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Energy from the road side

To feed in electric energy the signalization of Highways one produces electricity with wind but it's the wind produce by the displacement of cars and trucks, for example a small truck at 70 mph produces a speed wind of 30 mph. To exploit this kind of wind one must a vertical axis wind turbine near the road, the natural wind give energy too. The idea is: Have an self energy-feed unit for all signalization system of highway, to save energy and money

In this project we show that how we generate a valuable voltage with the help of moving traffic on the road. In this project we use conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy. For this purpose we install one vertical axix wind mill on the road. On all the wind mill we use dynamo to generate a voltage. When wind rotate then dynamo also rotate and

generate the voltage With the help of this dynamo we convert the mechanical energy into electrical energy. We use dc dynamo, so output from the dynamo is connected to the dc battery. When battery is fully charged then we use battery for our project. We install one photoelectric effect in the project. Street light is to be switch on automatically in the night and lights are automatically off in the day night. In this project we switch on the street light in night in half mode. Half mode means all the lights are to be on in 50 percent on/off mode. Rest of lights are to be on if the traffic is on the road. If the road is with traffic then all the lights are on. If the road is without traffic then 50 percent lights are again off. For road sensing, we use two pair of infra red sensor on the road. When any car cross the road then infra red beam is interrupted and signal is connected

to the controller. Controller sense the signal and increment the counter. Counter display the total number of vehicle on road. When counter shows a 0 number then road lights are off to 50 percent.

In circuit we use LDR as a light dependent resistor to sense the darkness. When LDR is in dark then LDR offer a low resistance. At this time LDR gives a signal to the circuit to switch on/off the road light for 50 percent. As the LDR is in dark then 50 percent is on. But if the traffic is on the road then road sensor gets a signal and connect to the circuit. In the road sensor we use infra red l.e.d and photodiode as a road sensor. When any vehicle interrupt the infra red light then circuit sense the interruption and at this time Or comparator circuit switch on the light. In this project we use LM 358 as a comparator with infra red sensor’s.

for example a small truck at 70 mph produces a speed wind of 30 mph. To exploit this kind of wind one must a vertical axis wind turbine near the road. to save energy and money In the night lights are automatic on with the help of photovoltaic switch logic.To feed in electric energy the signalization of Highways one produces electricity with wind but it's the wind produce by the displacement of cars and trucks. The idea is: Have an self energy-feed unit for all signalization system of highway. We use two infra red sensor’s to check the movement of vehicle. when there is no vehicle on the bridge then lights are off automatically. When first infra red sensor is on then lights are on and when second sensor is interrupt then lights are off. . But all lights are not on. Other half lights switch on automatically when any vehicle move on the bridge. the natural wind give energy too. only half light are on.


But all lights are not on. One rod with the dynamo is placed like a speed braker. Other half lights switch on automatically when any vehicle move on the bridge.6 VOLT CHARGEBALE BATTERY CHANGOVER SWITCH L. when there is no vehicle on the bridge then lights are off automatically. This voltage is to be stored in the chargeable battery. . Movement of vehicle just rotate the dynamo shaft and electricity is generated. Dyanmo is so powerful.D ( 6 ) FOR STREET LIGHT MAIN THEME OF THIS PROJECT NON CONVENTIONAL ENERGY GENERATION CONCEPT: MECHANICAL TO ELECTRICAL ENERGY LOGIC: USE DYANMO AS A SPEED BRAKER .E. In the night lights are automatic on with the help of photovoltaic switch logic. only half light are on.

. This is done by the light sensor ( LDR). Capcitor reduce the noise . LDR is a light dependent resistor . Emitter of the npn transistor is connected to the ground and collector is connected to the pin no 3 of the controller. for this prupose we convert the battery voltage into 5 volt dc with the help of the 5 volt regulator circuit. when light fall on the ldr then ldr offers a low resistance and when ldr is in dark then ldr offeres a high resistance.In this project we use 89s51 controller .. One crystal is connected to the pin no 18 and 19 of the controller to provide a oscillation signal. Two capacitor are grounded from the crystal to reduce the noise In this project we use two logic. For this purpose we use 12 Mhz crystal. For this purpose we use ic 7805 regulator to regulate the high voltage inot 5 volt dc. One is light sensitive logic and second is road sensor logic. When sensor is in dark then all the lights are on and when sensor is in light then all the lights are off. One capacitor is ground from the regulator for filteration . Here in this project we use the ldr with npn transistor circuit. supply voltage of the microcontroller is 5 volt dc . family member of the 8051 family. Output of the regulator is connected to the pin no 40 of the controller directly.

Out put led’s are connected with the port 0 through the resistance in series. .d is connected with the positive line. When ldr is in dark then there is no base voltage and hence collector become more positive. Common point of the l. here in this we use 6 l.when ldr is in light then there is low positive on the base of the npn transistor and collector is become more negative. Our second part of this project is infra red sensor.e.e. Out of 6 only three l. In this logic when any car cross the first ir sensor then all the led are on and if the traffic continuous then led are on if the no car on the road then again three led are eon and three are off For this purpose we use two IR sensor circuit with this project. Microcontroler sense this change of voltage and switch on the output led whish is connected to the port 0.e.d’s are on .d .

here in this project we use infra red sensor and one photodiode circuit when light fall on the photosensor then resistance of photos sensor become low and hence negative voltage is applied to the controller. . As the controller sense this change of signal on pin then all the light are on . when any car cross the photodiode and then photo diode resistance become high and hence signal is change on the pin no 2 of the controller.

