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Energy from the road side

To feed in electric energy the signalization of Highways one produces electricity with wind but it's the wind produce by the displacement of cars and trucks, for example a small truck at 70 mph produces a speed wind of 30 mph. To exploit this kind of wind one must a vertical axis wind turbine near the road, the natural wind give energy too. The idea is: Have an self energy-feed unit for all signalization system of highway, to save energy and money

In this project we show that how we generate a valuable voltage with the help of moving traffic on the road. In this project we use conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy. For this purpose we install one vertical axix wind mill on the road. On all the wind mill we use dynamo to generate a voltage. When wind rotate then dynamo also rotate and

generate the voltage With the help of this dynamo we convert the mechanical energy into electrical energy. We use dc dynamo, so output from the dynamo is connected to the dc battery. When battery is fully charged then we use battery for our project. We install one photoelectric effect in the project. Street light is to be switch on automatically in the night and lights are automatically off in the day night. In this project we switch on the street light in night in half mode. Half mode means all the lights are to be on in 50 percent on/off mode. Rest of lights are to be on if the traffic is on the road. If the road is with traffic then all the lights are on. If the road is without traffic then 50 percent lights are again off. For road sensing, we use two pair of infra red sensor on the road. When any car cross the road then infra red beam is interrupted and signal is connected

to the controller. Controller sense the signal and increment the counter. Counter display the total number of vehicle on road. When counter shows a 0 number then road lights are off to 50 percent.

In circuit we use LDR as a light dependent resistor to sense the darkness. When LDR is in dark then LDR offer a low resistance. At this time LDR gives a signal to the circuit to switch on/off the road light for 50 percent. As the LDR is in dark then 50 percent is on. But if the traffic is on the road then road sensor gets a signal and connect to the circuit. In the road sensor we use infra red l.e.d and photodiode as a road sensor. When any vehicle interrupt the infra red light then circuit sense the interruption and at this time Or comparator circuit switch on the light. In this project we use LM 358 as a comparator with infra red sensors.

To feed in electric energy the signalization of Highways one produces electricity with wind but it's the wind produce by the displacement of cars and trucks, for example a small truck at 70 mph produces a speed wind of 30 mph. To exploit this kind of wind one must a vertical axis wind turbine near the road, the natural wind give energy too. The idea is: Have an self energy-feed unit for all signalization system of highway, to save energy and money

In the night lights are automatic on with the help of photovoltaic switch logic.

But all lights are not on, only half light are on. Other half lights switch on automatically when any vehicle move on the bridge, when there is no vehicle on the bridge then lights are off automatically.

We use two infra red sensors to check the movement of vehicle. When first infra red sensor is on then lights are on and when second sensor is interrupt then lights are off.

COMPONENTS USED: 89S51 MICROCONTROLLER. PHOTODIODE( 2)5MM INFRA RED LED (2) 5MM 7805 REGULATOR ( 5 VOLT) CRYSTAL ( 12 MHZ) CONNECTED TO PIN NO 18 AND 19 27 PF ( 2_) GROUNDED FROM CRYSTAL RESISTANCE: 10K OHM (3) 470 OHM(2) 270 OHM (6) 1 K OHM (1)

LDR FOR AUTOMATIC STREET LIGHT NPN BC 548 FOR LDR SWITCHING

GENERAL PURPOSE PCB

12 VOLT DYANMO

6 VOLT CHARGEBALE BATTERY CHANGOVER SWITCH L.E.D ( 6 ) FOR STREET LIGHT

MAIN THEME OF THIS PROJECT NON CONVENTIONAL ENERGY GENERATION CONCEPT: MECHANICAL TO ELECTRICAL ENERGY LOGIC: USE DYANMO AS A SPEED BRAKER , One rod with the dynamo is placed like a speed braker. Dyanmo is so powerful. Movement of vehicle just rotate the dynamo shaft and electricity is generated. This voltage is to be stored in the chargeable battery.

In the night lights are automatic on with the help of photovoltaic switch logic.

But all lights are not on, only half light are on. Other half lights switch on automatically when any vehicle move on the bridge, when there is no vehicle on the bridge then lights are off automatically.

In this project we use 89s51 controller , family member of the 8051 family.. supply voltage of the microcontroller is 5 volt dc . for this prupose we convert the battery voltage into 5 volt dc with the help of the 5 volt regulator circuit. For this purpose we use ic 7805 regulator to regulate the high voltage inot 5 volt dc. One capacitor is ground from the regulator for filteration . Capcitor reduce the noise . Output of the regulator is connected to the pin no 40 of the controller directly. One crystal is connected to the pin no 18 and 19 of the controller to provide a oscillation signal. For this purpose we use 12 Mhz crystal. Two capacitor are grounded from the crystal to reduce the noise In this project we use two logic. One is light sensitive logic and second is road sensor logic. When sensor is in dark then all the lights are on and when sensor is in light then all the lights are off. This is done by the light sensor ( LDR). LDR is a light dependent resistor , when light fall on the ldr then ldr offers a low resistance and when ldr is in dark then ldr offeres a high resistance. Here in this project we use the ldr with npn transistor circuit. Emitter of the npn transistor is connected to the ground and collector is connected to the pin no 3 of the controller.

when ldr is in light then there is low positive on the base of the npn transistor and collector is become more negative. When ldr is in dark then there is no base voltage and hence collector become more positive. Microcontroler sense this change of voltage and switch on the output led whish is connected to the port 0,

Out put leds are connected with the port 0 through the resistance in series, here in this we use 6 l.e.d . Common point of the l.e.d is connected with the positive line. Out of 6 only three l.e.ds are on . Our second part of this project is infra red sensor. In this logic when any car cross the first ir sensor then all the led are on and if the traffic continuous then led are on if the no car on the road then again three led are eon and three are off

For this purpose we use two IR sensor circuit with this project.

here in this project we use infra red sensor and one photodiode circuit when light fall on the photosensor then resistance of photos sensor become low and hence negative voltage is applied to the controller, when any car cross the photodiode and then photo diode resistance become high and hence signal is change on the pin no 2 of the controller. As the controller sense this change of signal on pin then all the light are on .

