.rob ep;soda "' ... in.pi"'" by ( i",!\",y, .hei•• g.«mem und.,...,.-,,,,,.h.< mo .. unu,u.! iCOOl<>gr>phic f..tu.eof the ~"er, F~!"""ing the bib!H:.J "'CUunt (Cc" ... i. llI:1o--'j). J.ooob. "",.. ing. pink mantle ~r. hi ... ,unic ,,,ip«! wi[h g<>ld , ""lin", .. ,h. foo< of. moun .. i" , ProM"'" up by ad«p pink rock. Hi. right leg cro> ... ovcr his tef[, hi. let, arm cush",ns hi. hud, and hi •• igl.. >1m d.ngles in fron. of .he n><k, All mgd " • ..d. hcfof'< him: ....., more "'SCI>, "Il( """,nd ing .nd on. dcoct"Jing. ".nd on .Iadd.. 11(,\ l"fA: ). All [hT«.f< nimbed in gold .nd we .. gokl m.n.i<> <JV<. b lue !Uni",. 'll>c.< dc •• ib ' eipooo <lo.dy with ... nion' ofJKOb', dloom i~ the wurth-«ntury v .. Latin. OOt· >comb p.iming> .nJ ,he "",If[h-«mury O<: ... cueh. (6g. '0'): -'" ,""ugh o"ly r.ri. ,gr. jt" in ...... th ir<! . ngel .pc.king to J..:ob (, Jer,il which T«un in "",..I r.J.io!og>n =mplc.)." .11 show j.omb in ,he .. me ro>i''''n, indL>dc fW<) .ng<b on 'he loddcr, . nd l ",,~ the bU>l ofC~ ri>l in In . n · or the top of'he l.ddcr fuunJ in oth .. ''1'""""... ion. of ,hi, 'l'i<ttJ • . No ",h" 1IY'""i ,,,, "-r"""",..ion of ,h. dre. m, however, indud" .h.< 01 ... ,h •• •i .. .. the far ,igh'. direcd y 1.01""" ,he P"r>rW by Abr.llwn in the to\' ~'w, Thi' ("'me. plc>um.lbl)' .ddeJ by the Homil;" mini'fU,i" in «'pon.«." G~.y', 'f.$O<u,ion hcrw""n the d, •• [h. pill... h .. J.cob I.." .noin,"" ( •. [8). ""h~ l'h",iof in .."", in [h.< =oin,c:d " one ... . 'ypc ofCh,;", .nd tiei t he J><ob image !>Ot 001)· to the <Krihee of l<uc >hov. i, bu, .1"'.0 [h •• noin.ing oflhviJ which 'PPC'" hel"",. As if to cern.n, [h. ","n<c[ion he.w«n [i.em. [h. mini.tu,ist clorhcd I....,. J.wl> with ,he '"gel, .,,J D.lviJ ;t1 idcn,ica) 11"'"'<"'.>;.1) .... " . P'k bhoc t""ie hemme<! in ~Id, with. "'" ,..,1.. "'" legging> . • nJ hlu< boo". On "'''' I",el. ,hi, p."e.., «info.ccd .h< <)pologial '-"OCi .. ion, of .1I .hm: Old Tc.umcn, figu","

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widl Chrisl; on another, it suggests [h:lI we are mean[ 10 view Ihe page as a connected whole rll ther than li S a collcct ion of disparate scenes. A christological theme is certainly present. but so [00 is th e modf of anoinrillg. Inspired bY;1 sente nce in Gregory's text. the decision to include Jacob's altar unified the mini:lIure visually and [hematically. Photio$ is implicated in f. 174\' in a numbcrof ways. but always as a reinforcing lIoice 1":1Iher than as an insl igJ[or: he followed Grego ry in h is chrislOlogical interpretation of Jacob and in his interest in Ihe anointed pillar; and (as we saw in chaple r 4) his wri t ings on Ihe ano illling of David were impired by a request from the Emperor Basil. The conAucncc of Ihese interprc[llIions. howcn' T derivative each m ay have been on ils own, none l heless suggests Ihat I'holios was involved in [he planning off. 174". Fo lio j5S r (}6) (fig. 36)

A fuJi -page image of the Council o f 38 1 prefaces Gregory's thirty-fourth homily
which , in Paris.gr.5Io. is incorrec tly titled 'On ,he landin g of rh e Egypl ian
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bi~hop!>' .41) I n [\Ct . Gr~go ry deliv~red the oration in honour of ~ group of Egyptian

sailors who. landing in Constant inople with" load of grain at t he height of the Arian conrroversy in 360. ,Ivoided the Ari :1Il churche~ 'lIld .~o ught out instC,ld Gregory's slll:1 1I ortho(Jox church. Gr~gory praised the Egyptians for Iheir un~werv­ ing loyallY 10 the on hodox posi tion, :tlld conclem ned the various interpretations of the t ri n iry current a mOil g co nrelll pora ry heret ical grou ps: the Ellher, the Son. and the Holy Spirit lare] neither so separa ted from one another as to be divided in nalll rt', nor su con Iracted as to b~ ci rCll mserihed by a si ngl~ penon: the on~ :llt~r­ native being that of tilt" Arian madness, Ihe uther the atheism of Sabel Ii os .• 1 T he ill uminator of Paris.gf. 5tO slressed the laSt cbuse ('the olle alternative ... ') by introducing it with a gold initial Y Without this due. \w would be hard pressed !O explain the r:lt ionale behind the inclusion of the miniature. lor Gregory made no reference to a council. much less th~ Council of,81, in his sermon. and P,uis.gr.5JO is the only illustratcd copy of tite Homilies to pref:ICe the oration wilh a com:iliar 1 piCt ure.4 _ The inlage of the Council of 381 was of obviolls importance to the designer of the m,lI1useript: il occupies, exceptionall y, til(' el1lire p:lge. and a fr,lll1e with rainbowp,l!tern corncrpiece5 ~nd enamel-like siJ~s r~place.~ the ~talldard gold hord~r. The lIlilli:llUfe shows Theodosios Ihe Grtat (0EO.lO (C IO] C 0 M Er AC),'·' nimbed and in full imperial rega lia. s~~ted wilh :1 crowd ofbisitops on a sigma-shaped bench againST an architeCTllra l backdrop pai nled in shades of pink. green, blue, ,Ind ochre. A throne and an altlr dominalc thecentrJI axis. The Ihrone, gold :llld jewelled, with ,I red c ush ion 0 n top of a rcd a nd green pro lect ivt' clol h, bt"'ars a n open gospdbook. Th e blue altar suppOrtS ,1 closed rcd bOtlk lied with Ihong~ dUI is A;mkeJ by two ro ll ~d strolls; Ihesc p r('slt mah!y re"resen I {h c' acts of Ihe ti rSI COli nci I. held at N icaea. Ahovc ehe eh rone, agai nST a va riega ted hi Ill' hackd ( OP, Ihe 5te Ill' is Ii tied 'I he Sc"COIIJ synod' (CYNO~O C ~E'{rEPA). Makedonios (MAKF.~ON I OC). condemned by Ihe COUllcil of 38 1. crouches in the lower left corner: he has a shon dark beard. closely cropped dark hair. and wears pink and bluc-. Apollinarios, also condemned by ehis co unc il. originally mirrored him on tlll' right: a sevelHe~mh-ce nlury dr.lwing (l'aris,nollV"tcq.lat.2H3, p. <)6) shows the inscripTion Arr OAlNAPIEC and appends a nOte sayi ng Ihal the page was already dalllaged. 4 \ T he miniaTure 011 f. 355 r provides :1 fai rl y straightforward image of a co unci!. ~" T he sem i-circular arr:tngem~n t Ill:ty, as Christopher \Valter suggested, derive from
," SC liS. 198- 117 (N/W/,: JH- J 1S ). Om",\( U')!91. !R, 1'1. l" GlJlur (19J6). 90-9!: W"imllJnn (I H!I J)' Iq- 1!6, G"ll.ty (19 43). '7' - '13' lJullyay 11 9M). \9. pI. IV: Ainalov (1961). "0: l)t'r NetS""i.n (1962), lo6, HI, W.lln (19701,), JI- j7 , !jJ, 262; Brubaker (19H,), 4-6 ; Cormack (I?H9), 'Add, Iio"al Nmc. and Com me"", '1_ .. SC J IS, !l 2. ., I'ari,."r.llo, f 157'·.

Ii '" rgical edt lion. omil ,hi s homi Iy: Ihe m iniat uri 'l of 1he I,,! ilan Co,egor)' i",rotl"cod il ""ilh a pracht II); ","ne: G,,,[,.r (t94 Ja) . pI. XXX!. J. <, ,\ dalhr ink has Slrenglhe",.J Ihe Il.lm. Theodosio. . " Omo", (I ~!9). 12 . .., Se," \VJiln (I.qol»: Walln (1970"). 40- 49.
'J The

mtiquc Ken" ofSocro,a.<><I hi. disciple.." from e,.. ly Chr;,,;'n rep"""n'.';""" "fChri" a<><l hi, ' p"nle., but i,.!", "",m. '" reR"", con"mporary ",I i,y, .. d""i· d.. <J in ,ho Lifo "f .~, So.phon ,ho Younger, written by S.. phen ,h. o.-.c"n in ~"7." on, hron«! go<pdbook «hoc. nim h-«n'ury procrice .. wdl: .. document .he ",\cmn en,hronemen' "f .he g<»pcL. " ' he Council, of [pha u. in 4)1. Ni.:.e. in 787, ar><!, mu>< im!",""n' here, Con ... n,i""pl. in 869." n..,ugh i, d..... no. ,I.... Y' 'ppc.' i" 1I)"",n,i". '"p.....-n ..,io", of """"eib, ,h. mini .. ure of ,he iconocl.., Council ofS!1 in ,he Pm'o"""of Psalter . 1so ind od", ,he g<»pc1 (hg, 10')." which ,i" ... hef furlomly on, .impl. b..och; wh .. nef or no' ,he mini ..",· i" w .. n.. king 1 ,'i." .1 <om"",n, "n ,he 'pi,i",..1 poverty " f 'he BI) Council, ,he indmion of ,he gO!pclbook in I'o.n,oIu-a,of~' .uggem ,h ... ,h. Gr<gO!)' mini"ur· i" fo11ow<J pic'''';.! .. ",ell .. hi.rorial ronve",io"'· "]'''. cn,hmn«! g<»pclbook p""iding OV<I ,I>< rouneil .ymboliz<J tI", guiding pracoccof divinity (.nd onhodo. ,...di,ion) in much thc .. me w.y as. po" .. i. of 'he cmpcrof gu.,.n,e<:J 'he i" ,h. .uthority "fI, ... to" ,,,; " m"," 'pccilia lly, the book ' ignificd ',h. ",,,,neil of ,he Holy Sri,i[ who h>d in'pir<J .bo",ripm",,··' I !<>WC>"<f kgible [he min;',u,e, it f.iI, ttl illu",.,. 'he ,hifty.fourth homily in '''y d irec, ""'y 'old, ,inee (;'<gO'Y nO( hin•..,lf p.....-n! .. [he )8, Council, ,here ;, no b>.-.graph ....! iu"ific1!i<m for ilS inel.,';on. A. G[cgo~' devOl'" moch of [he « , mon .o.n .!t;o<;k On Arioni,,,,, 'he p""r.. y'! of • "''';or ch utch co"ncil on f. JW w., ee,,.i,,ly '" .1'1''''1''.... ' ''pplemem ", ,he >oco"'p1~)'ing teXl, followi~g "'<gOry. h~'cr. on. would ""PC<' '0"", 'f>< «um<n;al Council (N"' ... I) ,nd ,h. downf.oll of Ariu •. " Thi, i. m.nif... ly no. [he , he in",ripti.,n. m.k. da., w< "'" .he >«ond Cou !Kil (Con.u noi ""pIc I) condemning Mak<J"" i", and Apollin .. i.... Though ,h.re i• • eelttin am""nt of un«n.inty on .he poin., I>t;,k<J.,ni", 'l'P-'ren,I)' ''llu<J ,h .. ,h. Holy Spi,i, ""'. I.., impo ... n. [!un [ne fune, .nd ,he Sotr •• nd [h .. i, <><cupicd. po>i[;on mid"",y bc",=n God .nd «f' rc",i.1 humani,)·,'" Thi' ... as. in .ny eve"', how nin,h-..:e,ttury 1Iyt.a",iu", imer· rlCl<J [h< I>hkodoni.n h<=Y' in I"'",i",' word., Mal:odonio. 'fought og.im[ 'he Holy Sri, i,'" Pho'i"' ...... '" toneernod wi, n M.kcdon;"'· h<""",,1 P"'"""'>«--

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meat< th .. , ia • I«ter l<' (Bori,) Mich..,1 of Bulg."i. Jc.c.ibing ,he «c~meaial rouaci 1>. he <kvut<tl mo' t "fh i, d; ><u»;on "f the J~T Co" ncO I .". <0 adem n,,;o" of ~h kedoni .... ",d • i" "ifiation of position oa the Holy Spi'i' .... Ajloll i" .. Oo" " n 'he o,he, h. nd. den;ed Ch,i,,', humaa n om"" Forthi,. he too w.. "ill beiag ro<laJly ,,,,,JcmncJ in tho ninth « nfUfY: the 7tl7 Council menti<>ncJ fl>< "I"'" i""i.a he''''f h, ie8y: I'll",,,,, c .. tig':lIed him twice in . 1>< A"""iwhi4 ",.I "Pi " in two "f hi< l«t«,; Nik« .. 'he P:.phlagon"'n (ca. '/(0) ooati"ucxl the mxk" The """i"ul'< o n f. J5I'. in mh« ,",'oro., .... ih, j " foc ... ,w' f from G~ry', condemn .. i,," "f Ari",;,m to empfu..iK im ... d .he o"hod"" in!ef' pret.tio" of ,he Holy Spi,i, . n<! Chri,,', hum. n aatUf<. Gi""n eigh,h. and ninth· <e"'u,y ."enti"" to Ari," I><....y ~ which i"",ophil .. ci,oJ ... bi"",iol pr=Jcn' ror 1 """""I •• i, i, inte .... ,ing ,n.. tl>< opp<>nuniry." condom n Afi", vi, .... lIy w.! not uken. But vi,u.1 aT''''''"'' '!!"im' • differea, heray ""'''' ,",ing m.,..n.,lIoJ he .. , ,,,.j ,he r<>lignme'" """,.d. w;,h ",he. nin,h-c<n.ury r~ occu",,,on •. The oou"ly and r-ttti.tcl..1 circle for which P:.ri •. gr.sro in«nd<tl 'pcnt much of ,he """,nd half of ,he nin,h «nfU!), in ..truggl< wi,h ,Il< "",,«fn churd. for 'Ulho,i ~' OVCf ,he newly ronvc<t<tl Sul!!"' '''n,, '' F... nki,h. Roman • • nd Byu",ine mi,,;"n.r;c> romr<t<tl the lUi<. .nJ the ten .. >i, .... i,," mogni5td the ,Jiffe",""" bc<w«" I..,in .nd G.«l duct.in,," II "",jof bone of ' ''''ten,i"" b<c.m< lho w<>ro ing of ,'-0 Niceno C......J . Th< orig; ....1 fOrmu!..;"n, fOllow<tl hy 'he Byun. in<>, " ipub'<tl tit., ,he Holr Spirit pl't>C«<lcd (rom 'he r.. ,'-of, F<>t • • ,,~. of f'ca"""', h"".......,f. • he Ffanki,lt mi<,;"na.i« in Bulg''';' ... ugh. an ;nt«· 1",1" ..1 Ctc.:d in wh >ch tho Spi.i, p"""",d<tl f,om ,h. F.th« '.nd the Son' Ijili"'l""" " The """. oJoq""'" Brunt;" • '!!"i"" ,h. I..:";,, po<i,;"n bolonS.d. as 0'" migh' «p«"!. ' 0 ,he p..,i.Kh Pho.i.,.. In hi. encycliu ll«". (8671. It;, letten '0 ""r< :-<ichol.... n<! ", the aKhbi,lwp of Aquiki. (~ JI4) . aJ bi. M ~ptiA (f'U"t • l"

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Pho,i", ju>,ilied ,he onhod<;.x p"',i,ion., I,"gth,'" H< ~i,ed 'he .. rip,,,ta, pnn'ided logicol ",b"tt.I" .nd !'<View«! <ccksi","",1 """ 1""",,<> '0 d, ...cdi, 'h< Lat,n ,o,erp"'I>"oo of jili",!"'_ T h< ""« I,i,w,io ~"', £0. O U t PUfpt»C>, m"" jn,.,.· <s' ing. !'hot;". ",med ,I>< l""in "aching. '.. mi-$;obdlim mom .ct', 10 <pi'h« ,h., 10k.. ,,,, "'m< .ignificonc< in li&h' of 'h< cn"'fgcd ini.i.1 ,I. .. ;",,, ..1<= G«'gOI}'" rckt<ncc '0 ,hc Sabdli." hc"-,,y in r .. i, .g'.1'0." EV<'n mot< imf'Oltam, ,,",-VCf, Pho,io. t<lied on hi. knowledg< of ,hc conJem""'io" ofM.~edonio. by ,he Council of JS, '0 pmvide . hi"""cai p,,,,eden' fOf hi. 0"'0 condemo,,;"n of ,he Lt,in p""i,ioo, which he duly l,kened ,,, ,he M.krtlonion he ....y, .. I'ho.io. tho Holy Spifi, in ,h< act> f"und • .....,Iu,ion '" the con'rov<''l' wi,h Rt,m< of ,he )31 Council. .nJ h, ,,>c<I 'he 0ounciJ', condemo";,,o of ~I.kcdooi", .. , juS!ilic.. ion fo, hi.awn """demn",,,,, "f ,I" l.. ,in po;;.ion on jili..,." G~"fy"' «i"i"f;.n conce'"I, ' PP'''PfL:t« '" ,he k>uf[h ceowl)' .oJ clc.dy ap..,..cd in ,he homily >=mf"'''yi nS f }jj<, "'ef< bn>.JCf ,h.o ,1"", of ,hc ""hod<;., chuf'Ch during ,h. patri.rch". of Ph",,,,,_ The "'n,h...",,,,,,1}' o"hod,,> onl)' one " rc<' of 'he «ioity, ,h. roI<of ,he church w... i"",lvcd io, d"pu,. Holy Spiri' , It i, in ,hi, ,,,n'..' ,n" ,hc mini",,« of ,he Coun.cil "f }K, '"'''' be unOO"oo.l ,h, P""'« '"prlemen" (;'<g<)ry-' a.-gume"" a!;-iio" trini .. fi." he,..,.. , ie> b~ .upply;og . comll , ,,., ,he co ndomn,,,i,,,, of M.kcd.>n;"., 'ppropfi". '" nin,h«n'ul}' problem., At ,n" ,;me. '00, . 11""00 '0 .nr "I""" ,,(,It. Holy Spiri, WI> l'",icuh,ly '1'fI"'I";'« in ,h. COn',,' of G«'gOI}'" 1 lom ilic>, fot nin,h. "'''''''Y .mho... ci.cd GregOI)' of N.,i.n,,,, .". m. jof .u,hoc;f), on ,he dmn;,ion of 'he Hoi)' Spitit: ·It " .., Gregor)' ,lone .nd fi ..., hefo« el" who dearly ,nd mo« hoIdly p,,><loimed 'he Spifi' '0 be Gnd, "Iu,1'0 ,he l'.. h" .nd ,h. Word ICh f;" j."' The min; .. u« upd" .. 'M 'pr'op';", ,.. " The dec"io" to ,,,d,,de, «<onJ h<r<tic, Al"'lIin3l;oo, in ,he min ..",,,, proh.bl)' 00' b...cd .imply on, d.,'t< fot _"mp.,. i,ion.1 .,.mme" ), 0' hi"",;col >ccur.>ey, Ap"'lIin.tim denied ChriSt', hum", n..ut•• ,nJ ,hi, ,,·.,one of ,h. m.jor