Main program is written in the 8051 ide siftware. In the 8051 ide software . We wrote the software in the assembly language.


.Once the software is complete and there is no error then we transfer this hex code into the blank ic with the help of the serial port programmer circuit.


PROJECT DESCRIPTION MICROCONTROLLER AT89C51 Architecture of 8051 family:- The figure – 1 above shows the basic architecture of 8051 family of microcontroller. Features • Compatible with MCS-51™ Products • 4K Bytes of In-System Reprogrammable Flash Memory – Endurance: 1.000 Write/Erase Cycles • Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz • Three-Level Program Memory Lock • 128 x 8-Bit Internal RAM • 32 Programmable I/O Lines • Two 16-Bit Timer/Counters • Six Interrupt Sources .Basic of the microcontroller.

• Programmable Serial Channel • Low Power Idle and Power Down Modes Description The AT89C51 is a low-power. In this mode P0 . The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM. The AT89C51 provides the following standard features: 4K bytes of Flash. The Power down Mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator disabling all other chip functions until the next hardware reset. two 16-bit timer/counters. the AT89C51 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. As an output port each pin can sink eight TTL inputs. the Atmel AT89C51 is a powerful microcomputer which provides a highly flexible and cost effective solution to many embedded control applications. When 1s are written to port 0 pins. five vector two-level interrupt architecture. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip. the pins can be used as high impedance inputs. Port 0 may also be configured to be the multiplexed low order address/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. timer/counters. 32 I/O lines. GND Ground. a full duplex serial port. 128 bytes of RAM. The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry standard MCS-51™ instruction set and pinout. Pin Description VCC Supply voltage. and on-chip oscillator and clock circuitry. high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 4K bytes of Flash Programmable and Erasable Read Only Memory (PEROM). Port 0 Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional I/O port. serial port and interrupt system to continue functioning. In addition.

has internal pull-ups. External pull-ups are required during program verification. . Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming. and outputs the code bytes during program verification.


In this application it uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1s. Port 2 also receives the high-order address bits and some control signals during Flash programming and verification. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. The Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. Port 2 Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. As inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs. Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during Flash programming and verification. Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89C51 as listed below: Port 3 also receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification. The Port 2 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. As inputs. During accesses to external data memory that uses 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI). A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device.Port 1 Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. Port 2 emits the highorder address byte during fetches from external program memory and during accesses to external data memory that uses 16-bit addresses (MOVX @ DPTR). Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pull-ups. RST Reset input. Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. Port 3 Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. Port 2 emits the contents of the P2 Special Function Register. . The Port 3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs.

Otherwise.3 INT1 (external interrupt 1) P3.4 T0 (timer 0 external input) P3. Port Pin Alternate Functions P3.0 RXD (serial input port) P3. the pin is weakly pulled high. except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data memory.6 WR (external data memory write strobe) P3. Setting the ALE-disable bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in external execution mode.7 RD (external data memory read strobe) When the AT89C51 is executing code from external program memory. Note.1 TXD (serial output port) P3. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming. and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes.ALE/PROG Address Latch Enable output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle. With the bit set. ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8EH. however.2 INT0 (external interrupt 0) P3. In normal operation ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency. PSEN Program Store Enable is the read strobe to external program memory. that one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external Data Memory. If desired.5 T1 (timer 1 external input) P3. EA/VPP . ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction.

Note. Either a quartz crystal or ceramic resonator may be used. XTAL1 Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit.There are no requirements on the duty cycle of the external clock signal. however. but minimum and maximum voltage high and low time specifications must be observed. that if lock bit 1 is programmed. respectively.External Access Enable. XTAL2 should be left unconnected while XTAL1 is driven as shown in Figure 2. as shown in Figure 1. of an inverting amplifier which can be configured for use as an on-chip oscillator. Oscillator Characteristics XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output. This pin also receives the 12volt programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash programming. EA will be internally latched on reset. for parts that require 12-volt VPP. EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH. To drive the device from an external clock source. XTAL2 Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier. EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions. since the input to the internal clocking circuitry is through a divide-by-two flip-flop. .

The content of the on-chip RAM and all the special functions registers remain unchanged during this mode. On-chip hardware inhibits access to internal RAM in this event. . the instruction following the one that invokes Idle should not be one that writes to a port pin or to external memory. To eliminate the possibility of an unexpected write to a port pin when Idle is terminated by reset.Idle Mode In idle mode. the CPU puts itself to sleep while all the on chip peripherals remain active. It should be noted that when idle is terminated by a hard Hardware reset. The idle mode can be terminated by any enabled Interrupt or by hardware reset. up to two machine cycles before the internal reset algorithm takes control. but access to the port pins is not inhibited. the device normally resumes program execution. The mode is invoked by software. from where it left off.