Main program is written in the 8051 ide siftware. We wrote the software in the assembly language. In the 8051 ide software

Once the software is complete and there is no error then we transfer this hex code into the blank ic with the help of the serial port programmer circuit.

Basic of the microcontroller.

PROJECT DESCRIPTION MICROCONTROLLER AT89C51


Architecture of 8051 family:-

The figure 1 above shows the basic architecture of 8051 family of microcontroller.
Features
Compatible with MCS-51 Products 4K Bytes of In-System Reprogrammable Flash Memory Endurance: 1,000 Write/Erase Cycles Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz Three-Level Program Memory Lock 128 x 8-Bit Internal RAM 32 Programmable I/O Lines Two 16-Bit Timer/Counters Six Interrupt Sources

Programmable Serial Channel Low Power Idle and Power Down Modes

Description
The AT89C51 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 4K bytes of Flash Programmable and Erasable Read Only Memory (PEROM). The device is manufactured using Atmels high density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry standard MCS-51 instruction set and pinout. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89C51 is a powerful microcomputer which provides a highly flexible and cost effective solution to many embedded control applications. The AT89C51 provides the following standard features: 4K bytes of Flash, 128 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, two 16-bit timer/counters, five vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, and on-chip oscillator and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89C51 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power down Mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator disabling all other chip functions until the next hardware reset. Pin Description VCC Supply voltage. GND Ground. Port 0 Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional I/O port. As an output port each pin can sink eight TTL inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used as high impedance inputs. Port 0 may also be configured to be the multiplexed low order address/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. In this mode P0

has internal pull-ups. Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming, and outputs the code bytes during program verification. External pull-ups are required during program verification.

Port 1 Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during Flash programming and verification. Port 2 Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 2 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. Port 2 emits the highorder address byte during fetches from external program memory and during accesses to external data memory that uses 16-bit addresses (MOVX @ DPTR). In this application it uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1s. During accesses to external data memory that uses 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI); Port 2 emits the contents of the P2 Special Function Register. Port 2 also receives the high-order address bits and some control signals during Flash programming and verification. Port 3 Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pull-ups. Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89C51 as listed below: Port 3 also receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification. RST Reset input. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device.

ALE/PROG Address Latch Enable output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming. In normal operation ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency, and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. Note, however, that one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external Data Memory. If desired, ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8EH. With the bit set, ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction. Otherwise, the pin is weakly pulled high. Setting the ALE-disable bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in external execution mode. PSEN Program Store Enable is the read strobe to external program memory. Port Pin Alternate Functions P3.0 RXD (serial input port) P3.1 TXD (serial output port) P3.2 INT0 (external interrupt 0) P3.3 INT1 (external interrupt 1) P3.4 T0 (timer 0 external input) P3.5 T1 (timer 1 external input) P3.6 WR (external data memory write strobe) P3.7 RD (external data memory read strobe) When the AT89C51 is executing code from external program memory, PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data memory. EA/VPP

External Access Enable. EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH. Note, however, that if lock bit 1 is programmed, EA will be internally latched on reset. EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions. This pin also receives the 12volt programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash programming, for parts that require 12-volt VPP. XTAL1 Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit. XTAL2 Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier. Oscillator Characteristics XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output, respectively, of an inverting amplifier which can be configured for use as an on-chip oscillator, as shown in Figure 1. Either a quartz crystal or ceramic resonator may be used. To drive the device from an external clock source, XTAL2 should be left unconnected while XTAL1 is driven as shown in Figure 2.There are no requirements on the duty cycle of the external clock signal, since the input to the internal clocking circuitry is through a divide-by-two flip-flop, but minimum and maximum voltage high and low time specifications must be observed.

Idle Mode In idle mode, the CPU puts itself to sleep while all the on chip peripherals remain active. The mode is invoked by software. The content of the on-chip RAM and all the special functions registers remain unchanged during this mode. The idle mode can be terminated by any enabled Interrupt or by hardware reset. It should be noted that when idle is terminated by a hard Hardware reset, the device normally resumes program execution, from where it left off, up to two machine cycles before the internal reset algorithm takes control. On-chip hardware inhibits access to internal RAM in this event, but access to the port pins is not inhibited. To eliminate the possibility of an unexpected write to a port pin when Idle is terminated by reset, the instruction following the one that invokes Idle should not be one that writes to a port pin or to external memory.

