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# FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS 1. Results on Triangles: i. Sum of the angles of a triangle is 180°. ii.

The sum of any two sides of a triangle is greater than the third side. iii. Pythagoras Theorem: In a right-angled triangle, (Hypotenuse)2 = (Base)2 + (Height)2. The line joining the mid-point of a side of a triangle to the positive vertex is called the median. v. The point where the three medians of a triangle meet, is called centroid. The centroid divided each of the medians in the ratio 2 : 1. vi. In an isosceles triangle, the altitude from the vertex bisects the base. vii. The median of a triangle divides it into two triangles of the same area. viii. The area of the triangle formed by joining the mid-points of the sides of a given triangle is one-fourth of the area of the given triangle. 2. Results on Quadrilaterals: i. The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. ii. Each diagonal of a parallelogram divides it into triangles of the same area. iii. The diagonals of a rectangle are equal and bisect each other. iv. The diagonals of a square are equal and bisect each other at right angles. v. The diagonals of a rhombus are unequal and bisect each other at right angles. vi. A parallelogram and a rectangle on the same base and between the same parallels are equal in area. vii. Of all the parallelogram of given sides, the parallelogram which is a rectangle has the greatest area. IMPORTANT FORMULAE I. 1. Area of a rectangle = (Length x Breadth). Length = II. Area Area and Breadth = . Breadth Length iv.

2. Perimeter of a rectangle = 2(Length + Breadth).

III. IV. V. VI. Area of a square = (side)2 = (diagonal)2. Area of 4 walls of a room = 2 (Length + Breadth) x Height. 1. Area of a triangle = x Base x Height.

2. Area of a triangle = s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c) where a, b, c are the sides of the triangle and s = 3 3. Area of an equilateral triangle = x (side)2. 4 4. Radius of incircle of an equilateral triangle of side a = a . 23 (a + b + c).

a 5. Radius of circumcircle of an equilateral triangle of side a = . 3 6. Radius of incircle of a triangle of area VII. and semi-perimeter s = s

1. Area of parallelogram = (Base x Height). 2. Area of a rhombus = 3. Area of a trapezium = x (Product of diagonals). x (sum of parallel sides) x distance between them.

VIII.

1. Area of a circle =

R2, where R is the radius.

2. Circumference of a circle = 2 R. 3. Length of an arc = 2 R , where is the central angle. 360 1 R2 4. Area of a sector = (arc x R)= . 2 360 R.

IX.

1. Circumference of a semi-circle = 2. Area of semi-circle = R2 . 2

1. The ratio between the length and the breadth of a rectangular park is 3 : 2. If a man cycling along the boundary of the park at the speed of 12 km/hr completes one round in 8 minutes, then the area of the park (in sq. m) is: A.15360 C. 30720
B

B. 153600 D.307200

Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B Explanation: Perimeter = Distance covered in 8 min. = 12000 x8 60 m = 1600 m.

Let length = 3x metres and breadth = 2x metres. Then, 2(3x + 2x) = 1600 or x = 160. Length = 480 m and Breadth = 320 m. Area = (480 x 320) m2 = 153600 m2. 2. An error 2% in excess is made while measuring the side of a square. The percentage of error in the calculated area of the square is: A.2% C. 4% B. 2.02% D.4.04%

D

Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation: 100 cm is read as 102 cm. A1 = (100 x 100) cm2 and A2 (102 x 102) cm2. (A2 - A1) = [(102)2 - (100)2] = (102 + 100) x (102 - 100) = 404 cm2. Percentage error = 3. The ratio between the perimeter and the breadth of a rectangle is 5 : 1. If the area of the rectangle is 216 sq. cm, what is the length of the rectangle? A.16 cm C. 24 cm E. None of these
B

404 x 100 = 4.04% 100 x 100 %

Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B Explanation: 2(l + b) 5 = b 1 2l + 2b = 5b 3b = 2l 2 b= l 3 Then, Area = 216 cm2

l x b = 216 2 l x l= 216 3 l2 = 324 l = 18 cm. 4. The percentage increase in the area of a rectangle, if each of its sides is increased by 20% is: A.40% C. 44%
C

B. 42% D.46%

Answer & Explanation Answer: Option C Explanation: Let original length = x metres and original breadth = y metres. Original area = (xy) m2. 120 6 x = x 100 m 5 m. 120 6 New breadth = y = y 100 m 5 m. 6 6 36 New Area = x x y 2= xy 2 5 5 m 25 m. New length = The difference between the original area = xy and new-area 36/25 xy is = (36/25)xy - xy = xy(36/25 - 1) = xy(11/25) or (11/25)xy Increase % = 5. 11 1 xy x x 100 = 44%. 25 xy %

A rectangular park 60 m long and 40 m wide has two concrete crossroads running in the middle of the park and rest of the park has been used as a lawn. If the area of the lawn is 2109 sq. m, then what is the width of the road? A.2.91 m C. 5.82 m
B