It is necessary that the latched value of EA be in agreement with The current logic level at that pin in order for the device to function properly. The only exit from power down is a hardware reset. and the instruction that invokes power down is the last instruction executed. If the device is powered up without a reset. and holds that value until reset is activated. The on-chip RAM and Special Function Registers retain their values until the power down mode is terminated. The reset should not be activated before VCC is restored to its normal operating level and must be held active long enough to allow the oscillator to restart and stabilize. the logic level at the EA pin is sampled and latched during reset. 2 P U MOVC instructions executed from external program memory are disabled from fetching code . Reset redefines the SFRs but does not change the on-chip RAM. Program Memory Lock Bits On the chip are three lock bits which can be left un-programmed (U) or can be programmed (P) to obtain the additional features listed in the table below: When lock bit 1 is programmed. Lock Bit Protection Modes Program Lock Bits Protection Type LB1 LB2 LB3 1 U No program lock features. the latch initializes to a random value.Status of External Pins during Idle and Power down Modes Mode Program Memory ALE PSEN PORT0 PORT1 PORT2 PORT3 Idle Internal 1 Data Idle External 1 Float Data Address Data Power down Internal 0 Data Power down External 0 Float Data Power down Mode In the power down mode the oscillator is stopped.

The low voltage programming mode provides a convenient way to program the AT89C51 inside the user’s system. The programming interface accepts either a high-voltage (12-volt) or a low-voltage (VCC) program enable signal. 2. The AT89C51 is shipped with either the highvoltage or low-voltage programming mode enabled. The AT89C51 code memory array is programmed byte-by byte In either programming mode. Input the appropriate data byte on the data lines.Bytes from internal memory. The bytewrite cycle is self-timed and typically takes no more than 1. 5. take the following steps. 4. Programming Algorithm: Before programming the AT89C51. 4 P same as mode 3. data and control signals should be set up according to the Flash programming mode table and Figures 3 and 4. EA is sampled and latched on reset. 3 P U Same as mode 2. 3. Programming the Flash The AT89C51 is normally shipped with the on-chip Flash memory array in the erased state (that is. Pulse ALE/PROG once to program a byte in the Flash array or the lock bits. To program any nonblank byte in the on-chip Flash Memory. also verify is disabled. the entire memory must be erased using the Chip Erase Mode. The respective top-side marking and device signature codes are listed in the following table. also external execution is disabled. To program the AT89C51. the address.5 ms. and further programming of the Flash is disabled. Raise EA/VPP to 12V for the high-voltage programming mode. while the high-voltage programming mode is compatible with conventional third party Flash or EPROM programmers. changing the address and data for the entire array or until the end of the object file is reached. Activate the correct combination of control signals. Input the desired memory location on the address lines. Repeat steps 1 through 5. . 1. contents = FFH) and ready to be programmed.

and 032H. The lock bits cannot be verified directly. Ready/Busy: The progress of byte programming can also be monitored by the RDY/BSY output signal. an attempted read of the last byte written will result in the complement of the written datum on PO. except that P3.6 and P3. 031H. Data Polling may begin any time after a write cycle has been initiated. The code array is written with all “1”s. Reading the Signature Bytes: The signature bytes are read by the same procedure as a normal verification of locations 030H.7.4 is pulled high again when programming is done to indicate READY. Program Verify: If lock bits LB1 and LB2 have not been programmed. The chip erase operation must be executed before the code memory can be re-programmed. During a write cycle. The values returned are as follows. Chip Erase: The entire Flash array is erased electrically by using the proper combination of control signals and by holding ALE/PROG low for 10 ms. Verification of the lock bits is achieved by observing that their features are enabled.7 must be pulled to a logic low.Data Polling: The AT89C51 features Data Polling to indicate the end of a write cycle. true data are valid on all outputs.4 is pulled low after ALE goes high during programming to indicate BUSY. P3. Once the write cycle has been completed. and the next cycle may begin. the programmed code data can be read back via the address and data lines for verification. (030H) = 1EH indicates manufactured by Atmel (031H) = 51H indicates 89C51 . P3.

Chip Erase requires a 10-ms PROG pulse. All major programming vendors offer worldwide support for the Atmel microcontroller series. Flash Programming Modes Note: 1. will automatically time itself to completion. The write operation cycle is self timed and once initiated.(032H) = FFH indicates 12V programming (032H) = 05H indicates 5V programming Programming Interface Every code byte in the Flash array can be written and the entire array can be erased by using the appropriate combination of control signals. SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER (SFR) ADDRESSES: ACC B PSW SP DPTR DPL DPH P0 P1 P2 P3 TMOD TCON TH0 TLO TH1 TL1 ACCUMULATOR B REGISTER PROGRAM STATUS WORD STACK POINTER DATA POINTER 2 BYTES LOW BYTE OF DPTR HIGH BYTE OF DPTR PORT0 PORT1 PORT2 PORT3 TIMER COUNTER CONTROL TIMER 0 HIGH BYTE TIMER 0 LOW BYTE TIMER 1 HIGH BYTE TIMER 1 LOW BYTE 80H 90H 0A0H 0B0H 89H 88H 8CH 8AH 8DH 8BH 82H 83H 0E0H 0F0H 0D0H 81H TIMER/COUNTER MODE CONTROL . Please contact your local programming vendor for the appropriate software revision.

SCON SBUF PCON SERIAL CONTROL SERIAL DATA BUFFER POWER CONTROL 98H 99H 87H TMOD (TIMER MODE) REGISTER Both timers are the 89c51 share the one register TMOD. In each case lower 2 bits set the mode of the timer Upper two bits set the operations. Timer/counter is enabled only while the INTX pin is high and the TRx control pin is set. GATE: Gating control when set. 4 LSB bit for the timer 0 and 4 MSB for the timer 1. the timer is enabled whenever the TRx control bit is set C/T: system clock) M1 M0 M1 0 0 1 1 M0 0 1 0 1 Mode bit 1 Mode bit 0 MODE 0 1 2 3 OPERATING MODE 13 BIT TIMER/MODE 16 BIT TIMER MODE 8 BIT AUTO RELOAD SPLIT TIMER MODE Timer or counter selected cleared for timer operation (input from internal PSW (PROGRAM STATUS WORD) . When cleared.