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h<=;.., with which tl>< iwnop/lik> h.d ch .. gc<l the K:onod .. u. II> w<: uw in clul'''' t. bec>.u .. the iw""d..", deni ..;! th .. Ch ,i" wuld I>< rcpra<nted ·in m.«,i..! wlour'. the i""""phila accused . hem of denying ,h .. Ch';" had ",i"ed in truly hum.n f""m." It ,hu.... m.l ik<I)· ,h .. Apoll in.';", .ppear> on f. Jllr fOr the lOme "'...,0 ... 00.:. "bke""o;"", '0 provide a hi"oricol p=eden, ,h., ,u" ilied • "" "ICmror.'," onhoJo, pooi,ion. To. een.i n "'ten,. the en,i", im.gc pl.". to ,hi. anti·ioonod.. " ,heme' .coonling ", rhe l.ife of Sr Step"." You"gcr. ,Ikimage; of council, 00 'Ik- Milion in Con.unti""pl. nul bttn ",moved i>y rho iwood ... Emperor Com •• ",ine V and rcpb O<d i>y hippodrome ><cnco: f. )II' implicitly ted ....... ,ni. d.f>e<m."' ...·I\o,h p.ge ... wlml •• nd ,h. ind",i<>n of Apolli" .. i", .. nClinn.i>y . ".I<>g)·, ico"nl>ftik '""o'y jun .. 'h< indu· .io n 0( M.kedoo;'" .mn",i"" ,h. ortOOdo. IW ...: on JililHf~'. Thi, mctnnd 0( ",iog •• ,Ii.. SOU""" '0 , ""Oemo curtent hemic< f. mil;., one in ,he nin'h centu,)·. n.c P:lUlici.n h"coy. fO, . u mpk W>..I roumeted by ,h. rei ..... of a fo;,nh-ccn,my ,<>t, by Akutld .. of Lykopoli. ' g>in>' ,he M.nich.:m h.rc<r. brough, up '0 d.IC b)· on in"ndu";",, dediCl,ed '0 B.. il l du, wa • .Jm"" "", .. inl)· writt.n by PI>o,io,. «pJ'ining how Ak... ndc", WOfk wo. relC>":lll ' TO .h. ninth-«nmry prohl.ro .... Ph"""" n,.d. ,,,. .. me poim in ,h. ol><ning I"'rogr.ph of hi, vm'", M~nu""",~ " The p... lld i,m I><""«n Apolli... ,i", .nd lcoMd .. m, .nd /o.bkcdonios and ,h. Ji1iMf"' dchate thus fi~d •• ~ak>guc. in eontem!"',:..y .., ,, . ThO"g\. more ,",crt ,h.n in P, ' ,",gr,IW. >cv<:,,1 of 'hc anti·K:or.ocl .., im.g« in ,he mo'!:;n.l 1'.. 1........ pply ,h...m< kit><! of polemiaJ p,mlkli,m: in ,I>< , K nl~dov r...1t ... fo ..... mplc, iconnel .." whitcw.. hing." ;ron of Chti« .te ,im.lly '"'1,,",,«1 wi,h S'q>h. nos and longino< 'o""",tting him on ,he <to<. (~S17): I"., in tI,. .. m. m'nu,crip'. Pc •., , r.mpb Simon M.go..bcm: on iconophilc , ... mpling.n iconod", _ '" The im.g. of ,he ,81 Council can . ,h.n. be inte'preted., . vind"",ion of ,h. orthodox B)"unti~e posi,ion on Jilj"'l~"nd on k onneJ..,m , It m .y 01><> be linked wi,h ,h. Synod 0(8;9/80, which rein" .. ed ,he..,,, of PhOl i." Council o{g67 ,h .. hul bc.:n repudi.,ed bpn. Pop< 000 Ign"i'" .fr:.. I'ho,io' diW.K:< in ~7<>" A. the ].Ill Council ..... caUed ' 0 reunite ,h. chutCh .fi.. the Arion schi ,m. ,h. 867 , -"uncil cd.h,.. ed ,he ol\ i ~c:"ion 0(,1.. ch oreh .f,., ,h. ico"net.. .. ""l\"o~",y. " The , 8, Council ,.,ilied the Nian. Ct«d: . h. 867 Council •• communicated ,h.

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Folio 164Y, unlike .ny othe, mini"ur< in r .IIi •. gr, 5t o, ioin. t"!;<1he, two "'1"'r."dr fum"! pi«u=.'o b",h of which h..... in otld it;"" • ,"pplem.n[. ry de"il ou .. ideof the fume iudf. The "pper pictUIC. bordered in gold !..ndcJ wi,h ml. i•• ubdividcJ infO ", .... individu,lIy f"m«l." .,,,,,,, M~ b<fo.rc the hurning bu.h, [he con"",_ ":on o(Soul (Paul), ."J ,he a>crmion o(Elii"" towm • h.o"J of God th .. emerg .. from .n . ", ofh.,>,." the f~.me , " 11,. ",-, pic'''r<, iwl.",d ft(lRl ,he "WC' by, .. rip of I><',,!t.1 I"Khme" • • nd di"ingu i..h«! from i. by.1>< blue bond, ,h .. frame the gold border. ;. <witt ... I. rge . nd Ikmt"! to. 'ingle ,",e!>C. the ."".. ing of the R..! S.,. wi,h ,h<:d."c<:of Miri.ro. Oncc ' lY'i", ",i"i.t",i.. pl.occd. h1lK! of Go.! ,b.::wc ,he f.. ~: j[ co",inue< ,ho di.gon.1 h<gun ht· , I>< ,.)', <IIl>n .. ing from the hand o( Go.! . b.::wc the top ~"cr. The mini.", .. prcfacos G regory'.... ,roo" 'On h'p,i.",', ",bieh o.,;i,,,on ,h. f"l· lowing !"g<, . nd ,h. pic'u,e< .... lirmlr link«l ",i,h Gregory', .. XI, " Grq;ory CCl"'unJ«I the convention.1 <qu.tion Mw«n Npti,m .nd iliumin,,;"n or ."Iigb,."m.", "..,me I.ng[h: h. "m..! lh .. [ 'God i, ligh,', and ', ...""J ligb. ;" ,he .ngd, • kind of outAoworcommunication of th. t Ii ..., lig!"'!' .nd ,hen rcm .. k«l:

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,h< Wi!d<f ....... II .... Iigll, c.orrial up E'.Iii.h i" ,h.",J. . '-;' .. "(6«, r<' JHl ... " hum him " i, ,,,,,,i«! him, , . Lt,h, ..." ,I\< ."Ko" ,h .. bI.,oo "'" "PO" [,.,,1 .nJ by """,><Ii,'11 h;, ~ h.,.kd ,I>< J,oo.<SII "fhi' 0001.He eond"doo : 'Light bnidcs ,h<>< in, 'p«i.1 ",m,e i. ,he illumin" "'n o(bap,i.m of which ........ 'lOW 'I>c.oki ng. fur it con .. in. , g"''' .nd m.,yellom "","men' of OUf ... I,.. ,ion:" The ,I>"", "",n", of ,nc '<>f' piefUr< ""'fC ,hu. 'p«ific>lIy mcn· ti,,"oo by Gf<I;<>f)".• nd th.,ugll ne n<vc, rtfc,m! d ircaly ." ,he <"",ing"( ,he R«i s.•. he r<m>thd ott ,he pill... of lif< d... I<ad, tit. hr. d i,<> in t he I.....", "'ene , Tn..., ""i..oo<> 'Y<, foo..",,",,,,,, ,,{ "oly ",iMt imp''''''''''' i" the o ... ,ion: ,h. mini . • m,i .. of ,he Mil.. G.-ogof}" ignofed ,hem .11 't) moc<",,..« in " .,d on ,hc fW<) ",tr.,i",," di"""....!., leng,h, ' he mi".de" Can. and 'he t>caling.,( ,ne p''''' l)'Tic .... while ,hc li, urgic-. I ed i,",o, ci,h" (;'og<>,)' p, • ..,h illg ""n< of b.pti,m .' " B)' ignofing [ne ol",.;"u" [he d"'igncr o( f. .64V not .!!cmp,ing [0 imp<»<. ,,.....' d'."',on G"'J!<'f}"" " .. tOon. (Of, ., Sir."l'ie [k, N<ct>cS>i.n <>b.crwd, .11 ,he Kcn", ","nc n.",,,o, I... d i= <I)' to bapti,m ," S)"l.;(",ine COmmen'''o'' h.bi,u. lly cited both [hc "'cn,ion of FJijah and ' f>< <..,..iog of ,h. Red St ... '11'<' "{""pti,m," Neither the conv<o"i<m "f5.oul (I':.ul) !>Of 1.1""" b<for. [he "<I,ning hu.n, h"""",,cr, "·, ,,m.lly ci,ed in ,hi. conn",[ion; me burnin ~ b~! h epi.ooc W1!, in rm, ~<u.lly intc'l"Cled .. a prcfig~,.. ion of vi,gin bi"h." T" rIo ... i... , though, 5.oul'. com""ion c.. mplilied t he rebirth of ""p[i.rn , (Of, " he "pb ined in .. Icng[ny a m,idc,..,i,," ofb.opti,m included in A",';'il«/,;". ,he old S.ul 'd ied' .nJ ,..., rnu'l'«:[ed .. P. uL"' PI><;., .... did ""r Ii..,· . lIy COnnect tne burning b",h with bap,i.m in ,he .. me Ct)ncl'CIC m.nncr, bUl h< did "~l(i". d", , .."" in .uch • w.y 'hot , I.. <qu.t;"n II<'Cm. in<>C:ipabk." Agoi" in Holy Spirit,.11<1 fOl [he Ampbil«/N4, Ph",;.". linked ,hc hurning hu,h wi,n lowed ,hi, immedi .. dy wit h . paf:iphra..: of)ohn 'f>< B.op<;'r: 'I ind«d h.op[i~ you wi.h "".ote,. but .. he will b'p,ilC you wi,h 'he H oly Spirit . nd with ~lC:"

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Howl'ver indirr·nl y. PhOl ios here (:onslrUCted ~ baptismal intt'rpret:uion for the Moses episode. and th is re.lding of the scene b ri n!;S it inro conformity with the vis ual typo logy expressed throughout the rem:!inder of the mini :lIu re:~J The message of f. 26" v is nor. however, ca rri ed by Ihe Typolog ic !1 sdeelioll of SCl'nes alone: subsidi :try themes ofilllllnn~nce to the e mperor and the patri:lrch le;lk into the whole page, The wa y thaI Moses ;lnd I he burning hush lu~ bn:n preselHed is IHlU~ U :!1. 1\< loses, his pink tI1anlle flung over 3 light blue lu nic. sl:H1ds behind ~ snull gree n hillock 3nd has rotised one leg to resl his foot on it: IlC 1o::111S forward, twisting his nimblC'Ss he:ld ro th l' side (pe rhaps 10 :I\'oid looking ,II Ihe angel on Ihe righ I, Ix'rha ps to :I\'oid hilling his h c~d on his r3ised kned, ;1m] umies the laces o(his S:lIlclal with both h:mds at the inSlructio n o('lhe angd in Ihe bush' (0 A IT [L \ ]OC EN Til BATH) who tells Moses 10 'unfasten the sa ndals o f your fed (,\ YC U N TO Y I I O~HM A TON II O~I1N COY), The scene illustrates Exodus ;:l-5 , when all angel appeart'd to Moses ' in a fI~m e offire 0 111 o( the midst of a b ush', an d God to ld him ro relllove his shlX's. 'for Ill(' place whef{'01I dllm slJ.ndest is hol y ground', The gold-nim bed angel, in a pale brown mantle o\'er a blue tunic and lVi th one wing l' Xle11l1 i11 g over Moses ,HId I he (){ hl' r t ueked b:rck, holds:1lance in ils righ I hand 31ld st:Hlds in a relaxed cotltr:lpposlO that CO lltr:!sts lVith Ihe cOlllortt'd position imposed on Moses. Rt,(] flam cs mingle wl,h gr('('n twigs abolll th t, an gd's calves: both undulatl' up toward its waisl: Ihough follow ing the Sep tua gi nt aCCOUIll, Ihe pre5Cntation o( the an gd 3C1 ually in rile bush SCl'ms 10 be unprecedented , Moses is largely obscured by his posirion an d his placement behind rh e hillock: it is the angel who domin3tes the scent' :lIId participJ.tcs in the composi tion of the top regisler as a whole: il b;lbnces lil(' idemically clad Eli jah o n the right. and Ihe smaller and slightly 1 0IVer h:llocs of dI e :lIlgel and Elij:1], in turn frJlllc tilc I:rrge r :lIld higher m edallion that surrounds a portrait of C hrist in Ihc emlral scene, ' l'he chevron shalx' described by Ihe thrce haloes is coullIl' rbJ laneed by the more exagge rall'd r('verst' chevron formed by the repetil ion of costume colou rs: Saul, \\' ho kneels in the middle scene, lVears the same combin~tion :IS do Eli jah and th t' angel , T he scenes are funher lin ked hy Ihe green hill whic h recurs in all three. and by the manifesration o( divinilY !l1:I1 appears, increasingly elev;lled, on Ihe right 5ide o ( e:lch vigllerre, Th .., form thallhe divine takes, however, differs, In tlu: middle SCl'lle, Saul , inscribed Palll (rIAYAOC), kn eels hetle:lI h a gold m edallion Ihal encloses a POrt mil of Christ. from which a stream of light blue light hcams down to Saul. C hrist's face has Aaked off, bill he is identifiable by the v:rriega ted blue mys thai form a cross behind his head , an d hy the purple g:armem O\'e r his shoulde rs. A green hill fralllcs Saul, and behind it rise the pink w3 11s of a city, wilhi n whic h \':lrious blue buildings are visi bll.', A small green stru ct ure wirh a

Vi~ion

am!

ll1~an;ng ;n

n;mh-u"mur}' IIp.am;,,,,,

purpl~ door sits at the far right of the quadrant: tWO cypress Irecs rise behind il. TIll'

sc~ne closely follows Acts 9:3-5, and Chrisl's queslion appear.~ a "~:111 inscripTion

beneath his pomait: CAYAE. CAYAE. TH ME t.IOKEIC ('Saul, Saul. why persecutes( I hnu mc?'). The CiT}' behind Saul is presumably D:!masctt5: Ihe smal l green building before him may represenl a rural shrineY! The conversion is f;u and away Ihe most common ly illustrated ewnt of Paul's life, :md the versioll on f. 264V follows the cOl1ventional Brzanline formula, certainly established by Ihe ninth century, <IS bot h this iJ1usnatioll :lIld the Vatican 'Chrislian Topography' make dear (fig. 77). '>t Th is does not, however. mean Ihal I he con "efsin n in Paris. gr. 51 follows The " Iopogra ph)" P:ltlCrtl ill ,Ill tesp~cts. Both n i n Th-cen til ry min i,1 m res show Sau I with his h~:ld raised r:!lhn tban prosnating himself in full proskrlll'sis with his forehe:ld on the ground; in th e 'Christian 10pography'. however. Sau l :tppears I>vice, once sl:lnding and once (dlen to earth:JJ ,I common duplication that was avoided on f .1..64" - presumably because it was more important for the b,lptismal typology of the page to signal what l'hotios Gilled Ihe 'death' of Saul than to reenact visually Ihe J1~rrative of the conversion story. The m~nner of depicting diviniTy also differs: the 'Topography' miniature shows divinr rays emanating from an arc ofhea\"en: OTher \'ersions inseT! a hand of God . ThesekClion ofa medallion of Christ for ~6 4 v, rather than a hand o f God or an arc emini ng rays. apparendy conveyed meaning. Andre Grab:H argued Ihal the illll/go dip(lludound here (a ponrait in which Chrisl·s halo is enlarged to aCI a ~ a circular frame· that l"IlCOmp:I S5~5 his shoulders rather than simply sining behind his head) W3S a symbol of victor),: Kathkl'l1 Corrigan, who studied Ihe frequent appearance of th e formula in the nurginal psalters. has ~lIggested th,1I it signified 'a 11 ico 11 of Ch risl ':).1 Ch ristopher \X'a Iter. howe\'er, m a i llIa i ned t h:t I Ihe use of t II is d~\'ice in th~ m,trginal psalters was meant to indic:lte that Christ wa.~ 'physiC:llJy preselll and visible', and propose.1 that [his same meaning, which is linked with visions of divinity and has iconophik resonance, applied to f. .1..6"v:!~ TheSl' interpretations hav" obvious relevance within l'aris.gr.510, but a second hyer of meaning seems to me equally important, and this laye r lie'S not in tile torl11 of the im:lge but in its content. The decision 10 depict Christ, r:lther than an arc or ;[ Iund of God. allowed the full p,\I1oply of the ninity 10 spre;td across the top register. Following l'hotios. Ihe :lngcl in the burning bush represents Ille Holy Sri rit. Christ obviously is Ihe Son, while the hand of God rhat rises above the ascension of Elijah in the next p:mel stands for God th e rather. This hrout is surely imemion:ll: 1101 only docs it provide a finallOuch 10 the delicately b;llanced top regi., ter. it ,1150 and (juile appropriately brings The trinity into the baptismal typology of till' p~lge as a whole. In addi tio n. the formal of the regisler visuall y confirms the equ~liry of :III

°

r.