Status of External Pins during Idle and Power down Modes Mode Program Memory ALE PSEN PORT0 PORT1 PORT2 PORT3 Idle Internal 1 Data Idle External 1 Float Data Address Data Power down Internal 0 Data Power down External 0 Float Data Power down Mode In the power down mode the oscillator is stopped, and the instruction that invokes power down is the last instruction executed. The on-chip RAM and Special Function Registers retain their values until the power down mode is terminated. The only exit from power down is a hardware reset. Reset redefines the SFRs but does not change the on-chip RAM. The reset should not be activated before VCC is restored to its normal operating level and must be held active long enough to allow the oscillator to restart and stabilize. Program Memory Lock Bits On the chip are three lock bits which can be left un-programmed (U) or can be programmed (P) to obtain the additional features listed in the table below: When lock bit 1 is programmed, the logic level at the EA pin is sampled and latched during reset. If the device is powered up without a reset, the latch initializes to a random value, and holds that value until reset is activated. It is necessary that the latched value of EA be in agreement with The current logic level at that pin in order for the device to function properly. Lock Bit Protection Modes Program Lock Bits Protection Type LB1 LB2 LB3 1 U No program lock features. 2 P U MOVC instructions executed from external program memory are disabled from fetching code

Bytes from internal memory, EA is sampled and latched on reset, and further programming of the Flash is disabled. 3 P U Same as mode 2, also verify is disabled. 4 P same as mode 3, also external execution is disabled. Programming the Flash The AT89C51 is normally shipped with the on-chip Flash memory array in the erased state (that is, contents = FFH) and ready to be programmed. The programming interface accepts either a high-voltage (12-volt) or a low-voltage (VCC) program enable signal. The low voltage programming mode provides a convenient way to program the AT89C51 inside the users system, while the high-voltage programming mode is compatible with conventional third party Flash or EPROM programmers. The AT89C51 is shipped with either the highvoltage or low-voltage programming mode enabled. The respective top-side marking and device signature codes are listed in the following table. The AT89C51 code memory array is programmed byte-by byte In either programming mode. To program any nonblank byte in the on-chip Flash Memory, the entire memory must be erased using the Chip Erase Mode. Programming Algorithm: Before programming the AT89C51, the address, data and control signals should be set up according to the Flash programming mode table and Figures 3 and 4. To program the AT89C51, take the following steps. 1. Input the desired memory location on the address lines. 2. Input the appropriate data byte on the data lines. 3. Activate the correct combination of control signals. 4. Raise EA/VPP to 12V for the high-voltage programming mode. 5. Pulse ALE/PROG once to program a byte in the Flash array or the lock bits. The bytewrite cycle is self-timed and typically takes no more than 1.5 ms. Repeat steps 1 through 5, changing the address and data for the entire array or until the end of the object file is reached.

Data Polling: The AT89C51 features Data Polling to indicate the end of a write cycle. During a write cycle, an attempted read of the last byte written will result in the complement of the written datum on PO.7. Once the write cycle has been completed, true data are valid on all outputs, and the next cycle may begin. Data Polling may begin any time after a write cycle has been initiated. Ready/Busy: The progress of byte programming can also be monitored by the RDY/BSY output signal. P3.4 is pulled low after ALE goes high during programming to indicate BUSY. P3.4 is pulled high again when programming is done to indicate READY. Program Verify: If lock bits LB1 and LB2 have not been programmed, the programmed code data can be read back via the address and data lines for verification. The lock bits cannot be verified directly. Verification of the lock bits is achieved by observing that their features are enabled. Chip Erase: The entire Flash array is erased electrically by using the proper combination of control signals and by holding ALE/PROG low for 10 ms. The code array is written with all 1s. The chip erase operation must be executed before the code memory can be re-programmed. Reading the Signature Bytes: The signature bytes are read by the same procedure as a normal verification of locations 030H, 031H, and 032H, except that P3.6 and P3.7 must be pulled to a logic low. The values returned are as follows. (030H) = 1EH indicates manufactured by Atmel (031H) = 51H indicates 89C51

(032H) = FFH indicates 12V programming (032H) = 05H indicates 5V programming Programming Interface Every code byte in the Flash array can be written and the entire array can be erased by using the appropriate combination of control signals. The write operation cycle is self timed and once initiated, will automatically time itself to completion. All major programming vendors offer worldwide support for the Atmel microcontroller series. Please contact your local programming vendor for the appropriate software revision. Flash Programming Modes Note: 1. Chip Erase requires a 10-ms PROG pulse.

SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER (SFR) ADDRESSES: ACC B PSW SP DPTR DPL DPH P0 P1 P2 P3 TMOD TCON TH0 TLO TH1 TL1 ACCUMULATOR B REGISTER PROGRAM STATUS WORD STACK POINTER DATA POINTER 2 BYTES LOW BYTE OF DPTR HIGH BYTE OF DPTR PORT0 PORT1 PORT2 PORT3 TIMER COUNTER CONTROL TIMER 0 HIGH BYTE TIMER 0 LOW BYTE TIMER 1 HIGH BYTE TIMER 1 LOW BYTE 80H 90H 0A0H 0B0H 89H 88H 8CH 8AH 8DH 8BH 82H 83H 0E0H 0F0H 0D0H 81H

TIMER/COUNTER MODE CONTROL

SCON SBUF PCON

SERIAL CONTROL SERIAL DATA BUFFER POWER CONTROL

98H 99H 87H

TMOD (TIMER MODE) REGISTER

Both timers are the 89c51 share the one register TMOD. 4 LSB bit for the timer 0 and 4 MSB for the timer 1. In each case lower 2 bits set the mode of the timer Upper two bits set the operations. GATE: Gating control when set. Timer/counter is enabled only while the INTX pin is high and the TRx control pin is set. When cleared, the timer is enabled whenever the TRx control bit is set C/T: system clock) M1 M0 M1 0 0 1 1 M0 0 1 0 1 Mode bit 1 Mode bit 0 MODE 0 1 2 3 OPERATING MODE 13 BIT TIMER/MODE 16 BIT TIMER MODE 8 BIT AUTO RELOAD SPLIT TIMER MODE Timer or counter selected cleared for timer operation (input from internal