B. 3 m D.None of these

Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B Explanation: Area of the park = (60 x 40) m2 = 2400 m2. Area of the lawn = 2109 m2. Area of the crossroads = (2400 - 2109) m2 = 291 m2. Let the width of the road be x metres. Then, 60x + 40x - x2 = 291 x2 - 100x + 291 = 0 (x - 97)(x - 3) = 0 x = 3. 6. The diagonal of the floor of a rectangular closet is 7 feet. What is the area of the closet in square feet? 1 4 C. 27 A.5
C

feet. The shorter side of the closet is 4

B. 13 D.37

1 2

Answer & Explanation Answer: Option C Explanation: Other side= 15 2- 9 2ft

2 225 81 = 4 4 144 = 4 =6 ft.

2 ft ft

Area of closet = (6 x 4.5) sq. ft = 27 sq. ft. 7. A towel, when bleached, was found to have lost 20% of its length and 10% of its breadth. The percentage of decrease in area is: A.10% C. 20%
D

B. 10.08% D.28%

Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation: Let original length = x and original breadth = y. Decrease in area= xy 80 90 xx y 100 100 18 = xy - xy 25 7 = xy. 25 7 1 Decrease % = xy x x 100 = 28%. 25 xy %

8. A man walked diagonally across a square lot. Approximately, what was the percent saved by not walking along the edges? A.20 C. 30
C

B. 24 D.33

Explanation: Let the side of the square(ABCD) be x metres.

Then, AB + BC = 2x metres. AC = 2x = (1.41x) m. Saving on 2x metres = (0.59x) m. Saving % = 9. The diagonal of a rectangle is 41 cm and its area is 20 sq. cm. The perimeter of the rectangle must be: A.9 cm C. 20 cm
B

0.59x x 100 = 30% (approx.) 2x %

B. 18 cm D.41 cm

Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B Explanation: l2 + b2 = 41. Also, lb = 20. (l + b)2 = (l2 + b2) + 2lb = 41 + 40 = 81 (l + b) = 9. Perimeter = 2(l + b) = 18 cm. 10. What is the least number of squares tiles required to pave the floor of a room 15 m 17 cm long and 9 m 2 cm broad?

A.814 C. 840
A

B. 820 D.844

Answer & Explanation Answer: Option A Explanation: Length of largest tile = H.C.F. of 1517 cm and 902 cm = 41 cm. Area of each tile = (41 x 41) cm2. Required number of tiles = 11. The difference between the length and breadth of a rectangle is 23 m. If its perimeter is 206 m, then its area is: A.1520 m2 C. 2480 m2
D

1517 x 902 = 814. 41 x 41

B. 2420 m2 D.2520 m2

Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation: We have: (l - b) = 23 and 2(l + b) = 206 or (l + b) = 103. Solving the two equations, we get: l = 63 and b = 40. Area = (l x b) = (63 x 40) m2 = 2520 m2. 12. The length of a rectangle is halved, while its breadth is tripled. What is the percentage change in area? A.25% increase C. 50% decrease
B

B. 50% increase D.75% decrease

Answer: Option B Explanation: Let original length = x and original breadth = y. Original area = xy. x New length = . 2 New breadth = 3y. New area = x 3 x 3y = xy. 2 2 1 1 Increase % = xy x x 100 = 50%. 2 xy %

13. The length of a rectangular plot is 20 metres more than its breadth. If the cost of fencing the plot @ 26.50 per metre is Rs. 5300, what is the length of the plot in metres? A.40 C. 120 E. None of these
E

Answer & Explanation Answer: Option E Explanation: Let breadth = x metres. Then, length = (x + 20) metres. Perimeter = 5300 m = 200 m. 26.50

2[(x + 20) + x] = 200 2x + 20 = 100 2x = 80 x = 40.

Hence, length = x + 20 = 60 m. 14. A rectangular field is to be fenced on three sides leaving a side of 20 feet uncovered. If the area of the field is 680 sq. feet, how many feet of fencing will be required? A.34 C. 68
D

B. 40 D.88

Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation: We have: l = 20 ft and lb = 680 sq. ft. So, b = 34 ft. Length of fencing = (l + 2b) = (20 + 68) ft = 88 ft. 15. A tank is 25 m long, 12 m wide and 6 m deep. The cost of plastering its walls and bottom at 75 paise per sq. m, is: A.Rs. 456 C. Rs. 558
C

B. Rs. 458 D.Rs. 568

Answer & Explanation Answer: Option C Explanation: Area to be plastered= [2(l + b) x h] + (l x b) = {[2(25 + 12) x 6] + (25 x 12)} m2 = (444 + 300) m2 = 744 m2. 75 Cost of plastering = Rs. 744 x = Rs. 558. 100