., Ke"lcr (1 ~.I90). J 7. iJ~mifieJ ,h i. '" a mile,,,,ne .• rc,di ng hdi~d h), lhe .1 ...." . •, VJLgr.699. f. 8,v: S(O""iolo (!9oS). pI. .,8, ·n Fa,,1 appe.. ~ {wicc;n {he m;n;alllrc~, wel l. ." Gr,b.r ([ 917). l{ 8- :! I: Corrigan ({ 99 :), H - 71. ." \X'.li{n (19H7). ! LJ- l{ (,: d. Kn,kr ([9,)0).

mcmbers of Ihl' Hinil y Ihal, as WI.' saw in Ihe di...cussion of f. J5Sr (fig. }6). was a pressi ng concern in the jilioqllf debatc. I suspeCt thatlhe dl'Ci~io l1 to portr.JYChrist rathcr than either of the ;llrernat;ves was the prin, ary onc: once thc choice to COIll plet(· till' Triniry was madc, til(' form of Ihe porrrait lOok on il s own weigh!. Ulilike the scenes of Moses and SauL the ascension of Elijah and Ihe crossing of the Rcd Sea had cOlwentional baptismal Iypologies. and ,Ire presc:ntcd in a relalively conventional WlY,% Ihe prominence of Ihe crossing of Ihe Red Sea, however, maits brief mClIIion here. The equation between Moses, who led his people 10 fr('celom :KroSS the Red Sea. and Constlmine, who kJ his people !O C hrisli:m ilY across the Tiber on the Milvian bridge, was an nld and f.Jmiliarotle :'1" e\'en Pho tios ilwoked Ihe crossi ng of ,h,' Red St'.I as all analogy lor orthodox C hrislian \'iclOry,''Ij The scene on f. l64V had, we may assu me, imp.,'rial connOl :lI iO ll s:'~1 il has b"cll lrgUl'd, in any t'ven t, t hat I ht" rod held by Moses that fe;1I u res in I h(" Hom ilies min irch:w: prealllre was kepi in dlc palace a, Consr:ullinople r:uher dian ,u du' p,lIri:L cisely for th is reason. (1)(1 The slil'cr sizt" oft he represcn tat ion , which d wa rfs t he Ot her Iypologiol pictures. smacks of prt'(ere nlial l re,lImenl and prt"s umably respeels Ih" do uble layer of significance ,hal Ihe crossing of Ih" Red Sea bore wiThin i{sd f: il pl ayed inln Ihe bapt ismal {heme of the scrmon ;I!ld {he minianm', and it Str~'Sst'd TIl(' rdigiolls importanct of dLC emperor hy calling 011 ~ssocia l i oll s wiTh Constantine dl(' Crea! - associ:llions IhaL as we saw in chapll'! 4. WeI(' nOI OUI of place in Paris.gq lo. Folio
5l.V

(10) (fig. (0)

Folio 52V shows sc('ncs of rht· crt'alion and fa ll in Ihe upper IWO r('gi s l~'rs; M ose~ receiving the laws and Grt'gofY pre:lChing occu py the 10wl'sr.III I 'l'hl' folio is i1l5ertOO oclw(:en qu in.-s six ami seven, bu { no lIe(hdcss ceria in Iy rCI ai ns i t ~ in lendt'd place, for (as we ha\'e seen) Ihe scencs in {he third f"gisler arc d osely rd a{"d 10 rhe following sermon. G rt'gory's fifSl oraTion 'On peace' (Homily 6), wriliclI 10 comIll"rlloralt' rhe r('conciliarion of the Nal,iarlZltS communi!'y aft('r :I period of strife. l n.: Gregory did nOI. however, wril" aboll! Adam :md E\'e in fh e sermon: and Iht' se(lm:nce Ihal unfolds in Ihe upper registers is in fael a curious one. 101 Ii opens wilh
... 0" ! h~ ic"""gr~ phr, ......, ch.p ler 8. .,., I'ur ~ re(~ 1H d; :;.:,." i{)l1. wi!h ... r1in h,hl;ogr .ph)'. >c,. -"du" inck (, ~S91. 1 I .1I"l n"'~ 1. 0 ''" s.,~ ".g. M '''g'' (' 9S8). 3' 3. •.. So 100 J,,'i\'cd ..... ,·)· (1\187). 46'-46 J. 'W Sch minck (I\lK?). 1 07: on rcfcrt'ncol'.< (0) Ihe slJ/fin Ihe Iklok o( C.-rcnlUn ic5 ~c Thum ",d (199l).
11}- 114·
I~' Omonl (191?). IS- 16, pl. XXIV: Morey (19!1I). J6. liS: D... Ncn.cssl.n (196:). !08-l09:

'lX'cil1.m~nll ~nd ~tcl1 kt) (196, ). r86-J87: W~h ... (19-8), lJ~: Brub.kcr (193S). 8-10:
( 1996.). 1 ~- 1 6.

Bru b.h.

lu, SC 405. IlO-17'): t;.II.I)· (I~HI ). N o-Hi. St... chal'lrJ J ,i,r addi, jUlul d;",II,.;Oll "f d,e h'''!!.fJ ph. 1c.1 s<:~m': 8 (," I\., ,,,(~. A d~[Jil cd a»C. lll e'" of ,h~ iB",,,!;,.ph)' JPI",a" i" ,h.ll".'~'

'"'

211

Vision 3r1llnwaning in nimh -et"mur}' B}'l..1nlium

the cre:n ion of Adam. fol lowed by thl' creation of Eve: ralh l" r Ih.1ll Ihe {('mpt.lI iOIl. the nex l s((' n(' shows God's cursing of Adam. Eve, and Ihe se rpent (Ccnesis j: IS-20). :and this is follow~-d by Ihe expulsion from par;](liSt', Thl' St'cond regisH:r lx'gill~ wit h a rep rCl>e ntation of the cherub guarding Ihe tfCC of lifl'. Normall )', following Ihe ~e nsc of til(' bibliC"d ltt'xt . Ihc cht'rub appcar~ I)('fo fl,thc exp ulsion: were Ihe top tWO rl'gistCfS of f. S2". cotbPSl'd il1lo :a cOl1linuous tine:lr n;lrr;ui"c, Ad:am and En' would be propelled Jirt'Ctiy illlo Ihe I ree oHife r;uhl'r Ih:lIIllU! of p:lradise. An arc ha ngcl handing Ad:Hll a Two-prongcd hoc follows Iht" c heruh. in rtfnencc to Gcnc~i s j :l"r 'So thl' Lord Cod SC Ilt him fonh {Jilt of the garden of delight 10 culti1',IIe the ground OuI of which he was takt·n.' A body of nOIl -c~ noni c:d lirenture el.IOOr.llcs on Ad3n1'S roils olllside par:ldisc, :and al least twO apoc ry phal texts intimale dUI the arc han gel Miehacilauglll Adam how 10 till the soil. Hfl Rd cvalll visual parallels 10 this image do not, howe"e r, se(:rn 10 cxist. ICI-'> Genesis j:!-4 is norm:ally illu ~lr:lI cd by :a dcpiCiion of Adam ;ll read y at work or. dOSt'r in spiril 10 I he Grq;ory scene but hardly identical. shoulderi ng a matlock or spade a5 he is expelled (rom pandiS<'. IOf. TllOugll the archan gel's pr('sellct' ma y pH.·su ppose knowl edge of tex ts describing his mit" in thl' ('venl. Ihe pict ure of Michael handing AJ:l!l1 I ht, m;l1tuc k :lbollr W.I~ an importa nt W:IS ev identl y cn::atl'(1 for f. 521' 10 STress thaI ph ys ica l 1 rcpl' fcllss ion of thc (al l. -I'he final ~c(' n e o( lite s(~u lld r{'sist('r, the 1:lmC1l1 o f Adam and E\'c Oll t side par;ld ise. rct'll fil S 10 a SIa nd3 rd iconograph ie ll form u 1:1. How('\"c r :lnomalou~ ~oml' dct :lils, the:: inclusion of th e:: Adam .lIId Eve sequence:: was not arbitrary. Ill' On one level, th e history of Adam all(1 Eve sign ified sc h is m: the {('mplJtion and f.ll1. responsi ble for Ihe: original brea k OctWl'C II God and human iTY, ~ppear in th(" lil urgy ~s anri illCl>es to the mes of pt:~ct: and uniryYIIl JU XIJ l)Oscd wi th the scenes of th e: 10w('sl register. represe nting rcco nciliation, Ihe min ialure as a whole thus provi dl'd a vis ual analogu l' 10 Grego ry's sermon. and Ihe
.'" I"h( '\1 .... 1"1'''' 01 1\1,..".-, (('I',M Iliff (I Ef"U) n;z i. 010>\ sp.-cific: ,,, ,he l ord God .~nt .11,,''>( .enh b)" ~llChJd [he af("h:lI1lld J'''( ~ .. \'e Ih,'m w Ad,m and .howcJ him )"'W I<> work . "d lill the g[U\lnd' ((' h,lIb II It91 II. t IS; .~~ ."" th"I\,,,)k ofJubilc.... \:1\ . 1!-I\I ,hni.. 16- 17)). The !Uul ., l'pcars !" he J di~·(lIi<1l', "n d"d, >t:e Br)'c' I 19~6). 70. I"' 1 ulI h ·..... lIm')" .arwph.gi on " hieh eh JI;I d ;51 ,i blU .... a bUl1dl~ wheal w ,\,I~ on "",I . 1.",[, w '" I,"" ( •• ""... , i. R-9 1. ph. 3' 1.4 . 38,.\. 196, 1- 4 ) (011''''1'",,11)" .~.... n,hl.- f. I!\" in ,how,nj: Ad,", f~c~i,,­ '''g,n .""I>",~ of hi. ~."hl)' n ;>lr" .. ~. b," • di'''':1 culln~(lioll .PP~'" Impl.",iblr. Thr do",">! wmpJ",,'n' '"'''' III ~ g.oup ofl~ler, l(l.,ed I..;tl;n ,n;tll,,>("rol'l' - Il>e \'(Iine h... t~1 l\:.thcl (\"('o ,nuld 11\1711. -0. fif(. 44 ) .• h~ r""h~. o(S, I u",. (O moll' 1'')1.>:1. 1'1. ,) . lId SI $""hlll', J'saher IN. era)" I t9~9 1. 1'1 -;-1· bUI .h...... ,h~d l i ltl~ hght on .n}' p",,;bl.- .ntc<:cdt"lIu (01 1'•• ;,.1;' .1.0. An .ugd olfc .. Ad.m "- h..... 0" ,h~ ,,,dr,h·ct"ulI"Y b"'u,.... d"ou .. Mon,..... I... (Bo"dk. 1' 91.11. 1 \.). and ~ ' I,.d ... ill '1. .ht" '"Uti ""'I" ., ,\ 1.IIIl",bu,\" (G.lb,a'tl> 119(,11. 1 XV II . ~). but botl> o( Ih.-.c- con> I"»n ,onl d,ffe. '1. nw ~(dly h,,'" 1hd' on f. p\"o ''", h;n Adam d' wo,~; t,;..",I ... , 1[9~-;-). fig> I .\. !9. JI' DC . (I~H\I ). pl., !9t\, 9~A, I'''' Add"' o<r~'­ lIlu '111: • n>."oc~ Or huc. ;t't" Dc"'''' r I (!9~'1 ). 1'1. 12' Gold.,h mid! and \X'... i!Un.nll (I,) 10) I. "O~. 84C. 86 . "I' t h~ (0) low; " g urig; n,ll)" "Pi"'. "'.! 111 II,,, bah·, I ,?S II. 8-10. "'" S< " .g. Ih,' ,cadi ng. for ·<· ill M., Ie, 'I 11 (I ,(, I), 18- 19 (",hr" G~"r>i. !;!o- J:!O i> cou pled wirh 1'",,"e,['! .1:! I), and ! 4- ! \ (",herr Gcncm I:! 1 4:7 i, {()''I,bl wi, h [" Me ,)', 4: l).

',' "d

or

•, -1',,,

I."",

lH

.mi"..

. rrangrmen, of 'he Ad.m .n;! [ ve >«juenee «infO««l thi' interp",,,,,ion by .bandoning II.. chl'Ofl<>logiaI >cmun, of(",,<><>i, to><, im'gc< <>f un<ulli.d p".. dis<, on tho 1m. 'g>in<t im.go. of di"",nt - the cur>< .nd ""pub;"" - .nd it> «wI.. (t.bo", .nd t.mentl on t~e ,ight. 11." the mini""t< ...... int<nd.d os. oomm<nu'Y on .tnd t«<>n<' Ii""'n i•• ig",lI.d by ,h. rwo P<""'S" ",.",.d by m.,gin.1 .bc~; in the texL Th< fi ... of tf><>< p'r>phr>.a EphW,n, ':l ~ : ' I'or he ;'ou, "",,<c. who h"h m.de both One .• nd h"h broken d,,"'n the middle .... 11 of enmi ty." " H()W ,hi, pus>g< """,h wi,h f I'V i, ",,,,.Ied in, ",rmon dcli",m! in 86j, whon l'Irotio> Cltp>n&d on it to writ< ' Fur CI,ri .. ;, 0'"' pea« who 10.. broken down the middle .... 11 of enmity.• 00 througll him ...., h,ve been r<eoncikd with our F.,hCf and '«"Of. from w~m we h.J ",i,kcJl)' p.ncJ ot"",Iv<> in fOron« timn.' ''· I\cy1>nd the gcner,,1 l i tu~eal int"pre,.,;"n of ,h. f,II".n im'g< of ",hi,on . ,h. Adorn .nd Eve >«juencc «<m, '0 h.v< b«n mo« 'p«ifieall)' "imul"ed by the p... ph,.... of Eph<> i. .... ron .... nion tI)' m. rk«l to. lert • he rnder to ito 'ign ificancc. But .lthough tho b«,kbctw«n God .nd hum.nitr i. unooubtcJl)'e.prrncJ b,' ,h. M.m .od b .., >«juc""" .t.. mom<'" of ",hi,m _ ,he f.1I i..df, ",hich do<> nm 'pp.,.r o n f. P" _ w .. I... impolt.m tlun til< o pJ>OSition bnw«n oon<otd .nd di",,,,J .. <>pr<S><d through the verti".1 bifu",•• ion of the ....p.. m. Thi. no< only p,l f.llel, tho domin.", ,h.n,. <>f. t.. hornil)'. bur .1.." ,hrough tho medi,,;<>n of.ho 1CC0nd p.... gr m.M in the te>t. tic; the «<Ju<n« to '~"''', .. of Musn ,ced.· ins ,h.l.w,.nd the N"i,n"" pri .." md monks in In. tow... "'giSt", The """"nJ m"kcd qUO<1Iion, from Rom.n, j;l.O, [,,.d!: 'whe", .i n .OOuooed. gr"'" did much mOle .bo.mJ·, ' " In the Ne", T....""'n •. ,hi, p.... gr fUln>. P>" of, di"' .... ion ( .... , 11-U) in which P.ul no•• J [iu, ,in ."t<red [t.. wmld tnrouglo M,rn,,,..... unde,· "ood.,. .in onl)' wi.h the immduction of the I.", [0 1.10'" (. he fin. ><ntenc. of " ,10 «.d. 'the I,,,, en.cm!. thot "lfene<" migllt .bo"n;!·).• nd .... , mk<m<tJ by .he '.... M.",. Ch,;". I'>ul'. WO<d. pnwoked nome,om mediev.l """,m.m"i.. on origin.l .in •• nd the v<.", mut ed in P,ri.,gr, jtO .,",...! '" •• pringbo>nl fur I"" ..<g«i' <>" M.", ... n .mi[~r< ofCh,;". ' " Mos. , ignir.c.n, i,. ro"'"><,,t,1)' Oil Rom. ", po. now pr<O<.....J onlr as. lengthy eaten. p.... ge. ,,-I><"';n Mo... i"" used 1.1.,... r«<iving ,he i;w. . . . pi",,[ .round which h. 'I"''' [h. ront ...... ~'~n Ad.rn .nd Ch,iSt, '" . n "sumen, h. returned [0 in ,he JI...phiM;"""
- !'>,i.,J""o. f, " " ~ _, '.w u. ,... • . ''' ...",,>ly I ., . <d. I_oW. hOl,), I" "."" '-I • ...., h.,fI. ,,.; I .. II_ily 1.". So<.a. Ilomi.,. . ,oo, <d, ' - -..... " ... t , ' " " .... M.."", " " ,). ,,..

'" w...... hoi,), w...... {,..,)...... ., ,_"t? r... !'hot.... F<x rom ... """~ ",",,«1 >p«iliully ""
............ j ,W .... "",(;" """" ,.1, " . " .

'" r.. .." ."", f, ~ sc ...... ,. , ." II . H)·
ct. C,1I . T", ...., ·C""

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J);n~"",~, .d.). H .. """,, """ mi. n'J;nl>ou9. ,_I,

"9-,,'" ,,. QuHo"" ." oJ. \I;'.,...;,w. IV (0",). , , _. M • »--,1, ( PG ..,,,,, ,.0.·81. T...JcoIJ (0....,), .

Pa""", Com ..... ,,"" "" ,k<

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f .... "'"', .. A

,04. .I,.,-.cd 1'Io.<bo.· '",n><-b, ,n"",,' i. ,hor ....... of"'~•....t~. in , .. ,.10, .1.1 ..

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Phot;'" n"'od th .. until"n w" <k6ncJ~· thc M""" H: !.tw, it """Id n", be """'t. niud; only .f,~ ,in h.J ....... 'e<ogni,.td cou ld king , .. ""ui'" i, ,hroogll hi, .. crificc·. th" ,11 migl" be rek2scd from thc laho",i"", ..i".n •• imp<»«! nn hu m a n it)·~· Ad,m. In , h.om;I)· on tbe an nu"';""'n. Ph.o[;'" ront;nuod;n th;' ..-in. J .... ' ibing the rtdtml'tion of origin,l.in by Ch.i" .. . "'Ie. ... from 'toil,,"',. lifo ,,,,,rd..! Ad.m f<>. hi, [... n<gInO"'''' _ a r<W.rd pH:[ur.J ... ~ how "",n, on f. l'v, '" Wh;1e M""", t.w wa> n«nsory . o unde",ond of;!;n,1 .; n. it ~ 'UI"'..cJ<41>y Ch.;,,- ' ,. Th. conr><cr;on bctwc<:n Ad.m .nd Ch.;. . ..... a f..,,;);., on. [0 nimh-«nrury C ,..k.. ht it ;. not «;. ical to f. \lV. w~re thclink. brtwKn M""" r=;ving th. low" 1"O<Onc;li"ion of ,he N..iomu. monx. _ h"'ft d",wn f.nm G'''1\0lY', ",I"",n _ and Ad,m and he >C<Jucncc K<juire a more deuil..! ch. in of an,lo!?n' But while ,he wnn«t",n be'"",n tnc m;ni.ture and Crcgo<Y', quotat",n of P,ul', Epi .. l, to the Rom,no is ,ign.11ed by margin.1 .HIe;. it ",m. ;n. the ... pon'ibi liry of the ,~. [0 in'<'Pre! [he rd ..;"ruhip bortwttn the marl=! ,,,,,rd. and the mini.ture: the ,,,,,I. tn do .(..~ p"",idcJ by rhot;"'· w.iting> and bphe compo.i,iOfl of In. p'ge i[self. To lI),,",n, in" f.mil i.. wi,h vi,u.1 hiSlo.i", of Adam .nd E.... it w•• p,..umably 'pp're'" immedi>tcl)' ,",,,I,, of .h, f:oll ~re mo", .igtliliom "" f. pv .h.n the core <pi,,,,'" wIoil. fou, .«nes detail <>'1On" th .. occurr.J ,ft.. the fall. ncith .. the temptation nn. the fall 'r!""'''' Furth ... ,he e;gIIt incident> ;ndl>dcd .rc grouped in ck.rly dc/ir....J p.ai,..: "'"0 ""..... of cmuion. twoof ,II<- immedi... pun· '.h",<~" f,n " ' islnol .in. tw<.> of p.ar>di,. lost .• nd .....,,,f the del,)'td """"'IU~II«' of ,he f.lI. Thi •• ",ngem<", deni.. ... riet ohrolKll"IIY' and im'~ I«m. [ 0 hav< been imp<»«! in orde. to nuke ••;",a1 <quat;"n bctwc<:n ,he twO rep"e" , The ",." « •.,i,,,, o«ne<, re"..ling Ad,m.nd 1'." "ill in, "',. of gr>« .• rc direuly above ,hoc [ t « "flift: and [he cherub ;n p. ndi«. wIo;le the cune.nd cxpul,,,," , re vc"icaliy ju".po>Cd with God', .«eonJ c" ,.. - .h. impo><i, ion "f ."il..,."••• i.. "nee _ and ,he brncn" Groce infot:m. [h. Ief. h,lf: ,be right ,ide rd.)"' the con>e-que""", of otigin.1 'in. Thi' bifurca.ion con.in"... nd i, ....,Ived in ,he th ird rep"". Below the p.andiul ........ Mot<. m:<i\'U.be laws ,h •• 6"" defined .in at>d th" • ....de p<mibk mkmpt",n; wlt ik bel"... the puni'hmcnt> " f A.Wrn ""d t ... f<>, th.i. tr.nq;"",ion, again .. God, unity i, ....oreJ .nd tcCOncili.,ion ><hi ..cJ. I'<>lio j1V communicate< w;.h im'g<> ,h.c in •• """,;"n "f idc> ••11.. Phot;"'· w,i,;nW' cornmunicat. with """rd •.