CY AC F0 RS1 RS0 0V -P PSW. and some are used for the power control capability of the 8051. The bit which is used for the serial communication is .5 PSW.7 PSW.____________________ 384 X BAUD RATE If the SMOD IS = 1 CRYSTAL FREQUENCY TH1 = 256-------------------------------------192 X BAUD RATE There are two ways to increase the baud rate of data transfer in the 8051 1.2 PSW. 2. Of the 8 bits.4 PSW.0 CARRY FLAG AUXILIARY CARRY AVAILABLE FOR THE USER FRO GENERAL PURPOSE REGISTER BANK SELECTOR BIT 1 REGISTER BANK SELECTOR BIT 0 OVERFLOW FLAG USER DEFINABLE BIT PARITY FLAG SET/CLEARED BY HARDWARE PCON REGISATER (NON BIT ADDRESSABLE) If the SMOD = 0 (DEFAULT ON RESET) TH1 = CRYSTAL FREQUENCY 256---.6 PSW.3 PSW. To use a higher frequency crystal To change a bit in the PCON register PCON register is an 8 bit register. some are unused.1 PSW.

1 IE. the SMOD bit.D7. Enables or Disables external interrupt 0 INTERRUPT PRIORITY REGISTER If the bit is 0. RESERVED FOR FUTURE USE.7 Disable all interrupts if EA = 0. We can set it to high by software and thereby double the baud rate BAUD RATE COMPARISION FOR SMOD = 0 AND SMOD =1 TH1 (DECIMAL) -3 -6 -12 -24 XTAL = 11. no interrupts is acknowledged If EA is 1.4 IE. RESERVED FOR FUTURE USE DEFINE THE TIMER 2 INTERRUPT PRIORITY LELVEL DEFINES THE SERIAL PORT INTERRUPT PRIORITY LEVEL .6 ET2 ES ET1 EX1 ET0 EX0 IE.2 IE. When the 8051 is powered up. D7 (SMOD BIT) OF PCON register is zero.7 IP.6 PT2 PS IP. IE. each interrupt source is individually enabled or disabled By sending or clearing its enable bit.5 IP.0 NOT implemented enables or disables timer 2 overflag in 89c52 only Enables or disables all serial interrupt Enables or Disables timer 1 overflow interrupt Enables or disables external interrupt Enables or Disables timer 0 interrupt. the corresponding interrupt has a lower priority and if the bit is 1 the corresponding interrupt has a higher priority IP.0592 MHZ IE (INTERRUPT ENABLE REGISTOR) HEX FD FA F4 E8 SMOD =0 9600 4800 2400 1200 SMOD =1 19200 9600 4800 2400 EA IE. NOT IMPLEMENTED.4 NOT IMPLEMENTED.5 IE.3 IE.

If SM2 = 0. In mode 0 RB8 is not used T1 : SCON. Must be cleared by software R1 SCON. In mode 1.5 SCON.3 IP. TCON TIMER COUNTER CONTROL REGISTER This is a bit addressable TF1 TR1 TCON. Must be cleared by the software. Set by hardware when the Timer/Counter 1 Overflows.4 Set/cleared by the software to Enable/disable reception SCON. BIT ADDRESSABLE SCON SM0 SM1 SM2 REN TB8 RB8 : : : : : : SCON. or halfway through the stop bit time in the other Modes.1 IP.2 IP. Set by hardware at the end of the 8th bit Time in mode 0.0 DEFINES THE TIMER 1 INTERRUPT PRIORITY LEVEL DEFINES EXTERNAL INTERRUPT 1 PRIORITY LEVEL DEFINES THE TIMER 0 INTERRUPT PRIORITY LEVEL DEFINES THE EXTERNAL INTERRUPT 0 PRIORITY LEVEL SCON: SERIAL PORT CONTROL REGISTER. or at the beginning of the stop bit in the other Modes.PT1 PX1 PT0 PX0 IP.0 Receive interrupt flag.3 the 9th bit that will be transmitted in modes 2 and 3.7 TCON.1 Transmit interrupt flag. Set/cleared by software to turn Timer Counter 1 On/off . Set/cleared By software SCON.6 Timer 1 overflows flag. Cleared by hardware as processor Timer 1 run control bit. is the 9th data bit that was received.6 Serial Port mode specifier SCON. Set by hardware at the end of the 8th bit Time in mode 0.2 In modes 2 &3.7 Serial Port mode specified SCON. RB8 is the stop bit that was received.

TF T T T IE 1 IT R1 IE F0 IT R0 I 0 0 TF0 TR0 IE1 ITI IE0 IT0 TCON.5 TCON.1 TCON.0 Timer 0 overflows flag. External interrupt 1 edge flag Interrupt 1 type control bit External interrupt 0 edge Interrupt 0 type control bit. . Cleared by hardware as processor Timer 0 run control bit.3 TCON.4 TCON.2 TCON. Set/cleared by software to turn timer Counter 0 on/off. Set by hardware when the timer/counter 0 Overflows.