PSW (PROGRAM STATUS WORD)

CY AC F0 RS1 RS0 0V -P

PSW.7 PSW.6 PSW.5 PSW.4 PSW.3 PSW.2 PSW.1 PSW.0

CARRY FLAG AUXILIARY CARRY AVAILABLE FOR THE USER FRO GENERAL PURPOSE REGISTER BANK SELECTOR BIT 1 REGISTER BANK SELECTOR BIT 0 OVERFLOW FLAG USER DEFINABLE BIT PARITY FLAG SET/CLEARED BY HARDWARE

PCON REGISATER (NON BIT ADDRESSABLE)

If the SMOD = 0 (DEFAULT ON RESET) TH1 = CRYSTAL FREQUENCY 256---- ____________________ 384 X BAUD RATE If the SMOD IS = 1 CRYSTAL FREQUENCY TH1 = 256-------------------------------------192 X BAUD RATE There are two ways to increase the baud rate of data transfer in the 8051 1. 2. To use a higher frequency crystal To change a bit in the PCON register

PCON register is an 8 bit register. Of the 8 bits, some are unused, and some are used for the power control capability of the 8051. The bit which is used for the serial communication is

D7, the SMOD bit. When the 8051 is powered up, D7 (SMOD BIT) OF PCON register is zero. We can set it to high by software and thereby double the baud rate BAUD RATE COMPARISION FOR SMOD = 0 AND SMOD =1 TH1 (DECIMAL) -3 -6 -12 -24 XTAL = 11.0592 MHZ IE (INTERRUPT ENABLE REGISTOR) HEX FD FA F4 E8 SMOD =0 9600 4800 2400 1200 SMOD =1 19200 9600 4800 2400

EA

IE.7

Disable all interrupts if EA = 0, no interrupts is acknowledged If EA is 1, each interrupt source is individually enabled or disabled By sending or clearing its enable bit.

IE.6 ET2 ES ET1 EX1 ET0 EX0 IE.5 IE.4 IE.3 IE.2 IE.1 IE.0

NOT implemented enables or disables timer 2 overflag in 89c52 only Enables or disables all serial interrupt Enables or Disables timer 1 overflow interrupt Enables or disables external interrupt Enables or Disables timer 0 interrupt. Enables or Disables external interrupt 0

INTERRUPT PRIORITY REGISTER

If the bit is 0, the corresponding interrupt has a lower priority and if the bit is 1 the corresponding interrupt has a higher priority IP.7 IP.6 PT2 PS IP.5 IP.4 NOT IMPLEMENTED, RESERVED FOR FUTURE USE. NOT IMPLEMENTED, RESERVED FOR FUTURE USE DEFINE THE TIMER 2 INTERRUPT PRIORITY LELVEL DEFINES THE SERIAL PORT INTERRUPT PRIORITY LEVEL

PT1 PX1 PT0 PX0

IP.3 IP.2 IP.1 IP.0

DEFINES THE TIMER 1 INTERRUPT PRIORITY LEVEL DEFINES EXTERNAL INTERRUPT 1 PRIORITY LEVEL DEFINES THE TIMER 0 INTERRUPT PRIORITY LEVEL DEFINES THE EXTERNAL INTERRUPT 0 PRIORITY LEVEL

SCON: SERIAL PORT CONTROL REGISTER, BIT ADDRESSABLE SCON

SM0 SM1 SM2 REN TB8 RB8

: : : : : :

SCON.7 Serial Port mode specified SCON.6 Serial Port mode specifier SCON.5 SCON.4 Set/cleared by the software to Enable/disable reception SCON.3 the 9th bit that will be transmitted in modes 2 and 3, Set/cleared By software SCON.2 In modes 2 &3, is the 9th data bit that was received. In mode 1, If SM2 = 0, RB8 is the stop bit that was received. In mode 0 RB8 is not used

T1

SCON.1 Transmit interrupt flag. Set by hardware at the end of the 8th bit Time in mode 0, or at the beginning of the stop bit in the other Modes. Must be cleared by software

R1

SCON.0 Receive interrupt flag. Set by hardware at the end of the 8th bit Time in mode 0, or halfway through the stop bit time in the other Modes. Must be cleared by the software.

TCON TIMER COUNTER CONTROL REGISTER This is a bit addressable TF1 TR1 TCON.7 TCON.6 Timer 1 overflows flag. Set by hardware when the Timer/Counter 1 Overflows. Cleared by hardware as processor Timer 1 run control bit. Set/cleared by software to turn Timer Counter 1 On/off

TF T T T IE 1 IT R1 IE F0 IT R0 I 0 0

TF0 TR0 IE1 ITI IE0 IT0

TCON.5 TCON.4 TCON.3 TCON.2 TCON.1 TCON.0

Timer 0 overflows flag. Set by hardware when the timer/counter 0 Overflows. Cleared by hardware as processor Timer 0 run control bit. Set/cleared by software to turn timer Counter 0 on/off. External interrupt 1 edge flag Interrupt 1 type control bit External interrupt 0 edge Interrupt 0 type control bit.