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Thr<'< mini .. u= d<'i<lted to h i"oricol ,uhj<ca ' 1'1''''' in ""!""""" .he enJ of .he m.""""ip<, Th. fi,..!!, f. )6]>,. ilIum.te> Grq;OI):' ",rm<>n 'Ago in" ,~ Ari.m" , '" T he Ari. n•. who rcg1t.kd ,h. Son .. I.,. impo,ut\' ,h.n the F.. her
in.ido ,he (lin i,y, Rou,,,I>cd Ju. ing ,he fuurth century (ca. )1o-~) and provided Gtq;or)" with hi, chief od,.. "",ie>. Th ...,mon con.i." of. II .. ny of At;.,,, "i!'t><>. ,~.uhi«. n,.".r for ,he ,h"", ,<gin,!> off. )6]>,.'" Th. fi ", "'S;"ter .how> > 0.0., onJ« f,,11 .. il in d,. mid" of . Jrcp blu< ... ""rc.,.ly Ji" ingui;h.ble in wlour from tl>< .... y behind it. Six men _ 0<>< > be,rded bi.hop, 0<>< > young monk in. brown tunic. one huddled in, b tu< <to.k. one, hooded monk wraring hi. hmwn 1un.1to~libn blue ru"ic .• nJ twO ""nde-"'til" figurn _ c <:iIm the ",wi V<1OCI, which i, engulfed in ,«I R.n ... I""", b.dly fl, k«l). The insctip.ion iJen. i~<J . he scen. "" .he orthodox burn«l in ,h';r boo, by the Ari, ,,,.' ,. and correspond. wi,h C"'gory', ,h«<>,ic> t qu ... ion ; 'Wh., pti ..;, hove the COf1t .. ry .Iemen" of fire ond w.t<r di,·iJcd, <:iIi,ing ' " .... ng< b"...,n ""« the~ . • nd burning ,hem up ,"Serh« wi,h the .h ip in whkh they put to .... 1"'" Gregor)" rd... to . n ..... nt th .. . ook pl>« during ,n., «ign of ,h. I'.mp"'''' V.l e"-, , who. <n<:il~ .. on o"no..\o. ddcg;otion. "" • ...J hi. prefoet to set nre !<, .heir boo,. lbc fifth.cen tury h i"o,,1O' Sokn,.., Sommcn, ."<l Theodore, .11 "'ITote thi> "o'y in •• rying . mou n" of deu il, and i. was 'ho.o cert.inly f,mili .. in ,h. nin,h cen,ul)" I't-o.ios hod not only ..,:od t b thrcc . uthOfitia but,,~ ""II ve<...J cnOl.lglo in ,he do... il, of ,f.c Ari.n heres)· to comp<»< fou r (ponibiy fi .... ) ,",COI1" u n it him .. lf, '" l"<lrcd. Photio" interes' in , he Ari.n oon.rove"y _ pr<,unubly f",,11 «I by the icoooph ile equ .. io n of, he 0. rl icr heresy with IcoDOCI"m' " - m.y account for t he doci.ion '0 illu" .... c,regory', 'Ago!"" ,I>< A.;on' in .ueh , '''' iglo'forward f.,hion , But whil. th= hi«ori"" gi.. , d.tailed ro n.... for Gregory', . Imo>< ofFh.nd qu ..,ion .oom p,j""" in, hu,n ing t,.., .. , ,hey tcll w no more th.n Gtq;ory . bout the det. il, of .he ICC<>< "" prc>cntro on f. Y;]Y: ",,<><', for ..'mpk. idcmifics ,he cunou, group of figu,,, ;n ,f.c o.o.t. Th. mini .. uri" sccm.

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h.... h.". furnish.d ,h. ,und",1 00..., type ofr.,i',g>'.\JO (iC'< lig>. 6, 17. 46) wi,h , "I're><",,,i'" ""m pli"J; of «cbi..,;cs .•11 in gormen" f,milior , nd ,,,,,,,«I in ,he nin,h ccmuIY' ,I>< bi,hop .od ,he yow'S munk «<ur in 'he P.ri, Gf<1IOIY i"dC'«!, ,I>< bi'hop rn<mbla PO"";" of G"ll"'Y him""lf - wh,t. h<><><l«l "WIn k lind, p.r.lld, in ,It< Samt PMalkla , nd 'he Milon G'<g<>'Y. 1lJ AI [h. cd",,", miniorUl~ in ,I>< Mil." <Of')' h. .... b.en 0' ;, '><:>W impo"ibl. ", dOfOlminc ... h.. hot ,he >Cene.,,, f, )67" «p"""'" f«< i"'OIp«"'['on <>f [h. tel" or wh.,h.. i, onoc fOUM , nin[h-an",'Y p, ..HeI, The in""ip[io" in [he f.-.me .hove ,I>< """,nd 'egi"., .. pl'i'" middle ,..,...ne un f, )67" «prn<nts 'he Ari. ", dc.uoying ,he .h' n of [h. o«hod"", (0 11 Al'flANO I K.o.:rACTPE1>Ol'-'TEC TA HYCIACfHPIA T!lN Ol'Wl.lO· :=:!IN. c,<q;<>r)' .Ion•• 11",1.. [0 [hi, .pi.."k in. P""'l!e intrudocro with . gold ini,i.I, he ref.,. ,h. iCCne in , [hClo[K.I qu"",ion ,h .. e"",, ..'" hi, own \.:'uv• •,,'" ",i,h ,h" of 'he Ari. "", ·Wh .. hOUK of p"yc' h."" I m, d. in[o, hUli.II>!""" , .. Ah", hel",,«I, .. ,h..., ip"'" "')'S, no", ddikd.''''Th. pa<.<>ge ..... , 1<0 ron,idem! .igniflcan, .nouflh [0 be ill1", ..,«1 ,n [h. Milo" (;''1l''<;-'; on<.< .g.o in. hQW<v« , ,he ",kv;,n[ '''''8in h.. ""-" .""id, On f, )67", 'he 'egi"01 open> wi,h . 'igholy m. ssed group "flaymen, 'h""" in ,h. hockground "my pik ...... hik fOllfof ,he ligu"" .~"<'" 10 ,h. «ntr•• "end long "f'CD ,0w",l. f»k pink church (wi[h, "u,u.1 in P,lti,.gr. jlO. ..... roof ,iles) .nd ,." fire ", "~. T_ ,m.11er bl~e bui\ding>, iJcn,in.ble . , <h~rch"" by [he ' p'" <lUI ."end from .a<h of '~.m, ..... lraJ), in R.'n'" in ,h. fu,egro und: . 11 . « carefully align«l wi,h [h. burning 00..., in [he fOp .-.gi"er. n.. alia, memion«l in ,he in"";p' .... n 'pf'C'" '" ,h. f.. 'igh', cuvcmi wi,h • ,ed d",h .nJ 'u,mQun,«I by. gold ~Khin, j[ i> endod by, gr-«~ ICmplon "'.... n wid•• gold <1<>0,. in , p«<ioCl h.lf ,he ,ize of ,he <en, ..1 church. Karl Wei "mann ,ugg .. t«l ,/u.[ [hc ccmpo.i,iOfl w", lifi«l from. <Of')' of So-romcn', 'fubi..,icl Hi"o,y' ("" "1"",.. «1 copic. of which exi" 0' arc ",... «1) th., il1u", .. «1 )u)i."', order ' 0 burn [hc <bueche> in Mile(u,. '" Thi' i, unlikel)'. 10. ,h. mini.,u,i" .:ompo..,.j ,he ",ene on f,)li7" from IIock groupi"g> found dlC'Wf>crc in P.,i'.gq,,,. In<ked .,11 d... ;I, of ,he ....... finJ p.,oJleI • .II<' ... hcre in ,he m>nwcrip" ' hc , ighdy p:u:k«l group of Arion, conf("m, ,he ",,,><l.rd ron ~ gar.,i" n <>f grouj». . nd i, I"'rlirul.. ly d"", '" ,h. h udd I. <:>fJ=pn', b,oth..,. in [h. founh 'egi" .. of f 69v (Ii~, ,,); 'he . h .. dupl"'t .. in oJl ....",,;'1 b,ures _ induding ,h'CIJ,iow f'C"p«,iv< rcnok'ing _ on. fO, ... mpl., f 51>

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TIl<' p.llri.m,h I'hOli()~ and "i~lJ,,1 n rgcsis

(Ilg. 10); the c hurch sustains the tiny mubu ildin gs lhal arc such an eccentric knurt' o f Paris.gr.)10 (sec. for ex'lmple. lhe top register of r 1.. 3V; fig. [9); ;md tht placement of an altar alongside the church [hat we :Irc mea nt to lIlHIt' p; r ~nd it co be inside recurs on f. I04r (fig. 17). The l:.OtCOm registct is l:.adly flaked. bUI one can still make out the nude body of an elderly man being dragged along with cords by tWO soldiers toward a building: the inscription rC;lds 'the Arians drag 'ilong a s;li mly old onhodox man' ([OI J AI'EIANOI CYPONTEC An ON I'Ern[N JTA OPHO.:lO .= ON). Tht' scene illustrates a nother of Gregory's rhero ri Gll (IUCSt io ll S - a lid. agai n. 0 Ill' in wh ieh he incorporates an episode ignored by other writers - whe rein he SCt S the hthaviour of the o rrh odox against that of the impious Arians: ' Whal bishop'~ aged flesh have we carded with hooks ... and a[ I:lst dragged away to death, to be crllcified ~ nd burit'd and glorified with Christ?· I!1· Based nn this pass;lgc. we might speculate that the badly flaked building on the right. lOCIted dirt'ct l}' heneath th e ;llta r of th e second registcr. represents the tomb ,~hrine desti lK"d to receive the s. intiy ortho1 dox m;l1l. Unfortunately [he rclevam image ill the Milan l1l:anuscript has heen excised. Folio J74V (}9) (fig. 39) Folio 374V presems till' early history of Juli;l1l thl' ApoMate. IP and corresponds closely with the sermon Ihat follow.~ it. Gregory's firsl '! nvecrive Jg:linst Julian' . 1!8 In the coursr of the sermon. Gregory aliudt's to a nlllllbn of llIrlhological figures. ~nd marginal numbers collated with Pseudo- Non nos' COllllllemarr Oll them :appear in thr !1l'lrgin sY~ The miniaturist. howeve r. ignored [he mythology :and cUllCe n (fa led i nSI cad Oil even ts from [ht' Iife of Jul ia 11 t he A pOSmtl'. The WI' register shows J ulian. in imp,'ri:ll red Icggillg,~ heneath J long-sleew{1 pale blue tuni c decof;Jted with gold that stands OUI against his purple mantle, led away From a circular pink :and white building toward a cavt' hy a man with wavy grey hair and a short beard who wears a hille tUllic belleath an olive-green man de. Juli:all's head has llearly all Raked awar. hllt it is still apparelll lhal hc ,werts his ga7.e frolll th e man; this. a long wirh his retractl,d right arm and gesticuiat'ing left one. make Juli:all appear to he resisting the nUll. who Ilollelheless strides forward graspingJulian firmly by till' wrist as Ill' looks back at the emperor, and gestures toward thl' cave with his left hand. Within ,he cave sits a large winged demon. painted in shades of while and grey. hehind which Roat s("w ral pale heads; a grey sarcophagus re5ts on a pink Outcrop of the otherwise grey-blue 1lI01lIHailliop ahove, A strip o f
, ~" SC ,18, 16 4. The'" ini", ure i. 1,,£11), flaked. b", Weilzman n (194</ ji. 98-100. ,,,,,ms to be ~orr~Cl ' it) seeing ,he corJ, auachcJ '0 the old man', rarS. 0 ,,,,,,11 did !IOI . ho wewr. nOle lhj~ fC;J(ur,· in hi>

19<9 Jes.cri p[ion . ,,- Om<>1H ([919). !9 , 1'1. U H: W.. ir'.mann (1941/ J) . 100-108: Ocr Ncr,essi,,,, (1961). 198, B,,, b.lkcl (198\), 1. ' 1&I'G 1\' jj 1-664. I'" ~n" 111 t rod""iol1 ,,,lIe 10.

" 7

Visiun and ",eani" g in nimh,c< 'mury lI)"1.Jll!ium green ground forms the basis for the whole eri~ode , 1." 1 wh ich Gregory dcscrihed in
dct~il;

wh ich :ore ina cc<:,~ ihk for mo sl people :\IId regarded by Ihem wilh kn ... accu'llpanicd lIy Ihe man wh o is worth ahoUi as much as 1110$1 ~"n etll :t ric" . Ihe 'wise' man in such lhings, a 'sophist' : aillhis is a kind o f divin;lIion :Imongsl them, a meeling in a certain dMkness and wilh slll)«; rranC'In ,k11l0n5 abolll ,he fmure . . . Bill as Ih(>nubk 111:111 protl'cdecL ,erro rs dashed Jgains, him, continuall y more and nHHl' 10rll1 idahle "r1"~ ' ~ I 1;1 ng<: no ise.l . as ,h"y say, II n pleasan' smells, fiery a pparil io ns. and I don', know wha, kinds of nonsense and !rifles. Hcing strlld by I he Un"xl''''''''!, for he was s,ill a ' yro in dws<' nla,lns, h" lakes refllg<>in Ihcc ro» as :In ,,1.1 rrnl<:d y and in the sign Ihe reof aga ills, ,h t 'errors and, h li S makes an assistJ 111 of him whom II<' persecllled. I " T hough Gregory's Iext docs nor ex pia i n every dcta ii, the p:lssagc reVt':!l s th :11 t ht m:! n draggi ngJulian is :1sorctrcr, :,lId the cavt a pagan sanCrll;lry filled wi,h apparitions. Julian's Jeseent inlo Ihe cave is portrayed once OUL~ide of l'aris.gL5lO. As Gregory provides the sale des c ription of Ih~ ~pisod~" it i. 10 be expected that thi s , :ITJnCe should occ ur iuthe Milan Gregory (fig. 53), whi ch :lceompa ni es second app C th e sermo n with thirty- one marginal images. eight d e picting el'el115 frol11 J ulian's life a~ !1 :! rrat ed by G rl' gOry. I.I! Jul ian led 10 the ea I't i~ Ihe un Iy scene to d II pi ica t l' an . l' · e]llso d plClure d · [1 an• s.gL5to . I I! 1I1 111 th e M il:l l1 Gregory. the figures of the emperor Jnd th e ~ orce rer arc reversl,d, so that Julian seems 10 be dragging the reluctant magi cian in\() the cal'e. Des pite this, the two ve rsions of The scene share tdlin g det ails. Both show ~ winged demon silling inlh e same position and exttndin g ils :Irm towa rd th e visitors - and both show di slllc'mbutd head s behind th e (lemon in th e shadowy recesses of the cave. With in th e Julian- sorce rer groupin g, th e position of th e fore most figure is differe nt , but as t he sorce re r in l'aris.g r. Slo repea ts a fi g ur(' type found ,hroughoul th e manuscript, ' \ ~ Ihis di stincti o n seems less sign ifi cant th :1Il th e (tet that both i mages sho ll' the leadi ng figure gr;ls pi ng hi s follower firml y by th e wri st . As Gregory detail s non e of Ihest fea t ures. till' miniarurists of th e Milan an d Paris Gll'gOry manusc ript s cannot have dnived thelll indepe ndentl y fro m th e text: either the designCf of Paris.g r. slO adapted and corrected Ih e Milan compositio n, or hoth miniaturists presc ilted wrsions of a formula t:l!nil iar to I hem fro m another sourcc, pres ll ma bl )' - si nee 0 111 y Gregory recoil 11 ts {he e pisode - ani 11 USt rat ('d Hom ilies.
IIU Th,' f,agrn~nrJ' y ;nsc';p, ion "''' J cc;plw rr,[ hy O"' on , J> IOY.\I ANOC XH !',\rnr o y· M ENOC YI [0 ... B,\ CKANOY . . _R,\ EII O N TOY(: .l I: MONAC. I II /'C .I5:H - C- \SoA, ItJ"'. Wei".","nn (194.' J). 10 1. '" In ,ddili"n 10 Ihe S1a nd" d 0l",,, in); "",,;;llur• • how;n g t,;r"l;or)' I'"·,,, h"'g. Ihe illuSl'.1 ror depicted fi "r >C<' n~, 0 ' fig"'~_' drJ",n fro m I h,' O ld T{""I I. ""·"' , ""en m)'1 hologi<'al figu re" .nd eig hl ' .rl1 h ;' lnr; L '''tiles; eigh, of ,he I. n {"" , ,how Co'eg'" Y.I,[dre~. ing Jil l," n, onr pOri ' '')'s Co rq:or )". IJmenr ,,1 Me ' Jlll iJn', crimes, and one Ff<·S.· I] " ,1 ,( r n'I""nr (If Ind i,: Gr" bar (194IJ ). p\" LX, ,- LXX II (ex,ept·

IJ u liJn J des,'cnd,'d int o one of t hose ~anc t uari n

ing LXX][,l). ' " IbiJ .. pi. LXV!., , " E.g. Ihe " n ~d ,," f. 174" (fig. '1 ) and El, iall on f. !64" (fig. ~H ) .