When light falls upon it then the resistance changes. . LDRs are a particularly convenient electronics component to use. They can be described by a variety of names from light dependent resistor. What is an LDR or light dependent resistor A photoresistor or light dependent resistor is a component that is sensitive to light. and ease of use LDRs have been used in a variety of different applications. Values of the resistance of the LDR may change over many orders of magnitude the value of the resistance falling as the level of light increases. or even photo cell (photocell) or photoconductor. They provide large change in resistance for changes in light level. Although other devices such as photodiodes or photo-transistor can also be used. ease of manufacture. photoresistor. At one time LDRs were used in photographic light meters. LDR. In view of their low cost.Light dependent resistors or LDRs are often used in circuits where it is necessary to detect the presence or the level of light. and even now they are still used in a variety of applications where it is necessary to detect light levels.

and therefore it is hard to make the them move and hence a current to flow. LDRs are easy to use and there are many LDR circuits available. As the LDR resistance varies over such a wide range. Good conductors have a large number of free electrons that can drift in a given direction under the action of a potential difference. . LDRs are made from semiconductor materials to enable them to have their light sensitive properties. How an LDR works It is relatively easy to understand the basics of how an LDR works without delving into complicated explanations. It has a high resistance because there are very few electrons that are free and able to move .It is not uncommon for the values of resistance of an LDR or photoresistor to be several megohms in darkness and then to fall to a few hundred ohms in bright light. This results in a lowering of the resistance of the semiconductor and hence the overall LDR resistance. An LDR or photoresistor is made any semiconductor material with a high resistance. The process is progressive. and as more light shines on the LDR semiconductor. With such a wide variation in resistance. so more electrons are released to conduct electricity and the resistance falls further. but one popular material for these photoresistors is cadmium sulphide (CdS). the light photons are absorbed by the semiconductor lattice and some of their energy is transferred to the electrons. Many materials can be used. it is necessary to know something of how an LDR works. Therefore in this state there is a high LDR resistance. LDR summary LDRs are very useful components that can be used for a variety of light sensing applications. It is first necessary to understand that an electrical current consists of the movement of electrons within a material. This gives some of them sufficient energy to break free from the crystal lattice so that they can then conduct electricity. which has been explained above. Insulators with a high resistance have very few free electrons. and there are many LDR circuits available beyond any shown here. In order to utilise these components. As light falls on the semiconductor.the vast majority of the electrons are locked into the crystal lattice and unable to move. they are particularly useful.

Wind turbines can also be classified by the location in which they are to be used. Wind turbines can be separated into two general types based on the axis about which the turbine rotates. California. or even aerial wind turbines have unique design characteristics which are explained in more detail in the section on Turbine design and construction. offshore. Vertical axis turbines are less frequently used. Onshore.Types of wind turbines Wind farm in the Tehachapi Mountains. . Turbines that rotate around a horizontal axis are most common.

the blades are placed a considerable distance in front of the tower and are sometimes tilted up a small amount. Additionally. which turns the slow rotation of the blades into a quicker rotation that is more suitable for generating electricity. were pointed into the wind manually or via a tail-fan. because they don't need an additional mechanism for keeping them in line with the wind. and were instrumental in keeping its polders dry. while large turbines generally use a wind sensor coupled with a servomotor. Downwind machines have been built. They greatly accelerated shipbuilding in the Netherlands. Small turbines are pointed by a simple wind vane. usually with wooden shutters or fabric sails. Since a tower produces turbulence behind it. were historically used to grind grain or pump water from low-lying land. generally associated with the Netherlands. the blades can be allowed to bend which reduces their swept area and thus their wind resistance. American-style farm windmills . and because in high winds. Turbine blades are made stiff to prevent the blades from being pushed into the tower by high winds. most HAWTs are upwind machines. These windmills. and must be pointed into the wind by some means. Horizontal axis Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT) have the main rotor shaft and generator at the top of a tower.Wind turbines may also be used in conjunction with a solar collector to extract the energy due to air heated by the Sun and rising through a large vertical Solar updraft tower. despite the problem of turbulence. There are several types of HAWT: Windmills These four. the turbine is usually pointed upwind of the tower. Because turbulence leads to fatigue failures and reliability is so important. Most have a gearbox too.(or more) bladed squat structures.

operated at tip speed ratios (defined below) not better than one. or to operate a radio receiver. high efficiency. Denmark Common modern wind turbines Usually three-bladed. Ducted rotor Still something of a research project. This is the type of turbine that is used commercially to produce electricity.e. They typically had many blades. to provide a few lights. They are usually white in color. Some had small direct-current generators used to charge storage batteries. DAWT). sometimes two-bladed or even one-bladed (and counterbalanced). and had good starting torque. They are also referred as Diffuser-Augmented Wind Turbines (i.These windmills were used by American prairie farmers to generate electricity and to pump water. Such devices are still used in locations where it is too costly to bring in commercial power. Another advantage is that the generator operates at a high rotation . the ducted rotor consists of a turbine inside a duct which flares outwards at the back. The rugged three-bladed turbine type has been championed by Danish turbine manufacturers. The rural electrification connected many farms to centrally-generated power and replaced individual windmills as a primary source of farm power in the 1950s. Wind turbines near Aalborg. These have high tip speeds of up to 6x wind speed. and pointed into the wind by computer-controlled motors. The main advantage of the ducted rotor is that it can operate in a wide range of winds and generate a higher power per unit of rotor area. and low torque ripple which contributes to good reliability.