Light dependent resistors or LDRs are often used in circuits where it is necessary to detect the presence or the level of light. They can be described by a variety of names from light dependent resistor, LDR, photoresistor, or even photo cell (photocell) or photoconductor. Although other devices such as photodiodes or photo-transistor can also be used, LDRs are a particularly convenient electronics component to use. They provide large change in resistance for changes in light level. In view of their low cost, ease of manufacture, and ease of use LDRs have been used in a variety of different applications. At one time LDRs were used in photographic light meters, and even now they are still used in a variety of applications where it is necessary to detect light levels.

What is an LDR or light dependent resistor A photoresistor or light dependent resistor is a component that is sensitive to light. When light falls upon it then the resistance changes. Values of the resistance of the LDR may change over many orders of magnitude the value of the resistance falling as the level of light increases.

It is not uncommon for the values of resistance of an LDR or photoresistor to be several megohms in darkness and then to fall to a few hundred ohms in bright light. With such a wide variation in resistance, LDRs are easy to use and there are many LDR circuits available. LDRs are made from semiconductor materials to enable them to have their light sensitive properties. Many materials can be used, but one popular material for these photoresistors is cadmium sulphide (CdS). How an LDR works It is relatively easy to understand the basics of how an LDR works without delving into complicated explanations. It is first necessary to understand that an electrical current consists of the movement of electrons within a material. Good conductors have a large number of free electrons that can drift in a given direction under the action of a potential difference. Insulators with a high resistance have very few free electrons, and therefore it is hard to make the them move and hence a current to flow. An LDR or photoresistor is made any semiconductor material with a high resistance. It has a high resistance because there are very few electrons that are free and able to move - the vast majority of the electrons are locked into the crystal lattice and unable to move. Therefore in this state there is a high LDR resistance. As light falls on the semiconductor, the light photons are absorbed by the semiconductor lattice and some of their energy is transferred to the electrons. This gives some of them sufficient energy to break free from the crystal lattice so that they can then conduct electricity. This results in a lowering of the resistance of the semiconductor and hence the overall LDR resistance. The process is progressive, and as more light shines on the LDR semiconductor, so more electrons are released to conduct electricity and the resistance falls further. LDR summary LDRs are very useful components that can be used for a variety of light sensing applications. As the LDR resistance varies over such a wide range, they are particularly useful, and there are many LDR circuits available beyond any shown here. In order to utilise these components, it is necessary to know something of how an LDR works, which has been explained above.

Types of wind turbines

Wind farm in the Tehachapi Mountains, California. Wind turbines can be separated into two general types based on the axis about which the turbine rotates. Turbines that rotate around a horizontal axis are most common. Vertical axis turbines are less frequently used. Wind turbines can also be classified by the location in which they are to be used. Onshore, offshore, or even aerial wind turbines have unique design characteristics which are explained in more detail in the section on Turbine design and construction.

Wind turbines may also be used in conjunction with a solar collector to extract the energy due to air heated by the Sun and rising through a large vertical Solar updraft tower.

Horizontal axis
Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT) have the main rotor shaft and generator at the top of a tower, and must be pointed into the wind by some means. Small turbines are pointed by a simple wind vane, while large turbines generally use a wind sensor coupled with a servomotor. Most have a gearbox too, which turns the slow rotation of the blades into a quicker rotation that is more suitable for generating electricity. Since a tower produces turbulence behind it, the turbine is usually pointed upwind of the tower. Turbine blades are made stiff to prevent the blades from being pushed into the tower by high winds. Additionally, the blades are placed a considerable distance in front of the tower and are sometimes tilted up a small amount. Downwind machines have been built, despite the problem of turbulence, because they don't need an additional mechanism for keeping them in line with the wind, and because in high winds, the blades can be allowed to bend which reduces their swept area and thus their wind resistance. Because turbulence leads to fatigue failures and reliability is so important, most HAWTs are upwind machines. There are several types of HAWT:

Windmills
These four- (or more) bladed squat structures, usually with wooden shutters or fabric sails, were pointed into the wind manually or via a tail-fan. These windmills, generally associated with the Netherlands, were historically used to grind grain or pump water from low-lying land. They greatly accelerated shipbuilding in the Netherlands, and were instrumental in keeping its polders dry.

American-style farm windmills

These windmills were used by American prairie farmers to generate electricity and to pump water. They typically had many blades, operated at tip speed ratios (defined below) not better than one, and had good starting torque. Some had small direct-current generators used to charge storage batteries, to provide a few lights, or to operate a radio receiver. The rural electrification connected many farms to centrally-generated power and replaced individual windmills as a primary source of farm power in the 1950s. Such devices are still used in locations where it is too costly to bring in commercial power.

Wind turbines near Aalborg, Denmark

Common modern wind turbines


Usually three-bladed, sometimes two-bladed or even one-bladed (and counterbalanced), and pointed into the wind by computer-controlled motors. The rugged three-bladed turbine type has been championed by Danish turbine manufacturers. These have high tip speeds of up to 6x wind speed, high efficiency, and low torque ripple which contributes to good reliability. This is the type of turbine that is used commercially to produce electricity. They are usually white in color.