A>id. from tn. ",,,,...1of tne pro!>g<>nim, <oml'~,i..,n of ,ne P~n' . nd )..Iibn m;n"""'" """.1, tw(O ,ignificant diffe",nce!: nei,her'~ ro~nJ building DO' the ",coph.g~' ' ppc'" in the Mil. n '<!lion, These do not deri,c f,om tf>< ' In""'t '" .goi,." Juli.n', but both we,e da<,ibcJ in fifth~ntury hi"oncal

fi,,,

«XI. , ,"

In Is" 'fubi. "ical Hi>tory' , Th.,.,dot<, «II. ""h.,l"li." 'm« wi,h • m.n who promi.<d pmlict thc<c thin!l" <ond"ctro him in'" "r>< of ,he id<>l ,en'pb, inu".h...,d hi m within .he ,hrine, .nd callro "pon the demon. of decei,'_' · ' I ~r«', .""""n" ,hough mot< ,bllrcvi ...d th'" G,egory's, '''@#S'' th .. the round building" ,he f., Idi of ,he ~ilre, "'1"<0<"" ,b< ' idol r<mpl' in ,he pl<' . ill<'! of .... hieh Juli,n vi,itro the demun. Otlser hi"",i."" ""'''' mOK """,ific. Soh .... wrote ,hat 'H"'ing O,demllhat ,he p>gon «mpb .t Antioch ;h""ld I>< op<nro ,IJul;'n I,.... .,"}' "ser to ob .. in an ,,!WOk rrom Apullu"fD'plme. But the demon ,h.. inh.bitro the temple rcmo;nro ,ilen' rhmugh 1<" of hi, n<;ghbo"" &obyl .. the m.rtyr: fUr ,he eollin which oon .. ;nro 'he body of .n.I .. int w., cl .... hr"" Sorom.<n rd.r .. , I>< ..murory ;n grc".. det.il, adding ,hat

'0

The .!emun did n,,, ,>!",n1y ><Im i, ,Iu, ,I.. h,nd",,,,,, w'-' ,><a;",,.ro t.,.- ,he pr«<n« Qf B.byI .. , ,he ...,,)'r, b<lt I.. ""ro ,ha, ,he pi... "''' lillro ,.-i,h de..! buolic<, ...d ,h>, t!.;, PI"<"<O,ed ,I.. or>ele from 'p.. kin&- AI,ho"f,h m,or i"'ctmm" h><l ultcn pI>e< " [hpj",e. ,he ""'1"'''''' I"'"eived th>t it ~ the r'der>« of &~i .., me mmy•. aIot>< ..... ich fwl ,il,n«d ,he u,..:k, .nd I., wmm , ndcd hi, ,urn!, w he ",moved '" T h. his,oric> oL\ol.:r ..", .nd Sowm." . llow '" '" iJo"'iry ,he «mpk., t~"t d,di· cotro ", Apollo ., D.pht>< . • nd they al", expb in , he "'copnogu> mo<!nrro .00..., the d.m,m·, cove: it I><lonp to B. byl ... the e n,i,.i... m. rt}"! - I"",ibl)' the .. me B.hrl» ".1..... bon ........... hr the nimh ","'orr, I><licv«l to.> h,,'e """ ferrro to ,he Chon ",on". ,ry in Con,tan, inople'''' Th, ecd .. i."ial hi"o,'" of ThroJOfC'. Soh., ... and Soromcn apbin <erroin d ....i!, of ,he KCt>< that could no, II.", 1>«" known f,om Grego'y', .. nnon .10''': only Grq;orl. howner, dc.<,ibcs.he cave at><! ,he >oteerer ... bo d",!l' , he incre .. ingly 'imid Juli.n in,o i,. ,oO Whil. Kurt ~',inm.nn·. , ugg"'tion th., the ""n, ,.," cOf'iro from an ill". · ,mro ropyofSoromen·,' U cle,i."ic-.1 Hi""ry' i, ,h,,,,(ol< improbahle, '" ,he hi,· cI."ly h.d , n imp.><' on ,he miniature. Knl7Wlrog< of .he>< text. in .h. ,,,rial nin. h ccnmry i•• ue"ro by pbo,""" " " 'bo .1", h..! rc-• ..,,, ", he pmirubrly f,mili" "'i,h hi"o,ic-.I accoUnt, of Juli .." «ign: h' "'"ro« .n ..cwunt of that

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"'·wl,"'"k..l Hi>o:ry' UL,', " ..... (,~,,1. II . '" T" ' ~ ."'.... H""",=,'. V ",n" NPNF.eu. , I,."),,..,. .," '''c.-I''''-("'''•• ;~ (r..,), '" ,no! '" O/'~, I," ,), " J. ' .. Th...do<H rdtt. '" lui ...., ",>It, r,.., "'~ '0 ,I>< ''''J'<''K'' ..... ' ........ I>< "", it>.....-I • .0",1><,4<" ," of,1>< KC..,. ..,\1'",,,,,,", (,.,>1,,, , 00-"," ,

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''''I'''''' which i. ""fo<"",O!dy ""longo' I'ro<M'<l. '<! I, ...,,,,, likd)' ,h.. , he
la" ,hem""k", ,.,he, th.n "'m< hrp<>the,;aJ il1u",..;"", of them, iml'im! ,h. ind u,i"" of ,10, "mpl, ,nd ""-coph,!",, tI .. f",m ...f B.hyl., """'\'''' gu>, in .ny "".no, W1.) 1"" of til< min"'ru,'''' «pc"oi« .nd duplieo, .. in .11 d""I, ,h .. found in ,h. "",ne <>f ,h. demon,,,,. in ,he <em ... ry on f. ,,"0' (fig. n). T he ""'ne p. in,«I in tbe miJdl. u-gi"" of f. 17,.' " leo.. 'ightly bound ' 0 (;'''I\ory', '"" ,b.".,,, ,heorll .. imag« on ,he pag<. It .""""jul"'''' d.d i" im!". i.J repli., ..... "'hing ,he .I, u&h'" of 0 bull: ,h. mini" ur,,, ,hen depic'ed ,he oming on w"hin , ni.he '<>ppcd """ ifiei.l.nim.1 burni ng before a . ireul .. A by ,h"", gold 'IWo ",enJ."" behind juli.n, .nd ,he "'''''re' of ,he top u-gi"'" "ill w<1,inga ligh' b,own m. ntle ov., a blue ,unic, " , nd, nu' '0 him . gcs'ming ,.".,.,d til< ",".rili.:c, The "",te ili uSlw" Juli.,.', rein,roduc,ion of pagan ,i,u.i .nd, J"pi" i" gt"Cf'" 'juli." ... ,ifices to ,he idol!' (lOY AIANOC "YON TOIC EIM1,H)IC) . ...,m, in jrs ."",ifi« '0 h.ve ~" in'rim! by one of ,he cpi'hcn G"'I\'>')" "",,,.,...«1 on ,he em!""", 'bu"'" ofbul1,'. ' .. A),ho"gh ,hi, epi'het i. onl)· one of m. "y th .. Gregory u>cd. i, epi' omized .n "pee' of Juli.,,·, '<ign Iuhiru.lly nor«l by 1>, .. hi"MUIl" Sok,.,.. "I'!;int<! ,h., juli." '<>erinccd bull. con,inuou>ly in IWm of.I.... of >doh', .<><1 Sowmen d.imed ,h .. 'Th')' .. y jookingly ,h.. i~ ,he , im, of hi' <<is'' ,he "",cld ;"dfhad been datrnycJ quite .. ",w:h .. ,he "'pin. bull •. '''' Nei,h" ,he ""d...... i..1 hi,,,,, ... ...." G regory, h~." •. p,ovid • ." 1CCOU~' of .ny ."",ifi< .... i~ci.1 rite, The pidu" on f. )74' .hou ld l>e "~ .. . 11<',.....1 im,ge rep""""'''''' of Juli,n', pm!iiec,io" fm ~Cfific« _ a vi.".l i.. ,i"n of G"l!0ry'. '1'i,h" 'burner ofbull>' _ wh .. ,h." .. ." illu ..... ,;oo of. I""kul., <pi"""', No ocher "p~n'''i'''' of Juli." oo..rvi"g' """ ili« .urvivn, ."d ,h,.t,ck of vim.1 <omp=ond., coupled wi,h ,he <""vcn,;"n. 1 n.mre of ,he de>c,ip,iv< ''''', mok .. i• • 1 hu, imp""ibk '0 dete. mine whe,her ,he Homili.. mini ..",i" adop,ed 1 ,he ""ne from .n •• die, ;m.go or «>m p;l«I i, frum ", . .. eh , ,.. P. .. lkJ. ",;'t, how","". fur ,he""iou, compon<" .. of .h. oompo.i.i<>" . 'In< figu .... ohscrving ,he

rI''''

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.. r !u ....... by l . .",1t 10'''1 , 'B .... ' 7>, Phoo-iooo .......... ,h~ '" ..... ,It "7. which ~ i,xlf """'" <M<r"....! ";,l\ I"I~" rd, t..,o.., ..... ,....! "'''''rink II (191-<), A.o.fh;Io,-I.,.-~"", ... '"'' /'(;,,,,,.,...,;,,). PI>oo ....... ..,....".. i. k~ in .."" in ,,," .\po><"'" fur ......."" .....,.., J.(w, ' ..,. oti .. <.«1 ,. poI«o;' . • no! w..... noIl. oonolrmn«l;n ,"" P. ~ I.... Co"""", .nd _ . 1''''1 " . . '.'- ml ..... ;,J, ,n <1>'1'«''' t...~ '"""n,rd iii> ......,.... "" ";,h """"1'....! iod..w I. ""''''"' "" ,,,,k ~ ..iw ,~"" OO""' .... m .,.0.00. pi«u,'" "" ,,," ....... rq;i.moil. 17," (ib.!, ' .....",1. ,~ PG n"""- 1hr L;lr oiMicl..rl ,hrs,..,k.rIoo<.. ItJ~. '.~ no Mn, ,lu, ..r«l"" ........ ~ )w, ....." i ... noW, .... C••• i"""," ('<'1" , " . ". Sok",,,. 'E.ock< .... ic.d 11...,.,.' III .' 7' Sowmrn, •Ec. ....... i<aI Hi""')" V" • . S« ""''' ',,'00 Wril ...... (, .. iI)'. «>0. Phoo ... ""'" th.t .... I..I~n """'W"''' L"""""" .n; ...1 ",~It .u (. A"fh""'b..'1"'~'" ,"OJ, od. l......,.j .. rnJ W""nnk II (,... " ,u_u" • . '0)_''''' IPG ,,,,,' .. 01 - whodo ""f'I;" 1"";1 ".,,, w;m I"';"" "I'f"'OV'I 01 inon-Cru'"irnj .. ,",utiti.l ","01. ,.. 8..... W,,"nunn ('j<".I.I0l-'''I.

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bu,..,,·,"" .""....

».crih"", rd)'on ".ndard typo ~kd throughout r.ri •. gr, 5'0: Juli.n'•• ",ndant ..,\. d'e", Jupli'Oat< tf". poi, &"unJ in ,1. < '<l!i"<ll>cl"w.• nd ,~""""" of tho .ml"'''>' mirmrs ,I. .. of Sr a.. il on f. 4"9" (ng_ 40) , Th. ».<,;n"" ;"df . ",id. ,h. ".nd..d Bruntin. &",mul. of thrw.t-slitting and p,=ntl inst."", , .impl ifi«l ",,,iun of. socnfi.i.ltyp< f.mil i.. un " oman imp<,i.1 monom.nt. m.h ., ,h. Arch of ,he Atgtm ..'i in Rome (AD l04). wh ich .hows ,h. hul l" h•• d hcing I><t.l dow" while the ,>«CUI;on« .-.i"".n au ,ha •• hi. turning body ju>< ., w<: 0« in l'.,i"g<.\lo. '" The!£en< of ,he low." reg;"tc, i. <V<On more do.ely .ffiliated wi,h GKgOIJ", « .. ,h.n the or<n inS im,s. of I"li",', v" i, '0 ,h. J'mO" _juli,n .• itting on , ;.-w. • 1100 J)'J'• • b.ack ,hrotl. in fron, of. pink ,nd blu. building .pp.rently m«lnl to rep"""'" ,he imr<,i.1 p.I ..., dim inu,,, eoin. '" hi. olfu:t .... A 1'1};< pot of gold ro ,h. ,mp<ror'. righ" guatdcd br t WO h.nchmen, "'1"<><"" ,h, sou,cc from ... h;ch Juli,n «picni!hc> the ,m.1I 00..-1 of gutJ <oin. he hold< in hi' lap, Th •• mp<">' ctadks. badly R.k«i gold o-bi<'<t - pmb,bly . n idol", • «m.t - in hi' 0 q""" ,,..foil gol&n hrui«, imo which .ach ""';ricn, m"" ,hrow in"'""'.M 'h=hy implicirly honour the p.gan god,. oblOJr<> hi. fcct, A grotlp of ",Idi." ,nd digni. t.,i" erowd ,h. rigllt h.lf of the regi"", ". Gtogorr n" .. I<;;

w""

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w" ,h.d.oy.,(,h. im!""i.1 sir. m"ing _, , .M ,h. ~,kj",'Y """"om.mi '0 I,... 1''='" '" ,h .. ,h<y mi~' ««iv< ,ho Jon."vum """'nlmS ,.. ,h. m<n, ,,, "nk or <><h "f ,hom _ Now h. pr .. id<J in >pI.nd,,",. >p!."diJJycd<b, . ,,"~ >p.L"tI I'",y.oo 'hinkin! .bou, hi> cunning oontri.-.ne«, _n.« "-" pi""'" 1,...(0", him 5"kI. tho« ..... pbceJ ho(n", him in""n"". Lho Ii"' ..... ck"" hr ,nd ,ho .. han." n<o" AM Lho ",hom< pI . ... ihk beau« i, o«m«l ", "" ,h, "'1"",«1 U-"~ ,,r ,ho "",t< . n,",n, .oJ ,ho <nO)'" hunvu"hk .;.,,,.. i,urn, Wh .. ,h.nr Each ..... ,uf'P""d '0 ,brow il>«o", "ro" ,ho Ii", .nd '" ,«-tj" from ,ho ,mr<"" ,ho '«""'pcn", fu, ,h,i, dn,,",·,;"n, ,..
I,

w., '"

GregOlY', ' .. ' fu lly ourpo'" ,he ill~,.... ,ion, ., Wei,..,,.nn oh",,,'«I, " mini""ri" could I...., mad. up the compooit;"n from ,hi, I<xt' ,' '''' Howe,.. r, boca"" bel;""«i the ""."1'""",,,«1 ;. ,he upI'" 'wo ..-gi"... _ •• "',"owed flOm.n ilhut",,«1 cccbi.. tic.:tl hi"olJ'. \X'.icrm. nn .u!lll<>«d <I.., .inc< Sowm", . nd Thcoxlo.-c, .1"" d<oc,ibeJ ,he <lo'''';''u''' ep'''><.Ie. iu ill""",;"" pmh.bly copied from O!lC of th"", . ",,,. ' " Since. howeyer, w< h.., ><en ,h .. hi, Ii", ."ump,Ktn i. unlikely", be cur"",'. th.t< i, no ",,'''''n to tr.cc .ny of ,he ",.n.. on f. 3HV ''''n «<I"'",><ic> i hi"o')" wi,h piclU""_ n.. MiI.n Cregory pr=nu ,he ><que! '" ,he "",no ,hown in r"; ',IV,j ' ''' wi,h

,I."

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w.,

' .. .. '.. f' .... " ( , . .>I,), ,0<;. '" 'un 'd, '~llIi~<>n" V" " n..ooo..-., ·f.<dni ..... , Hi",,,," 111." ,..., "0'" "~ I ...J ' .. .0....-" "',,,,m,nn 1, •• " , )' '0; >c,••

,~ PC",_--'609R, ,...... ,,'.. ,,_nn " ..>1,)_"", ', .... "n'"". ,1.., 'n ...." ,t..<\",y';' r"<' ,.... ~ ·Tho".'U pIoa<IbdQ", tum p>Id " '_u ,;p.I""",. ."<n~fF<I ~ ,"i,"'.

i."'"",I,-' '.... 1', TO ,,"' PI"ME.NON TH XE'
' " 0:;.",.-.0

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«pro<I",,,J i. St""" Io.~), ~ "', 'Y' • . .1<..;"",,.,, l'W.\lANOC
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the (Christian) soldiers bclau:odly recogni zing Juliall's duplicit y and returning the coin5 (fig. 54 ) . 1~! As in the Paris mi niature. rhe Milan page sholVs Julian scated on;1 jewelled [hronc before his palace with soldiers e lltering frolll Ihe figh!. CUllvcllIiunal though they are, tbe compositional similarities bct>vcclI the Paris and Milan sccnes hint that if, as the cavc episode seems 10 suggest. the miniaturists of bmh manuscripts WCfr f:1l1liliar wi th an earlier illuslrall·d H omilies tradition, this might have induded two pendant scenes - one of Julian distributi ng [he Jona(ivurn and the olher of soldiers r(,fuming the coins - from which the' two nilHhcClllUry rninialUrislS Ill<ldc diffcrclH selections. Since the Milan Gregory cXll'llds the GIVC episode, restriCted to l singl..- sce ne on f. 374V - over three miniatures, a shorr narr;ltive sequence cannot be excluded frOIll co nsider;J[ion ;IS p~n of an earlier illustraled H omilies reReclcd in thc Julian seq utnccs of the Paris a nd Milan 1ll:lI1u~c riprs . I H Likc tht image of Julian's desccnt irl\O the (ave, the donarivum scelle 011 f. 374V may preserve vestiges of;1I1 earlier narLlIive herilage.
Folio 4° 9 11 (40) (fig. 40) Fol io 409v i11 UStr~tL'S Grego ry's second ' Invecrive aga i nst J u Iia 11'. I~4 The fi rst regi ster shows th e emperor adllan c ing againsl Ihe Persians al Kt esiphon. Ihe second por· trays 51 Blsi l addres.~ jng p rayers againsl Julian, a nd th e third depiCis 51 Merkourios slaying him. AI rhe top Juli an , in omalcgold mililary:utirc' :lnd astrid e a pale blue horse, leads his cavalry toward a bridge spanning ~ deep blue river. A w;llied city fJees th e troops across th e river. and before it Hand the defending Persi;lns. The insc ripti o n tells us Ihal 'Juli:m arr ives in Persia' (JOYA lANOC A ll EPXOM ENOC EN rr E[ PC l 6 1Jj, :lI1d th e image illustrates Gregory's ten:

Now. h~vin g advanced in rh i5 way wilh rhe arllly and passed alo ng th e river's bank. with the
ships on th e river transporting corn and carrying bagj,>:tgc. he approa ched Kt csip hon afler no sillall dHll culty; so grt~at was his longing for rhis cit), thaI cvtn to be ncar it ht considl·rt·d as al readr a pafI of the victory.. Kl t"Sipho n i5 ;( stro ng fortress and h~rd to co nquer. fortified with a wall ofhllfm brick :Uld by a decp ditch 3"d by lagnon s cuming fm m th e rker ... I\\

II is unfortunate that the miniatures once accompanying thi s passage in rhe Mibn
Grc,'gOfY have been exc ised. IV, An image of Julian's firsl manoeuvre afler sig hling the c ity, I he burn i ng ofh is sh i ps 10 c nsu re a dcspera te figh t for Ktesi ph on by h is sol diers, surviws;m poss ihly Juli an's arrival inlroduced Ihe Kl csiphon campaign in
I" C",b., (I'}H~).1' 1. LXVII.,. ,,, Ibid" 1'1. l.XVI. 1-2: [he [hird im.g~, un p. 716. is almost tuM II)' exti,..<i ",,,I w :" not rcp,,,,lu, ,,,!. '" f'C JI :66;-7!Q. Onll'III (19!,)). '9. 1'1. LlV: \Ve i,,,,unn (19 41/)), !o~-"7; G,, (~v .. i, ([969),