multiple rotors in testing conducted by inventor and researcher Douglas Selsam. multi-rotor horizontal axis turbines Two or more rotors may be mounted to the same driveshaft. no large practical counter-rotating HAWTs are commercially sold. the two turbines should turn at speeds with few common multiples. which puts an added load on the tower. with their combined co-rotation together turning the same generator . Power has been multiplied several times using co-axial. When the counter rotating turbines are on the same side of the tower. this is a more complicated design than the single-turbine wind generator. it is best that the blades at the back be smaller than the blades at the front and set to stall at a higher wind speed. It is the most powerful 7-foot diameter turbine available. due to this extra rotor. As of 2005.fresh wind is brought to each rotor by sufficient spacing between rotors combined with an offset angle alpha from the wind direction. so the mechanical portion can be smaller and lighter. Co-axial. Wake vorticity is recovered as the top of a wake hits the bottom of the next rotor. The first commercially available co-axial multi-rotor turbine is the patented dual-rotor American Twin Superturbine from Selsam Innovations in California. Counter-rotating horizontal axis turbines Counter rotating turbines can be used to increase the rotation speed of the electrical generator. Overall. for example 7:3 speed ratio. Appa designed and demonstrated a contra rotor wind turbine in FY 20002002 funded by California Energy Commission. If the turbine blades are on opposite sides of the tower. A disadvantage is that (apart from the gearbox) it is more complicated than the unducted rotor and the duct is usually quite heavy. for the California Energy Commission in 2004. Further it . so it doesn't require a bulky gearbox. To reduce sympathetic vibrations. but it taps more of the wind's energy at a wider range of wind speeds.rate. This study showed 30 to 40% more power extraction than a comparable single rotor system. This allows the generator to function at a wider wind speed range than a single-turbine generator for a given tower. the blades in front are angled forwards slightly so as to avoid hitting the rear ones. with 2 propellers separated by 12 feet.

where one is straight up when another is straight down. axle and bearing material. The tower hinders the airflow at the lowest point in the circle. which produces a local dip in force and torque. near the ground. For each blade on a wind generator's turbine. meaning they must operate in the slower. and were a major cause of turbine failure for many years. As it pivots. To improve reliability. and the difficulty of mounting vertical axis turbines on towers. and that the turbine doesn't need to be pointed into the wind. so the tower doesn't need to support it. Vertical axis Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (or VAWTs) have the main rotor shaft running vertically. Consequently Megawatt machines benefit most. Cyclic stresses and vibration Cyclic stresses fatigue the blade. the rotating blades act like a gyroscope. gyroscopic precession tries to twist the turbine into a forward or backward somersault. The combined twist is worst in machines with an even number of blades. with lower energy extraction efficiency. This cyclic twisting can quickly fatigue and crack the blade roots. the backward force and torque on a horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) blade peaks as it turns through the highest point in its circle. When the turbine turns to face the wind. These effects produce a cyclic twist on the main bearings of a HAWT. Drawbacks are usually the pulsating torque produced during each revolution. Because wind velocity increases at higher altitudes. The advantages of this arrangement are that the generator and/or gearbox can be placed at the bottom. hub and axle of the turbine. more turbulent air flow near the ground.was observed that the slower the rotor speed better the performance. teetering hubs have been used which allow the main shaft to rock through a few degrees. so that the main bearings do not have to resist the torque peaks. precessive force is at a minimum when the blade is horizontal and at a maximum when the blade is vertical. .

Giromill is a type of Darrieus These lift-type devices have vertical blades.(or more) scoop drag-type devices used in anemometers and in the Flettner vents commonly seen on bus and van roofs. relatively flat torque curve. more efficient operation in turbulent winds. The cycloturbine variety has variable pitch. V. Straight. to start turning. to give smooth torque.H-Darrieus-turbine Darrieus wind turbine These are the "eggbeater" turbines. which contributes to poor reliability. a lower blade speed ratio. or an additional Savonius rotor. The torque ripple is reduced by using 3 or more blades. but produce large torque ripple and cyclic stress on the tower. and a lower blade speed ratio which lowers blade bending stresses. a higher coefficient of performance. Savonius wind turbine These are the familiar two. and some highreliability low-efficiency power turbines. They can sometimes have long helical scoops. The Banesh rotor and especially the Rahai rotor improve efficiency by shaping the blades to produce significant lift as well as drag. They have good efficiency. because the starting torque is very low. a wide. . Also. or curved blades may be used. to reduce the torque pulsation and self-start . The advantages of variable pitch are high starting torque. They always self-start (if at least three scoops). they generally require some external power source.