Ducted rotor
Still something of a research project, the ducted rotor consists of a turbine inside a duct which flares outwards at the back. They are also referred as Diffuser-Augmented Wind Turbines (i.e. DAWT). The main advantage of the ducted rotor is that it can operate in a wide range of winds and generate a higher power per unit of rotor area. Another advantage is that the generator operates at a high rotation

rate, so it doesn't require a bulky gearbox, so the mechanical portion can be smaller and lighter. A disadvantage is that (apart from the gearbox) it is more complicated than the unducted rotor and the duct is usually quite heavy, which puts an added load on the tower.

Co-axial, multi-rotor horizontal axis turbines


Two or more rotors may be mounted to the same driveshaft, with their combined co-rotation together turning the same generator - fresh wind is brought to each rotor by sufficient spacing between rotors combined with an offset angle alpha from the wind direction. Wake vorticity is recovered as the top of a wake hits the bottom of the next rotor. Power has been multiplied several times using co-axial, multiple rotors in testing conducted by inventor and researcher Douglas Selsam, for the California Energy Commission in 2004. The first commercially available co-axial multi-rotor turbine is the patented dual-rotor American Twin Superturbine from Selsam Innovations in California, with 2 propellers separated by 12 feet. It is the most powerful 7-foot diameter turbine available, due to this extra rotor.

Counter-rotating horizontal axis turbines


Counter rotating turbines can be used to increase the rotation speed of the electrical generator. As of 2005, no large practical counter-rotating HAWTs are commercially sold. When the counter rotating turbines are on the same side of the tower, the blades in front are angled forwards slightly so as to avoid hitting the rear ones. If the turbine blades are on opposite sides of the tower, it is best that the blades at the back be smaller than the blades at the front and set to stall at a higher wind speed. This allows the generator to function at a wider wind speed range than a single-turbine generator for a given tower. To reduce sympathetic vibrations, the two turbines should turn at speeds with few common multiples, for example 7:3 speed ratio. Overall, this is a more complicated design than the single-turbine wind generator, but it taps more of the wind's energy at a wider range of wind speeds. Appa designed and demonstrated a contra rotor wind turbine in FY 20002002 funded by California Energy Commission. This study showed 30 to 40% more power extraction than a comparable single rotor system. Further it

was observed that the slower the rotor speed better the performance. Consequently Megawatt machines benefit most.

Cyclic stresses and vibration


Cyclic stresses fatigue the blade, axle and bearing material, and were a major cause of turbine failure for many years. Because wind velocity increases at higher altitudes, the backward force and torque on a horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) blade peaks as it turns through the highest point in its circle. The tower hinders the airflow at the lowest point in the circle, which produces a local dip in force and torque. These effects produce a cyclic twist on the main bearings of a HAWT. The combined twist is worst in machines with an even number of blades, where one is straight up when another is straight down. To improve reliability, teetering hubs have been used which allow the main shaft to rock through a few degrees, so that the main bearings do not have to resist the torque peaks. When the turbine turns to face the wind, the rotating blades act like a gyroscope. As it pivots, gyroscopic precession tries to twist the turbine into a forward or backward somersault. For each blade on a wind generator's turbine, precessive force is at a minimum when the blade is horizontal and at a maximum when the blade is vertical. This cyclic twisting can quickly fatigue and crack the blade roots, hub and axle of the turbine.

Vertical axis
Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (or VAWTs) have the main rotor shaft running vertically. The advantages of this arrangement are that the generator and/or gearbox can be placed at the bottom, near the ground, so the tower doesn't need to support it, and that the turbine doesn't need to be pointed into the wind. Drawbacks are usually the pulsating torque produced during each revolution, and the difficulty of mounting vertical axis turbines on towers, meaning they must operate in the slower, more turbulent air flow near the ground, with lower energy extraction efficiency.

H-Darrieus-turbine

Darrieus wind turbine


These are the "eggbeater" turbines. They have good efficiency, but produce large torque ripple and cyclic stress on the tower, which contributes to poor reliability. Also, they generally require some external power source, or an additional Savonius rotor, to start turning, because the starting torque is very low. The torque ripple is reduced by using 3 or more blades.

Giromill is a type of Darrieus


These lift-type devices have vertical blades. The cycloturbine variety has variable pitch, to reduce the torque pulsation and self-start . The advantages of variable pitch are high starting torque, a wide, relatively flat torque curve, a lower blade speed ratio, a higher coefficient of performance, more efficient operation in turbulent winds, and a lower blade speed ratio which lowers blade bending stresses. Straight, V, or curved blades may be used.

Savonius wind turbine


These are the familiar two- (or more) scoop drag-type devices used in anemometers and in the Flettner vents commonly seen on bus and van roofs, and some highreliability low-efficiency power turbines. They always self-start (if at least three scoops). They can sometimes have long helical scoops, to give smooth torque. The Banesh rotor and especially the Rahai rotor improve efficiency by shaping the blades to produce significant lift as well as drag.

Tower height
The wind blows faster at higher altitudes because of the drag of the surface (sea or land) and the viscosity of the air. The variation in velocity with altitude, called wind shear, is most dramatic near the surface.