\Voll er ( r97&). 247-248, Wolre. (t~ &! » 9'I--9j: Dcr Ncrse"ian (19S7). 1)8, An<i rrson (1991). 74. '" I'G' JI,676A· !3; Ifon •. Weimmnn (19-11/;), 108- 109. ' ><> Milan. Ambro,i"n~ ~ 9110 inr.. PI'. 76; 3,,,1764, ,I' Gr~f... ('94Jd}. PI. LXXI II,I .
1-16- 1-17'

one of the I<»t pi","r<'>. Ik th .... it m.y. the b'idge "",nning ,he Togri. on r. ~O\I' co",""' im G reg"'Y', d... ~ption of Kt<>iphon·. natm,l "'" iMaoion •. md m.y pe,h. p' be 1«n •• an ironic inve"ion of ,he M;fvi." briJge on f. +4'" (fig. ~j). which it closely r=mbb. The Pc ... i.". quicdy f.cing [h. ,dv.ncing RtH".. m p"",i<l< .M,he. cu.iu", det.il. • nd We;"m. nn i. m,ely CO'r«I in ""'ing in [hem. vim.1 corolb'Y Sommen', descriptio" of juli.n·, h. 1t .. , ,I>e .igh, of hi. enemy rang«! along 'he ,i,.. rbmk. ". Wi.h .10. I..... of ,he Mil.n m ini. mre. how ..... " _ will ...... , k............. 10..10« ,hi, hi"",ia.l de .. il h..! infil" .. ed the Homilic> ,ooi,io" mo",widely or wherhe, i, ....., imcne<! into f. ¥'9v. Dc.pit< b'idge ,nd 'he paui,.. Pe""",,. 'he u~m,,",' "'!Ii<l",on ,he whole t<"1ruIin. IIue '0 G'tgory', J e.. rip,io". Th... me <>t nn'" be .. id of ,h. low<, <w<> ><ena. wIlich dep. n rodinlly from ,he =mon . In ,he middle regi"er. So &t,iI. fuII~ by 'M, nor bi.~p . • n . colyte 0' )uung monk . • nd <wo dUl''''' "f m"nh ..",nged ><cn«!ing ''''go wi,h (he eldes, d"..., (u Ro.il. P"'r> at • g<>ld .nd S'«n .1", = bdO... pink .huKh with in a pink.wolle<! .".L""... Only O<>e element of ,"" Ken' co.respond, in .ny w.y wi.h 'he oerund ·!nv-e<. i",,·. G re-go'Y ref... , in I..... ing. ' 0 'he W<lro.. ofR.uil .nd G,c-go'Y of NY'" >g>i"<f jul" .... nJ ,II<: ill"" .. • of ,he Milan Hum ili., . upplied .hi. p''''ge wi.h on ;m.g. of ,ho "'u ..io" .peiling '0 ,he emperor (fig. "I.'" 0" f. ~O\I" ,I.. oewnJ "'!Ii"" be..... he ;n;crip.io" 's, Ba,il p",yi~g og.>i n.. Juli,n' (0 Ar!OC 8AClAHOC EYX· OMEN (X KATA IO Y.-\ I ANOY). J"" h<..."" ,he mini.turi ... ~pplied two hi.hop>. ,be 6 ... wi.h 'he d"k hoi • • nd hc-..d ''''''')~ . """rded B.:t,i' in 1'.,., .1\1.\'0, ,he second wi,h ,i>< SKY h.i, .nJ i><. rd "urn by both G"'!Io,)" of NY'-'-' and G"'!Io,)" of N.,.i.nzu •. ,.. On (he ba,i. of ,h...,mon ,nJ the Mil.n miniatu,... i. ><em. likely th .. ,he lO,mer " d>own h.«.• nJ i, m.y b< [~ .. (he I'"i, mini.,,,.i,, ~ .. g.. f,oJ > p.i, o,iginally po"roy«! in """,he, COn' .. ' in ,n older Hom ili .. m"""",rip< into . I><W " " ' " " •• nJ "ne horrowed from 'no,he, "',,'~ e".i.d y. 8 .. il kadiog P")"'''' agoi n" Juli.n "'llowo 0 wideopread h.g;.,gnphic>.l n.,... • , iv< in which Me,houri", .pp< • .....J '0 8.>,;' (~;, I><, in. J",.m or , . he med iwed before.n iron of .he Vi'ginl . ell him [h .. be h.d d, in juli.n: "I"'" ...... kcni"g. 8.,il '"-I>Crnbled ,h~ cle,gy .nd loJ ,hom '0 ,he church fU, pro)"" _ .he ""'no depicted hel<. In .he low"" ' egU"r, .he mini1lu. i51 h... JepicroJ juli...·, <I<.. h. A• ."pl. ine<! by ,I>< in""ip';'''' ·Juli.n ,I.in by 5. Merlto",i",,' (!OYAJANOC O I>A· ZO MEN OC yno TOY Arl O Y MEp KOYIPIOJYI, M.. k"",io.. in m ili"'Y d ...... ,peed •• <>wa. d .h. empcro, on hi> wIl i« ho~ .. Juli.n f.lk f,om hi, (N.d.) ho~ '0 ,I>< groo"d in de"h. Though .ha"lou,ofhi. ~'" hO! chonged from ,he pale blue of.he."I' nog"'Cf, '" .he min i.. uri .. h... ,,01\«10<1 ... . Iigned .h. <m pew'

'0

,h.

'0'

'0

... .... ' ' ' 'cion.

, ~ $.,.,,, .... ·f~i.c>I f ,,~ .., ' VI." W, ... ""." (, .. tJ ". ' 10. , .. I'G "'7,M; G"b.d, •• ,.1. pl . LXXV.•. ... Alf ,~_ "':." "'/'f'<." ~ I. " . ("'s- .,f, ... ,10. ..... ). rfflupo. 01"" ,,,;,ch from Cd"I<"Y' "''''''"' '" , ... t.., .. ,~ .. ..- "'f,,,,,1 'f..!

'"

Visioll and mranin!: in Ililllh-crniury Ayzanli LlI!1

in death brllrath the living ~ mp e ror abm'~, and posi riond the rwo prayi ng bishops exactly be[wel'n rhe two, as if t heir prayers werL' in truth responsi ble for Jlliian'.~ fa ll. This is l10t how Gregory descrihed Julian"s (k~th in the second 'InVl'crive"; indeed, G regory admits 10 having heard st'V(" r~1 re'purtS :llt riblltill~ tht· ("mpl'ru r"s dt'ath variollsly to une of his own soldiers. a harharian jester, or ,\ Saracen, If,! ' I'he legend J ry aecoun r i11 US! r;1 ted in f. 409v h,ld Slt rheed by [he six I h cen t ury. howevn, when it was recorded in Ihe Chronicle of John Mal:!bs. H.j Ir recurred in the s("\'rnth~century PaRh:1 1Chroniclr :l nd the Cit ronicl e wrinen around the year 700 by John of Nikiu: in the eighth century. John of Damascus paraphr,!sed tht· Jegrnd as part of his Jefence of 11(1), images: :IIlJ a fu lly developed form had appeared by ca. 800 in a Life of Ba.,i! anrihutd w I'seudo-Amphilochios. IO >\ T he principal d iffcren Ct' between ! hl'sc aeCOlt tIlS l'onCetns Basil's SUt(. (d ream ing or rn~' J ifa ti n g) when Mnkourios appeared to him, a mattn nm l'iueidatn l on f: 409V, 13m rhough "II arcounts IIOle dl,lI Mcrkourios WOrl' 'shilling iron armuur' ;IS h~' set uff ro disp,Heh Julian, of the prl'sl'fwd texts only thaI of PseuJo-Amphi lochios Jc'scribes Metkourios 'unhorsing' the c'lllperor;I ';\ it rhus seem." likely that. :lS \X/alter has al reaJ}' ugucd, th" Li ti: of Basi I art ri bll red to Pseudo- i\ m ph iloch ios u 11 derpi ns the represl'tlt:ltiotls in the lown tWO registers orr. 4091'.1',,(, An eighth-crlltuf}' c~'C l e in Ronl<', two tenth-l.:I~mufy .sn]llCllCrS in Carr;ldoeia, and ,11l icon in rhe de Ml' llil collection of ca . t200 am'sr the visual impact orrseltdo-Atnphilochios' Life, none 1)( these, howL'wr, incorporatL"S either scene pinurd on r .I09v. lh~ Nor did the Life af/en thl' Mil.lll Gregury: anJ, th'lugh an deve nth -n'nrury copy of thl' lilu rgici l Homilies shows :I nimbed horseman killing Julian, G"orge G:!1avaris bs argul·J thar the im:lg<' visual izes ano ther tr,!dition that creJi trd Julian 'o Jc·ath to one uf his s own (Chri.tl;H1) suldieLs. ".~ I 11 short, whil.: the Kene Oil f, 409V Sltggl'stS kllowkdge , of t ht' I'd <:rko 11 fios kgl' nd as it was l'xpressed in PSL'UJo-" m ph iloch ios' Li fl' or BasiI , th .. rc i.1 Ii tde t"l'idence ')Ile way or ;l11other as to wherhcr ;1('XC or an i magl' cO llwyed thi. knowkdgc. As I'hmios wrciy sum marized saints' lives in his RiU;odJfk.., thl' 1 absence of allY ref<:rrlKe to J Life of St Basil therr is inconclusivr: W! he docs. h owewr. d iscltss til<' de;Hh of Ju Iian i tl a man n cr t ha I migh t Stl ggt'St fam iliari t)' wi t h the PsclIJo"Arnphiloch ios :KClJlInt: 'Som~ people :Jttribllled his de:tth to onr of the
'q . 1 C"""II',~I;I/,I'i" 11.2\: <"d. p; ,ut"r( (, HI I ). lll - IH: ! r,m,. Jdhn" .1"d S, on (I 'I ~ (;) . 181 1S2. '" ", I .k< Hi "0" (I~ J - al. N_,;: IIi""" (, ~ ph) , J '-2'). I'm .I"h" "f [)J nu,i.·u" 'Ag:<in'i II",,,· who .11 (.",k d;,';"" ;m"g"" 1.60 Ir 11.16. 111.'11: ".1. f,;uHn (19 7\1. ,61: (fJIl>, A,,,I~,,,,,, ( 1~ ~ 01. ,I'. ~ee .1,,, W"';,w,",,,, I, ~~llJ ) , '" _II 7, ' "' /'(; l~:«';"'~"'''' ''', \XI.I"" 11~ 7R). ! H - ! 48: Walln (I ~8! I. ~N-~) .

",' /,(; ,\:6SoA-6gIA: 'r~"' .

W"ilZm" ~" ( '~~21 j).

Fm til<' ,,,·c.dlcd Tempi<: ()fI:un"n ~ V;r;li. in R"m,' and 11,,· C 'PI',,,I"";«n c~'dr> , . ec {he d ;Km' , iun .. f t. (D ,I' H' ,·h.,p"" , .... id, Ep""in (1')~61 ..17. Fu, ,h" ;WI(' 1l"'~Jk~, (,~~! ) . Fv, i,altp,:nd"'H ;nl"t:'"' "f Merk"" ,;m ,I.'ring J"I;,,, (n"",· ",1 ,11<"<1 to> f. ~o~.)\") : \x/"; u m""n 11976). 7S- 79. rb. XXX I.
IV '

crv: [),,'

N,'''~'."",, 11'l~ 7J, lS~·

" ,' Co",p,,,," l;fabJ, (1'143'). pI. LX..'1,]!i,2, ."d, I'm fhe lin,, ;:ic,1 ('\i"un! A,h",. l'am~kimun (;. f. L4 2v). t ;,' I,,\" ,,,j . (t9('9), I ~(;- I ~ 7. I;;:. 177. "." S,·,· T,,'adl;old (19801. 107- 108.
,,, ' P(; 'j : ('SoA-6~lt\:
(f''''.

ill"","" ""

I" , C/""""X",/Ioiil Il, ! \: ,'.1. II" St.< 1(;(1"(1 ( ,~ ;-;1), N-,\: lIin"(1 1 '917bl, )'-2') . Fu, J"h" "fn.,m,,,,,,,,, 'A~;!i"" II",,..: wh" "tu"k , di";nc ;m"~,",' 1.60 I ~ 11.16. IIL,!), ,'.1. !\"fln 1197\1. ,61: {fan" ""do,,,,,, ( '~Nol. ;" ~"e ,Iso \V~i". ",",l (1 (") ,pll ), '12-" ; . ,.. , /'(; 29:C t",·i,··c,,,'. I,., \hl{," (1') ~ 8). ! ; 7- l ,!S: \Vdltn ( !~S 2I. ~4- ~\. ' 0' F", ! h" ", .~~Ikd Tempk uf 1''''1 un;! V;,;I;. ;n R"n", ""d 1h,' C'pp"d(){';"n c~'dn, M'" dO<" d ;. n,,, , i"" off. ' O ~, "' "h"p"" ,wi,h lOp",·;" (I')X61. J7. 1'", ,h" ;0>", Il",h"h, ('~F) ' F<>, inJ~I.... "d~'H i nl"l;e, or /I.·k,ko" ,;u, sl.'r'lIg .h,l ;,n (11"(1,· "'I,n ~d to I: ~O<)'" ) : \Vr;mn;("(1 11'17(' . . 7~ - 79. rls . XXX I. 1

\'(1';1"lm.I"" (,~~~l~), 'J.j. 1"1; "<1,,r( (I ~ 11), .I l 1- JH: """•. jdr"T' .111.1 Sec'u II ~8(,), 181 - 182.

crv: De, Nt·""",,,,

('9S7J . l\~. 1i",,~ic,1

" ., Cmnp .... '" l;r:lb" (1<)4P), pI. LX..XllI.2, ,nd , fic" !he 1'a ~{~ki mOn 6, r. l~ ! "J. C" 10"·,,,;, (1,)6,)1. I~ 6- ! 47, ht:. 177.

;1I".m.nio" (MO Un! A,hm. ",,, Sn' "I""',,,ll;old (19801. 107- ro ~.

...... ian descnc". o,hen ro. me<Cc<lU}': bu. ,he g<ncnJ ~icw. d""" ,o.he ,ru.h. infornu no he w» W '0 .he d.mgluer by God." " s.c.UI< the composition of Jul"n', <ko,h rq><a.. """,k !;gun,. found ebcwhe", in .he monulCrip. _ i, is «pocialJ r (ond appmpria.ely) clo&c 10 ,he occ:ne ofConstan.ine unh""iRg M...... 'i .... on f. 440r (fig. 4j) - .... ,·bued knowledg< of .h e 'pioode """'" inninsi".Jly more likely.

.Iu.

!':aris.gr.jIO is no •• he only iII........ed ropy ofGrq;ory" Homili .. . o i"du,,", histor· ical minum""" ,her appeor throughou, rhe Mil2n Gregory .nd .Iso !'<Cur in 0 f"", of ,he li turpcal edi,;"n . Wh •• diningui.hd ,I>< hi.ro,ial min" tu ,," in P.ris..gr,jl0 i, ,hoi, incorp"",uion of .uppkmen .. ry "",.il, '" ~ ... hulelCel'l<S. Such oddi,ion.'''' ch.ne ...,"'''' of .he !':ari, Grq;ory. ond unde"""", ,he concq>nuJ uniry of [he min;,uu"",: rheq ..... ion of rn <II'''ruJ yisual ""'''''' fo, ,he h"m.· icaI mini.m ..... would RO' <Hn po«: itldf ....... i. ItO. for Knn Wrirunann'• • ..gum..... in the '5I<4OS th •• th<y p""iJed <'idenC<" for nuw·los. eopi«of«d .. i.... •icaI his'o.i.. wi.h illu"""io",. Bu., os w<: h. ve krn .im< and ,ime again , <kvi. ,io ... from Crcgory ..... mon. >Ie ItO' pn_ /"";'<'id ... o: for .norhe, viwol source. While .h e,. is .mple .... Odcnu thfOughou. the mom""rip' tho •• he Jcs;gn..-of ,I>< min ... u .... knew other 'at>. in ""'" ca:.c:o it.lC<nu mo,. pl.wible ,hot it was.he .... IS thC<lU<"I .......... he • • hon .ny possible illu" .... ion' .h"" ,hey m. y h".. Iud. ,ho. pr<eipi ... ed ,he "",,,,·OOmil..;c ""rurn ofindiYiduol min;"rurn. In .ny .... n., ...... n of .h. Rine historical occnts "'" h.,... jusrcoruidet«l find .hei. fulb[ .. ph"'''on in Cregory', ",.mono: all "'"'""I" rl><llos[ two <pi5odc:I n.:.m ,I>< life of Juli.n .he Apo<t ... dcpc:nd on ,hem fin most <>f .hei, det..a .. While the "I'<,;,ion of "ock figu,. ')ope< and n""ifo ,hn>ughou, ,he hisforicaJ mini>!uta '''W''' .h.t many <>f .he >un.. W<f< compiled '" """" for Pario.gr.j ' o, I would non«hei ... argue ,h., oome of [hem odapt«l from .n ~ier jl1,..[...[ed Homili .. m' nUS(,ip' "';,h pic", .... ha •• nricipated thokof tho MiliUl G"l"I)'. '" S..ch. hypo"... i".1 HomJi .. manllKtipt .. nnot.~, IWIJm< l«fIO .... ibilit)' ror all ,he d... i!s in ,I>< h;storical min"'U'" of J'ario.gr_ l'O. which incorporo .. oupplcrncnrory demen ... ho. n.i.her ap~r in .he Mil:on ropy flor deri,.. from G'CSOry'Sfe<t. Thr "'.... ' co'" mon ,..nuJ ""ufCd rot ,h... deuil, u< ,hr =1 .. i..,i..1histories ... ritlrn by SoI. ... t<S, Sowmen, and Th"""ol<1. [conocl.sm had .evi>'<'ll intct<Sf in .1>< Ar;"",.oo in Julion. '" and ,hough Pho.i", w. . . mo"" ..,.ful ",.d.. man m. ny ofhi.cot>tcmpon.i.. be ..... "'" alone in h;, knowkdg< of corl ... <Cd .. i• .,i·

vc""'...

we,.

'''Code. IjI' ..... H,..,.VIII ('m).," " .... IV".... ('ml , ..... m Ao G......... I'~I, ' .......1'- """, .N..... I;... ~ <01;,.." ... "'" od>ttd .. I un-. """"""'" _,,"do ~;,"""".,;". .... , .... Onupul ~;_ .10";""_ ill ...... ...! ~ ..... oria.

"""-,,.,'0:

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Vision and meaning in nimh-century !\yr.antium

cal histories. 173 There is no evidence that ~ny of these textS ever received illustration, but it seems likely that at least some OIher members of the elite Constaminopolitan c ircle with which we have been concerned, as well as rhotios himself, we re famili~r with these histories. While only "hotios, of this group. left ~ record of the books he had read, was demonstrably fascinated with history, composed a treatise on Julian , and wrote sermons on the Ari~n comroversy,1 74 it is, in the end, structural parallels between the way meaning is constructed in his writings and in the historical miniatures ofParis.gr.51O that provide perhaps the most compelling hint of his involvement in the manuscript. Just ~s "hotios. in his synopses of Josephus in the Bibliothtlu, was seleClive of the m~rerial he summarized, and added historical details, I, 5 so too the designer of Paris.gr.510 seleCled pani cu l~r scenes from Gregory's sermons. and inserted historical details into them. The structure of the verb~ 1 and visual summary is the same: in hoth case~, particular episodes have been excerpt('d from a longer n~rrati\'e, and then augment('d with historical mi nut lac. Tht' ideas and thought patterns of I'hotios pt'rmeate Paris.gr.)l o. If the paniarch were nOI involved in the manuscript's productio n, we would han' to invenl his done: an anonymous who had re~d, with Photios. the books c itt'd in the Bibliothrke: who was thoroughly familiar with the exegetic~l twists and turns Photios filVoured: who was :IS concerned with promoting the court :lnd patriarchne :IS Phorios was. and was as intimarely associated with both: lnd who h:lJ app:lrentiy unlimited resources. It is simpler to confirm O er Nersessia n's tem~tive specu lations. and to identify PhOlios as the (mil/mer grist behind Paris.gr.5I o.1 76 The patronage of imagery was a prerogatiw: of Photios' position: we should nOI be surp rised that he exercised it. Many previous studies have, in fact. linked Photios with other programmes, notably the new mosaic decorations installed in Hagia Sophia. pan of which he eulogized in his sermon on rhe apse mosaic of867. ln Whatever his role in the Gre~t Church. we know that as patriarch Phorios COIltrolled various teams of artisans: that these artisans may have been in sympathy with their fOriller employer is suggested by ont' of rhe canons of the councillhat deposed him in 869-870. which forbade any painters who refused to go along with its decfees the right to work in churches, and thus seeills [0 target Photiall loyalists. 17g This canon may have some bearing on Photios' remark. during his (·xile. that
E,g. Smomen. Sokr'''[~'' an d Thn><.loret ~re all cited (though often incorrectly) by Ihe authors of the l',"mlm~if: see C .. me,on and )'krrin (1984). 19.
I"

KU5t:lS (1964) .nd 11'>les H[ ~nd '4J .bove. 1° ' Sec ~bovc. a"d cha pter 1. On Photio, ,irn;l .. approach to I'hilosto'gio,' History. Nobbs (1990). z 12-256; "n hi , i nco'por.n ;(>" .,( tbe him>'ical material he had 'ead in", h is ~rmo"'. Mango (I '15M). 1J6-24J; Ma ngo (1971). 41. 1](, Ocr Ncrse ... ian (196l). H 7; ~e alro Brubaker (198\). 7-[3. f.,., See t .g_ G rob" ([957), [96---t9g; Cormack (1986). 614- 61\, 618- 610. 1'10 See Cormack (1977b). 161.