Typically. In night time. or better: when the atmosphere becomes stable. . then. in daytime the variation follows the 1/7th power law. called wind shear. Doubling the tower height generally requires doubling the diameter as well. The variation in velocity with altitude. Doubling the altitude of a turbine. A stable atmosphere is caused by radiative cooling of the surface and is common in a temperate climate: it usually occurs when there is a (partly) clear sky at night. which predicts that wind speed rises proportionally to the seventh root of altitude. increases the expected wind speeds by 10% and the expected power by 34%. When the (high altitude) wind is strong (10 meter wind speed higher than approximately 6 to 7 m/s) the stable atmosphere is disrupted because of friction turbulence and the atmosphere will turn neutral. A daytime atmosphere is either neutral (no net radiation. is most dramatic near the surface. wind speed close to the ground usually subsides whereas at turbine hub altitude it does not decrease that much or may even increase.Tower height The wind blows faster at higher altitudes because of the drag of the surface (sea or land) and the viscosity of the air. Here again the 1/7th power law applies or is at least a good approximation of the wind profile. Wind turbines of varied height generating electricity in California. As a result the wind speed is higher and a turbine will produce more power than expected from the 1/7th power law: doubling the altitude may increase wind speed by 20% to 60%. usually with strong winds and/or heavy clouding) or unstable (rising air because of ground heating — by the sun). increasing the amount of material by a factor of eight.

the cost of the turbine usually increases with the number of blades. Turbines with larger numbers of smaller blades operate at a lower Reynolds number and so are less efficient. with three instead of two blades. the turbine can shake itself apart. Modern wind turbines are designed to spin at varying speeds (a consequence of their generator design. Rotation control Tip speed ratio The ratio between the speed of the wind and the speed of the tips of the blades of a wind turbine. Very small turbines may use two blades for ease of construction and installation. Most wind turbines have three blades. Number of blades For small (novelty or urban) HAWT turbines manufacturers typically ship three-bladed turbines with three separate blades that must be assembled onsite.For HAWTs. into a central hub. see below). Also. keeping the tip speed ratio more nearly constant. Small turbines with 4 or more blades suffer further losses as each blade operates partly in the wake of the other blades. Vibration intensity decreases with larger numbers of blades. Noise and wear are generally lower. High efficiency 3-blade-turbines have tip speed ratios of 6-7. tower heights approximately twice to triple the blade length have been found to balance material costs of the tower against better utilisation of the more expensive active components. and efficiency higher. Operating closer to their optimal tip . Use of aluminum and composites in their blades has contributed to low rotational inertia. which means that newer wind turbines can accelerate quickly if the winds pick up. Without careful assembly ensuring accurate dynamic balance of the blades.

To reduce noise. the noise from a wind turbine increases with the fifth power of the relative wind speed (as seen from the moving tip of the blades). The high inertia buffered the changes in rotation speed and thus made power output more stable. turbines have to be built to survive much higher wind loads (such as gusts of wind) than those from which they can practically generate power. . and mechanical braking. most wind turbines have ways of reducing torque in high winds. Since the blades generate more downwind force (and thus put far greater stress on the tower) when they are producing torque. because it is dangerous to have people working on a wind turbine while it is active. Furling is the preferred method of slowing wind turbines. The speed and torque at which a wind turbine rotates must be controlled for several reasons: • • • To optimize the aerodynamic efficiency of the rotor in light winds. Because the power of the wind increases as the cube of the wind speed. To keep the generator within its speed and torque limits. The centripetal force from the spinning rotors increases as the square of the rotation speed. In contrast.speed ratio during energetic gusts of wind allows wind turbines to improve energy capture from sudden gusts that are typical in urban settings. To enable maintenance. To keep the rotor and hub within their centripetal force limits. • • • Overspeed control is exerted in two main ways: aerodynamic stalling or furling. To keep the rotor and tower within their strength limits. In noise-sensitive environments. older style wind turbines were designed with heavier steel blades. it is sometimes necessary to bring a turbine to a full stop. which have higher inertia. the tip speed can be limited to approximately 60 m/s. which makes this structure sensitive to overspeed. As a rule of thumb. and rotated at speeds governed by the AC frequency of the power lines.

Labor and maintenance costs increase only gradually with increasing turbine size.Mechanical braking A mechanical drum brake or disk brake is used to hold the turbine at rest for maintenance. Turbine size A person standing beside medium size modern turbine blades. and siting requirements. Wind power intercepted by the turbine is proportional to the square of its blade-length. wind farm turbines are basically limited by the strength of materials. There can also be a stick brake. For a given survivable wind speed. The maximum blade-length of a turbine is limited by both the strength and stiffness of its material. as the mechanical brakes would wear quickly if used to stop the turbine from full speed. Typical modern wind turbines have diameters of 40 to 90 meters and are rated between 500 kW and 2 megawatts. . the mass of a turbine is approximately proportional to the cube of its blade-length. so to minimize costs. Currently (2005) the most powerful turbine is rated at 6 MW. Such brakes are usually applied only after blade furling and electromagnetic braking have reduced the turbine speed.

Older style wind generators rotate at a constant speed. The variable frequency current is then converted to DC and then back to AC. especially when turbines are sited offshore. Modern rotor blades (up to 126 m diameter) are made of lightweight pultruded glass-reinforced plastic (GRP). Newer wind turbines often turn at whatever speed generates electricity most efficiently. so that the generator cost and weight can be reduced. the DC energy will be transmitted from the turbine to a central (onshore) inverter for connection to the grid. adjustment of the field current allows good control over the generator output voltage. the turbine can capture a significantly larger fraction of the wind energy. to match power line frequency. commercial size horizontal-axis wind turbines. Electrical generators inherently produce AC power.Generating electricity For large. Commercial size generators have a rotor carrying a field winding so that a rotating magnetic field is produced inside a set of windings called the stator. A speed increasing gearbox may be inserted between the rotor hub and the generator. matching the line frequency and voltage. While the rotating field winding consumes a fraction of a percent of the generator output. Although the two conversions require costly equipment and cause power loss. Materials One of the strongest construction materials available (in 2006) is graphitefibre in epoxy. . In some cases. behind the hub of the turbine rotor. which allowed the use of less costly induction generators. the generator is mounted in a nacelle at the top of a tower. but it is very expensive and only used by some manufactures for special load-bearing parts of the rotor blades. Very small wind generators (a few watts to perhaps a kilowatt in output) may use permanent magnets but these are too costly to use in large machines and do not allow convenient regulation of the generator voltage. GRP is the most common material for modern wind turbines. smaller ones also from aluminium.