Wind turbines of varied height generating electricity in California. Typically, in daytime the variation follows the 1/7th power law, which predicts that wind speed rises proportionally to the seventh root of altitude. Doubling the altitude of a turbine, then, increases the expected wind speeds by 10% and the expected power by 34%. Doubling the tower height generally requires doubling the diameter as well, increasing the amount of material by a factor of eight. In night time, or better: when the atmosphere becomes stable, wind speed close to the ground usually subsides whereas at turbine hub altitude it does not decrease that much or may even increase. As a result the wind speed is higher and a turbine will produce more power than expected from the 1/7th power law: doubling the altitude may increase wind speed by 20% to 60%. A stable atmosphere is caused by radiative cooling of the surface and is common in a temperate climate: it usually occurs when there is a (partly) clear sky at night. When the (high altitude) wind is strong (10 meter wind speed higher than approximately 6 to 7 m/s) the stable atmosphere is disrupted because of friction turbulence and the atmosphere will turn neutral. A daytime atmosphere is either neutral (no net radiation; usually with strong winds and/or heavy clouding) or unstable (rising air because of ground heating by the sun). Here again the 1/7th power law applies or is at least a good approximation of the wind profile.

For HAWTs, tower heights approximately twice to triple the blade length have been found to balance material costs of the tower against better utilisation of the more expensive active components.

Number of blades

For small (novelty or urban) HAWT turbines manufacturers typically ship three-bladed turbines with three separate blades that must be assembled onsite, into a central hub. Without careful assembly ensuring accurate dynamic balance of the blades, the turbine can shake itself apart. Most wind turbines have three blades. Very small turbines may use two blades for ease of construction and installation. Vibration intensity decreases with larger numbers of blades. Noise and wear are generally lower, and efficiency higher, with three instead of two blades. Turbines with larger numbers of smaller blades operate at a lower Reynolds number and so are less efficient. Small turbines with 4 or more blades suffer further losses as each blade operates partly in the wake of the other blades. Also, the cost of the turbine usually increases with the number of blades.

Rotation control
Tip speed ratio The ratio between the speed of the wind and the speed of the tips of the blades of a wind turbine. High efficiency 3-blade-turbines have tip speed ratios of 6-7. Modern wind turbines are designed to spin at varying speeds (a consequence of their generator design, see below). Use of aluminum and composites in their blades has contributed to low rotational inertia, which means that newer wind turbines can accelerate quickly if the winds pick up, keeping the tip speed ratio more nearly constant. Operating closer to their optimal tip

speed ratio during energetic gusts of wind allows wind turbines to improve energy capture from sudden gusts that are typical in urban settings. In contrast, older style wind turbines were designed with heavier steel blades, which have higher inertia, and rotated at speeds governed by the AC frequency of the power lines. The high inertia buffered the changes in rotation speed and thus made power output more stable. The speed and torque at which a wind turbine rotates must be controlled for several reasons:

To optimize the aerodynamic efficiency of the rotor in light winds. To keep the generator within its speed and torque limits. To keep the rotor and hub within their centripetal force limits. The centripetal force from the spinning rotors increases as the square of the rotation speed, which makes this structure sensitive to overspeed. To keep the rotor and tower within their strength limits. Because the power of the wind increases as the cube of the wind speed, turbines have to be built to survive much higher wind loads (such as gusts of wind) than those from which they can practically generate power. Since the blades generate more downwind force (and thus put far greater stress on the tower) when they are producing torque, most wind turbines have ways of reducing torque in high winds. To enable maintenance; because it is dangerous to have people working on a wind turbine while it is active, it is sometimes necessary to bring a turbine to a full stop. To reduce noise; As a rule of thumb, the noise from a wind turbine increases with the fifth power of the relative wind speed (as seen from the moving tip of the blades). In noise-sensitive environments, the tip speed can be limited to approximately 60 m/s.

Overspeed control is exerted in two main ways: aerodynamic stalling or furling, and mechanical braking. Furling is the preferred method of slowing wind turbines.

Mechanical braking
A mechanical drum brake or disk brake is used to hold the turbine at rest for maintenance. Such brakes are usually applied only after blade furling and electromagnetic braking have reduced the turbine speed, as the mechanical brakes would wear quickly if used to stop the turbine from full speed. There can also be a stick brake.

Turbine size

A person standing beside medium size modern turbine blades.


For a given survivable wind speed, the mass of a turbine is approximately proportional to the cube of its blade-length. Wind power intercepted by the turbine is proportional to the square of its blade-length. The maximum blade-length of a turbine is limited by both the strength and stiffness of its material. Labor and maintenance costs increase only gradually with increasing turbine size, so to minimize costs, wind farm turbines are basically limited by the strength of materials, and siting requirements. Typical modern wind turbines have diameters of 40 to 90 meters and are rated between 500 kW and 2 megawatts. Currently (2005) the most powerful turbine is rated at 6 MW.

Generating electricity
For large, commercial size horizontal-axis wind turbines, the generator is mounted in a nacelle at the top of a tower, behind the hub of the turbine rotor. A speed increasing gearbox may be inserted between the rotor hub and the generator, so that the generator cost and weight can be reduced. Commercial size generators have a rotor carrying a field winding so that a rotating magnetic field is produced inside a set of windings called the stator. While the rotating field winding consumes a fraction of a percent of the generator output, adjustment of the field current allows good control over the generator output voltage. Very small wind generators (a few watts to perhaps a kilowatt in output) may use permanent magnets but these are too costly to use in large machines and do not allow convenient regulation of the generator voltage. Electrical generators inherently produce AC power. Older style wind generators rotate at a constant speed, to match power line frequency, which allowed the use of less costly induction generators. Newer wind turbines often turn at whatever speed generates electricity most efficiently. The variable frequency current is then converted to DC and then back to AC, matching the line frequency and voltage. Although the two conversions require costly equipment and cause power loss, the turbine can capture a significantly larger fraction of the wind energy. In some cases, especially when turbines are sited offshore, the DC energy will be transmitted from the turbine to a central (onshore) inverter for connection to the grid.