114 Sc~ <,.g.

,,6

church .. ""'''' now being .bandor><d: em. inly h. compbiD<d th .. church .. ht had com mi<sion«l being d.<troyN.''' A. .,.trurch. Ph",i"" u,ged Bo,;" Micl>xI of l:Iulgui. to build churches; SOmet;me ktwom 868 and 871. during h i< ail •• h. wrol'< G"'SO". .... bes<oo. biUlop o f S)T>C ..... <t>COUraging "im. ' ''''. to continu. to <=t and dcro .. «chUld.... L M.ng<> .... in ~ "'ioed ,"" poaibili,y OO du, Ph.,..i"" and Gregory coU.b.".,«I in tit< d.<isn of Joco ... , i>'l: f""Vlmn><S.'" GI'<'g<>I)' don sam to have b«n [n",fcnal from Sicily (Syt'>OU<) ", Ni"""".t aboo..t ,ht [im. "",tlo. began on F.. i<,gr,sIo:'''' he .ns th.,d01'< in ",...,n.bly doK , pl'OIIimi<y 10 Co",ran[inopk. lIu, M.ngo', in"iguing hypo,htsi< mWl. unfonu· n. tdy. r=Illin in .ht n:aJm of 'p<CuJ.[ion, fo, we have linl. fun h.. in/O"""rion abo.t t ."" bish"" of SY"'CUk.''' Another of Photi",,' 1<I[<rS wri.«n in nil. ""'Y .Ih<dt ' 0 • po"""i, p.ointcd of himsclf: 'Did n", ,h.. ~ p.oin«, d<linc>« O UI iJrulgt with bc:ou.iful colourS. ht who m.innin. ,h., h. h.... id hOIhing b:ad abo.tt us!·''' lf i.... rhetorical Hourish ... ,h.. m<1'<n« [ 0 on >e'ual imag"Photi",,' ", .. «nee.t I..... indicate'S tbat It<J..... "'.... pl>otS ftom the "",,1.1 of ,";"0$. Phot;/)' :woci".,ion with. large .nd Ioruhly produced roda fit> ,h, o,h., i.. fomation "'" can glan .bout the: patri ..d>. Hi< detn<lon pon ... y<d Phon... .. luving oold hi< soul to ,ht d.... il in ordo, ' 0 l«Jui .. hi< 1\"'" ko 'ni <>g.'" .nd the conutJYttSy bctvo=n Ignati.,. and Phot;"'. :os pr<>Cm«l by tha, ~i", p>r<i . ...... .ns often t«lued ,o.n oppoo:ition bct ~ rt ll cultu", (Photi",) .nd pi«!, Ug""Ooo).' " Th<>ugi> ,he ",nAic • .ns pJ.yeoJ OUI on oth .. kvd.s os .... 11 - fin cumpk. each side bJ.m«l [h. ot"", fo, &""" <>nh'l.....u of86?t07 - .ht basic p.orodilY".t I""'t «>n6"", the potrntiol o1'P1>ot;'n .,.tro",&". W< know [00. Wove all from 8ib!Wd!</u. Ph",,,,, ... p«r«l boob; .nd in J 01'870. when ht ...... .ns in ail, flOm Conn.ntinoplc . nd wrot. to Emperor E1nil compl.ining about h i< ''''''men., h. "mocd ,he d<priva' ion h, felr flOm beinK d..ti«l ,hem. Indeed. '~e c:t't t;'" kt«r .:onee",.. facr th........ h... bttn dq>,iv«l ~ of ou, books;' """,l aRd unnp«r<d ond , new puni,I"""n, con.rived 'gains, u" and include< .ud> SCnr<n«S .. ·E.. .."hi.... . ht admir.bk . • nd ur<d .ht .. m. '=ch,,,.

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...J ;n, 1«,,, .. G"'S"'Y -.....';!<d ;n ..... foik-int.....-. fr>< ................. ""', ............. 0'. M.pIali .. h~. " . ... f.p..l. u~ to! l.oounh..."j W..... ;nk J 1>9*,). I/'C .od,.D). s.. .... WbK< ..... So , .. ,." « ',.W. .. '" M.nso(,~l. '''''' d . eo...... ~ O"f). " " '''c.,.-I(,,,fl._I''. '''s.. .......li . ool .... _
01 .. _ ...

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1•• nt>I, •...,,~khlt ...l .• 7. NOk<"i pr;o; •• ~.OO rh>o ~,;"t:

opm;n, ~'" .. ... ""ch' "" to {'.....,.., - . . . on d .. io. &po. ...... - . .. I.... oa<>nliaa to b;, • ...,.;" . • pilio«. r~ "",,p.n4Ol W..... _ "'". ~ .... ;" odd_ ... ~ ......... "",-, N;r.,.", .... ~""- v-.. I,..m. I'G .
_ .... ...y 0.

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w...:. .... II I."'"

474'. U. ""..H" , .... Wh ... h ... ,.

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of . loOohop).On (''''P''.... ""'.... ............ 'ns..(' iIWd ('97')' .... ,.. 110 .. .J<opior I.,... ....• j of .. Ie... r...,. G . , ,,,;., ..... "" ... prtioI

"".wi;!tt'.:t;:;,,:,:7,".':',:."- K.pIao ~...). " ..."'-

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.. d", h.nd, or <he Ari.ni..,,,, bu, hi< boob we", no', .. in our Clll<, .oken .w. y (rom him:'" .... i. well known, Ph",i",,' cn<mi", d.imed d"" I..,W2.!I jn""l~ wi,h ,I.., produCfioo of 0'1..,. nunw<ri!,," 0... or ,hcse W2.!I ,I.., r.mow .... rudy or Ign.tio&. li k<ning him ro the on'i-Chrut, .h.. WOO ... ppoo<dly ill"'tra'c,J by Gt<gOry Nbeotoo. t... AnothC1"was. &pUnou. ~"rs..;II, da.igt>«l '" 'look .n~n", d"ncton ...."'" he hod COntDCl'ed in ordC1" '0 win hod. R,uil', r."" .... '" Wh,,1Ia Q. no, 'hn< O«."UIa,ioOl hoy< .ny in ...,Ji,y, ,h.cy ,uggco' ,hO!, '" minds contemporary wi,h hi<, Photi"" was usociotcd wi,h book,. .nd ... j,h books ,...., indOOcd pi"' ...... !';,i" V.S'o. I beli","" providn , I.., sum.· ing cumpk. Why Photi"" coo..: get ioV<)1vtd wi.h • nunw<ri!" of G~ry'. Homil i.. is, ques,ion ,owhich """hall mum in ,h. cooclwions of .hi< book.

,ho, ",,,.,,,,'

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," F.p;"lt oJ: «I. ~oh."'" W.."ribk I ('ji ll, '}1-,,.U.t7-" , !.l-." ....... Who .. (,,,,,). ,6" ,.. Dacrih<d by sou... ..... ~ ... : PG 'OH,ol)_.. ,A, G _ (,,}6), .... 019">; <nDI. ......., «".,). '''- '',. s.. ,_. (0'17). "1_'''. ,,....,;01, IbIdwio It"")' 0. '''''''''' who

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cb_...."."""- _ Kaolin. H,,,,, ('V71. _ " J' ..... -.. ,10 ..... rt.o<"" ..... ,..,. """ M of ';"';b,. """"" ' 1'1'*""01)- .....""'.. «1. "un. "'-If.

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6
Mission, martyrdom, and visual polemic

MIS"O" "NO MUTHDOM

IIo<h ,he Empe"" !\os;] .nd ,he p."',,ch Ph",;", .I><OU"g<J ,h. 0011"',.,;001 nf
non ·Ch,'''''"'' . nd .pomomi . ,,<m;,'. miMion ..), . eli,,'}'_ The 879-1180 Om,,',] 'l"""ific, lIy pr>i>«l rhot;", fur .hi,. while Con,un';". PurphY"'II"nni.o. d"",«1 ,h~ ."." .... ". of ,h. Vil~ 1I.a,ilii ", hi.< gr>ndf.,hd, «>m"rsioo or J"""', Butg.u ian •. and Ru"im •. ' Th. other ,ide ,,(con_ce.;on rhcooric. mri-heretic:'! di..ro,,=. b.d !\ouri,h<d foc .<orne time; thc .rguments will Con<em II< here ""I< "f«n Ii,." u"te.m.J in ,I>< .n,i.j.wi,!, di.l<>gu<>, f.m,.,a hr .",i·im'mel", polemic . ..,d krpt .mouldcring by thc an,i·]>l.m b"",d<id« . nd the con"",,;,." ,,,,e,, ,;,,,.d " ,I.. B"I~ri""_ But ,hough p"'~",mm .. of co,o .. ,,;"" and Ji",ibd

tn..

'Vi"" ,II<

P:ori •.gr.5JO rd,:rcoca (" mi .. ion.ry Ktiviry rucxi" mher ,h. n minsk ""i. h ,i..w pokmic Jiltt,od "I;'ins, hemy, ,he tw(> proj«;l> wore kept vi,~.lIy « p.Me .• rxl mi",ion ...."" .Iignod ""i,1t m. nynlom for ,he b i,n , .. ,h. n wj,h oond.mn .. ion ofin0Pl"'n<nu.

""-<;<>",,.,,«1 ... ,....., ,;d.. of ,h...."'" <:<>in.

in .h. mini .. " ... of

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Folio ",If (jo) (6g. )0)

Folio }Oil oon .. in, ""i'hin its j<w<ll..J red fro"", 0'" of 'he five foll- p.~e ... , mini· >lU= in l':t,i._ gqm, . nd, '-' i, ,rue of ,h< mh .. four.' ,h. f<"n", , ign.l. , oc<n< of I"ni<ul .. import.ne<: here, min i"uf< of Pen'«o>! introdu«< Grq:oty', «,mon on ,h. ",-m< lOpi<, whid, ""Si", "" in """'.' -I'b. By»n'i'''' '' hold 'On l'<nl<O)'"
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in "'''' <S'«m : in ,h" ' )'p ikon of ,h"G",,, C hu",h. fOr =mpl". Grq;ory', ",(mon i, ,I>< p",,,I«<;. - • =di~g 1IO,,,,.lIy d.,ived from ",rip,,,,, - f"r l'e,,,..,.,.,.' Th• pr<>umably account> for bo,h it> "pam.. ", iilu ..... · • jgnilicaru:e of Gf'<llory', ,io R in Pari •. gr. 1'0 .nd . 1l< inciu.ion of •• imilM imag< in nc>,ly all o.ll<rcopie> of Crcgo<y'. Ho'nil'" ",j,n I'ict",." .... n in ,h. M ilon Gf'<llOfY ' min;"wn: of r . n..· CO" (now e. ei,...!) "'placed ,he w u.;d imrodoclOry p=ching 0CCf>C.' Folio }"If .in §rmly .. ithin • coh"",o' e.r ra·Homilio f'a m"wurk '" ....,11, fu r imag« of I'''Rl CCo;" .... bcfor< 1<0",0<1. "n, ' WC>rcJ with .,""'" f""l u'n,), in ,h. I..., nin,h «nwr)'. • nd ""n,int>«! iRIO ,h... mh. Th. mini.m,i" of ,h< Khludov 1'»11.. ..Jded the ""'Re to iliu"'",e I\olm 61 (jig. '0)1 ; ,dr.wing . ,""" '0 it> inscn >on in H'gi. S<'fIhi, ; .nd Jeocrip1i,.. ,.". ,(oeumen,.n i,n'g< "f , h. Pen,,,,,,,, in ,h< C hur<:h of ,he Vi'llin of tn,. Sour«," renth"",n'",), enmplo. pmlir. .... in Gpp.adoci. ! The imag< of I'<ntc<o>, on f }"" «pIOca'<> in m"'t ""roc" on" of ,h< two .tan· dard f(,rrnub. used for ,hi, ",.n. i" It),u",i". rn."u",rir"· Following ,!>coccoon. in Ac" """Ive '(>0', 1<0 r-ccei~ ,Il< 'do",n lOng.... lik<., of fire'. b..dly R.keJ but "ill ""ib le along "",am, of light iMuiog from. throne ... ithin a cirek of b lue Ii[\hr. Th" gold ,hron •• b..cklcu bu, richly j.wdla!, ,uPP"''' • rcJ cu.hion on ",hich ra • • gold .r><! gemma! book. ,Il< d"", of tbe Holy Spi. it, and a of,,,. h«oim .. i. im.g<, crown, ,bi, crown, ,,'hi, h i. ,Il< only ,,"common f•• w:u . pparently meant 'to .igoify IGod'.) royalty', a ph .... from Gregor)" d"'Clip,ion of !'en,,,,,,,, th" ,h .... ,ib< of P"".gr.llo m .. kcJ wi.h .n en!.~ initi.l. · Fom of . h-< .po>.1co (p=um.bly tl>< fOur cv,ng<I"t» hold b<>uk, witb jewcllcd gold c.,. ....,. ~f. h, ;<lc,,,ifi.h~ ~ hi, phY''''tnomy .. P.uL CO".... rcJ book. Th.c f'C m.ini ng!CVCn hold "'rolk Thi. m.n"", of diningui.hing [he 'po"l<> "I'PC-'" f""luently in ni nth· .nd rcnth",entury im.ge> (in tlK Khlud"" Pu h"" {fig. 10)) • .... n ,h. 0'110'''' of ,h., hook.< !>c-Id _ gold f<:,r ,h ...... "gel;.... ,a! f<:" P.. d - Q-.nf(,rm .. i,h f. j"lt) . • <><1 .por.dically , h-<r",lier. '" The manner of d i.po>ing tl>< .po>tlc. U. "n o",a1. !'ete' and p. ul norm. lly the pl,",e ofbooom in I'<n tcro.t . im.ge> _ in ,h" Khl"dov Pul«r. f(" eumple. ,her A nk ,he <mpry ,hmn" _ . nd in p.. i,.gr.jlO 'he ""ir July ,it togcthe, dir-cctly 1><1"", th" netoim .. i., Bu. on f )Olr ,Il< axi. i••hwod ;lightly in I'.ul'. "vour.• r><! th is imn.l.noc i, <mph .. izal hy ,n..

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Vision and mu .ning in ninth-cemury Byumium

fiaCt that while Paul holds a book, Peter {on Paul's left} and a second apostle (possibly Andn:w, on Paul's right) hold long staffs. They thus frame Paul as guards frame emperors, and ensure his dominance. Byzamine images of the Pemecost habitually give Paul the more important slot on the rigbt side of God as represented by the empty throne (the viewer's left), and fo r obvious reasons: he was the apostle of the eastern empire, while Perer was associated with Rome. I! What the Gregory miniaturist has done is make the ranking oven. The acceor on Paul notwithstanding, the aposdes otherwise sir conventionally on a semi-circular bench against an architecrural backdrop, a habitual format found in numerous later examples. 12 The composition has suggested to some that f. )O lr foll ows a monumemal model designed for a curved surface, specifically a dome mosaic from the Church of the Holy Apostles;!j no account of this church mentions a Pentecost dome. however, and it is anyway naive 10 think that curved shapes on a two-dimensional page were mean! to repliolle a three-dimensional dome: we sec here a synthronon like that used for the church council on f.)W (fig. )6). The wide distribution of the formula (without the slight realignment off. 30 1r) docs, however, suggest that it was well known in Constantinople. 1~ Perhaps in response to Gregory's reminder that the tongues offire descended 'in an upper chamber ... because those who were [0 receive it were to ascend and be raised above the earth',!~ the apostles and the he[Oimasia - which extends above the frame of the miniature !6 - occupy the upper two-thirds of the page. The space below [he inner curve of the semi-circular bench is filled with a green ground; on either side stand dusters of the 'devout men from every nation' described in Acts. The men recur in some later versions of the scene, 17 but their indusion was never a prerequisite in Byzantine represcmadons of Penre<:ost and f. JOlT is the earliest image to include them. These 'devout men', many of whom chose to be baptized (Acts 1:38-41), emphasized a cerra in aspect of the penrecostalliturgy. the conversion and baptism of the multitude following the descent of wngues on the apostles. 18 The theme ofconversion and baptism [hat underpins the episode narrated in Acts - reinforced on f. 30lr by the inscriprions ' races' «IlYAAI) and 'wngues' (r AnCAI) - was lIot a motif that Gregory emphasized in his sermon, but (as noted above) it was a theme of considerable importance during the last third of the ninth century. wi th Photios' contributions officially lauded in the year that Paris.gqlo
liOn Byunl;nr rCiponscs 10 SI I'rlrl, 5r<' von Falkrnhauscn (1981). Clp . 6.1-64) (for PhOlios) and 6S1- 6 S7. II E.g. SI I'rlr..wu rg. Public Lib. coo.lI, f. 14V (u.hiollll'yjl'J9.); Morey h?l?l, fig. 8j; Wtillm~nn I1?7Ib]. fig. 4), many nf Ihe limrgic~1 edilion~ cil"" above. and ,he draw ing~ ,,r Ihe H~gia Sophia dome mOi.:lic (nOlt 6 above). Il Sc:e Gab~~ris (1969), 110 nOlr 178. I. Weinmann (19H), 3S, fluhr r in'p robably J USI!Cllrd a le· ionary mood . n I~ SC )S R. H1. I' Sec too the hands of God on fr. 1Sr and 164" (figs. ' 4, 18). 11 E.g. th c lemh"cenmry Itnionary in SI l'tlcn;burs (notr 1 abovc); scc al.<O Gfllbar (196Sb) and 1 C ari d i~ (1969). 11 On Ihi s lilu rgy and ill rdadon 10 early Maudonian arl. $<:( Corr ig:t n (197a).