By the 1930s windmills were mainly used to generate electricity on farms. Wind machines were used for grinding grain in Persia as early as 200 B. mostly in the United States where distribution systems had not yet been installed. Also. not much different from current wind machines. connected to the local 6.D. In this period. History High-efficiency wind turbines (foreground) win out over traditional windmills (background) in most new installations.3 kV distribution system. In Denmark by 1900 there were about 2500 windmills for mechanical loads such as pumps and mills. This was a 100 kW generator on a 30 m tower. By the 14th century Dutch windmills were in use to drain areas of the Rhine River delta. USSR in 1931. For these reasons they were superseded with solid airfoils. and in 1908 there were 72 winddriven electric generators from 5 kW to 25 kW. It was reported to have an annual load factor of 32 per cent. The first windmill for electricity production was built in Denmark in 1890. and windmills were placed atop prefabricated open steel lattice towers.C.Wood and canvas sails were originally used on early windmills. producing an estimated combined peak power of about 30 MW. high tensile steel was cheap. Unfortunately they require much maintenance over their service life. . they have a relatively high drag (low aerodynamic efficiency) for the force they capture. The largest machines were on 24 m towers with four-bladed 23 m diameter rotors. This type of machine was introduced into the Roman Empire by 250 A. A forerunner of modern horizontal-axis wind generators was in service at Yalta.

since network power distribution provided a farm with more dependable usable energy for a given amount of capital investment. In the 1970s many people began to desire a self-sufficient life-style. This 1. Later. These machines. Originally wind generators were built right next to where their power was needed. In the 1990s. These rebates funded the first major use of wind power for utility electricity. With the availability of long distance electric power transmission. well beyond the ability of most romantics. Most people discovered that a reliable wind generator is a moderately complex engineering project. Small generators are connected to the tower on the ground. USA. of which Jacobs wind generators were especially sought after. then the tower is raised into position. so some turned to windmills. Some began to search for and rebuild farm wind-generators from the 1930s. Wind generator cost per unit power has been decreasing by about four percent per year. turbines were placed atop steel or reinforced concrete towers. they are being widely deployed. Solar cells were too expensive for small-scale electrical generation. the U. In the 1940s. Larger generators are hoisted into position atop the tower and there is a ladder or staircase inside the tower to allow technicians to reach and maintain the generator.S. which had not been reinforced due to war-time material shortages. wind generators are now often on wind farms in windy locations and huge ones are being built offshore. Since wind turbines are a renewable means of generating electricity. Much depends on the cost of alternative sources of electricity. had a rural electrification project that killed the natural market for wind-generated power. sometimes transmitting power back to land using high voltage submarine cable. . but their cost is often subsidised by taxpayers. At first they built ad-hoc designs using wood and automobile parts.In 1941 the world's first megawatt-size wind turbine was connected to the local electrical distribution system on Grandpa's Knob in Castleton. Vermont.25 MW Smith-Putnam turbine operated for 1100 hours before a blade failed at a known weak point. as aesthetics and durability became more important. California provided tax rebates for ecologically harmless power. in the 1980s. either directly or through renewable energy credits. gathered in large wind parks such as at Altamont Pass would be considered small and un-economic by modern wind power development standards.

— supplier of multi-MW wind turbine gear units [9] O'Connor Hush Energy[10] .wind turbines up to 6 MW Gamesa Corporacion Tecnologica Garrad Hassan and Partners Ltd. — Wind turbine generators[3] Airtricity — only operates turbines AWS Truewind.WindPRO software package for project design and planning of turbines Emergya Wind Technologies[8] Enercon GmbH. Germany .International wind energy consultancy services NEG Micon .Certification of wind turbines and wind turbine projects DeWind Ecotècnia sccl .Australian supplier of small.wind turbines up to 5 MW Selsam Innovations / Superturbine Inc. California multi-rotor wind turbines http://www.Wind Energy Consultants Bergey Windpower[5] Det Norske Veritas .Rotor blades ranging from 13. .Major Wind Turbine Generator Transformer Manufacturers PB Power .Merged with Vestas in 2004 Nordex Pauwels Trafo Belgium/Ireland. through its subsidiary GE Energy Hansen Transmissions Int.Spanish manufacturer Eclectic Energy Ltd .4 to 61.Moventas provides leading mechanical power transmission technology to the energy and process industries [11] Natural Power .selsam. LLC[4] .Global Engineering Company servicing Power industry REpower.UK manufacturer of small wind turbines. Germany .5 m Moventas Oy .Companies in wind turbine industry World market for wind energy plants in 2003 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ABB Ltd. General Electric. including the gridlinked turbine StealthGen Eirbyte[7] — Supplier of small turbines in Ireland EMD A/S .com Siemens Wind Power A/S (formerly Bonus Energy A/S) Southwest Windpower Suzlon Energy Ltd . quiet turbines LM Glasfiber A/S .