Materials
One of the strongest construction materials available (in 2006) is graphitefibre in epoxy, but it is very expensive and only used by some manufactures for special load-bearing parts of the rotor blades. Modern rotor blades (up to 126 m diameter) are made of lightweight pultruded glass-reinforced plastic (GRP), smaller ones also from aluminium. GRP is the most common material for modern wind turbines.

Wood and canvas sails were originally used on early windmills. Unfortunately they require much maintenance over their service life. Also, they have a relatively high drag (low aerodynamic efficiency) for the force they capture. For these reasons they were superseded with solid airfoils.

History

High-efficiency wind turbines (foreground) win out over traditional windmills (background) in most new installations. Wind machines were used for grinding grain in Persia as early as 200 B.C. This type of machine was introduced into the Roman Empire by 250 A.D. By the 14th century Dutch windmills were in use to drain areas of the Rhine River delta. In Denmark by 1900 there were about 2500 windmills for mechanical loads such as pumps and mills, producing an estimated combined peak power of about 30 MW. The first windmill for electricity production was built in Denmark in 1890, and in 1908 there were 72 winddriven electric generators from 5 kW to 25 kW. The largest machines were on 24 m towers with four-bladed 23 m diameter rotors. By the 1930s windmills were mainly used to generate electricity on farms, mostly in the United States where distribution systems had not yet been installed. In this period, high tensile steel was cheap, and windmills were placed atop prefabricated open steel lattice towers. A forerunner of modern horizontal-axis wind generators was in service at Yalta, USSR in 1931. This was a 100 kW generator on a 30 m tower, connected to the local 6.3 kV distribution system. It was reported to have an annual load factor of 32 per cent, not much different from current wind machines.

In 1941 the world's first megawatt-size wind turbine was connected to the local electrical distribution system on Grandpa's Knob in Castleton, Vermont, USA. This 1.25 MW Smith-Putnam turbine operated for 1100 hours before a blade failed at a known weak point, which had not been reinforced due to war-time material shortages. In the 1940s, the U.S. had a rural electrification project that killed the natural market for wind-generated power, since network power distribution provided a farm with more dependable usable energy for a given amount of capital investment. In the 1970s many people began to desire a self-sufficient life-style. Solar cells were too expensive for small-scale electrical generation, so some turned to windmills. At first they built ad-hoc designs using wood and automobile parts. Most people discovered that a reliable wind generator is a moderately complex engineering project, well beyond the ability of most romantics. Some began to search for and rebuild farm wind-generators from the 1930s, of which Jacobs wind generators were especially sought after. Later, in the 1980s, California provided tax rebates for ecologically harmless power. These rebates funded the first major use of wind power for utility electricity. These machines, gathered in large wind parks such as at Altamont Pass would be considered small and un-economic by modern wind power development standards. In the 1990s, as aesthetics and durability became more important, turbines were placed atop steel or reinforced concrete towers. Small generators are connected to the tower on the ground, then the tower is raised into position. Larger generators are hoisted into position atop the tower and there is a ladder or staircase inside the tower to allow technicians to reach and maintain the generator. Originally wind generators were built right next to where their power was needed. With the availability of long distance electric power transmission, wind generators are now often on wind farms in windy locations and huge ones are being built offshore, sometimes transmitting power back to land using high voltage submarine cable. Since wind turbines are a renewable means of generating electricity, they are being widely deployed, but their cost is often subsidised by taxpayers, either directly or through renewable energy credits. Much depends on the cost of alternative sources of electricity. Wind generator cost per unit power has been decreasing by about four percent per year.

Companies in wind turbine industry

World market for wind energy plants in 2003


ABB Ltd. Wind turbine generators[3] Airtricity only operates turbines AWS Truewind, LLC[4] - Wind Energy Consultants Bergey Windpower[5] Det Norske Veritas - Certification of wind turbines and wind turbine projects DeWind Ecotcnia sccl - Spanish manufacturer Eclectic Energy Ltd - UK manufacturer of small wind turbines, including the gridlinked turbine StealthGen Eirbyte[7] Supplier of small turbines in Ireland EMD A/S - WindPRO software package for project design and planning of turbines Emergya Wind Technologies[8] Enercon GmbH, Germany - wind turbines up to 6 MW Gamesa Corporacion Tecnologica Garrad Hassan and Partners Ltd. General Electric, through its subsidiary GE Energy Hansen Transmissions Int. supplier of multi-MW wind turbine gear units [9] O'Connor Hush Energy[10] - Australian supplier of small, quiet turbines LM Glasfiber A/S - Rotor blades ranging from 13.4 to 61.5 m Moventas Oy - Moventas provides leading mechanical power transmission technology to the energy and process industries [11] Natural Power - International wind energy consultancy services NEG Micon - Merged with Vestas in 2004 Nordex Pauwels Trafo Belgium/Ireland- Major Wind Turbine Generator Transformer Manufacturers PB Power - Global Engineering Company servicing Power industry REpower, Germany - wind turbines up to 5 MW Selsam Innovations / Superturbine Inc. , California multi-rotor wind turbines http://www.selsam.com Siemens Wind Power A/S (formerly Bonus Energy A/S) Southwest Windpower Suzlon Energy Ltd