".... . pp ..mtl)' <ommi .. ion<d. " Both And'" GraN' and Si ra,pic Do.. NCr>a<im I.. ~ .J=dy ob",~ thot the men ..... i[ing bopti.1n on f "'" compt.nvn' con· [.mporary """'·... ion ctmp;ligm,'" [~i, inclllSion echoes , [bern. of [~pcn ..· em ..1,it. th ....... p."'icul~rly .ppropri... in tM 8800.
Folio 4 16v (4') (fig. 4')

Folio . 16. piau...,. tho u..di'ional m"'iun of ,he .poo;tln o.bu.t tw<1w .moll vigno" .. ,hOI ....1. ono .po.do Np,i,jng 1 now «Jn~,, " Th. miniature broadly illu" ...... the opening p;lr:igr:iph. of tM :o«omp;ln)"ing ..,mon. ·On 'he Word. of,~ Gospel" (Homily J7); ·).. u, whu .1...... the fi.hernvn. him ..!f u.... h 1 n.. ... ,hat I>< m.y d",w up [h. fi.h fro,,, [h. d'1'[h •. ,hat i•• n,." who;' owimming in ,I>< umeulod .nd bilt.",..,."" o flif<."" 1lKx opcIIing word. h.'C. huwever. liltt. do .... i'h the m.in th"", of Grcto,y·. Mmily,.n "'enJed <:<:>mmcn<>'Y on Malthew [9 ,h., conce"" .... Oil ,he ,<I.rioruhip bctw.cn women and """n. !ndn-d. ,he Milan Grcgo<y igt>O...,. [h. fi,hCfm. n theme altogether. intctrupting the 5<rmOfl only with it> "",wId p ....dling ""'"..M on im.ge ,ugges,ed by Gr<go'y·' iOfl ufM.uhow 19" 9. " In P"i'.g'.I[O [M <kci.ion [0 ill"",,,. [he fim par.graph, mh« [han a p.> .... ge mort <enl ... l '0 Gr<gory'. th.m. was >.Imo" •• ".inly Ji".,ed by Bruntin. invt>lvcmcnt with mi .. ion~ work dunng the ><coM half nf the ninth o;cntury. wh;rn (as we j..., ""'nl ,fucd the Pentecost compoo;ilioo .nd ",hich also infU,mcd &..il 1". rcdt<:OI"iun uf the Apostolciun .nd tho mini .. u ... of the m..· gin.II""I .. "." GraN I ..."ed 'he f~ ,,",ICy of im.goo of 'he mi.. io n of, M • poo[ I.. in, ~ ><C<>t\d Iu.If of [h. nimh . nd 'hroughou[ [h. tenlh cemuI)". " All 01 ,h.c .a[lr m.rgirul poWt ... th .. ret.in r...hm t8 and ?l include yo!>i"n. ofit. as do lhe tcn,h-<co,ul)· c..ppadoci.ft dlu«h .. ofl""I, 1nd o:,;.vu~n, [he Apo"ol.ion po"")'Od ']>«inc mi .. ion.ry "",ivitia of individu.1 'po>tb.'" None of th .... h~,. duplint'" [h. fo,m .. nff. 4,6v. H<~ . J)"",,,m • • ricr.IIOllgi,udin. 1compoo;i,iOfl . with Ch,;.. in ·Co ,herefU", and .. ad, all the centre of c~n (!) ..,.",Ico ordain ing th<m notions, Npti1ing,hem in the namo of the h,ho •.• nd tM Son .• nd ,he Holy Spin,· MAt'lHTE\"CATE llANTA] TA UINE BAIIll· (Il QPEIYt'lENTEC ZONTEC AITOIYC EIC] TO ONOMA TOY Il IAT]PIOIC KIA!] TOY Y(JOIY KIAII TOY AJ'IOY IlN IEYMATO]C i"",.ibcd in r<J o n ,~ go~d

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pJ..wch .. d,e ( _ Iou) 'j»< of [ho Aub Leonin. in Rome, which 'nlicip.u."J ,he symmetriul fo. m>! off. •• 6. hy eigilly )..... " Th. m.,gin .. 1ps>ll'" ilium." Psalm [ ij;l j with im.ga of tl>c 'f'<»tlo p[c..:hin! to the '1""'I'1e of ,II " ...... n..; while no, i"onog,.phially "I..."J r.. i, .gf.\'o, the "oni"" in [ho Khlu.dov Pu.i!<. "",m. to 1'.... 1101 [I>c in .. n[ of tho. G"I\"'Y 1"11" ... ..,hok. While tho. ekvcnth-<cntUl}' (!) Bri>!ol Psahe[. which tend. to . ..... id the I<)piai fe .. u,cudd."J in [he nin,h-<cn,u.~ m.. gin.1!",hen. ,impl~ PO""')" 1\:,.. and Pmlp" "ching [0 IWOchut . .. of propk. " the Khludov min;uuri" .... po..dcd I<) con .. mpo,"t)' ;n«<a, in mi .. ion .. )· Klivity by Jepic<ing all twdve apo>tk< p,,,,ching '0 dioc<CIe group' (~g. ,<>.).'" The n,,,,,ico in [ho Aj><»,okio" ,1,«1 .b.....d the mi .. ioRal')' Klivil)' of [h. apo>tb: Mcu,itc' da.<.il"ion HO'" 1.1.,,1..... ""ith the SY'''''''' Luk. p.....rning" Ant""h, Simon .mong ,he P... i.n, ,..d .'U=.ns, lIanholom<W p",,,hing ", ,ho. A,moni .... , • ..d Marl: in Alcundria." Th. da.<.ip<ion. given by M.... ,i,,, .e",,11 [h. apru,ln prach;ng '0 0.11 n"ion, in the J(J,1<><krv ""h«, ..1<1 both 00'1<)00"" the impo<t>r><:t of mi .. ,;onHY in"sct)' in the nimh ccnmt)'. II i. oJ", """i ble [h .. , he ApoolOlcion iocludcd • few ..:cnn of 0j>U5.1n b.optizing, " ... of which m'1 be reftc<:tcd at s..n M,rro. ""hore M,,,h,,,.. i••oo""n h'l'[;zing [1.0 (whi,e) I'lhi<>pi.m. ... Bu" in Byzantium, f. • 16. ' PPC'" '0 rem. in ;",I.. cd in ito emph",i. on ,he ><1 ...1.ite of Np,i.m; ,I>c o nly ",.oJ par.Jld .ppcan in m..... it dec",,,ion of . mHl· fou,· , ... n,h.«nrury dome mouic in ,ho. llap,;"e.,.. " s..n M.K", which l)<b,.. Pi""". ,ugge",. m.y h"" b«n irupir«l di"",ly by r.ri •. g'.I'D."

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ImkgIound, with darke. blue trcn and V1gucly ",hitectu"J u,>p<> on • slightly ligh.er blu. ground. Simil" ba.:kJmpo"f'P"ar 'hrougho", ,h. manLllCripr and ",m.. int .., .. on f. 7tV (fig. tjl, indic... th .. the octnc rook plaa. rhc city walk Like . 1I rhe ta' m ini.rum; in 'he Ii", .ixty.,i. folio. of ""'i•. g'.I'o. f. po i. pain,«I on. half I.af wi,h. hlank h.:ock, .. "J i, app<a" in ,h. di"ur\>cd f"""h quire." Beau", ,he m1rty.oom of ,he al""'lc. h.. n,,,,,"Crt ,rx,u.J ba>i. in ,he funcru o.. tion G...-gory', hrotl>c. Klli.. rw. th .. it introducn." G.briel Millet ,ugge>,«1 II.. , ,he mini .. u", picturing K.Nrio" fun ... 1(n-ow f. -.lo) ono: .. """\ " who hod he"" while f lLV migin:t.lly prcf:u:«I ,h. homily ,h" pt«<d .. it, "1 in,i,«I him' (Homily J)." Thot te .. i. now p.rc«l«l by a mini.tut< of ,he ~ru<:ifurion (f. JOY' fig. 7) ",hieh Iu. alm"'t certainly b«n """"'" fu ..... ,d from ' he fi,,, ",'mon, ito ,heme" i, u""'I'f'''''i .. «I pre",ning, .nd ,he de ..'" .nd martyrdom. of the al""'\co could boo 5«n '0 vi.uali"" thecon~ ""'oca of rejrc,«I pro.dytizing. p,ion of ,he rn.I 0 us<:rip' here i. demonstr. ,«I by ,he 10.. of ,he fi .., leafof !hi> ,hort ... mon, mru' of ,he homily i, lou _ the remain ing « .. bcginJI wit h 1""W'ph 6 (of~) _ ....d wi,h i"or ''''' ",.ukinp ,h .. migh' luve mgge>,«1 .. pccifiqw... ge .. ,he min;',u ... ·, in'pim;"n, Other cop ... of ,he Homilies p..".iJ. no hdp: ,he o...;on i.om i,,"" from ,h. litu'gic.al«li.ion" and ,he Milan G"I\"'Y aocontl"n;" it onlywi'h a preaching .... ""." Bu, 'he image Mille. though, more . pprop ..... 10 Kllisa.ioi fu""f1ll orotion - hidi..n<f1ll on f. "JV - . h..,. .. a page with an imageof the J .. th of Grcgoty·•• i"e' Gorgon i" and pref;w;eo hcr fu"",,1 o",ion: ,here i. no In>On'o 'hink that ,he ~l>Cncc would more fittingly p,rccdc ,han link tM ""''' ... ~. Th. J ... h-<>f-,h ....I"'.tl.. ~,.,,,\C< migu. in f"'t, be on apprup,;'te in,..,duction '0 a fune ..1",ation for Klli ..,io<, a high gOV"<fnrncn, official who. i~ public <leba,.. dcfi"")uJi.n .I>c Apo.ut< in ded.ring hi, Ch.i .. ianity, and w., ban_ ished fOf hi' faith, Grcgoty', ... mon n.... r .pecifica lly connoru hi' bru,h .. wi,n the al""tla. bu. i. i, full of ph.a>c> ouch .., 'Such then W1! the ucru. and '" equipped the du.mpion of godli ......·" th., .heto,iooaliy imply I(.,;...i",' affinity wi.h th. muggl .. of .hc ...li.. t C h,i""n •. h ttmai"" a. k ... plau.ible th •• the miniuur ....tain, ito OIigin.II",,",;"n." ~ fi .. , "lua,.. ,h""", !'...... ,radi, ional r<v.n.«I crucifi.ion" An onlooke • .... nd. behind a ba[",,,><k ro ,he I.f" hi' offici:t.l J ..... suggest< eith .. the prefect Agripp., who ordcrrol'<tc,·. ""<Cution, o. N<ro. du.ing who>< «ign ,h . .... in".

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crucifixion occurred. A round snucture in three tiers balances the compositio n on the right: th is represents the mausoleum of Hadrian, known in the nimh century as the CaSlrum S. Angeli, ncar which Pt-ter was said ro have been martyred.46 Peter here lacb his familiar curly hair and is instead shown with a close-cropped light beard and straight shon hair that dips down over his forehead, an al ternative formula that also appears in the Sncm HiraI/tin (fig. loS).·7The composition resembles bter images in menaia, menologia, and monumental cycles,~M but I know of no earlier dt.'pictions of Peter's crucifixion. 49 Rather than the canonically correct Matthias, Paul appears as Judas Iscariot's replacement in virlllally all Byzantine lists of aposdes. On f. p.v, he' kne'ds in the second grid with his hands bound behind him: following the apocryphal Acts of Paul . he is about to be beheaded by one of Nero's soldiers, who raises hissword with his left arm while holding irs scabbard with his right. W Paul's head tylX' is standard: in the ninth cenlUry it recurs, complete with the tiny lock of hair on the otherwise bald pate, in the Sarra Pamlltla (fig. 106). 11 ru Hugo Buchthal observed. Paurs martyrdom anticipates a conventional Byzantine formula: ~l f. J1.V ~ems, however. ro preserve the oldest example. The third martyrdom, an upright crucifixion. is Andrew's. Contrary ro the account in Ihl' al'ocryphal Acts of Andrew, which specifics Ihal 'Ihey came and bound his hands and his feet and did nOI nail him ... in this way ro torture him as he hung in Ihat he would be eOiten alive by dogs', Andrew is nailed 10 the cross. u The figure 10 ,he left speaking with the apostle, however, suggem Ihat the miniaturist was fami liar wilh an extra-biblical narrati\'e of Andrew's life . On the basis of the preserved Acts, he might be identified as either Stratocles, Andrew's champion who conversed with him as he hung, or Aegeates, Ihe proconsul who first condemned Andrew and later made an attempt (successfully resisted by the apostle) 10 unloose him from his cross. ~ Once again, there seem 10 be no older examples pre~
... l)~n'u._QuO!~mbe. ('91~ ). ~1-49· . J l'ni •. g'.91), r. 9:': W~illm~nn (I919a), 19H- 199. fig. 114 . •• E.g. Hagi~ Sophia a< Oh.id, Mon.nk.• noJ th~ M~nologion oflb.ill l: B.bi ~ ('969). ,,6, Jig •. 80--81; o.,mu. (1949). W} , 191, pl. 811. Th~ oJoors., San 1':1010 {uori I.. mur.!.. Rom~ (fiS- 10/). m.d~G1. 1010 in eoll.l.mioople, indude .he du. h ofl'.:.er, bUI here Oil" ",,"u,ioner holdl l'.:ler"s {<'<'I up wi.h ••o~ wh ile. sn:ond driv~ in the naill: Jo~i rlff/. (1961). pI. !Xing p.lI .nd p k 1- 4; Frau. (197 J). fig. II; C"'allo rllll (198:), 41/, Jig. J18. +'! On the I.ck of m.nyrdom Ke,,~ ill u.l), aposwlic ~lK"C~. !;a K=ler (1979) . ... Hrnneckt and Sehnttmekhrr II (l96j). J86; Sehnm."" (1907), 190-191. ~, l'~rj,.g,.91j. ff. •88v, 17OV: WeiQm."" (1979'), fiS". 4'}6.\01. 'I Ruchth.1 (1%6). 4J. The San I'~olo doors (fig. 107), hawn'cr, apin differ from P3.io.g' .1 10 in .howing ['~ulltoJ 10 hi, d~.. h by. ro~ .;ed aroun<l hi! ned (referenu. in nO'e 48 .buvd ..... 1Obri<l, l'~ur~ he ...1 tumble! to Ih e ground: B;.bit (1969). Il l. fig•. 78-/9. IJ For the Am. Henneckc anoJ Sch n ~ nl("lchcr 11 (1963).419. MIJII a.:counn "im ply .pecify a !. Henneckc and Schneemekbe. 11 (t96)). ~ lO--4n. crucifi. ion: Sc hermann (1907). 147- 1\3.

Miss ion, martyrdom, and visual polemic

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Mission, martyrdom, and visu;tl polemic served, though Andrew's crucifix.ion (with nails, as in Paris.gqlO) surfaces in numerous later menaia (fig. 1(9) and menologia.';'j James, the first apostle to be martyred and the only one whose death is described in the canonical New Testament (Acts 12;2), appears fourth. Y; At the direction of Herod, seated on the left, an executioner pulls back James' head to expose: his throat to the knife held in the soldier's left hand; James kneels with bound arms betwec:n the two officials. Though in the Sacra ParalMd James has longer and more curly hair, his middle-aged physiognomy and dark hair are conventional attributes. ';7 Later parallels to James' mar£yrdom appear in the Menologion of Basil n and in a twelfth-century Acts manuscript in Paris; reversed, and with the executioner's kn ife held to James' throat, the composition also recUts on the San Paolo doo ts (fig.
107).';8

Though not listed among the apostles in the New Testamen t, Mark, like Paul, habitually appears as one in the Byzanti ne period. The fifth mar£yrdom shows him, prone before a colonnaded struclUre and a group of trees, being beaten (Q death by a you ng man br3ndishing a wedge-s haped club. His physiognomic details arc standard, )') and a similar compositional formula recuts in later images of Mark's death (fig. 108); f. 32V again prov ides the earliest preserved example. The sixth apostle, Matthew, is simply shown in a sarcophagus, on ro which two you ths lower a lid decorated with a cross. This format anticipates the mOSt common manner of rep resc:nting Matthew's death in lacer works: for example, in the Menologion of Basil II and on the doors of San Paolo fuori le mura in Rome (fig. 1 07).60 John, the seventh apostle on the page, d id not suffer ma r£yrdom. Accord ing to the apocryphal ActsofJohn, when he knew his death was approaching he requested men with shovels to follow him outside the city wall of Ephes us, had them dig a pit and, after praying, lay down in it. He was then transported ' 0 heave n - the episode illustrated in Paris.gf.5lo, where twO angels bear John upward. 61 T he tradition of John's ascent is based on an interpretation of John 2 1: 23, 'that disciple [John]
II E.S. a thincemh·~mury m~naion. J~ru..J~m, Palr.s..1>a ~08, f. 9" (fig. 109): W~il7.m.nn (1971), lOt: Baumstark (191617),.,... The s..n ~lo doors (pand '9; liS' '07; reference. in note 48 above) and Ohrid (Babic [,9691, !l6, fig. 80) h~re d<'Via •• from Paris.g'-SIO by .howi ng Andrew nailed to a y. • h. ped 11'«, • v.rian. desc,ibed in IOm~ 'poc'yphoJ a<:counU nf Andro:w', dealh. !<i ApocryphoJ .ccounU add no rd~van. details: Schermann ('9071, ~n-2j6. 17 Pari •. gr.91), If. I .jv. ' 71', ,87": W~i!Zmann {!979. ).IiSS' j1<)-jJ' _ S. K""l~r (1973). 1IJ- 1l4. For olh~, cnmpl ... El~n (1977), figs. 9, 1<)-J1 . » E.S. Pa ri>.gr.91J. ff. l4Bv, JO'Y: Weinmann (1979a). fig •. «6, «8 . .. Va'·S,·161}, f. ,86, (Mmof4tio [,907)): for ,h. doors I t t no,~ 48 above. TheJemsalem menaion (Sab.108. f. 91v: fig. 109 and Weinmann 119751. fig. j6) he", d<'Viates from Paris.g•. j.o by picturing Manho:w', d."h by >loning as described in IOm~ .pocryph.o.l ac<:ounu: xhwn ann (1907), ~;riI. x. abo OemiU} ([9841, 114. " H~nned:~ and Schneemdchc:r II (,9-6J). '56-Lj8; Sch~rm.nn (1907), 157- .66: and Duncan· Flowers (JlJ9o).

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me.ming in nimh-ccn lUry B)7;;II1I; Ulll

should not dic· . Apocryphal aCCOlIlIIS frequently compare John with Enoch and Elijah. who also escaped death. (,~ but John's ascent appears only nrc1y in later works. one example being [he original mosaic (now destroyed ) of [he apostle's martyrdom at San Marco. which may rcRect a mosaic cOlliemporary wi th Paris.gqlO in Ihe Aposw1cion in Connaminopie.M The unusual depiction l>c!rhaps echoes iconophile illl{'rcst in John's ascent , manifest in the Acts of the Council of 787 and reiter:!led by Photios. who recOU ntS Ihe episode in his BibiiotlnKrf 04 La,,' r images sometimes show Jo hn without a beard, bUl in Pa ris.gr.s [o. as in the nimh-centUry $ilcm ''tIm/Ian (fig. [OS). he is bc:lrded .M Jude (Thaddeus), brOl her ofJames. is ranked among the aposlles by Luke and in
Schermann (19°7). lP- Ij8.16t- 16J. " [)~mu, I (1984), tu. M For lite Cound l, M,ns; XIII . ,681); for ,he lJibfiorl,~lu. codu U9, t il. Hen ry IV (196\). ' J9-'4 ' . l'h oli,)~ d",whe re di .. pp rovingly , ile! ~no, hcr ~cco u'" of John'. lir~ (in ,n Acts of Peler, John , Andrew. Thom>i, ,md Paul) which he claim ~ w;u ch.mpioned by ;( on oclam: BibliolfH"/u ( o<lu "4, ed. Henry II ('960). &4--ll6; ,"'n ~. H~n,,,:cke .nd Schnccmclchcr II (1964). 178- 179. Wibon (1994), ,:6. .., P~ri •. gr."l), If. 6Jr. IS, ,,: Weil'lnrann (1979~). 199. liS'. SJ6- U7·
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Acts. but is usually replaced by